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PoliticalMakers have run for elected office or have been appointed to positions in city, county, state, or federal government. These are HistoryMakers who have made accomplishments that impact the workings of government, and include mayors, ambassadors, and members of congress, as well as political advisors and consultants.

Rick Jennings

Nonprofit executive and government official Rick Jennings was born on April 17, 1953 in Houston, Texas to Clara J. Hopkins and Richard Jennings. Jennings was raised in Washington D.C. by his mother and stepfather, Estis Jack Hopkins. He graduated from Calvin Coolidge High School in 1972, and received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Maryland, College Park. Jennings graduated with his B.A. degree in criminal justice in 1976.

Upon graduating in 1976, Jennings was drafted by the Oakland Raiders, and played with them in Super Bowl XI, but retired from professional football in 1977, after two seasons. In 1980, Jennings was hired as a sales representative at the Xerox Corporation, and was promoted to regional sales manager in 1990. In 1992, he became the chief executive officer of St. Hope Academy. Jennings was elected to serve on the Sacramento Unified City School Board in 1996; and the next year, Jennings served as the chief executive officer and executive director of the Center for Fathers and Families, a nonprofit organization offering parenting classes and mentoring programs in Sacramento. As executive director, Jennings launched the Making After School Time Rich and Rewarding (MASTERS) program and the Check In/Check Out program. Jennings was re-elected to the Sacramento Unified City School board of directors in 2000, and again in 2004. In 2014, he was elected to represent district seven on the Sacramento City Council. Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson appointed Jennings to serve on the Law and Legislation Committee and the Budget and Legislation Committee. He was also appointed to represent the City of Sacramento with The Sacramento Area Flood Control Agency, the Sacramento Public Library Authority, the Sacramento Regional Transit Authority, the Regional Water Authority, and the Sacramento Groundwater Authority. In 2016, Jennings was named Vice Mayor of Sacramento.

Jennings served on the board of directors of the Sacramento Sports Commission and the Wells Fargo Advisory Board. He also served on the board of the Los Rios Advisory Foundation. In 2017, Jennings was named a Dream All-Star by the Sacramento Kings.

Jennings and his wife, Cassandra Jennings, have two children, TJ and Asha.

Rick Jennings was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 5, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.064

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/5/2018

Last Name

Jennings

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Shepherd Elementary School

Paul Public Charter School

Calvin Coolidge Senior High School

University of Maryland

First Name

Rick

Birth City, State, Country

Houston

HM ID

JEN12

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

He Or She Who Is Behind In The Great Race Of Life Must Run Faster Or Forever Remain Behind.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

4/17/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sacramento

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Nonprofit executive and government official Rick Jennings (1953 - ) served on the Sacramento Unified School District board of directors for twelve years, and on the Sacramento City Council, in addition to serving as the chief executive officer of the Center for Fathers and Families.

Employment

Various D.C. Papers

Oakland Raiders Football

United California Bank

Xerox Corporation

St. HOPE Academy

Fathers & Families Center

City of Sacramento

Favorite Color

Blue

Allen Warren

Municipal official Allen Warren was born on June 30, 1964 in Del Paso Heights, Sacramento County, California. He attended Grant High School in Sacramento, where he excelled as an athlete, achieving a number one ranking in the Sacramento region in three sports – baseball, basketball and football. Upon graduating in 1982, he earned his A.A. degree at the College of the Siskiyous in Weed, California, and enrolled at California State University, Hayward, where he played on the baseball team. In 1988, Warren joined the New York Yankees’ farm team system as a center fielder. Sidelined by injuries on the field, Warren decided to focus on his education, and returned to California State University, Hayward, where he received his B.A. degree in political science.

Warren completed the executive training program at Dean Witter Reynolds in New York, and worked as a stockbroker from 1991 to 1993. Utilizing a five-acre parcel his mother owned, Warren developed a twenty-six unit subdivision in the Del Paso Heights area. In 1990, he launched New Faze Development, Inc., serving as president and CEO. Warren built a portfolio of projects throughout Northern California, focusing on affordable, smart-growth projects that emphasized urban revitalization. In 2000, he began constructing the Greater Sacramento Urban League’s 28,000 square-foot state-of-the-art workforce development and training facility in the heart of Sacramento’s Del Paso Heights community. In 2008, he directed the Del Paso Nuevo housing development in North Sacramento. In 2012, Warren was elected to the City of Sacramento City Council, representing the second district. He was then re-elected in 2016 for a four-year term, and appointed to chair the new entertainment and sports arena committee (ESC) and the audit committee, among others.

Warren received numerous awards and accolades over the course of his career, including the Unity Award from the Greater Sacramento Urban League, and the Presidential Award from the North State Building Industries Association (BIA). In 2006, Warren was named one of the fifty most influential people in Sacramento by Sacramento Magazine. Warren served on the boards of the Sacramento Zoo, KVIE Public Television, and Greater Sacramento Urban League National Minority Junior Golf, in addition to the Sacramento State University Presidential Advisory Board.

Warren and his wife, Gina, have three children: Braxton, Synclaire, and Roman.

Allen Warren was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 4, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.062

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/4/2018

Last Name

Warren

Maker Category
Middle Name

Wayne

Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Allen

Birth City, State, Country

Sacramento

HM ID

WAR21

Favorite Season

Spring

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Half Moon Resort, Montego Bay Jamaica

Favorite Quote

No Excuses. Life Is What You Make It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

6/30/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sacramento

Favorite Food

Salads

Short Description

Municipal official Allen Warren (1964 - ) served as the president and CEO of New Faze Development, Inc. He was also elected to the Sacramento City Council, District 2 in 2012, and re-elected in 2016.

Favorite Color

Blue

The Honorable Lottie Shackelford

Political and civic leader Lottie Shackelford was born on April 30, 1941 in Little Rock, Arkansas to Bernice Linzy Holt and Curtis Holt, Sr. Shackelford graduated from Horace Mann High School in 1958, and later earned her B.A. degree in business administration from Philander Smith College in 1979. Shackelford also later served as a senior fellow at the Arkansas Institute of Politics and the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

In 1978, Shackelford was appointed to a vacant position on the board of directors for the City of Arkansas. She was then elected in 1980, and re-elected in 1984 and 1988. In 1987, she became the first woman to serve as Mayor of Little Rock. In 1992, Shackelford worked as the deputy manager of Bill Clinton’s presidential campaign, and later served as a member of his presidential transition team. In 1993, Clinton appointed Shackelford as a U.S. Delegate to the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women in Vienna, Austria. In 1994, Shackelford became the executive vice president of Global USA, Incorporated, an international business facilitator. She also co-founded the Women’s Foundation of Arkansas. Beginning in 1980, Shackelford has served as a delegate to every Democratic National Convention for over thirty years. A longtime member of the Democratic National Committee, Shackelford served as co-chair of the platform committee in 1984, the rules committee in 1988, and on the resolutions committee. She also served as the Democratic National Committee vice chair from 1989 to 2009; and in 2014, she was elected to chair the Democratic National Committee’s Women’s Caucus. She also served as secretary, vice chair, and chair of the Arkansas State Democratic Committee, and was elected secretary of the National Association of State Democratic Chairs.

An active member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Shackelford received numerous honors and awards from the organization, including the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Trailblazer Award in 1980, the Mary Church Terrell Award in 1998 at the National Convention, and the Delta Legacy Award at the 42nd National Convention. Shackelford was also named one of Esquire Magazine’s forty most influential African Americans in 1984. She was inducted into the Arkansas Black Hall of Fame in 1993. In 2017, she received a Humanitarian Award from the Just Communities of Arkansas. Shackelford served on the board of directors of Medicis Pharmaceutical Corporation from 1993 to 2012. She also served on the board of directors of Philander Smith College, Chapman Holdings, and eChapman Incorporated.

Shackelford has three children: Russell, Karla, and Karen, and six grandchildren.

Lottie Shackelford was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 14, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.046

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/14/2018

Last Name

Shackelford

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Lottie

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

SHA10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Wherever My Children Are.

Favorite Quote

Make It A Great Day.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arkansas

Birth Date

4/30/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Little Rock

Favorite Food

Grapes And Bananas

Short Description

Political and civic leader Lottie Shackelford (1941 - ) was the first female mayor of Little Rock. She also served as vice chair of the Democratic National Committee for twenty years.

Favorite Color

Red

Donna Brazile

Political strategist Donna Brazile was born on December 15, 1959 in New Orleans, Louisiana to Jean Marie Brown and Lionel Joseph Brazile Sr. Brazile attended Grace King High School, and participated in the TRIO Upward Bound Program. She received her B.S. degree in industrial psychology from Louisiana State University in 1981.

Brazile became interested in politics as a volunteer for the 1976 and 1980 presidential campaigns of Jimmy Carter-Walter Mondale. After graduating from Louisiana State University, Brazile worked as a lobbyist for the National Student Education Fund in Washington, D.C. Coretta Scott King hired Brazile to help with designating Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a federal holiday. In 1984, Brazile served as the mobilization director for Reverend Jesse Jackson’s Democratic presidential campaign. In 1987, Brazile was hired as Dick Gephardt’s national field director, and then as the deputy field director for Michael Dukakis. Brazile then accepted a position with the Community for Creative Non-Violence organization, where she served as chief of staff and press secretary to congressional delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton in 1990. In 1992 and 1996, Brazile served as an advisor for Bill Clinton’s presidential campaigns. In 1998, she ran the Voter/Campaign Assessment Program for the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee. In 1999, Brazile was hired as the campaign manager for Democratic presidential candidate, Al Gore. Brazile was appointed chair of the Democratic National Committee’s Voting Rights Institute in 2000.

Brazile released her memoir, Cooking with Grease-Stirring Pots in American Politics in 2004. In 2011, and again in 2016, Brazile served as interim chair of the Democratic National Committee. Brazile released her second book, Hacks: The Inside Story of the Break-Ins and Breakdowns that Put Donald Trump in the Whitehouse in 2017. Brazile was a frequent contributor for Ms. Magazine and Roll Call. Brazile also served as a correspondent for CNN and ABC News, founded her own consulting firm named Brazile & Associates, and was a guest lecturer at Harvard University and Georgetown University.

Brazile was a member of the Screen Actors Guild, and the Louisiana Recovery Authority from 2005 to 2009. In 2017, she received the Torch Award from the National Newspaper Publishers Association and the W.E.B. Du Bois Metal from Harvard University’s Hutchins Center for African & African American Research. Brazile was a recipient of the 2018 Women of Power Legacy Award from Black Enterprise.

Donna Brazile was interviewed by TheHistoryMakers on March 20, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.053

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/20/2018

Last Name

Brazile

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Donna

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

BRA17

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Procrastination is the greatest thief of time. (MLK)

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/15/1959

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Favorite Food

Seafood-Gumbo

Short Description

Political party executive Donna Brazile (1959 - )

Favorite Color

Blue

The Honorable Sandra Hollins

State legislator Sandra Hollins was born on May 11, 1970 in New Orleans, Louisiana, to mother, homemaker Iola Robinson-Seals, and father, store clerk Freddie Seals II. A 1988 graduate of McDonogh #35 High School in New Orleans, she received her B.S. degree in business management from the University of Phoenix in 2002, as well as her M.A. degree in social work from the University of Utah, College of Social Work in Salt Lake City in 2009.

Hollins began working as a licensed clinical social worker, focusing primarily on substance abuse and advocacy for Salt Lake City’s homeless population. She also worked for Volunteers of America Utah, as manager of the organization’s homeless outreach program. In 2014, Hollins entered state politics, defeating Republican candidate Kristopher Smith to become the first African American woman elected to the Utah State Legislature, representing District 23 in Salt Lake City, Utah. As a legislator, she served as Minority Caucus Manager, and on committees including; Social Services Appropriations, Health and Human Services, the Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice and Child Welfare oversight panel. Hollins authored legislation on state job applications, criminal and traffic code amendments, and school resource officer and administrator training. She also sponsored House Bill 156 – or "Ban the Box" bill – which supported removing questions and check boxes from job applications asking about criminal records.

Hollins has served on numerous boards and committees including: the Greater Salt Lake Alumnae Chapter-Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.; National Association of Social Workers; Fairpark Community Council; Salt Lake County African American Caucus;
Women In Government; Martha Hughes Cannon Caucus; and the Salt Lake City Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure Board. She served as a judge for the Youthlinc Utah Young Humanitarian Award in 2017, and was elected as the western regional director for The National Organization of Black Elected Legislative Women, also serving as co-chair of the Women and Children Committee for the National Black Caucus of State Legislators. In 2016, Hollins received the Call to Serve award from Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. She received the Pioneer Award from the Utah African American Chamber of Commerce in 2017, as well as the Business Champion award from the Salt Lake Chamber that same year.

Hollins and her husband, David have two adult daughters, Jaynell and Canice.

Sandra Hollins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 18, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.010

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/16/2018

Last Name

Hollins

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Sandra

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

HOL22

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Let Your Faith Be Bigger Than Your Fears

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Utah

Birth Date

5/11/1970

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Salt Lake City

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

State representative Sandra Hollins (1970- ), the first African American woman elected to the Utah State Legislature in 2014 was previously the manager of Volunteers of America, Utah’s homeless outreach program.

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Flonzie Brown Wright

Civil rights activist Flonzie Brown Wright was born in Farmhaven, Mississippi on August 12, 1942 to Little Pickett Dawson Brown and Frank Brown, Sr. Her family moved to Canton, Mississippi in 1947, and she attended Holy Child Jesus School and Canton public schools. Brown Wright enrolled at Tougaloo College in Jackson, Mississippi, and later moved to California, before returning to Mississippi in 1962.

After the assassination of civil rights leader, Medgar Evers, on June 12, 1963, his brother, Charles Evers, appointed Brown Wright as Canton’s NAACP branch manager. Brown Wright registered thousands of African Americans to vote and testified before a congressional subcommittee on enforcing the Voting Rights Act of 1965. After James Meredith was shot during the March Against Fear in 1966, Martin Luther King Jr. called on Brown Wright to arrange accommodations for three thousand marchers in Canton. In 1968, Brown Wright became the first African American woman to hold a position as elected commissioner in Mississippi. In this role, Brown Wright monitored elections, trained poll workers, supervised registrars, and sued the Elections Board for discriminating against black candidates and poll workers. Between 1969 and 1973, Brown Wright served as vice president of the Institute of Politics at Millsaps College and from 1974 to 1989, she worked for the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In 1994, Brown Wright published her bestselling book, Looking Back to Move Ahead. She also served as a student affairs scholar in residence at Miami University, and was the CEO of FBW & Associates, a market-consulting firm in Jackson.

In 2016, the Flonzie Brown Gooloe Courtroom in Canton City Hall was named in her honor. The same year, she received the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s ‘Director’s Community Leadership Award.’ Brown Wright served on the board of the Mississippi Humanities Council, and was a founding member of Women of Progress. She also assisted with the creation of the Mississippi Civil Rights Museum, which opened in 2017.

Brown Wright has two sons, Edward Goodloe Jr. and Lloyd Goodloe, and a daughter, Cynthia Goodloe Palmer.

Flonzie Brown Wright was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.223

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/13/2017

Last Name

Wright

Maker Category
Middle Name

Brown

Organizations
Schools

Tougaloo College

First Name

Flonzie

Birth City, State, Country

Farmhaven

HM ID

WRI08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

If Your Space Is No Better When You Leave It Than When You Found It, You Need To Redefine Your Journey

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Mississippi

Birth Date

8/12/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Jackson

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens

Short Description

Civil rights activist Flonzie Brown Wright (1942 - ) was the first African American woman to hold a position as elected commissioner in Mississippi, and served as branch manager of the Canton NAACP.

Employment

FBW and Associates, Inc.

Miami University

Children Services

Project Cure

EEOC

Star, Inc.

NAACP

Favorite Color

Black

The Honorable Ras Baraka

Political leader Ras Baraka was born on April 9, 1969 in Newark, New Jersey to writer and playwright Amiri Baraka and poet Amina Baraka. He received his B.A. degree in political science from Howard University in 1991; and earned his M.A. degree in education supervision from St. Peter’s University in Jersey City in 1994. In 1992, Baraka served as the editor of In the Tradition: An Anthology of Young Black Writers. In 1998, Baraka was featured on singer Lauryn Hill’s album The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill and in 2003, he performed a collection of poems called Black Girls Learn Love Hard at the Geraldine R. Dodge Poetry Festival. The volume was dedicated to Baraka’s sister, Shani Baraka, who was murdered in 2003. Baraka has participated in the National Political Hip-Hop Convention from its inception in 2004.

Prior to his political career, Baraka worked as an English and history teacher for Newark Public Schools. In 1994, at the age of twenty-four, Baraka ran for mayor of Newark, New Jersey, but was defeated by Sharpe James. Baraka was elected as Council Member At-Large on the Municipal Council of Newark in 2005. From 2007 to 2013, Baraka served as the principal of Central High School in Newark. He was re-elected as a South Ward Council Member in 2010, a position he held until 2014. In July of 2014, Baraka became Newark’s 40th mayor, on a platform of improving the city’s public school system, economic growth, and criminal justice reform. During his tenure, Baraka launched the City’s first police Civilian Complaint Review board and unified the City’s police and fire departments into a single public safety department. In 2017, Baraka initiated the Hire. Buy. Live. Newark plan to stimulate the city’s economic development. Baraka was re-elected for a second mayoral term in 2018.

In 2015, Baraka was named Most Valuable Mayor on The Nation’s Most Valuable Progressives list. He was also featured on Ebony magazine’s Power 100 list. In 2017, Baraka was presented with an honorary degree from Montclair University. He also served on the board of trustees of Newark Trust.

Ras Baraka was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 4, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.213

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/4/2017

Last Name

Baraka

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Madison Avenue Elementary School

Clinton Place Junior High School

University High School of Humanities

Saint Peter's University

Howard University

First Name

Ras

Birth City, State, Country

Newark

HM ID

BAR16

Favorite Season

My Birthday

State

New Jersey

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

4/9/1969

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Newark

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Kinds

Short Description

Mayor The Honorable Ras Baraka (1969 - ) was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey in 2014.

Employment

The Source

Newark Public Schools

City of Newark, New Jersey

Favorite Color

Purple

The Honorable J.C. Watts

Political leader J.C. Watts was born on November 18, 1957 in Eufaula, Oklahoma to J.C. Watts, Sr. and Helen Watts. Watts originally attended Booker T. Washington Elementary School in Eufaula, but became one of two children to integrate Jefferson Davis Elementary School in 1964. Watts graduated from Eufaula High School in 1976. Watts attended the University of Oklahoma and was starting quarterback for the football team in 1979, and led the team to two Orange Bowls victories and two Big Eight championships. Watts graduated in 1981 with his B.A. degree in journalism.

In 1981, Watts joined the Ottawa Rough Riders, a team in the Canadian Football League. He led the team to the Grey Cup the same year and was named Most Valuable Player. In 1985, Watts joined the Toronto Argonauts, where he played his final season in the CFL. In 1987, Watts became a youth minister at Sunnyvale Baptist Church in Del City, Oklahoma. In the same year, he founded Ironhead Construction and Watts Energy. In 1990, Watts was elected to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission. In 1992, he became the commission’s chairman and served until his term ended in 1995. In 1994, Watts was elected to the House of Representatives from Oklahoma’s 4th District. Watts was reelected as representative in 1996, 1998, and 2000. During his tenure in the House of Representatives, he served on the Armed Services Committee, the Banking and Financial Services Committee, and the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. In 1997, Watts was chosen by House Speaker Newt Gingrich to deliver the Republican Party’s response to President Clinton’s State of the Union address. In 1998, Watts was elected as House Republican Conference Chair. After serving in U.S. Congress, Watts founded J.C. Watts Companies in 2003 and the J.C. & Frankie Watts Foundation in 2005. In 2017, Watts announced the 2018 launch of the Black Television News Channel.

Watts served as director of companies such as Dillards, Inc., CSX Corporation, and ITC Holdings. He also served as the CEO of Feed the Children in 2016. In 2002, Watts published his autobiography, What Color is Conservative?: My Life and My Politics. Watts was also recognized for his athletic ability. In 1992, J.C. Watts was inducted into the Orange Bowl Hall of Fame was inducted into the Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame in 2014.

J.C. Watts and his wife, Frankie Watts, have five children: Kesha, Trey, Jerrel, Jennifer, and Julia.

J.C. Watts was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 1, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.196

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/01/2017

Last Name

Watts

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

J.C.

Birth City, State, Country

Eufaula

HM ID

WAT19

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Florida Panhandle

Favorite Quote

Take the Bitter with the Sweet

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/18/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Favorite Food

Cooked & Authentic

Short Description

Political leader J.C. Watts (1957- ) served as a commissioner on the Oklahoma Corporation Commission and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Oklahoma’s 4th District from 1995 until 2003.

Favorite Color

Blue

The Honorable Susan E. Rice

Ambassador and national security advisor Susan E. Rice was born on November 17, 1964 in Washington, D.C. to Lois Dickson Rice and Emmett J. Rice. Rice graduated from the National Cathedral School in Washington, D.C. in 1982, and received her B.A. degree in history from Stanford University in Stanford, California in 1986. She went on to earn her M.Phil. degree in 1988 and Ph.D. degree in 1990 in international relations, from the New College of the University of Oxford in Oxford, England, where she was a Rhodes Scholar.

From 1991 to 1993, Rice worked as a management consultant at McKinsey and Company. In 1993, she was appointed director of International Organizations and Peacekeeping on the National Security Council in President Bill Clinton’s White House, and later continued to serve on the National Security Council as special assistant to the President and senior director for African Affairs. In 1997, Rice moved to the State Department, serving as assistant secretary of State for African Affairs. From 2002 to 2008, Rice was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and became a senior foreign policy advisor for Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign. Once elected, President Obama nominated Rice to the position of U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. In 2013, she was appointed national security advisor for President Obama’s second term. After leaving government in 2017, Rice became a distinguished visiting research fellow at American University’s School of International Service and a non-resident senior fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. She also became a contributing opinion writer for the New York Times.

Rice served on numerous boards, including as an independent director of the Bureau of National Affairs (now Bloomberg BNA), Common Sense Media, the Beauvoir School in Washington, D.C., and the U.S. Fund for UNICEF. She also served on the board of Netflix and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, in addition to being a member of the Aspen Strategy Group, American Academy of Diplomacy, and Council on Foreign Relations.

In 2000, Rice was the co-recipient of the White House’s Sam Nelson Drew Memorial Award. In 2017, French President Francois Hollande presented Rice with the Award of Commander, the Legion of Honor of France, for her contributions to Franco-American relations.

Rice and her husband, Ian Cameron, have two children.

Susan E. Rice was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 30, 2017 and December 4, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.191

Sex

Female

Interview Date
10/30/2017 |and| 12/4/2017
Last Name

Rice

Maker Category
Schools
National Cathedral School
Stanford University
University of Oxford
First Name

Susan

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

RIC23

Favorite Season

Fall

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anguila

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/17/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Favorite Food

Sushi

Short Description

Ambassador and national security advisor Susan Rice (1964 - ) served as U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs under President Bill Clinton and was appointed U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations by President Barack Obama.

Employment
White House
United Nations
Brookings Institution
U.S. Department of State
McKinsey & Company, Inc.
Favorite Color

Purple

The Honorable Dennis Archer

Political leader and lawyer Dennis Archer was born on January 1, 1942 in Detroit, Michigan to Ernest Archer and Frances Carroll. He graduated from Ross Beatty High School in 1959, and enrolled at Wayne State University before transferring to Western Michigan University in 1963, where he received his B.S. degree in education in 1965. In 1966, he enrolled at the University of Michigan but transferred to the Detroit College of Law, where he received his J.D. degree in 1970.

Following his graduation from Western Michigan University, Archer taught special education in Detroit Public Schools from 1965 to 1970. In 1970, Archer began working for the law office of Gragg & Gardener, P.C. He left the firm in 1971 to help found Hall, Stone, Archer & Glenn. In 1983, Archer was named president of the National Bar Association. The following year, he was elected president of the State Bar of Michigan. In 1985, Archer was appointed by Governor James Blanchard to serve as an associate justice on the Michigan Supreme Court. He was elected to an eight-year term but resigned in 1990. In 1994, Archer was elected as Mayor of Detroit. He would go on to win reelection in 1998. During Archer’s tenure as mayor, Detroit experienced a decrease in crime and an increase in economic growth. Following his second term as mayor, Archer became chairman of Dickinson Wright PLLC in 2002. In 2003, he became the first African American president of the American Bar Association. Archer later resumed his private law practice, Dennis W. Archer PLLC, after serving in that capacity.

Archer has won numerous awards and distinctions during his career. In 1998, Engineering News-Record magazine named him Newsmaker of the Year, and honored him with an Award of Excellence. Ebony magazine also named Archer one of its Most Influential Black Americans. Governing Magazine named Archer Public Official of the Year in 2000, and he was also featured on Newsweek Magazine’s list of Twenty-Five Most Dynamic Mayors in America. Archer served as a trustee for Western Michigan University, on the Board of Directors of Compuware Corporation. He founded the Dennis W. Archer Scholarship Fund in 2001.

Dennis and his wife, Trudy DunCombe Archer, have two sons: Dennis W. Archer, Jr. and Vincent DunCombe Archer.

Dennis Archer was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 16, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.183

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/16/2017

Last Name

Archer

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Organizations
First Name

Dennis

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

ARC12

Favorite Season

Warm

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sarasota, Florida; Martha's Vineyard; Detroit, Michigan

Favorite Quote

N/A

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

1/1/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Detroit

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Political leader and lawyer Dennis Archer (1942 - ) was an associate justice on the Michigan Supreme Court from 1985 until 1990. He served as Mayor of Detroit from 1994 until 2002 and became the first African American President of the American Bar Association in 2003.

Favorite Color

Black