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MedicalMakers have dedicated their professional lives to addressing and improving healthcare, from internal medicine and dentistry to public health and medical research. MedicalMakers include pediatricians, surgeons, psychiatrists, hospital administrators, and clinic founders, among others.

Vera Ricketts

Pharmacist and civic leader Vera Ricketts was born on October 20, 1922 in Indianapolis, Indiana to Sarah Chilton Phelps and Robert Phelps, Sr. There, Ricketts attended Hazel Hart Hendricks School 37 and Crispus Attucks High School where she graduated in 1941. She later went on to attend Butler University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and graduated with her B.S. degree in pharmacology in 1948. As an undergraduate student, she was an active member of the Congress of Racial Equality.

Ricketts began her career as a pharmacist at Howard University in Washington, D.C. In 1958, Ricketts became the first female African American pharmacist at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina. During this period, she also helped establish the pharmacy at Lincoln Hospital in Durham, where she trained nurse practitioners in pharmacology. Ricketts eventually returned with her husband, William Newton Ricketts, to Washington, D.C., where she worked at the District of Columbia General Hospital pharmacy. In 1960, she and her husband moved to Los Angeles, California, where she worked as an administrator at his medical practice. An active community leader, Ricketts advocated for the creation of the Martin Luther King Jr. General Hospital in Los Angeles’ South Central neighborhood. Ricketts went on to serve as the president of the Auxiliary to the National Medical Association from 1981 to 1982.

In addition to her professional career, Ricketts was also active in other community organizations in the Los Angeles area. In 1979, Ricketts founded the Inglewood Pacific Chapter of The Links, Incorporated, and she served as its chapter president from 1983 to 1985. Ricketts also founded the Theta Mu Omega Chapter of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority. Through her membership in the sorority, she volunteered on the board of the Jenesse Center, Inc., a shelter for battered women and children in Los Angeles. In 2017, Ricketts and her husband, William Newton Ricketts, received recognition for their thirty plus years of humanitarian work in Jamaica.

Ricketts and her husband have four daughters: Verlie Ricketts Lockings, Renee Ricketts, Victoria Ricketts Wilson and Wendy Ricketts Greene.

Vera Ricketts was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 23, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.143

Sex

Female

Interview Date

07/23/2017

Last Name

Ricketts

Maker Category
Schools

Hazel Hart Hendricks School 37

Crispus Attucks Medical Magnet High School

Butler University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

First Name

Vera

Birth City, State, Country

Indianapolis

HM ID

RIC21

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Indiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Give something back to the community.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/20/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Oats, Raisins and Dates

Short Description

Pharmacist and civic leader Vera Ricketts (1922 - ) worked at Howard University Hospital and Duke University Hospital. She also served as president of the Inglewood Pacific Chapter of The Links, Incorporated and was a founding member of the graduate chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority.

Employment

Howard University Hospital; Freedmen's Hospital

Duke University Hospital

D.C. General Hospital

Favorite Color

Yellow

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Vera Ricketts' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Vera Ricketts lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Vera Ricketts describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Vera Ricketts describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Vera Ricketts talks about her parents' move from Clarksville, Tennessee to Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Vera Ricketts describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Vera Ricketts describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Vera Ricketts recalls her early interest in science

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Vera Ricketts remembers attending Crispus Attucks High School in Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Vera Ricketts talks about her early racial experiences

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Vera Ricketts remembers the everyday amenities of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Vera Ricketts remembers her early career aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Vera Ricketts recalls attending the Indianapolis College of Pharmacy in Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Vera Ricketts remembers her challenges at the Indianapolis College of Pharmacy

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Vera Ricketts remembers graduating from Indianapolis College of Pharmacy in Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Vera Ricketts describes her responsibilities as a pharmacist

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Vera Ricketts recalls being rejected for a job in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Vera Ricketts remembers meeting her husband, William Newton Ricketts

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Vera Ricketts recalls working at Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Vera Ricketts talks about the birth of her daughters

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Vera Ricketts recalls her coworkers' support at Duke University Hospital

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Vera Ricketts remembers returning to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Vera Ricketts recalls joining Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Vera Ricketts remembers segregation in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Vera Ricketts recalls her work at Lincoln Hospital in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Vera Ricketts remembers moving to District of Columbia General Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Vera Ricketts describes the process for manufacturing saline solutions

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Vera Ricketts remembers moving to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Vera Ricketts talks about her administration work at her husband's medical practice

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Vera Ricketts remembers advocating for the Martin Luther King Jr. General Hospital in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Vera Ricketts talks about her organizational involvement in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Vera Ricketts remembers the founding of the Los Angeles chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Vera Ricketts recalls establishing a partnership between The Links, Incorporated and Jamaica, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Vera Ricketts recalls establishing a partnership between The Links, Incorporated and Jamaica, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Vera Ricketts remembers co-chartering the Inglewood Pacific Chapter of The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Vera Ricketts talks about her public service activities

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Vera Ricketts describes the role of friendship in The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Vera Ricketts narrates her photographs

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Vera Ricketts describes her role as president of the Auxiliary to the National Medical Association

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Vera Ricketts describes her daughter's careers

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Vera Ricketts talks about her grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Vera Ricketts reflects upon the election of President Barack Obama

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Vera Ricketts describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Vera Ricketts reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Vera Ricketts shares her advice to aspiring pharmacists

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Vera Ricketts describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Vera Ricketts reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Vera Ricketts talks about her marriage to William Newton Ricketts

Regina Jollivette Frazier

Pharmacist Regina Jollivette Frazier was born on September 30, 1943, in Miami, Florida to pharmacist Cyrus Martin Jollivette, who founded Liberty City’s Community Drug Store in 1948, and teacher Frances Reeves Jollivette Chambers, the youngest daughter of The Miami Times founder Henry E. S. Reeves. Frazier graduated valedictorian from Northwestern Senior High School in 1961, Frazier received her B.S. degree in pharmacy from Howard University in Washington, D.C., in 1966, and her M.B.A. degree from the University of Miami in 1983.

In 1968, Frazier accepted a pharmacist position at Peoples Drug and the National Association of Retired Teachers & American Association of Retired Persons Drug Service. In 1970, she returned to Miami as senior pharmacist for the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics. Three years later, Frazier was promoted to Director of Pharmacy, a position she held until she retired in 2007. As Director of Pharmacy, Frazier also served as a Preceptor for the University of Florida’s College of Pharmacy as well as a Clinical Field Instructor for Florida A&M University’s College of Pharmacy.

Frazier served on numerous boards, including the United Way of Miami-Dade, New World School of the Arts, National Coalition on Black Voter Participation, the Commonwealth Institute, YWCA of Greater Miami-Dade, of which she is a life member, Miami-Dade County Addiction Services, University of Miami Medical Sciences Subcommittee for the Protection of Human Subjects, and Breakthrough Miami. She was also chairperson of the Girl Scout Council of Tropical Florida, which awarded her the Thanks Badge, and the Miami-Dade County Zoning Appeals Board.

She joined The Links, Incorporated, in 1970, and served as National President from 1986 until 1990, and is the youngest person to hold the position. While National President, she chartered the organization’s first international chapter in Nassau, Bahamas. Frazier also holds membership in Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., the Orange Bowl Committee, and the International Woman’s Forum.

Frazier was also active with the Association of Black Health-Systems Pharmacists, from which she received the Pharmacist of the Year award in 1990, the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists, and the National Pharmaceutical Association.

Frazier received numerous recognitions, including Florida Memorial College’s Sarah A. Blocker Meritorious Community Service Award; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., Beta Beta Lambda Chapter’s Distinguished Community Service Award; Women’s Committee of 100 Trail Blazer Award; Women in Communication’s Community Headliner Award; Bronze Medallion of The National Conference of Christians and Jews; Anti-Defamation League’s Woman of Achievement Award; In the Company of Women Award; United Way Starfish Award; Association of Black Health-System Pharmacists’ Meritorious Service Award; and Red Cross’s Sara Hopkins Woodruff Spectrum Award in Community Service.

She was also cited as one of Ebony magazine’s One Hundred Most Influential Black Americans from 1987 to 1990, and in 1988, as one of Dollars and Sense magazine’s selection of America’s Top 100 Black Business and Professional Women.

Frazier and her husband have three children: Ronald Eugene II, Robert Christophe, and Rozalynn Suzanne.

Regina Jollivette Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.049

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/08/2017

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Middle Name

Jollivette

Occupation
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar Elementary School

Holy Redeemer Catholic School

Miami Northwestern Senior High School

University of Miami

Howard University

First Name

Regina

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

FRA13

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere International

Favorite Quote

Service Is The Price You Pay For The Space You Occupy.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/30/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Pharmacist Regina Jollivette Frazier (1943 - ) worked at the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics in the pharmacy department for thirty-seven years.

Employment

University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics

Peoples Drug

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:12200,215:15240,273:17800,318:18600,330:20120,353:20440,358:36660,476:46842,612:50245,647:53067,691:74350,891:76534,1159:113320,1456:113790,1463:116672,1477:117274,1485:121328,1524:130621,1614:131929,1628:133564,1645:142206,1720:143421,1737:145358,1751:151343,1816:152729,1841:153125,1846:155105,1873:156590,1890:157382,1899:160910,1912:163160,1941:163610,1947:171388,2008:173490,2018:174489,2028:175488,2042:176598,2055:178041,2070:185405,2117:186500,2133:198424,2227:199313,2236:203162,2254:204658,2269:205098,2278:210671,2323:215036,2409:222380,2458:223190,2478:227690,2557:233074,2580:248760,2770:249849,2781:260000,2813:270970,2902:276778,2958:277808,2970:278529,2978:287906,3073:288282,3078:289316,3091:292888,3147:293546,3155:298716,3203:304948,3289:305276,3294:306014,3304:309130,3376:315201,3387:317811,3415:318159,3420:324350,3466:327340,3505$0,0:609,8:1044,14:5046,125:7308,153:10701,205:11571,216:24040,304:24450,310:32345,382:33107,389:40660,436:50050,494:51990,503:52620,514:52900,519:53670,532:58630,561:59170,568:59800,576:60340,583:61150,595:61780,602:62770,616:63490,626:65200,652:65560,657:66280,667:67900,693:72450,716:80846,769:85948,804:93778,853:94594,862:97015,875:97695,885:100450,903:102452,932:104636,964:105637,981:107275,1000:110096,1054:111097,1067:111552,1073:116540,1100:117310,1108:119620,1132:120060,1137:124928,1162:126164,1175:126576,1180:127091,1186:128739,1201:129563,1210:146759,1369:148176,1384:150029,1408:158680,1461:159535,1472:159915,1477:164449,1496:164933,1501:166143,1514:169652,1562:170257,1568:170862,1574:174250,1622:179482,1659:180186,1673:180626,1679:181066,1685:181418,1690:184058,1726:213790,2032:214690,2042:221960,2085:229158,2185:232914,2243:234812,2285:235104,2290:243560,2422
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Regina Jollivette Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the National Conference of Christians and Jews

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her communities in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her parents' protectiveness

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the Holy Redeemer Catholic School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers Miami Northwestern Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers travelling through the segregated South

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier recalls her teachers at Miami Northwestern Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier recalls her interest in journalism

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her maternal grandfather, Henry E.S. Reeves

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her family's famous guests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her decision to attend Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the activism on campus at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers the riots in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her classmates at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her pharmacy internships

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her professors at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her graduation from Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers joining the staff of the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her role as the pharmacy director of the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about drug theft prevention

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the problems with pharmaceutical branding

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the development of robotic prescriptions dispensary systems

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her responsibilities and colleagues

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her membership in The Links

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her national presidency of The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes 'Linkages and Legacies'

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her volunteer work

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her efforts to improve relations between police and the community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the gentrification of Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her current volunteer activities

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon her career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon the challenges of a pharmacy career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her children

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her role as the pharmacy director of the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics
Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her national presidency of The Links, Incorporated
Transcript
Okay, now what was your position when you came on in 1970?$$I was a staff pharmacist, I think. I'm saying I think because the university [University of Miami Hospital and Clinics, Miami, Florida] was terrific with titles you know. I think I went from staff pharmacist to senior pharmacist, from senior pharmacist to director of pharmacy and I guess I just wasn't creative enough over the years because at one time I opined to someone, I said, "Maybe if I change my title to grand exulted director of pharmacy, I could get more money."$$So you became--I have here that you became the director in '73 [1973], is that true?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$Right. I mean it was a big deal you know. The Miami Herald covered it. I was in my twenties and so.$$Okay. Okay. Well what were--what was the nature of what you had to do and, and--$$As director?$$Yeah, and the conditions that you worked in.$$Well, what I had to do was make sure the pharmacy [at National Children's Cardiac Hospital; UM Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida] ran smoothly and that it met all of the legal requirements and that the drugs were there when they needed them. So it was, make it work.$$Okay so, so many people who are gonna be watching this have never been a pharmacist, can you just walk us through a typical day as a director of a big pharmacy like this for a hospital (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well you know the thing is that every day is different. It was, when I started I was filling prescriptions when I--or drug orders. When I ended I hadn't been near filling an order in, in years so when I started the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations [Joint Commission] was just a joint commission on accreditation of hospitals and they had one sheet of paper, I think eight and a half by eleven, that wasn't even covered with writing and those were the requirements for hospital pharmacies. When I left there was a book about this thick okay, on the requirements so that's why there was something different every day. I also had the opportunity to serve on the IRB, which is the board, it's the investigational review board [institutional review board] that reviews proposed protocols for the institution that are testing drugs for possible entry into the market. There were just all kinds of things that you did. You know there was designing the pharmacy, there was hiring the staff, monitoring the staff, just whatever, whatever it took.$$So this is a hospital pharmacy--$$Yes.$$--and so the people--$$It had a hospital and it had clinics and it was, it concentrated on cancer therapy after, after a few years.$$Okay. And so how do you best design that, you said part of your job is designing the facility right?$$Well, one of the ways you do that is by attending the mid-year clinical which is held every December. When I went to my first mid-year clinical, I think it was maybe the seventh one they had. There were about maybe twenty five hundred people there. Now, this year was the fifty-first. I stopped going after, after I retired and they probably had twenty, twenty-five thousand people there. So it's the largest meeting in the world and so you get to hear all these speakers. You get to see all these exhibits you know and you get to one of the most important thing for me was the review of the joint commission new requirements so that I was right there knowing exactly what they were going to, to be reviewing when they came by and I never had a problem ever.$Tell us about what are the activities of The Links [The Links, Incorporated] and, and, you know what, what, what did you do, what was your agenda during your term?$$My agenda was to make the, the chain of friendship that encircled the globe not only figurative but literal, and to that end I charted the first international chapter in Nassau, the Bahamas. Subsequently I charted a second international chapter in Frankfurt [Germany]. That did not survive because it was related to the [U.S.] military people who were stationed in Germany and when that ended, people started coming back to the United States and we could not sustain the chap- not we, they could not sustain the chapter there because it was, it was operative for I would say 1990, 2000 at least twenty years I think. And then I had the great pleasure of inducting Leontyne Price as an honorary member. And during my presidency we had four program facets. We now have five, but we had the arts, services to you, national transcend services and international transcend services and our programs are built around those. So we had a program called Project L.E.A.D. High Expectations in which we collaborated with other organizations, national organizations like Sigma Pi Phi, Boule, like Jack and Jill of America [Jack and Jill of America, Inc.] for example and this was to stop--encourage kids not to take drugs you know it was a, it had a just say no component to it and we ran a pilot in, I forget how many cities, and at the time that was the largest grant we had. It would--ended up being about three quarters of a million dollars so those were big programming funds in those days.$$So where did the grant money come from?$$I knew you were gonna ask me that. I wanna think it was NIDA, which is the National Institute for Drug Abuse [sic. National Institute on Drug Abuse] under NIH.$$Okay, National Institute of Health [sic. National Institutes of Health], right okay--$$Um-hm.$$--okay.$$And that program is still going today.$$Okay.$$We call it one of our signature programs.$$Okay. So, now you were--you're president from '86 [1986] until when?$$Ninety [1990].$$Okay. So it's a four year term?$$Yes. Well actually at that--things change, you know the more things change, the more they remain the same, at that time it was a two year term and then I was reelected.$$Okay so it's two, two year terms, okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Um-hm.

Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick

Physician and college president Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick was born on June 17, 1971, in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. After graduating from high school at the age of fourteen, he took pre-college courses at St. Mary’s College in Port of Spain. Frederick enrolled in Howard University in 1988, at the age of sixteen. In 1994, he earned his dual B.S. degree and M.D. degree from Howard University and went on to complete his residency in general surgery at Howard University Hospital.

In 2000, Frederick was appointed as a clinical instructor in surgery at the Baylor College of Medicine in the Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston, Texas. He fulfilled his post-doctoral research and surgical oncological fellowships at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston in 2003. That same year, Frederick was named an assistant professor in the department of surgery of the University of Connecticut Health Center, where he became director of surgical oncology and associate director of the Neag Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2005. In 2006, he returned to Howard University as the associate professor in the department of surgery at Howard University Hospital. In 2012, he was named provost of Howard University and became president of Howard University in 2014.

Frederick has authored numerous research publications and editorials, as well as served as a member of a number of professional and scientific societies. These organizations include the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Medical Association. He has also been a member of the Society of Black Academic Surgeons, the Society of Surgical Oncology, and served as president of the board of the Texas Gulf Sickle Cell Association from 2002 to 2003.

Frederick’s work has won multiple awards and honors, including recognition from the U.S. Congress for his contributions in addressing health disparities among African Americans and historically underrepresented groups in 2014. He was named by the Washington Post as a “Super Doctor” in 2011, was in Ebony Magazine’s 2010 ‘Power 100’ list, and was on Black Enterprise Magazine’s list of America’s Best Physicians.

Wayne A.I. Frederick was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 30, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.012

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/30/2017

Last Name

Frederick

Middle Name

A. I.

Organizations
Schools

Diego Martin Government Primary School

St. Mary's College

Howard University College of Medicine

Howard University School of Business

Howard University

First Name

Wayne

Birth City, State, Country

Port of Spain

HM ID

FRE09

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Montego Bay, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Man's Greatest Imperfection Is His Passive Acceptance Of His Imperfection.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/17/1971

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Trinidad & Tobago

Favorite Food

Doubles

Short Description

Physician and college president Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick (1971 - ) served as the provost of Howard University from 2012 to 2014, and then became Howard University’s seventeenth president.

Employment

Howard University Hospital

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

University of Connecticut Health Center

Howard University Cancer Center

Howard University College of Medicine

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:19240,325:20010,343:23790,421:34962,561:39330,680:43308,758:44790,786:60418,991:70150,1128$0,0:1309,25:1848,37:4158,76:4620,84:10241,204:10549,209:11319,226:14168,307:20880,342:21370,351:29280,518:29910,529:35860,774:36840,792:38380,816:39080,827:39780,873:45063,890:46557,916:46889,921:47553,942:50707,1017:51620,1033:54110,1098:62400,1180:66458,1218:67472,1237:68486,1252:68798,1257:69188,1264:70592,1352:74868,1406:76056,1446:78460,1464:79540,1485:82708,1552:83068,1559:86308,1698:87028,1780:101303,1955:118805,2308:121560,2342:122820,2363:123360,2370:123990,2379:125700,2417:131184,2472:131688,2477:133720,2482:134440,2495:143142,2654:144000,2728:144312,2737:145014,2752:147822,2804:148134,2809:151020,2863:151332,2868:152112,2882:152424,2887:175450,3233:176844,3252:177500,3263:177828,3268:185526,3366:186056,3373:187646,3406:188070,3411:193705,3448:194130,3454:196340,3487:196680,3492:197530,3531:198465,3543:198805,3567:200250,3581:200590,3586:203990,3639:208485,3664:210310,3698:212062,3724:212865,3737:213303,3744:219999,3858:226380,3928
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his mother's community in Trinidad

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his father's death

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes the research on sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his diagnosis with sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his treatment for sickle cell anemia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the culture of Trinidad

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his interest in soccer

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his musical interests

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about Eric Williams

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the history of St. Mary's College in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his education at St. Mary's College

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers applying to Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers moving to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his first impressions of Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his influences at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls entering the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his assimilation to the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his assimilation to the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick remembers Clive Callender

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls Dr. LaSalle DLeffall, Jr.'s position in the American College of Surgeons

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls his focus during medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls his fellowship at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the impact of his sickle cell anemia on his career

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about working as a surgeon and university president

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the challenges of surgery

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his experiences at University of Connecticut Health Center

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his decision to return to Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his role as deputy director of the Howard University Cancer Center

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the future of cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the influence of positive thinking on recovery

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his administrative duties at Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls obtaining an M.B.A. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the culture of Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes the administrative challenges at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his challenges as president of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his administrative positions at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls the resignation of Howard University President Sidney A. Ribeau

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his initiatives at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about the Graduation and Retention Access to Continued Excellence program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his mention in the Congressional Record

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick shares his plans for the future of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes alumni engagement at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the federal support for Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about the importance of historically black universities

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon his life and legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about STEM education

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon the legacy of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon his family

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

10$5

DATitle
Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his earliest childhood memory
Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick remembers Clive Callender
Transcript
Now, do you have an earliest childhood memory?$$Me, yeah, I do. You know, at the age of three I remember lis-overhearing my [maternal] grandmother [Christine Roach (ph.)] talking to some neighbors about my having sickle cell [sickle cell anemia]. And I, I didn't quite understand what it was, et cetera. I was riding on a tricycle. At the time I remember stopping her to ask her to explain to me what it was, and she attempted to do so. I rode off and came back and said to her I was gonna become a doctor to find a cure for sickle cell. She, she repeats that story a lot, and that's, but, and that's probably my earliest childhood memory.$$That seems like an indication of focus (laughter), purpose.$$Yeah, from a pretty early age. She, you know, my grandmother and I were very close. She was a huge motivating factor in terms of she never made me feel that I would not be able to accomplish the things that I set, set out to do. And so, you know, and that, anytime I would repeat that, you know, she would just encourage me and act as if of course that's gonna happen. And so it was a, a strong motivator growing up.$The other person who has been a huge influence on not just my career but my life as well, is [HistoryMaker] Clive Callender. And I think, I, I think I have been attracted to both of these men because of what happened with my father [Alix Frederick] so early in life. I think I've always been attracted to strong men who lead with a certain level of integrity and have embraced not just the surgeon in me or the career aspects of what I do, but they've been concerned about my personal life. And Dr. Callender is an example of that. He, he became the chair of surgery [at Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] after Dr. Leffall [HistoryMaker Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.] became the president of the American College of Surgeons. When I was graduating from the surgical program, he gave me the Chairman's Award [Chairman's Award of Excellence] as the chief of--as the best chief that graduated that year. It was a very humbling honor at that time, 'cause I remember sitting in those seats as a junior resident watching, you know, who the chief resident of the year was every year and thinking to myself, wow, you know, I, I--it's not something I could even think I could aspire to be. What was critical about his involvement is that when I went to MD Anderson [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas], he tried to get me to come back here. I had just met my wife [Simone Frederick], and I couldn't take any chance. They took forever to make me an offer. And I was so apprehensive about the whole thing that I took a job at the University of Connecticut [University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut] because they were taking so long. And I remember him calling me in April to then make me an offer. I had to move in July. I had already accepted MD Anderson's offer--I mean UConn's offer. And I remember telling him that I wasn't gonna come, that I would go to UConn, and he was so devastated he stopped talking to me (laughter). It was--$$Who, Dr. Callender, right, the--$$Yeah--$$--Dr. Callender?$$--that, this is Dr. Callender. And you know, obviously I went to University of Connecticut, and two years later I found myself back at Howard [Howard University Hospital, Washington, D.C.]. He got to recruit me again and sealed the deal. And I remember when I came back here, one day I walked into his office and I said you know, "A lot of things are going well, and I'm pretty happy. But I do have this aspect of my life around my spirituality that concerns me." And I, and I remember telling him it's not a church thing. I, I was an altar boy growing up in, when I was in high school [St. Mary's College, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago]. So from the ages of ten to sixteen I was an altar boy. I went to all Catholic high school. I was an Anglican. And so it wasn't so much that aspect, but I felt like it was a deeper personal journey that I needed. And so you know--$$You were a practicing, practicing Anglican?$$Yeah, I was practicing. I, I, I wouldn't say--$$So did you, you go to--$$I wouldn't say--$$--church as a--$$--very active. I did, but not, not very often. I wouldn't say very often at all. And he came to me one day, and his solution was every morning, I will send you a text with a piece of scripture in it, and you know, it'll just be random. And you can take a look at it. And, and so we have done that for as long as I can remember. Every single morning he does it, up to this morning. And I send back a note that, that simply says, "Thank you." And that has been very helpful because that has spurred other conversations with us, you know, about questions that I might have about decisions I need to make, personal and career wise in particular. And so I'm very appreciative for that. And I, I've kept all of the, the texts interestingly enough. But that's the type of mentor that he has been to me as well.

Dr. June Jackson Christmas

Psychiatrist Dr. June Jackson Christmas was born on June 7, 1924 in Cambridge, Massachusetts to Mortimer Jackson and Lillian Jackson. She earned her B.S. degree in zoology from Vassar College in 1945, and her M.D. degree in psychiatry from the Boston University School of Medicine in 1949. Christmas completed her psychiatric residencies at Bellevue Hospital, and Queens General Hospital. She also received a certificate in psychoanalysis from the William Alanson White Institute.

In addition to opening her own private practice, Christmas worked as a psychiatrist for the Riverdale Children’s Association in New York City from 1953 to 1965. In 1962, she became chief of the group therapy program at the Harlem Hospital Center and founded the Harlem Hospital Rehabilitation Center in 1964. From 1964 to 1972, she served as principal investigator on research projects for the National Institute of Mental Health; and in 1971, began teaching at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. In 1972, Christmas was appointed deputy chief of the New York City Department of Mental Health and Retardation Services by Mayor John Lindsay. She was re-appointed in 1973 by Mayor Abraham D. Beame and again in 1978 by Mayor Ed Koch. In 1976, Christmas headed the Department of Health, Education and Welfare transition team for then president-elect Jimmy Carter. In 1980, Christmas began teaching behavioral science at the C.U.N.Y. Medical School. While teaching at C.U.N.Y. she co-founded the think tank Urban Issues Group. Christmas also served as a member of New York Governor Mario Cuomo's Advisory Committee on Black Affairs in 1986, and as chair of New York City Mayor David Dinkins' Advisory Council on Child Health in New York City from 1990 to 1994.

Christmas was a member of Vassar College's Board of Trustees from 1978 to 1989. She was the first African American woman president of the American Public Health Association in 1980. In 2003, she became a member of the board for the Jackie Robinson Foundation. Christmas also received numerous awards for her work, including the 1974 Human Services Award from the Mental Health Association of New York and Bronx Cities, as well as the 1976 Award for Excellence in the Field of Domestic Health from the American Public Health Association. She was named Vassar College’s President's 1988 Distinguished Visitor, and received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Medical Fellowships in 1999.

Christmas has three children: Vincent, Rachel, and Gordon.

Dr. June Jackson Christmas was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 19, 2017 and February 3, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.004

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/19/2017 |and| 02/03/2017

Last Name

Christmas

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Jackson

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Kendall Square Elementary School

Russell School

Cambridge Rindge and Latin School

Vassar College

Boston University School of Medicine

First Name

June

Birth City, State, Country

Boston

HM ID

CHR04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Do it

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

6/7/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Sushi

Short Description

Psychiatrist Dr. June Jackson Christmas (1924 - ) founded the Harlem Hospital Rehabilitation Center in 1964, and served as deputy chief of the New York City Department of Mental Health and Retardation Services under three consecutive New York mayoral administrations.

Favorite Color

Blue, variations of turquoise

Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey

Non-profit executive Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey was born on September 25, 1954 in Seattle, Washington to Dr. Blanche Sellers-Lavizzo and Dr. Philip Lavizzo. She attended the University of Washington before transferring to the State University of New York-Stony Brook for two years. Lavizzo-Mourey then continued her education at Harvard Medical School, graduating in 1979. In 1984, she was selected as a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar, and earned her M.B.A. degree in health policy from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in 1986.

Lavizzo-Mourey joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania as an assistant professor. During her tenure, she served as the director of the Institute on Aging from 1984 to 1992. She took a leave of absence from the university to work as deputy administrator for the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research under President George H.W. Bush’s administration. Lavizzo-Mourey then served as quality of care chair for President Bill Clinton’s panels on health care until 1994, when she returned to the University of Pennsylvania as a professor. Lavizzo-Mourey served as the associate executive vice president for health policy for the health system from 1994 to 2001, and the Sylvan Eisman professor of medicine and health care systems at the university from 1997 to 2002. In 2001, Lavizzo-Mourey was hired as a senior vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and was appointed to serve as the president and CEO of the foundation in 2003. While at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Lavizzo-Mourey continued to see patients at a clinic in New Jersey, and launched an influential campaign against childhood obesity in 2007. The initiative decreased the obesity rate among children aged two to five years and halted its rise among those aged two to nineteen years.

Lavizzo-Mourey was the recipient of numerous awards, including twenty honorary doctorates from institutions like Brown University, the University of Pennsylvania, Tufts University, Morehouse School of Medicine, Meharry Medical College and Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science. She appeared on Forbes’ list of the most important women in the world eight times, and as one of Modern Healthcare’s one hundred most influential people in health care eleven times.

Lavizzo-Mourey and her husband, Robert Lavizzo-Mourey, have two adult children.

Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 14, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.038

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/14/2016

Last Name

Lavizzo-Mourey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Juanita

Schools

Our Lady of Mount Virgin

John Muir Elementary School

Asa Mercer Middle School

The Bush School

University of Pennsylvania

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Harvard Medical School

Harvard

First Name

Risa

Birth City, State, Country

Nashville

HM ID

LAV03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/25/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Roasted chicken, fresh salad

Short Description

Non-profit executive Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey (1954 - ) advised on health policies for the Bush and Clinton administrations, and became president and CEO of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in 2002.

Employment

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School

Various

University of Pennsylvania

The Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

Favorite Color

Red

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls her mother's childhood in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about her mother's aspirations in the medical field

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls her father's childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her father's medical paper

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls her parents' careers after medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her parents' private practice in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers the Mount Baker neighborhood in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers Our Lady of Mount Virgin School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls discrimination in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers her early aspirations to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her family's religious and civic involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls her high school education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her early mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls the economic climate of Seattle, Washington during the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about the recession in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls famous people from Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about the Black Panther Party in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her experience at The Bush School in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers her father's death

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her college education

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her influences at Stony Brook University in Stony Brook, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls her acceptance to Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about affirmative action

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her experiences at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her mentors at Harvard Medical School

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls the controversy involving Dr. Bernard D. Davis

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers her challenges in medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls the racial climate of Boston, Massachusetts during the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about her former classmate, Jill Stein

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her former classmate, Dr. Augustus A. White, III

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls her residency at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about health care legislation

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about preventive medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes the challenges of medical residency

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls completing her medical residency

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes the Lewis Katz School of Medicine in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls the history of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in Princeton, New Jersey

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her decision to specialize in geriatric medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls attending the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her responsibilities at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers her role as the W.E.B Du Bois College House faculty advisor

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about racial tensions in Philadelphia, Pennslvania during the 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers notable students and professors at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her work for the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls working with Hillary Rodham Clinton on The Health Security Act of 1993

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about universal healthcare reform

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about her medical research

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about violence as a public health issue

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls her appointment as Sylvan Eisman Professor of Medicine and Health Care Systems

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes her program to reinstitute house calls

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about alternatives to home health care

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey recalls becoming president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about her campaign to combat childhood obesity

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes the factors of a healthy childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes the factors of a healthy childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about the endowment of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about the health crisis in Flint, Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey reflects upon her family

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey remembers her early aspirations to become a doctor
Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey talks about her campaign to combat childhood obesity
Transcript
I'm thinking you've got two parents [Blanche Sellers Lavizzo and Philip V. Lavizzo] who are physicians, did you spend or did your siblings spend a lot of time in the office?$$Um-hm.$$Or yeah, you know, downtown [Central District, Seattle, Washington]?$$I, that's a, that's a great question, we did, I probably spent more than the others, my fondest memory really is Saturday mornings because Saturday mornings was the special time that I had with my mother, she practiced on Saturday mornings, so a pediatrician, you--good time to be in the office if you're gonna take care of kids right? Saturday mornings, so every Saturday morning she and I would drive down to her office which was about three or four blocks from the YWCA [Young Women's Christian Association] and I would then walk to the Y, get a swimming lesson and after my swimming lesson I'd walk back to her office and hang out for the rest of the morning with her and thinking I was helping out in the lab and, you know, sitting in the waiting room with her patients and just being there and seeing her do her work and how people responded to her. And I think that, that really instilled in me the joy of being a doctor, yeah. There were other times that we spent time with them and those were usually when there was an emergency in the evening and they had to go into the hospital there was, there wasn't anybody who could take care of us, you know? The, they were three thousand miles away from their family and anybody who could really come and, come over and help out in the evening, so when that happened we all piled into the car and went to the emergency room, my parents would do their work and my brother [Philip Lavizzo] and I would hang out at the nurses station and, again that was, that was pure joy for me, I think it was just the opposite for my brother.$$Okay, okay. So, so you--you're learning, I guess directly and vicariously about the profession--$$Um-hm.$$--the medical profession by being around--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) two doctors.$We've invested in ensuring that kids have a healthy weight, it really--a billion dollars in reversing the epidemic of childhood obesity (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) You know that was a big initiative that was launched soon after you joined Robert Wood (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yes.$$The Johnson Foundation [Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey], and one in which the first lady participated in, you know, to a great extent, I mean she was, you know, she made commercials and, and appeared around the country, you know, on behalf of exercise and eating the right foods and--$$Shortly after I became president, I really initiated our commitment to reversing the epidemic of childhood obesity. At the time, there were a lot of debates about whether it was really a problem and we were largely as a country ignoring the, the fact that rates of childhood obesity were steadily going up and the consequences of children being obese at a young age were going to be devastating because all of the illnesses that are associated with obesity like high blood pressure and heart disease and asthma were things that they would start to get at a much younger age. So instead of getting them, these diseases in middle age, they would--we were starting to see diabetes in childhood and in children in their teens and in their early twenties and that of course could lead to a situation where we were producing a generation that was gonna die younger than their parents' generation, in fact, we are seeing now a decrease in life expectancy. So we at the foundation and, and really was a signature program under my administration to address childhood obesity and I remember going to meet with Michelle Obama before she was the first lady, when she was Senator Barack Obama's [HistoryMaker President Barack Obama] wife working in community programs at the University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois]. And it was very clear that then that she was passionate about this issue and so it was extremely gratifying to see her take that on when she became first lady and to essentially become a champion for good policies for educating parents and for changing the, the ways that communities addressed the health of children.

Dr. Julius W. Garvey

Surgeon and medical professor Dr. Julius W. Garvey was born on September 17, 1933 in Kingston, Jamaica to United Negro Improvement Association founder Marcus Garvey and activist Amy Jacques Garvey. The younger of two sons, Garvey was raised in Jamaica. He graduated from Wolmer's Trust High School for Boys in Kingston in 1950; and then earned his B.S. degree from McGill University in Montréal, Canada in 1957, and his M.D., C.M. degree from McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 1961.

Garvey began his medical career by interning at The Royal Victoria Hospital in Montréal in 1961. In 1962, he began his first residency in surgery at The Mount Sinai Hospital of New York, completing his residency in 1965. Garvey also completed residencies in surgery at the Harlem Hospital Center in 1968, and in thoracic & cardiovascular surgery at the University of Maryland Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland in 1970.Garvey became an instructor in surgery at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1971. The following year, he joined the Albert Einstein College of Medicine as an instructor in surgery, later becoming an assistant professor of surgery. While teaching at Columbia University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Garvey also served as an attending surgeon in cardiothoracic surgery at the Harlem Hospital Center and Montefiore Hospital, as well as associate attending and head of thoracic surgery at the Montefiore Morrisania Affiliate. In 1974, Garvey was named attending-in-charge of thoracic surgery at Queens Hospital Center, in addition to serving as an attending surgeon in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center. Garvey became the Long Island Jewish Medical Center’s acting program director for the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery from 1980 to 1982, and assistant professor of surgery at State University of New York at Stony Brook from 1978 to 1988. Garvey also started his own private practice in 1983. Garvey served as chief of thoracic and vascular surgery at Queens Hospital Center from 1993 to 2006, and chief of vascular and thoracic surgery at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center from 2000 to 2004. In addition to his other medical appointments, Garvey served as an attending surgeon at North Shore University Hospital, Franklin General Hospital, Massapequa General Hospital, Catholic Medical Centers, and Little Neck Community Hospital.

Garvey was a certified fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, the American College of Surgeons, the International College of Surgeons, and the American College of Chest Physicians, as well as a diplomate of the Board of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery, the American Board of Surgery, the American Academy of Wound Management, and the American College of Phlebology.

Garvey and his wife, Constance Lynch Garvey, have three children: Nzinga, Makeda, and Paul.

Dr. Julius W. Garvey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 8, 2016 and March 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2016.108

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/08/2016 |and| 04/13/2017

Last Name

Garvey

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Winston

Schools

Jonathan Robinson High School

McGill University

First Name

Julius

Birth City, State, Country

Kingston

HM ID

GAR04

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica, Europe

Favorite Quote

No problem mon. (with Jamaican accent)

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/16/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Aki and sawfish

Short Description

Surgeon and medical professor Dr. Julius W. Garvey (1933 - ), son of Marcus Garvey, practiced thoracic and vascular surgery in greater New York, and was chief of thoracic and vascular surgery at Queens Hospital Center and at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center.

Employment

Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

State University of New York

University of Maryland Hospital

Harlem Hospital Center

The Mount Sinai Hospital of New York

Montefiore Hospital

Montefiore Morrisania Affiliate

Long Island Jewish Medical Center

Queens Hospital Center

Little Neck Community Hospital

Catholic Medical Centers

Massapequa General Hospital

Franklin General Hospital

Wyckoff Heights Medical Center

North Shore University Hospital

Garvey Vascular Specialists

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. Arese Carrington

Public health consultant Dr. Arese Ukpoma Carrington was born on July 16, 1958 in Lagos, Nigeria to Dora and Elisha Ukponmwan. Her great-great-grandfather, Oba Ovonramwen Nogbaisi, was the ruler of Benin from 1888 to 1897. Carrington and her mother were separated from her father during the Biafran Civil War, but the family later reunited. Carrington earned her M.D. degree from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria in 1980.

Carrington briefly served as a medical officer for the Nigerian Airports Authority before establishing a private practice. In 1986, she founded Goldline Limited, a commercial company providing consulting and promotional services to multinational companies and foreign non-profits. She also founded Health and Medical Services that same year to consult on issues of preventive healthcare in the workplace. Carrington enrolled in a master’s program at the Harvard School of Public Health, where she studied in the Department of Population and International Health. Graduating in 2000, she was chosen as the graduate orator at the commencement ceremony. Carrington then became the associate director of government relations and community programs for Harvard’s AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria (APIN), helping to secure a health grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the largest at that time. She also authored Malaria in Nigeria, published in the Fall 2001 issue of the Harvard Health Policy Review. In 2004, Carrington worked for the Pan African Health Foundation, which partnered with the Nigerian government to establish an auto-disable syringe factory in Port Harcourt. In 2006, she and her husband, U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria Walter C. Carrington, founded Africana Consultants USA to advise on issues of public health and investment promotion.

Carrington served as vice president of the board of directors of the United Nations Association of Greater Boston. As a visiting committee member for the Arts of Asia, Oceania and Africa at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, she facilitated the development of the Benin Kingdom Gallery. She also served on the trustees’ advisory board of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. In 2014, Carrington was the recipient of the Newton Human Rights Lifetime Achievement award, Massachusetts State Senate Official Citation, and the Massachusetts House of Representatives Official Citation in recognition of being a life-long advocate of Human Rights.

Carrington and her husband, U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria Walter C. Carrington, have two children: Temisan Oyowe-Carrington and Thomas Carrington.

Dr. Arese Carrington was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 20, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.075

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/20/2016

Last Name

Carrington

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

University of Ibadan

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Queen's College, Lagos

International School, Ibadan

University College Hospital, Ibadan

Corona School Ikoyi

First Name

Arese

Birth City, State, Country

Lagos

HM ID

CAR35

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

Defend The Defenseless.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/16/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

Nigeria

Favorite Food

Plantain

Short Description

Public health consultant Dr. Arese Carrington (1958- ) served as associate director for Harvard University’s AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria (APIN).

Employment

Nigerian Airports Authority

Fan Milk Ltd

Health and Medical Services

Harvard School of Public Health

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:5031,98:21488,305:23239,372:34751,498:42854,589:43526,597:60036,842:60744,849:63555,866:64365,873:65580,887:70440,934:73520,992:75610,1079:80120,1120:80780,1128:81440,1135:84710,1143:90920,1289:98906,1338:106898,1511:116898,1597:117864,1606:118968,1615:120072,1625:136774,1785:137478,1796:138006,1864:145662,1948:147246,1992:147862,2000:157460,2107$0,0:3210,46:19242,326:24470,372:26190,395:27910,415:28512,423:30232,445:34962,538:35650,549:42550,614:45185,655:45695,662:46290,672:47225,689:49860,737:55810,835:72839,1077:73234,1083:78894,1112:88370,1157:94711,1279:104028,1369:105132,1384:108651,1442:109203,1451:114484,1566:115048,1575:118338,1639:120030,1666:120500,1672:126986,1784:127362,1789:132158,1808:136294,1868:137140,1880:141464,1939:146040,1981:149840,2059:166475,2313:182141,2543:186570,2581:192050,2602:192876,2619:193171,2625:208330,2808:211850,2863:214490,2905:214890,2911:221580,2959:221944,2964:222399,2970:223127,2980:223491,2985:227222,3049:227677,3055:228223,3062:228860,3070:232090,3093
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Arese Carrington's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the history of British colonial rule in Benin

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her father's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her parents' courtship

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her parents' personalities and values

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her parents' careers

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the qualities of a successful marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the history and culture of Benin

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about Nigerian independence

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the ethnic differences in Nigeria

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the leaders of Nigerian independence

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers her early interest in social justice

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington recalls her family's preparation for the Nigeria-Biafra War

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the start of the Nigeria-Biafra War

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her husband's role in the Nigeria-Biafra War

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her early interest in medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about gender inequality in Nigeria

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the Corona School Ikoyi in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the secondary school system in Nigeria

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers Queen's College, Lagos in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her education in Nigeria

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers her early exposure to popular culture

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the misconceptions of the African continent

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the differences between urban and rural communities in Nigeria

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington remember developing an interest in public health

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her early medical career in Nigeria

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about healthcare in Nigeria, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about healthcare in Nigeria, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the impact of political instability in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the wealth inequality in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the activism of Ken Saro-Wiwa

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the history of political leadership in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington recalls the assassination of Kudirat Abiola

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the history of activism in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes how she met her husband, Walter C. Carrington

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the U.S. immigration process

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers meeting President Jimmy Carter in Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her wedding

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington recalls the start of her husband's farewell party in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the dissolution of her husband's farewell party, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the dissolution of her husband's farewell party, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the death of Moshood Abiola

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the start of the AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her work with the Nigerian government

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the impact of the AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the work of the Pan African Health Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the empowerment of women in Nigeria

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about modernization in Africa

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the United Nations Association of Greater Boston

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the Safe Schools initiative in Nigeria

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the treatment of girls in Nigeria

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her hopes and concerns for the country of Nigeria

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her involvement at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the Benin Kingdom Gallery at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the Carrington Youth Fellowship Initiative

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about building relationships

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Dr. Arese Carrington remembers her early interest in social justice
Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the empowerment of women in Nigeria
Transcript
Now, tell me about growing up. Now, did you--I mean you grew up, you grew up in Lagos [Nigeria], right?$$I grew up in Lagos--Ikoyi, Lagos. I went--my elementary school was Corona School Ikoyi [Lagos, Nigeria]; it was a school that had a lot of the expatriate children in it, so I used to spend a lot of time playing with a lot of my friends after school; and one of the things of--'cause it was--when I was about nine [years old], during the time--the civil war started while I was in elementary school, and when I was at Corona School, there was a school next door--Corona School was a private school, and a lot of kids who were there, their parents were either a civil servants, or they were expatriate kids. We had a lot of good teachers, we got the best books--everything was there at our disposal. And right next door to us was this public school, and this public school it was only separated from us by this fence which you could see through, and you could see the stark difference with the kids there: they didn't have the amenities, they--their uniforms, they didn't have to wear socks and shoes, some would come to school without shoes. And so from the early age--from an early age, I used to wonder, but we're all kids, why were they having it so different? Their teachers would carry canes and they would spank them, and that was not allowed in my school. And we used to go--some of us would go across the fence and talk to them and see what was happening. And you could see that--as kid- we were all the same; we had the same, you know, yearnings; we thought like kids. And I began to think of issues of social justice--things of--issues dealing with education, dealing with equity. So, from an early age, these questions were in my mind; and I would ask, why do some of us have it this way, and why do others don't? 'Cause I didn't believe that people who were less fortunate and weren't given opportunities, I didn't think that they would be able to get--reach their maximum potential.$$Not--without the same kind of start, yeah.$$Yes, without--yes, without that same kind of start.$Now, in 2006 you became the vice president of Africana Consultants [Newton Centre, Massachusetts]. Now this is--is this you and your husband [HistoryMaker Walter C. Carrington], right (unclear)?$$Yes. So, we decided to set up a consultancy focused on two things--or maybe more than two things, but healthcare and investment promotions were the main things; and so I was involved in healthcare consulting and also women's empowerment. Because that was an issue--women's health was not being addressed; and I felt unless you empower the woman, she would not have the ability to address her own healthcare needs. Women needed a voice, and I was vocal in making sure that women understood that their health and their lives were in their hands, and they could not allow the men to dictate to them how they would take care of themselves because the men would focus more on what affected them and not what affected the women. You had maternal mortality still very high, you had childhood diseases still very high, and malnutrition still very high. So these were areas where the women needed to be empowered to be able to advocates for themselves, so.$$Yeah, yeah, so--that sounds like important work. Yeah--I'm tempted to ask--well, I'll ask anyway. In what ways did men try to control women's health access? I mean how, and for what reasons?$$Well, there were--like going to basic local levels now. I will go to like when I worked in the teaching hospital in Nigeria--University College Hospital [University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria]. A lot of times, a woman would have had several children--she would be tired. She would say she's had seven, eight children, but her husband wants her to continue because either he wants her to have a son, or he feels he needs many children; and they would not be allowed to have contraceptives. So they would come to the hospital and they would say--and their husbands would come with them, and you would see them whisper that, as a doctor should ask their husband to wait outside. So it would look like the doctor wanted their husband to wait outside; and when the husband would go out, the woman would say that she is tired of having children. She almost passed on, the last one; and she wants contraceptive, but she wants something that her husband will not, you know, know what she's doing, and if he asks her why isn't she pregnant, she'll just say, "Oh, it's--," God hasn't given her a baby. So, you know, she did not have the nerve to tell her husband that, "No, I'm done," that she feels she's done with having children. And also, attention wasn't being paid to maternal healthcare. You had so many women dying during childbirth, and I think a lot of the healthcare policies weren't being addressed. Because you look at parliament, in politics, those providing the laws were mainly men, so they had no interest in issues concerning women most of the time; and so you needed to advocate that women should go into politics, women should begin to fight for their own rights, and women should realize that they have a voice.

Dr. Ada Cooper

Dentist and lawyer Dr. Ada Cooper was born on October 19, 1960 in New York City to Dr. H.H. Cooper, Jr. and Edith Blue Cooper. Cooper graduated from Stuyvesant High School in 1978, and earned her B.A. degree cum laude in political science at Amherst College in 1982. She was awarded the John Woodruff Simpson Fellowship in Law to attend Harvard Law School, graduating with her J.D. degree in 1985. Cooper completed her D.D.S. degree at New York University College of Dentistry in 2002.

Cooper began her legal career as a litigator at the law firm of Jenner & Block in 1985, and then worked as an associate in the litigation section of Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue in New York from 1986 to 1989. Cooper returned to Jenner & Block in 1989, and was later named a partner in 1992. After thirteen years in the legal profession, Cooper returned to school to study dentistry. Not long after graduating from the New York University College of Dentistry in 2002, Cooper was selected to be a national spokesperson and consumer advisor for the American Dental Association (ADA). Cooper appeared on the Dr. Oz Show, CNN, NBC Today Show, and NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams. She was also quoted in the Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and Women’s Health magazine.

Cooper served as a member of the American Bar Association’s Litigation Section and Corporate Counsel Committee, as well as the United States District court, Northern District of Illinois, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. She also served as a member of the NIDCR “PEARL” Protocol Review Committee, the Greater New York Dental Meeting Seminar Committee, the American Dental Association, the Academy of General Dentistry, and the New York State Dental Association. In addition, she served as a member of the New York County Dental Society Legislative Committee and the New York State Dental Society Benefits Committee. She is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Boys Club of New York, and serves on the board of directors of the New York County Dental Society. Cooper also received many awards and honors, including the American College of Dentists’ Outstanding Achievement Award, the New York University Key Pin Award for Outstanding Achievement, and induction into the Omicron Kappa Upsilon Honor Dental Society.

Dr. Ada Cooper was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 23, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.028

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/23/2016

Last Name

Cooper

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Sheryl

Occupation
Schools

P.S. 20 Clinton Hill School

J.H.S. 104 Simon Baruch

Amherst College

Harvard Law School

New York University College of Dentistry

Stuyvesant High School

First Name

Ada

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

COO12

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Life's most persistent and urgent question is, 'What are you doing for others?’

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/19/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Dentist and lawyer Dr. Ada Cooper (1960 - ) began her career as a litigator for Jenner & Block, before returning to school to become a dentist. She then represented the American Dental Association as a national spokesperson and consumer advisor.

Employment

Ada S. Cooper D.D.S.

H.H. Cooper Jr. D.D.S

American Dental Association

Mt Sinai Hospital Dental Clinic

Jenner & Block LLP

Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue

Favorite Color

Fall Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:3914,33:4946,50:5548,58:5892,63:6494,71:9823,100:10381,115:13822,166:17435,182:18115,191:18540,199:24498,254:25182,266:28297,295:30606,322:38534,413:42686,514:52580,621:53720,643:58219,706:58723,715:59668,740:62750,765:70379,834:70824,840:76164,943:76698,950:79989,966:80481,1038:83556,1043:90070,1131:98596,1170:99817,1214:108586,1434:109918,1458:113350,1485:113750,1491:114070,1496:114390,1501:114790,1507:116990,1525:117250,1530:117900,1541:118160,1546:127710,1631:129988,1653:133360,1681:133970,1689:135570,1696:142080,1754:149720,1802:150275,1808:150719,1813:151385,1820:154475,1830:155502,1845:160795,1969:161585,1982:161901,1987:162217,1992:162533,1997:162849,2002:163402,2013:175404,2135:177476,2153:178660,2183:184280,2216:184910,2225:185900,2238:187160,2257:189320,2264:189998,2279:198630,2426:198990,2431:203734,2472:212476,2544:213178,2558:214504,2585:214816,2590:215362,2603:218264,2624:222656,2680:223144,2685:228756,2768:230930,2835$0,0:633,11:2146,33:3760,38:4512,48:4888,53:5546,63:5922,68:6862,84:7332,91:17035,209:20694,262:32996,340:33620,350:34634,371:45701,440:46236,518:66044,635:66512,642:67292,655:68462,673:70100,678:70684,691:74316,740:74806,746:75688,757:76276,764:82006,800:83821,827:84469,836:92398,1112:96314,1217:97026,1240:97560,1247:105190,1294:105550,1299:106090,1351:109420,1403:109780,1408:113284,1454:116550,1493:118170,1515:123385,1580:133019,1641:136178,1708:136664,1715:136988,1720:149230,1831:150190,1851:152301,1877:157526,1919:159749,1964:171000,2059:173295,2089:174375,2099:179392,2170:180208,2180:185756,2246:186932,2265:190362,2341:191832,2363:194270,2380:208510,2515:223102,2675:234306,2918:235710,2962
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Ada Cooper's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Ada Cooper lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her maternal family reunions

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes how her maternal great-great-grandparents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her maternal grandfather's career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her paternal great-grandfather's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her paternal grandfather's education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her paternal family's interest in medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her paternal family's legacy in dentistry

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her father's early career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Ada Cooper recalls her father's entrepreneurship in Nigeria

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers moving to the Upper East Side of Manhattan

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her community on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her community on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers her father's rules

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers her mother's death

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Ada Cooper recalls her decision to attend Amherst College in Amherst, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her and her siblings' education

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Ada Cooper recalls joining the law firm of Jenner and Block in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her career at Jenner and Block

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers defending a homeless client, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers defending a homeless client, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers her mentors at Jenner and Block

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes the advantages of workplace diversity

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Ada Cooper recalls her decision to pursue a career in dentistry

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers her father's support for her career change

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Ada Cooper recalls graduating from the New York University College of Dentistry

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Ada Cooper remembers practicing dentistry with her father

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about the birth of her children

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Ada Cooper recalls becoming the national spokeswoman for the American Dental Association

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her father's innovations in dentistry

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her dental practice

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Ada Cooper reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Ada Cooper describes her advice to aspiring lawyers and dentists

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Ada Cooper reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Ada Cooper talks about her children

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Dr. Ada Cooper describes her career at Jenner and Block
Dr. Ada Cooper recalls her decision to pursue a career in dentistry
Transcript
I remember--you know, I remember small things and acts of real genuine appreciation. I worked in a group that was headed by a man named Jerold Solovy who died a few years ago and I remember being a first or second year associate and I was at the office really late working on a memo that I was writing for something, and Jerry and a number of the other partners were on trial, and they were out of town and they called. It must've been one or two o'clock in the morning. I don't know why I was there, but I was there. And he called and he talked to the operator because he was looking desperately for an associate to research a particular question, okay.$$At one or two o'clock in the morning?$$And he searched around and they searched around and I was there. From that moment on, he was one of my absolute ardent supporters. I think that what he appreciated was not the fact that I was there at one or two o'clock in the morning alone, wasn't necessarily the fact that, you know, I got the right answer or whatever it was, I think that what he really valued was commitment, was commitment, and, and the hard work that comes with that. And since that's something that had been instilled in me from the time that I was five, it sort of came naturally (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) You have to work hard.$$--and easily to me, you know, came easily to me and that's something that I could do. That's something that I could do easily. So, I was very happy. I was very happy. There were some cases that I think were more gratifying than others. Some of the cases that I found most gratifying were the habeas corpus cases where I knew that the work that I put in had, you know, a direct effect of having somebody who had been accused of a crime represented with, you know, skill and success. There were others that were disappointing, disappointing not because of the way that the firm [Jenner and Block] handled it by any means, but because I became acutely aware of the fact that your hard work, your diligence in the legal system doesn't always pay off. And some of the instances in which my hard work didn't pay off and resulted in a bad decision were very difficult, were very, very difficult, and I found it difficult to become the kind of lawyer that could see practicing law just as a sport, you make your good argument, the joy and the thrill comes from the argument itself and not from the result. I was much more I think psychologically tied to the result and losing became really defeating, honestly. And I have to say there weren't many losses and there were some cases that I thought, we probably should lose, honestly, and in those instances, you give your client what they deserve, which is the best conceivable representation. But there were some instances where I really thought that we should have won.$And so I'm wondering, as, as you were making up your mind that it's time for you to make a different choice, did you have any feelings of guilt about the possibility of leaving and, and you being one of those people who, oh, they invested in me and, and--$$It's funny. No--well, I think that when I left, there were lots of mixed feelings among the people that I worked with. A lot of people thought that it was sort of wasted talent. I think that Jerry Solovy who was a--just a really amazing mentor to me thought that I would be back, thought that I would be back. And, and I, frankly, wasn't certain that I wouldn't be back. I always held out the possibility in my mind that I could always go back to practicing law. And so when I first decided to change careers, I had to do all the premed things that I didn't do my freshman year in college [Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts], and I started to do those in Chicago [Illinois] while I was still a partner [at Jenner and Block].$$Did you tell anybody you were doing this (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) No.$$So, how in the world--$$No.$$--did you find time if you're still sometimes being at the office at one o'clock in the morning?$$Here's the thing that I found, that the things that I did in--that, that I did in college and high school [Stuyvesant High School, New York, New York] were a lot easier at that point because I was a lot more mature, I was a lot more focused, I was a lot more organized, and because I had been practicing law for so long, I was able to cut through the nonsense and identify really quickly what mattered in various subjects, and that made the work a lot--a lot easier and a lot less time-consuming.$$Well, and people have said that preparation to be a lawyer really can prepare you for anything.$$Oh, yeah, yeah. And, and, and, and preparation to be a lawyer and taking the bar required learning volumes and volumes and volumes of material and sitting through, you know, two or three day exams, and with--even as you're practicing law, each case that you have requires you on some level to become an expert in whatever the subject matter of the case is, and you learn to become an expert really, really quickly. And so the training that I got in practicing law and becoming a lawyer and passing the bar and then practicing law made it a lot easier for me to take those, you know, college courses, and, and devote, you know, whatever time I had to it, at night while I was still practicing.$$Where did you study?$$I started taking courses at Loyola University [Loyola University Chicago] in Chicago and after doing that for about a year, I resigned from the partnership, told people what I was doing, resigned from the partnership and moved to New York [New York] where my father's [Henry Cooper, Jr.] practice was at the time, and took courses at NYU [New York University College of Dentistry, New York, New York] and Hunter [Hunter College, New York, New York].

Lloyd Dean

Chief executive officer Lloyd Dean was born in Alabama on June 24,1950 to Susie Tripp Dean, a homemaker, and Floyd Dean, Sr., a foundry worker. Dean grew up in Muskegon, Michigan. In 1969, he enrolled at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he earned his B.S. degree in sociology, and his and M.A. degree in education. Dean then went on to graduate from Pennsylvania State University's Executive Management program.

Between 1972 and 1978, Dean worked as a junior high school teacher and paralegal assistant. He taught communications courses at Western Michigan University, and served as a news anchor for WOTV in Battle Creek, Michigan. In 1978, he met a pharmaceutical executive named Lawrence Hoff, who recruited him to work at his company, Upjohn. Dean worked at Upjohn Company, where he rose from assistant regional manager in the health care services division to Executive Vice President of Marketing and Operations, until 1990. He then moved to Illinois, where he worked at Consumer Health Service, EHS Healthcare, and Advocate Healthcare. In 2000, he was recruited to join Catholic Healthcare West, now known as Dignity Health, where he served as president and chief executive officer.

Dean served on the boards of Wells Fargo & Company, McDonald's Corp., Navigant Consulting Inc, and Cytori Therapeutics, Inc.. He was also the board chair for the Committee on JOBS, an organization that brings employment to the San Francisco Bay area.

Dean has been a strong supporter of the Affordable Care Act. He was a 2014 recipient of the CEO Humanitarian of the Year Award from the American Red Cross Bay Area Chapter. In 2014, Dean was also named among the Top 25 Minority Executives in Healthcare by Modern Healthcare. He was recognized by the San Francisco Business Times for Excellence in Leadership and received multiple awards from 100 Black Men of the Bay Area, Inc. Dean also received an honorary doctorate of humane letters from the University of San Francisco.

Dean lives in Half Moon Bay, California with his wife, Suzanne Dean. They have two children, Nathan and Nicole.

Lloyd Dean was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 18, 2015.

Accession Number

A2015.010

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/18/2015

Last Name

Dean

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

H.

Organizations
Schools

Western Michigan University

First Name

Lloyd

HM ID

DEA01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui

Favorite Quote

My Only Limitation Is My Imagination.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/24/1950

Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Meatloaf

Short Description

Chief executive officer and chief executive officer Lloyd Dean (1950 - ) served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Dignity Health, the fifth largest healthcare system in the U.S., starting in June 2000.

Employment

Upjohn Company

WOTV News

Advocate Health Care

Dignity Healthcare

McDonald's Corporation

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lloyd Dean's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lloyd Dean lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lloyd Dean describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lloyd Dean describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lloyd Dean describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lloyd Dean lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lloyd Dean remembers moving to Muskegon, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lloyd Dean remembers the community of Twin Lake, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lloyd Dean describes the sights, sounds and smell of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lloyd Dean recalls the Calvary Baptist Church in Muskegon, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lloyd Dean talks about his early commitment to education

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Lloyd Dean recalls his father's illnesses

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Lloyd Dean describes his parents' home remedies

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Lloyd Dean remembers his early education

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Lloyd Dean describes his relationship with his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lloyd Dean talks about the impact of busing

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lloyd Dean remembers his teachers' encouragement

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lloyd Dean remembers leaving for college

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lloyd Dean recalls his decision to attend Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lloyd Dean describes his college experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lloyd Dean remembers being harassed for associating with whites

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lloyd Dean describes Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lloyd Dean talks about his work experiences while in college

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lloyd Dean remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Lloyd Dean describes his extracurricular activities at Western Michigan University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Lloyd Dean describes his early career

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Lloyd Dean remembers joining the Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

8$12

DATitle
Lloyd Dean remembers the community of Twin Lake, Michigan
Lloyd Dean remembers joining the Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company
Transcript
Where I lived is, is out kind of in, we'd like to say in the sticks. But it was like this little community maybe thirteen miles from what I'll call the City of Muskegon [Michigan]. And there were maybe three hundred people in my community.$$And what was the name of the community?$$It's called Twin Lakes [sic. Twin Lake, Michigan]. But there's two Twin Lakes, Blue Lake Township [Michigan]. And this was a small community of predominantly African Americans and I was bused about eight miles to school.$$So would you say it was rural or a small--I mean was it a rural or a small town?$$It was it, it--there was really no sense of town because there were no public buildings. The only store that we ever had in my community my father [Floyd Dean, Sr.], when my brother passed away, opened. So it really was just a community of dwelling where people lived.$$And can you describe, can you take yourself back there and describe the street, you know, that you lived on. Can you do that for me?$$Yes. I lived on a street called White Lake Drive. And that sounds elegant, it sounds like it's on a lake, but it's not and it was a street of very, very small homes, very, very small home. An example, there were nine--nine of us and we had nine kids and two adults, and we had a three-bedroom home. These were like manufactured homes and it was a very poor community.$$Now, let's--I'd like you to, but how--were the neighbors in close vicinity?$$Yes. Yeah, even though it was out in the country, your neighbors were pretty close. But it was in a wooded area. I mean this section was never like a planned community, it's just kind of one house grew there. Other people told people about it in the South, they came there. And this one guy started building houses because there was this demand from African Americans in the--in the South.$$So were you as a family unit, were you pretty internal? Would you--would your activities occur with just the nine of you or were you playing with other neighborhood kids (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, a lot of the activities of my early life were with my brothers and sisters. But also with my, my [paternal] grandmother lived like out the backdoor, because again, she moved up there. And peop- kids in my community, but you know, not like in an urban environment. So a lot of my time was spent with my--with my family.$Now was that the person who you were talking about, was that Lawrence Hoff [Lawrence C. Hoff] (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, very good, Larry Hoff, Larry Hoff.$$Okay, okay, Lar- so what did he see in you, that's what I, I mean, I didn't quite understand how?$$Yeah, Larry, Larry--$$So he saw you where?$$Oh he heard me--he her--he saw me present. The Upjohn family kind of dominated Kalamazoo [Michigan], because they were the largest employer. So, because I was active in college [Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan], there were Upjohn executives on the various boards and committees, and they were on anything that was important in Kalamazoo. And because I was so active in the university, a lot of times I'd be called to talk about what's going on at the university, or what are students thinking, you know, what are some of their challenges. How can the Upjohn Company [Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company] be better partners with the university from a student perspective, because I, you know, was one of the top student government people. And also, because of the six hundred class, a lot--there were Upjohn executives that I would be teaching them how to do public speaking and how to deal with press conferences and that kind of thing. And one day, Larry was at some meeting and he said, "I've heard about you, I wanna talk to you, I've seen you at these meetings," and he said, "I want you to come out and have lunch with me." And so I did. And I was so blown away and at the end of the lunch they said, "We'd like you to come and work for us." And I said, "Oh no, no, no, no. I love what I'm doing and having a lot of fun teaching and I like it." And they said, "How much do you make?" And I said, "Twenty-one thousand dollars," and they said, "Well what if we offered you thirty thousand dollars?" And I said, "Oh no, you--," I meant to say no you don't have to do that and they said, "Well what about forty thousand dollars." And I said, "No it's not about the money." They said, "What about sixty thousand dollars?" And I said, "Well I'm gonna need to think about that (laughter)," 'cause I knew--I knew twenty-one times three gets you pretty close to sixty-three--gets you to sixty-three thousand dollars. And I said, "I--you know, it's not about the money. I just, you know, I love what I do and you know, I just, you know, this is a whole new thing and I appreciate that you have the confidence in me." And so I went back and I talked to one of my professors, two--Chuck Warfield [Charles Warfield], Dr. Warfield who's African American professor, and I talked to Dr. Gene Booker [Gene S. Booker] who was the head of the business department 'cause I took classes in the business department for my master's [degree]. And both of them looked at me and they said like, "Are you a fool, you should've took it at thirty, let alone at sixty." And they said, "You get your butt out there tomorrow and you tell them yes. Do you know how many thousands of people in--around the United States wanna work for the Upjohn Company? Do you know how difficult it is to get in? Do you know how--this is one of the top pharmaceutical companies, excuse me, in, in, in, in, in the world right now. Are you like--is something wrong with you?" And so I did and became the youngest executive vice president to ever receive the Upjohn Award of Excellence [W.E. Upjohn Award] in the history of the company. It was a nonfamily member for operations, for you know, you know growing the company, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera. So, and that's how I got into healthcare, and then I was there fourteen years. I got recruited to, what is now Advocate Health Care system, a smaller healthcare system, kind of like Dignity Health [San Francisco, California] and was about to become the president there and CEO. And got this call about this company called Catholic Healthcare West [Dignity Health]. But I was--had been reading about it because they were in the national news about one of the top companies in United States having problems.

Bernard J. Tyson

Chief executive officer Bernard J. Tyson was born on January 20, 1959 in Vallejo, California to Billie Tyson, a homemaker, and Moses Tyson, a minister. After graduating from Vallejo High School in 1977, Tyson enrolled at Golden Gate University. While still in college, Tyson worked as an administrative analyst for Vallejo General Hospital. He earned his B.S. degree in health service management in 1982, and went on to receive his M.B.A. degree from Golden Gate University in 1984.

In 1984, Tyson accepted a six-month internship at Kaiser Permanente and was then hired full-time in an administrative position. Tyson remained at Kaiser Permanente and in 1992, he was named chief executive officer of the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Santa Rosa, California. In 1999, he was promoted to senior vice president and chief operating officer for regions outside of California and for Kaiser’s brand strategy. In 2004, the organization launched its “Thrive” advertising campaign under Tyson’s leadership. In 2006, Tyson was promoted to senior vice president for Health Plan and Hospital Operations, during which time Kaiser opened four new hospitals. In 2010, he was promoted to president and chief operating officer of Kaiser Permanente. As president, he was vocal in his support of the Affordable Care Act, which was signed into law in 2010 and faced significant hurdles. In 2013, he became the company’s first African American chairman and chief executive officer.

Tyson served as co-chair of the World Economic Forum’s Health Governors Community. He also served on the boards of the American Heart Association, America’s Health Insurance Plans, and the International Federation of Health Plans. He was an American Heart Association CEO Roundtable Member and past chairman of the Executive Leadership Council.

Tyson also received many awards and honors over the course of his career. He was a recipient of the NAACP Freedom Act Award in 2001 and was named Golden Gate University's Alumnus of the Year in 2007. He was named among the Most Influential Healthcare Leaders in both 2014 and 2015, and was a recipient of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund’s 2014 National Equal Justice Award. In 2010, Tyson was named among the Top 25 Minority Executives in Healthcare and Top 25 Most Influential African Americans.

Tyson passed away on November 10, 2019.

Bernard Tyson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 17, 2015.

Accession Number

A2015.005

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/17/2015

Last Name

Tyson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

J.

Organizations
Schools

Farragut Elementary School

Vallejo Middle School

Vallejo High School

Golden Gate University

Springstowne Junior High School

First Name

Bernard

Birth City, State, Country

Vallejo

HM ID

TYS02

Favorite Season

Thanksgiving

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

God Bless America

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

1/20/1959

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Spaghetti

Death Date

11/10/2019

Short Description

Chief executive officer and chief executive officer Bernard J. Tyson (1959 - 2019) was the first African American CEO of the $60 billion healthcare organization, Kaiser Permanente.

Employment

Kaiser Permanente

Vallejo General Hospital

Favorite Color

Burgundy

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Bernard J. Tyson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers his family's storytelling

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson reflects upon his relationship with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers his early experiences in the Church of God in Christ

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Bernard J. Tyson lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his father's work as a carpenter

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers his father's work as a builder

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his father's love of cars

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about the importance of music in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers attending Farragut Elementary School in Vallejo, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his experiences at Springstowne Junior High School in Vallejo, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers the influence of attorney Lewis G. Brown

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his middle school and high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his personality in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers experiencing racial harassment

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his relationship with his father in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his relationship with his cousin, Sly Stone

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his decision to enroll at Golden Gate University in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers staying with Sly Stone's family in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers Sly Stone's career

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his internship at Vallejo General Hospital in Vallejo, California

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his trajectory to Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his transition from resident to manager at Kaiser Pernamente

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his first experiences as a hospital manager

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson describes how Kaiser Permanente differs from other medical systems

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls the administrative positions leading to his appointment as a hospital administrator

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers the African American administrators who preceded him at Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his experiences as a hospital administrator

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers restructuring the Northern California region of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about the emergence of health maintenance organizations in the 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about Kaiser Permanente's financial situation in the 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls Kaiser Permanente's challenges outside of California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his experiences with Kaiser Permanente on the East Coast

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his responsibilities as regional president of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers the creation of an electronic records system at Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson describes Kaiser Permanente's approach to advertising

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his engagement with federal policymakers in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about what he learned from his time in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Bernard J. Tyson describes Kaiser Permanente's influence on the Clinton healthcare initiative

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about developing Kaiser Permanente's brand image

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers his transition to being vice president of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his relationship with George Halvorson

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson reflects upon his appointment to CEO of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his vision as the CEO of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson reflects upon his legacy as a CEO

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson reflects upon his personal legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Bernard J. Tyson recalls his decision to enroll at Golden Gate University in San Francisco, California
Bernard J. Tyson talks about his first experiences as a hospital manager
Transcript
How is it decided when you're going to col- you know, where you're going to go to college? And, and is that a, a definite thing? Immediately?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$Yeah. In fact, I decided where, and I picked Golden Gate University [San Francisco, California], because I was absolutely certain that I wanted to be a hospital administrator.$$Which is, where does that come from?$$Because I--my mother [Billie Haynes Tyson] was in the hospital a lot when we were growing up.$$Because she had diabetes (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Diabetes.$$But this is interes- because it was hereditary, right, because her--your grandmother [Tyson's maternal great-aunt, Rosie Haynes Garrett] had had it, right?$$Right. And so, my mother spent a lot of time on health and health care. So, my mother had a great set of doctors who were just passionate about her, at least from my view, and therefore, us. So, I had this imagery growing up, that, you know, doctors in white coats were wonderful people, because of how they attended after my mother, and also with us as a result of that. So when we were growing up, there were several times my mother--many times, but not many, many, many--but several times my mother would end up in the hospital. And I remember going into that environment and the doctors were, you know, providing care, and there was obviously such a great respect for them, and I grew up wanting to be like that. And then later on, clearly I began to, you know, gravitate in my own mind that I'm going to run my hospital, and I learned that from understanding what a hospital administrator did. And so when I got to high school [Vallejo Senior High School; Vallejo High School, Vallejo, California] I was looking at going to colleges, and Golden Gate University came up, and I honestly don't even remember how it came up. I started to do research, and I learned that the uniqueness of that particular school was that many of the students were already in the profession. And I thought that was like a godsend that--you know, I didn't want to go to college, you know, to hang out at college. I went to college on the mission of, you will go to school, and so I saw the benefit, in my mind, of being around people who did this every single day. And whether or not that had anything to do with how I was oriented, I don't know, but it made sense to me. And so I wasn't even sure that I would be able to get in, because I didn't have that experience. So, I went through the whole process and then they accepted me into the school.$$And that--there were, as I had read, there're a lot of older students there, right?$$Right.$$Okay.$$Right.$$And people were saying you shouldn't go there?$$Right.$$Did the--okay.$$Yeah, yeah, yeah, people were saying, "You shouldn't go there." My father [Moses Tyson, Sr.] was encouraging, so he was just proud, as it turned out. And, you know, I had people saying, "No, you shouldn't go there. You should go to a junior college or a university." And, and I, you know, I don't want to say I rejected that. I think I viewed the whole decision of going to school--you know, I obviously got help from a lot of people, but it's sort of like, I did it, you know. I felt like I had put myself in school. And I hold to this day that that was a great--that was a great decision. And I was scared and I was young, and, and I guess I was ambitious, but, you know, it, I had to get used to it, because there were so many older people there.$So, tell me then what you do then as manager [at Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, California]. And you said you were assessing? How do you even know what to assess at that point? Were you just--you know, I know you had said you had learned to look at data. But were you just observing, you know, how to (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, yeah, everything. I was observing, you know, what the workers were doing. I looked at a lot of data, you know. So, for example, they had a problem with--obviously this is thirty something years ago, but it's pretty accurate. They had a problem with--during that time, every lab slip had to be filed into medical records, so they had stacks of lab slips and they were behind. And it was a frustration for the physician, because you get the medical records and not all the medical information was in there. And so, that was one of the areas that I studied. And so I studied--I did a numbers count: how many of these slips do you have? And I did a people count: how many people are here? And then I worked with the lab techs--I mean the filers, and I would like at how many can they get done in an eight hour day? And so I started to do the analysis, and then I came up with the recommendation that two things were broken: one, the whole system was broken. Because why put the lab slip in the department when somehow you can match it to the record when the slip is available. So, you're just in time; that was my thought process. But the second one, more importantly, was I just did a number count, and said, every day, in essence, at that time, the manpower available times the time that each of them will spend, times how many they can get done against how many are coming--I can tell you what the backlog is going to be. And so, and Alva [Alva Wheatley] loved that work and that thinking, and so that was just one of maybe four or five areas. So, I put together those kinds of recommendations and said, you know, the workers needed to be better allocated, if you will, in the areas of the file room. So, instead of having someone going all over the file room, you pre-sort the lab slips into sections and you give Bernard [HistoryMaker Bernard J. Tyson] this area, because they're all numbered. And so I used to put those things together, and I put together the recommendations. And she said, "These are great. Now, you go and do it." And I was like, "It'll be very hard as a resident." So, then they hired me on as the manager, and that was the start. And then I turned that department around, and to this day, thirty something years later, I still go visit. And I still have employees in that area that were there when I was the manager, and every promotion that I've gotten in the organization, I would go into that department. And I have to say, those individuals are so proud of me, and I'm proud of them. In fact, I was in there when--after I became chairman and CEO [of Kaiser Permanente]. I went in there and we took pictures and selfies and everything. And I told them, I said, "As long as I'm here, you can--you are guaranteed that we're going to all leave together. So, nothing's going to happen to you while I'm here." You know, we had jokes like that, and they were wonderful. You know, and that's when I really had my first experience in quote (air quotes) managing people. And it was a great experience, and I had a great department, you know. And, and here was a group of what they called unmotivated people and everything, and they were fantastic; I mean they were fantastic. And I challenged them and we had fun, and we got the work done. You know, we had meetings, I informed them what was going on. It was just, you know, a very good time, and, and I got the work done.