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MedicalMakers have dedicated their professional lives to addressing and improving healthcare, from internal medicine and dentistry to public health and medical research. MedicalMakers include pediatricians, surgeons, psychiatrists, hospital administrators, and clinic founders, among others.

Chet Hewitt

Nonprofit executive Chet Hewitt was born on November 30, 1958 in New York City to Millicent Braithwaite Hewitt and George Johnson. After passing his high school equivalency exam, Hewitt began working as a YMCA counselor in Staten Island, New York, later becoming a program director at the YMCA. Upon moving to San Francisco, California in the early 1980s, Hewitt worked as an after-school program director, and joined the therapeutic foster parents initiative program. He then enrolled at the New College of California School of Law, where he completed an internship with the San Francisco Public Defenders Office in 1991, before receiving his J.D. degree in 1992.

From 1993 to 1994, Hewitt served as the founding director of the Detention Diversion Advocacy Project for the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice in San Francisco. In 1995, he completed a fellowship with the Annie E. Casey Foundation; and one year later, he became an associate director of working communities at the Rockefeller Foundation. In 2000, Hewitt was hired as an assistant agency director with the Alameda County Social Services Agency’s child and family services division, and was promoted to director the following year. Then, in 2007, Hewitt became the president and chief executive officer of the Sierra Health Foundation in Sacramento, where he was also involved with the blue ribbon commission and the steering committee. During this time, he founded the black child legacy campaign. In 2012, Hewitt became president and chief executive officer of the center at the Sierra Health Foundation. Hewitt helped The Center to launch the San Joaquin Valley Health Fund, the Fresno Legal Defense Fund, and the California Funders for Boys and Men of Color project.

Hewitt has received numerous awards for his nonprofit work, including the Black Child Administrator of the Year Award in 2009 and the Robert T. Matsui Community Service Award from the Martin Luther King Jr. Celebration Committee in 2016. Hewitt was also a recipient of the Grantland Johnson Intergovernmental Cooperation Award, and the Urban League President’s Award. Hewitt served on the board of the Public Policy Institute of California, Advance Peace, Grantmakers in Health, Valley Vision, and the Sacramento Foundation.

Hewitt has two sons, Chet II and Stephen.

Chet Hewitt was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 5, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.067

Sex

Male

Interview Date

04/05/2018

Last Name

Hewitt

Maker Category
Middle Name

P.

Organizations
First Name

Chet

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

HEW03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Carribean

Favorite Quote

No One Is Anything Great By Themselves.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/30/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sacramento

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Nonprofit executive Chet Hewitt (1958 - ) was the first African American director of the Alameda County social services agency’s child and family services division. He later served as the president and chief executive officer of the Sierra Health Foundation.

Favorite Color

Red

Dr. Reed V. Tuckson

Healthcare executive Reed V. Tuckson was born on February 18, 1951 in Washington, D.C. to Coleman and Evelyn Tuckson. He received his B.S. degree from Howard University in 1973, and his M.D. degree from Georgetown University School of Medicine in 1978. From 1978 to 1981, he trained at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania as a specialist in internal medicine, served as an admitting doctor at Philadelphia’s Veterans Affairs hospital, launched a radio program aimed at African American listeners, and organized a support group for sickle-cell anemia patients. His interest in public health led him to a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars fellowship, where he studied health care administration and policy at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Business, from 1981 to 1983.

Tuckson worked for Elmira Jeffries Nursing Home in Philadelphia as a founding medical director from 1981 to 1985. Returning to Washington, Tuckson worked for the D.C. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Administration from 1983 to 1985. He then held the position of District of Columbia deputy commissioner of public health from 1985 to 1986; and a year later, was promoted to commissioner of public health for D.C., a position he held from 1986 to 1989. He joined the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation as senior vice president for programs before being appointed as the new president of the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science in Los Angeles, serving from 1991 to 1997. Tuckson left Drew University to work for the Chicago-based American Medical Association as the group vice president for professional standards from 1997 to 2000. He accepted an offer from the United Health Group in Minneapolis, Minnesota to serve as senior vice president of consumer health and medical-care advancement from 2000 to 2006 when he was then promoted to executive vice president and chief of medical affairs at United Health where he served until 2013. He then established Tuckson Health Connections, a private health and medical care consulting company.

Tuckson has held numerous appointments in the areas of health care, the federal government and academia including active memberships in the American Medical Association and the Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences. He was appointed to the Advisory Committee to the Director of the National Institutes of Health, and has served on numerous boards, including those of Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, Inc.; the National Hispanic Medical Association; the Alliance for Health Reform; the National Patient Advocate Foundation; ViTel Net, Inc.; Cell Therapeutics, Inc.; Inform Genomics, Inc.; AcademyHealth; Big Brothers Big Sisters of the Greater Twin Cities; and Minnesota Public Radio. He also served on the board of trustees of the Arnold P. Gold Foundation, on the advisory board of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, and as president of the Society of Medical Administrators.

Tuckson and his wife Margie Malone Tuckson have four adult children including Kobi, Nia, Dominic and Lance.

Reed V. Tuckson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 5, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.030

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/5/2018

Last Name

Tuckson

Maker Category
Middle Name

V

Schools

Georgetown University School of Medicine

Howard University

First Name

Reed

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

TUC32

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Inside of My Mind

Favorite Quote

I'm in Love With the Unity of the Divine Intelligence.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

2/18/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Favorite Food

Eggs, Bacon, Toast and Coffee

Short Description

Healthcare executive Dr. Reed Tuckson (1951- ) founded Tuckson Health Connections in 2013 and previously served as president of the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, group vice president for professional standards of the American Medical Association, and executive vice president and medical affairs chief of UnitedHealth Group.

Employment

Tuckson Health Connections, LLC

UnitedHealth Group

American Medical Association

Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science

District of Columbia

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Administration

Favorite Color

Blue

Robert Currie

Healthcare executive Robert Currie was born on June 12, 1951 in Orange, New Jersey to James Currie and Hazel Shelton. Currie graduated from Orange High School in 1970, and earned his B.A. degree in sociology and urban studies from Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin in 1974. Currie went on to receive his M.A. degree in urban planning and policy from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1978.

After working as director of health systems planning at Chicago Health Systems Agency for several years, Currie became the vice president of strategic planning for Chicago Hospital Council/Compass Health Care Plans. In 1984, Currie joined the Michael Reese - Humana Health Plan, where he was the director of strategic planning from 1984 to 1987, vice president of strategic planning and market research from 1987 to 1993, and associate executive director of administration from 1993 to 1995. Currie went on to become the president and CEO of Unity HMO in Chicago, vice president and COO of Plan Americaid Texas, and COO of Harmony Health of Indiana. From 2001 to 2005, Currie served as the president of Harmony Health Management, Inc. and vice president of external affairs for Harmony/WellCare Health Plans until 2009 when he founded the Managed Care Consulting Group. In 2011, he was named COO of Aetna Better Health Illinois; and in 2014, Currie became the president and CEO of Community Care Alliance of Illinois.

In 2009, Currie was named as one of the Chicago Defender’s “50 Men of Excellence.” Currie received an Excellence in Health Care Award from the Illinois Black Caucus and the National Association of Health Services Executives (NAHSE) President’s Award, both in 2010. Currie also received a Chapter Leadership Award from the NAHSE Chicago Chapter in 2011. Currie served on the board of numerous organizations including the Black United Fund of Illinois, the Institute for Diversity in Healthcare Management, and Youth, Vision, & Integrity, Inc. He also served as the president of NAHSE’s Chicago chapter from 1989 to 1991, and the national president of NAHSE from 1999 to 2001.

Robert Currie was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 23, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.023

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/23/2018

Last Name

Currie

Maker Category
Schools

University of Illinois at Chicago

Lawrence University

Orange High School

Lincoln Avenue School

Oakwood Avenue Community School

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Orange

HM ID

ROB35

Favorite Season

Winter

State

New Jersey

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Don’t Give A Handout, But Give A Hand Up.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

6/12/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Favorite Food

Liver

Short Description

Healthcare executive Robert Currie (1951 - ) served as the COO of Aetna Better Health Illinois before becoming the president and CEO of Community Core Alliance of Illinois in 2014.

Employment

Community Care Alliance of Illinois

Aetna Better Health

Managed Care Consulting Group

Americaid Texas

Unity HMO

Favorite Color

Black

Dr. L.D. Britt

Surgeon Dr. L.D. Britt was born on June 28, 1951 in Suffolk, Virginia to Claretta White Britt and Vandious Britt. He graduated as valedictorian of his class at Booker T. Washington High School in 1968, and received his B.A. degree in experimental psychology from the University of Virginia in 1972. He went on to earn his M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School and his M.P.H. degree in public health from Harvard School of Public Health in 1977. The following year, Britt completed his medical internship and assistant residency in the department of surgery at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri with further studies at the W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center in Lake Placid, New York.

In 1979, Britt accepted a two-year research fellowship in the department of surgery at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. After his residency at the University Hospital and Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Britt completed a clinical fellowship from 1985 to 1986 at the Maryland Institute of Emergency Medical Services Systems. From 1987 to 1997, Britt was Chief of the Trauma Division at Eastern Virginia Medical School and worked as the medical director of the Shock Trauma Center at the Sentara Norfolk General Hospital. He was also a member of the surgical staff at Children’s Hospital of the King’s Daughters. In 1994, Britt was appointed as the Henry Ford endowed chair of the department of surgery at the Eastern Virginia Medical School, becoming the first African American in the country to be awarded an endowed chair in surgery at a major American medical school. From 1997 to 2000, Britt served as both chairman of the Surgical Services Committee for Sentara Hospitals and surgical chief of staff at Sentara Hospital Norfolk. Britt went on to serve as president of the American College of Surgeons from 2010 to 2011. In addition to his roles as editor and reviewer for numerous medical journals, Britt authored 290 scientific publications and three books including a recent edition of Acute Care Surgery. He also participated in over 200 visiting professorships and distinguished lectureships throughout the world, including the A. Clifford Barger-Hinton Wright Lecture at Harvard Medical School and the Balfour Visiting Professorship at the Mayo Clinic.

Britt earned numerous awards as an educator including the Robert J. Glaser Distinguished Teaching Award, the nation’s highest teaching award in medicine given by the American Association of Medical Colleges in conjunction with the national medical honor society, Alpha Omega Alpha. Britt received The Outstanding Faculty Award, Virginia’s most prestigious educator award presented by the Governor and State Council of Higher Education for excellence in teaching, research and public service. In addition, Britt was honored with an Emmy Award by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences for his contribution to the television special, Youth / Violence: A Call To Disarm. President George W. Bush nominated Britt to the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Dr. L.D. Britt was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 17, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.002

Sex

Male

Interview Date

01/17/2018

Last Name

Britt

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

University of Virginia

Harvard Medical School

Harvard

First Name

L.D.

Birth City, State, Country

Suffolk

HM ID

BRI09

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Chicago

Favorite Quote

There is No Quality Without Access

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

6/21/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Norfolk

Favorite Food

Italian

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. L.D. Britt (1951 - ) served as a trauma surgeon for the Sentara Norfolk General Hospital before being appointed professor at the Department of Surgery at the Eastern Virginia Medical School [EVMS].

Favorite Color

Black

Dr. Robert L. Smith

Professor and physician Dr. Robert L. Smith was born on December 20, 1936 in Terry, Mississippi to Willie B. Smith and Lillie Mae Smith. He received his B.A. degree in chemistry from Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi in 1957, and his M.D. degree from Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1961.

Smith completed his clinical training at the West Side Medical Clinic of Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois and returned to Jackson, Mississippi and founded the Family Heath Center, now known as the Central Mississippi Health Services, Inc. In 1964, Smith worked with the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) to provide medical services for civil rights workers during the Freedom Summer in Jackson, Mississippi as its first Southern Medical Field Director. Smith later worked as an assistant clinical professor of family medicine at the University of Mississippi Medical School, where he participated in the development of the Family Medicine Program as a co-principal investigator with the National Research Program’s Arteriosclerotic Risks in Community Studies. Smith worked as an adjunct professor at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts, Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee and Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi as well as professor emeritus position in the department of community medicine at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. During his career, Smith also assisted in institutionalizing the pre-health program at Tougaloo College.

In 2011, part of Jackson Metro Parkway was renamed in honor of Dr. Robert L. Smith. In 2014, Smith received the Community Service Award from the Mississippi Board of Trustees of the State of Institutions of Higher Learning, and was also named Diversity Educator of the Year. In 2017, the American Medical Association presented Smith with its Medal of Valor Award for his civil rights work. In the same year, the Mississippi State Senate honored Smith for his community health work. Smith was a charter diplomat of the American Board of Family Physicians and a charter fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians. He was an active staff member of Mississippi Baptist Health Systems, St. Dominic-Jackson Memorial Hospital, and Central Mississippi Medical Center.

Dr. Robert L. Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2017 and April 23, 2019.

Accession Number

A2017.222

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/13/2017

12/13/2017 |and| 4/23/2019

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Schools

Terry Grove School

Hinds County Agricultural High School

Tougaloo College

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Terry

HM ID

SMI35

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Orleans

Favorite Quote

Keep It Simple

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Mississippi

Birth Date

12/20/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Jackson

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Collard Greens, Potatoes, Okra, Grits and Eggs

Short Description

Professor and physician Dr. Robert L. Smith (1936 - ) was the president of Central Mississippi Health Services, Inc. and the first Southern Medical Field Director for the Medical Committee for Human Rights.

Employment

Mississippi State Hospital

Cook County Hospital

Tougaloo College

Private Practice

Central Mississippi Health Services, Inc.

University of Mississippi Medical Center

Tufts University

Jackson State University

St. Dominic's Hospital

Baptist Hospital

Merit Hospital System

Brown University School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Blue and Red

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Robert L. Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about his paternal grandfather's journey to Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his home in Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his first piano

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's work in the livestock trade

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the movie theaters in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls visiting his sister in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the Terry Grove School in Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his decision to stop studying piano

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his introduction to medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls contracting salmonella

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the Utica Institute-Hinds County Agricultural High School, Colored in Utica, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his parents' disciplinary methods

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his decision to attend Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his experiences at Tougaloo College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his influences at Tougaloo College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his decision to attend the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his classmates at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the murder of Emmett Till

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his residency at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about his scholarship from the State of Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his return to Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls being surveilled by the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his decision to join the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the State of Mississippi's attacks on Tougaloo College

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers meeting Medgar Evers at Tougaloo College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his experiences of voter suppression in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers Medgar Evers' mass meetings in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers James Meredith's supporters

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about the assassination of Medgar Evers

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls the march after Medgar Evers' funeral

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers picketing the American Medical Association, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers picketing the American Medical Association, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls founding the Medical Committee for Civil Rights

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

3$7

DATitle
Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his introduction to medicine
Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls the march after Medgar Evers' funeral
Transcript
So you went from Dean Dixon the con- the conductor.$$(Laughter) To Dean Dixon to Charles Drew [Charles R. Drew].$$To Charles Drew.$$(Laughter) Yeah.$$What was it? You just liked the way they looked (laughter)?$$(Laughter) Well, but there was just the influence. Now what made me do that, I don't know. But it also made me a little different because some of my family and some of the students told me, "You don't know what you want to do." So, you know, that's kind of crazy, a country boy from Terry, Mississippi, in grade school [Terry Grove School] saying he want to be a physician. And (laughter) are you following me? And certainly there was no black physicians around. But I can't say that I wasn't exposed to a physician because it happened to have been two things. I had a white Jewish physician, who was a bird hunter who wanted to come down and hunt birds on my property's land. And my daddy [Joe Smith], being the bigot he was, he would ask my daddy to go out in the woods with him, and my daddy would say, "Well, take that boy," (laughter), you know. And he took me (laughter) and I would start asking him questions and we would start interacting with these different questions. And he, and then sometimes on these bird hunts he would bring me material. And he, when he retired, he gave a set of medical books.$$How old were you then?$$Oh, probably ten.$$So you were first exposed to medicine by a white Jewish doctor--$$Um-hm.$$--who was a bird hunter on your daddy's land (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Dad's pro- Daddy's property, yeah.$$How improbable is that?$$Well, it was (laughter) not that improbable, but that's the (laughter), that's the circumstances.$Tell me about the impact of Medgar's [Medgar Evers] assassination on you and your focus, what--just, just recall that.$$That, again--that, again, was just a horrific experience, culminating in demonstrations in the street, on Rose and later his funeral. And of course, I attended his funeral. And Mrs. Sanders [Thelma Sanders] and I and a group, not again thinking about the impact of our lives, joined that march and walked hand in hand from Rose Street, from Lynch Street [John R. Lynch Street] to Capitol Street. And I was, we was dared to come across Capitol Street. And thank god John Doar and his group parted the waters and let us proceed up through, up Capitol, up Farish Street to Collins and Frazier Funeral Home [sic. Frazier and Collins Funeral Home; Collins Funeral Home, Inc., Jackson, Mississippi].$$So you marched from Rose Street--$$I marched from Capitol, from--it was the Lynch Street Masonic Temple (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Temple.$$--all the way from up what then was Terry Road [Jackson Terry Road; Terry Road], all the way up to--down Pascagoula [Street] to Farish Street and from Farish Street--$$Across Capitol Street.$$Right. That's where the stop was. We weren't--$$So you're across Capitol Street. You didn't act--$$We weren't supposed to cross Capitol Street.$$To cross Capitol Street--$$That was--$$--but you did.$$We did.$$Thanks to John Doar, D-O-A-R, who had been appointed by--$$Appointed--$$--Kennedy [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy] to be his ombudsman for civil rights issues.$$Yes.$$That was--$$But we were supposed to be more down like dogs when we crossed, when we crossed.$$So what exactly did John Doar do?$$He came out from somewhere and--$$So did he have federal marshals with him or something?$$Had federal marshals with him.$$And the, and the new, and the city police--$$City police--$$--is just--$$--who was parked on, they was parked on rooftops and everything at Capitol and at Capitol and Farish to post a blocker, so we crossed Capitol.$$And they moved aside?$$Moved aside.$$Now explain to me why the white power structure was so adamant about you not marching on Capitol Street but merely crossing it en route to the funeral home [Frazier and Collins Funeral Home; Collins Funeral Home, Inc., Jackson, Mississippi]? What (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well--$$--what was, what was the thinking?$$It was, it was a symbol of, just a symbol of white oppression. We're in charge. That's the only thing that I can see, is a symbol of white oppression, that we were not supposed to be--we were not supposed to Capitol, cross Capitol Street. That was a great street.$$In the shadow of the old--$$It's--$$--state capitol.$$Shadow of the old state--a symbol of white power.

Dr. Joycelyn Elders

Medical doctor and professor Dr. Joycelyn Elders was born on August 14, 1933 in Schaal, Arkansas to Curtis Jones and Haller Reed Jones. Elders attended Howard County Training School in Tollette, Arkansas in 1942. She earned a four-year scholarship to attend Philander Smith College in Little Rock, Arkansas where she received her B.S. degree in biology in 1952. In 1960, Elders earned her M.D. degree and her M.S. degree in biochemistry in 1967 from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock, Arkansas. In 1978, Elders earned her certification as a pediatric endocrinologist.

After she earned her M.D. degree, Elders began a pediatric internship at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul, Minnesota. She became the chief resident at the University of Arkansas Medical School in 1963. Elders was hired as an assistant professor at the University of Arkansas in 1971 and was promoted to the position of professor in 1976. In 1987, Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton appointed Elders as director of the Arkansas Department of Health. She then became the 15th Surgeon General of the United States under President Clinton in 1993. As Surgeon General, Elders focused on women’s reproductive health care and promoted sex, alcohol, drug, and tobacco education in public schools. She resigned from that position in 1994 and returned to the University of Arkansas, where she worked as a professor of pediatric endocrinology. In 2002, Elders retired from the University of Arkansas Medical Center. In 2016, the Jocelyn Elders Clinic was established in Kisinga, Uganda. The clinic served students at Garama Humanist Secondary School, and promoted sex education and treated students that suffered from diseases such as malaria.

During her career, Elders published over one hundred academic papers that related to insulin resistance and other endocrine disorders. In 1997, she published her memoir, From Sharecroppers’ Daughter to Surgeon General of the United States of America.

Elders was the recipient of the Woman of Distinction Award from Worthen Bank in 1987, the Arkansas Democrat Woman of the Year from Statewide Newspaper in 1998, and the Candace Award from the National Coalition of 100 Black Women in 1991. She was inducted into the Arkansas Women’s Hall of Fame in 2016. Elders also received the Career Development Award from the National Institute of Health. In 2009, The Joycelyn Elders Chair in Sexual Health Education was established at the University of Minnesota Medical School.

In 1992, Elders was elected president of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers. She was also a board member for the National Center for Healthy Housing.

Dr. Joycelyn Elders was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 20, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.161

Sex

Female

Interview Date

09/20/2017

Last Name

Elders

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Philander Smith College

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

First Name

Joycelyn

Birth City, State, Country

Schaal

HM ID

ELD01

Favorite Season

Spring and Fall

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Diego

Favorite Quote

Always do your best, that's good enough.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arkansas

Birth Date

8/13/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Little Rock

Favorite Food

White Potatoes (Irish potatoes)

Short Description

Medical doctor and professor Dr. Joycelyn Elders (1933- ) served as the 15th Surgeon General of the United States, nominated by President William J. Clinton, and was professor at University of Arkansas for over thirty years.

Employment

Arkansas Department of Health

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Favorite Color

Yellow and Beige

The Honorable Ewart Brown

Political leader and physician Dr. Ewart Brown was born May 17, 1946 in Flatts Village, Bermuda to Ewart D.A. Brown and Helene Darrell Brown. He attended the Central School and the Bermuda Technical Institute before attending the Berkeley Institute in 1957. Brown’s parents sent him to Spanish Town, Jamaica for high school, where he attended St. Jago High School. While living in Jamaica, he took an interest in politics, and was exposed to teachings by Norman Manley and Alexander Bustamante, leaders of the Jamaican independence movement. Brown enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1964, where he studied chemistry. At Howard, he worked as a sportswriter for the Washington Post, was elected president of the student council, and was active in football and track and field. In 1966, he represented Bermuda as a sprinter in the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Kingston, Jamaica. Brown was a leader in the 1968 student occupation of Howard’s administration building, and helped to negotiate an agreement with university trustees. He graduated in 1968 with his B.Sc. degree.

Brown continued his studies at the Howard University School of Medicine, where he graduated with his M.D. degree in 1972. He hoped to practice medicine in Bermuda, but after being denied a license there on account of his political views, he moved to California and earned his M.S. degree in public health from the University of California at Los Angeles and opened the Vermont Century Medical Clinic in South Central Los Angeles. After finally earning his license in Bermuda in 1988, he founded Bermuda Healthcare Services, campaigned for office and then won election to the Parliament of Bermuda representing the Progressive Labour Party (PLP) in 1993. Brown was promoted to Minister of Transport in 1998 when the PLP became Bermuda’s ruling party, and then became deputy premier in 2003. He defeated Alex Scott in a PLP leadership contest in 2006, and so took office as Premier in October of that year.

In office as premier, Brown’s accomplishments included implementing restrictions on vehicle ownership, advocating for Bermuda’s independence from the United Kingdom, and agreeing to resettle on Bermuda four Uighur Muslims who had been freed after their imprisonment by the United States at Guantanamo Bay. He also continued his medical practice, and founded Brown-Darrell Clinic in 2008 with his wife, Wanda Henton Brown. Brown stepped down as premier in 2010.

Ewart Brown was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 20, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.146

Sex

Male

Interview Date

08/20/2017

Last Name

Brown

Organizations
First Name

Ewart

HM ID

BRO65

Favorite Season

Warm

Favorite Vacation Destination

Turks and Caicos

Favorite Quote

I'm making lemonade out of lemons.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/17/1946

Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Bermuda

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Political leader and physician Dr. Ewart Brown (1946 - ) founded Bermuda Healthcare Services and the Brown-Darrell Clinic, and served as the ninth premier of Bermuda from 2006 to 2010.

Favorite Color

Orange

Emery N. Brown

Statistician, anesthesiologist and neuroscientist Emery N. Brown was born in Ocala, Florida to Benjamin Brown and Alberta Brown. After graduating from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1974, Brown enrolled at Harvard College and went on to earn his B.A. degree in applied mathematics in 1978 before spending one year as an International Rotary fellow at the Institut Fourier des Mathèmatiques Pures in Grenoble, France. Brown returned to Harvard University and graduated in 1984 with his A.M. degree in statistics, his M.D. degree in anesthesiology from Harvard Medical School (HMS) in 1987 and his Ph.D. degree in statistics in 1988.

Brown completed his internship in internal medicine in 1988 at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston and his residency in anesthesiology at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in 1992. Following completion of his residency he joined the anesthesiology staff in the Department of Anesthesia at MGH and the faculty at Harvard Medical School as an instructor. In 1999, he joined the faculty of the Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Division of Health Sciences and Technology at HMS. In 2005, Brown was named a professor of computational neuroscience and professor of health and sciences technology at MIT. In 2006, he became the Massachusetts General Hospital Professor of Anesthesia at HMS; and, in 2008, he was named the Warren M. Zapol Professor of Anesthesia at HMS. Brown was internationally recognized for using statistics in the development of signal processing algorithms in order to study how systems in the brain represent and transmit information and for his use of functional neuroimaging to study in humans how anesthetic drugs act in the brain to create the state of general anesthesia. He has developed statistical methods to: study learning and memory formation; design algorithms for neural prosthetic control; improve signal extraction from fMRI imaging time-series; localize dynamically sources of neural activity in the brain from electroencephalography (EEG) and magneto-encephalography (MEG) recordings; measure the period of the circadian pacemaker (human biological clock) and its sensitivity to light; characterize the dynamics of human heart beats in physiological and pathological states; and de-noise two-photon in vivo imaging data.

Brown has been recognized for his work throughout his career. In addition to being one of the most cited African American mathematicians, in 2000, Brown won the National Science Foundation (NSF) Minority Career Advancement Award, a National Institute of Mental Health Independent Scientist Award, and in 2007, an National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director’s Pioneer Award. He has been named a fellow of several prominent professional organizations including the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, the American Statistical Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Brown is also a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS).

Emery N. Brown was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 22, 2013.

Accession Number

A2017.125

Sex

Male

Interview Date
08/10/2017
Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Middle Name

N.

Organizations
First Name

Emery

Birth City, State, Country

Ocala

HM ID

BRO64

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martinique

Favorite Quote

Nothing is supposed to work.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

12/20/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cambridge

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Statistician, anesthesiologist and neuroscientist Emery N. Brown the Warren M. Zapol Professor of Anesthesia at Harvard University Medical School, and is one of the most cited African American mathematicians in academic journals.

Favorite Color

Blue, to wear, black

Vera Ricketts

Pharmacist and civic leader Vera Ricketts was born on October 20, 1922 in Indianapolis, Indiana to Sarah Chilton Phelps and Robert Phelps, Sr. There, Ricketts attended Hazel Hart Hendricks School 37 and Crispus Attucks High School where she graduated in 1941. She later went on to attend Butler University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and graduated with her B.S. degree in pharmacology in 1948. As an undergraduate student, she was an active member of the Congress of Racial Equality.

Ricketts began her career as a pharmacist at Howard University in Washington, D.C. In 1958, Ricketts became the first female African American pharmacist at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina. During this period, she also helped establish the pharmacy at Lincoln Hospital in Durham, where she trained nurse practitioners in pharmacology. Ricketts eventually returned with her husband, William Newton Ricketts, to Washington, D.C., where she worked at the District of Columbia General Hospital pharmacy. In 1960, she and her husband moved to Los Angeles, California, where she worked as an administrator at his medical practice. An active community leader, Ricketts advocated for the creation of the Martin Luther King Jr. General Hospital in Los Angeles’ South Central neighborhood. Ricketts went on to serve as the president of the Auxiliary to the National Medical Association from 1981 to 1982.

In addition to her professional career, Ricketts was also active in other community organizations in the Los Angeles area. In 1979, Ricketts founded the Inglewood Pacific Chapter of The Links, Incorporated, and she served as its chapter president from 1983 to 1985. Ricketts also founded the Theta Mu Omega Chapter of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority. Through her membership in the sorority, she volunteered on the board of the Jenesse Center, Inc., a shelter for battered women and children in Los Angeles. In 2017, Ricketts and her husband, William Newton Ricketts, received recognition for their thirty plus years of humanitarian work in Jamaica.

Ricketts and her husband have four daughters: Verlie Ricketts Lockings, Renee Ricketts, Victoria Ricketts Wilson and Wendy Ricketts Greene.

Vera Ricketts was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 23, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.143

Sex

Female

Interview Date

07/23/2017

Last Name

Ricketts

Maker Category
Schools

Hazel Hart Hendricks School 37

Crispus Attucks Medical Magnet High School

Butler University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

First Name

Vera

Birth City, State, Country

Indianapolis

HM ID

RIC21

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Indiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Give something back to the community.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

10/20/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Oats, Raisins and Dates

Short Description

Pharmacist and civic leader Vera Ricketts (1922 - ) worked at Howard University Hospital and Duke University Hospital. She also served as president of the Inglewood Pacific Chapter of The Links, Incorporated and was a founding member of the graduate chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority.

Employment

Howard University Hospital; Freedmen's Hospital

Duke University Hospital

D.C. General Hospital

Favorite Color

Yellow

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Vera Ricketts' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Vera Ricketts lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Vera Ricketts describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Vera Ricketts describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Vera Ricketts talks about her parents' move from Clarksville, Tennessee to Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Vera Ricketts describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Vera Ricketts describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Vera Ricketts recalls her early interest in science

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Vera Ricketts remembers attending Crispus Attucks High School in Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Vera Ricketts talks about her early racial experiences

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Vera Ricketts remembers the everyday amenities of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Vera Ricketts remembers her early career aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Vera Ricketts recalls attending the Indianapolis College of Pharmacy in Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Vera Ricketts remembers her challenges at the Indianapolis College of Pharmacy

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Vera Ricketts remembers graduating from Indianapolis College of Pharmacy in Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Vera Ricketts describes her responsibilities as a pharmacist

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Vera Ricketts recalls being rejected for a job in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Vera Ricketts remembers meeting her husband, William Newton Ricketts

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Vera Ricketts recalls working at Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Vera Ricketts talks about the birth of her daughters

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Vera Ricketts recalls her coworkers' support at Duke University Hospital

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Vera Ricketts remembers returning to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Vera Ricketts recalls joining Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Vera Ricketts remembers segregation in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Vera Ricketts recalls her work at Lincoln Hospital in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Vera Ricketts remembers moving to District of Columbia General Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Vera Ricketts describes the process for manufacturing saline solutions

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Vera Ricketts remembers moving to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Vera Ricketts talks about her administration work at her husband's medical practice

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Vera Ricketts remembers advocating for the Martin Luther King Jr. General Hospital in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Vera Ricketts talks about her organizational involvement in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Vera Ricketts remembers the founding of the Los Angeles chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Vera Ricketts recalls establishing a partnership between The Links, Incorporated and Jamaica, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Vera Ricketts recalls establishing a partnership between The Links, Incorporated and Jamaica, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Vera Ricketts remembers co-chartering the Inglewood Pacific Chapter of The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Vera Ricketts talks about her public service activities

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Vera Ricketts describes the role of friendship in The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Vera Ricketts narrates her photographs

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Vera Ricketts describes her role as president of the Auxiliary to the National Medical Association

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Vera Ricketts describes her daughter's careers

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Vera Ricketts talks about her grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Vera Ricketts reflects upon the election of President Barack Obama

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Vera Ricketts describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Vera Ricketts reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Vera Ricketts shares her advice to aspiring pharmacists

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Vera Ricketts describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Vera Ricketts reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Vera Ricketts talks about her marriage to William Newton Ricketts

Regina Jollivette Frazier

Pharmacist Regina Jollivette Frazier was born on September 30, 1943, in Miami, Florida to pharmacist Cyrus Martin Jollivette, who founded Liberty City’s Community Drug Store in 1948, and teacher Frances Reeves Jollivette Chambers, the youngest daughter of The Miami Times founder Henry E. S. Reeves. Frazier graduated valedictorian from Northwestern Senior High School in 1961, Frazier received her B.S. degree in pharmacy from Howard University in Washington, D.C., in 1966, and her M.B.A. degree from the University of Miami in 1983.

In 1968, Frazier accepted a pharmacist position at Peoples Drug and the National Association of Retired Teachers & American Association of Retired Persons Drug Service. In 1970, she returned to Miami as senior pharmacist for the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics. Three years later, Frazier was promoted to Director of Pharmacy, a position she held until she retired in 2007. As Director of Pharmacy, Frazier also served as a Preceptor for the University of Florida’s College of Pharmacy as well as a Clinical Field Instructor for Florida A&M University’s College of Pharmacy.

Frazier served on numerous boards, including the United Way of Miami-Dade, New World School of the Arts, National Coalition on Black Voter Participation, the Commonwealth Institute, YWCA of Greater Miami-Dade, of which she is a life member, Miami-Dade County Addiction Services, University of Miami Medical Sciences Subcommittee for the Protection of Human Subjects, and Breakthrough Miami. She was also chairperson of the Girl Scout Council of Tropical Florida, which awarded her the Thanks Badge, and the Miami-Dade County Zoning Appeals Board.

She joined The Links, Incorporated, in 1970, and served as National President from 1986 until 1990, and is the youngest person to hold the position. While National President, she chartered the organization’s first international chapter in Nassau, Bahamas. Frazier also holds membership in Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., the Orange Bowl Committee, and the International Woman’s Forum.

Frazier was also active with the Association of Black Health-Systems Pharmacists, from which she received the Pharmacist of the Year award in 1990, the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists, and the National Pharmaceutical Association.

Frazier received numerous recognitions, including Florida Memorial College’s Sarah A. Blocker Meritorious Community Service Award; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., Beta Beta Lambda Chapter’s Distinguished Community Service Award; Women’s Committee of 100 Trail Blazer Award; Women in Communication’s Community Headliner Award; Bronze Medallion of The National Conference of Christians and Jews; Anti-Defamation League’s Woman of Achievement Award; In the Company of Women Award; United Way Starfish Award; Association of Black Health-System Pharmacists’ Meritorious Service Award; and Red Cross’s Sara Hopkins Woodruff Spectrum Award in Community Service.

She was also cited as one of Ebony magazine’s One Hundred Most Influential Black Americans from 1987 to 1990, and in 1988, as one of Dollars and Sense magazine’s selection of America’s Top 100 Black Business and Professional Women.

Frazier and her husband have three children: Ronald Eugene II, Robert Christophe, and Rozalynn Suzanne.

Regina Jollivette Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.049

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/08/2017

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Middle Name

Jollivette

Occupation
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar Elementary School

Holy Redeemer Catholic School

Miami Northwestern Senior High School

University of Miami

Howard University

First Name

Regina

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

FRA13

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere International

Favorite Quote

Service Is The Price You Pay For The Space You Occupy.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

9/30/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Pharmacist Regina Jollivette Frazier (1943 - ) worked at the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics in the pharmacy department for thirty-seven years.

Employment

University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics

Peoples Drug

Favorite Color

Black

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Regina Jollivette Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the National Conference of Christians and Jews

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her communities in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her parents' protectiveness

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the Holy Redeemer Catholic School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers Miami Northwestern Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers travelling through the segregated South

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier recalls her teachers at Miami Northwestern Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier recalls her interest in journalism

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her maternal grandfather, Henry E.S. Reeves

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her family's famous guests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her decision to attend Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the activism on campus at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers the riots in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her classmates at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her pharmacy internships

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her professors at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her graduation from Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers joining the staff of the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her role as the pharmacy director of the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about drug theft prevention

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the problems with pharmaceutical branding

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the development of robotic prescriptions dispensary systems

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her responsibilities and colleagues

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her membership in The Links

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her national presidency of The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes 'Linkages and Legacies'

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her volunteer work

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her efforts to improve relations between police and the community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the gentrification of Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her current volunteer activities

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon her career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon the challenges of a pharmacy career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her children

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her role as the pharmacy director of the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics
Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her national presidency of The Links, Incorporated
Transcript
Okay, now what was your position when you came on in 1970?$$I was a staff pharmacist, I think. I'm saying I think because the university [University of Miami Hospital and Clinics, Miami, Florida] was terrific with titles you know. I think I went from staff pharmacist to senior pharmacist, from senior pharmacist to director of pharmacy and I guess I just wasn't creative enough over the years because at one time I opined to someone, I said, "Maybe if I change my title to grand exulted director of pharmacy, I could get more money."$$So you became--I have here that you became the director in '73 [1973], is that true?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$Right. I mean it was a big deal you know. The Miami Herald covered it. I was in my twenties and so.$$Okay. Okay. Well what were--what was the nature of what you had to do and, and--$$As director?$$Yeah, and the conditions that you worked in.$$Well, what I had to do was make sure the pharmacy [at National Children's Cardiac Hospital; UM Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida] ran smoothly and that it met all of the legal requirements and that the drugs were there when they needed them. So it was, make it work.$$Okay so, so many people who are gonna be watching this have never been a pharmacist, can you just walk us through a typical day as a director of a big pharmacy like this for a hospital (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well you know the thing is that every day is different. It was, when I started I was filling prescriptions when I--or drug orders. When I ended I hadn't been near filling an order in, in years so when I started the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations [Joint Commission] was just a joint commission on accreditation of hospitals and they had one sheet of paper, I think eight and a half by eleven, that wasn't even covered with writing and those were the requirements for hospital pharmacies. When I left there was a book about this thick okay, on the requirements so that's why there was something different every day. I also had the opportunity to serve on the IRB, which is the board, it's the investigational review board [institutional review board] that reviews proposed protocols for the institution that are testing drugs for possible entry into the market. There were just all kinds of things that you did. You know there was designing the pharmacy, there was hiring the staff, monitoring the staff, just whatever, whatever it took.$$So this is a hospital pharmacy--$$Yes.$$--and so the people--$$It had a hospital and it had clinics and it was, it concentrated on cancer therapy after, after a few years.$$Okay. And so how do you best design that, you said part of your job is designing the facility right?$$Well, one of the ways you do that is by attending the mid-year clinical which is held every December. When I went to my first mid-year clinical, I think it was maybe the seventh one they had. There were about maybe twenty five hundred people there. Now, this year was the fifty-first. I stopped going after, after I retired and they probably had twenty, twenty-five thousand people there. So it's the largest meeting in the world and so you get to hear all these speakers. You get to see all these exhibits you know and you get to one of the most important thing for me was the review of the joint commission new requirements so that I was right there knowing exactly what they were going to, to be reviewing when they came by and I never had a problem ever.$Tell us about what are the activities of The Links [The Links, Incorporated] and, and, you know what, what, what did you do, what was your agenda during your term?$$My agenda was to make the, the chain of friendship that encircled the globe not only figurative but literal, and to that end I charted the first international chapter in Nassau, the Bahamas. Subsequently I charted a second international chapter in Frankfurt [Germany]. That did not survive because it was related to the [U.S.] military people who were stationed in Germany and when that ended, people started coming back to the United States and we could not sustain the chap- not we, they could not sustain the chapter there because it was, it was operative for I would say 1990, 2000 at least twenty years I think. And then I had the great pleasure of inducting Leontyne Price as an honorary member. And during my presidency we had four program facets. We now have five, but we had the arts, services to you, national transcend services and international transcend services and our programs are built around those. So we had a program called Project L.E.A.D. High Expectations in which we collaborated with other organizations, national organizations like Sigma Pi Phi, Boule, like Jack and Jill of America [Jack and Jill of America, Inc.] for example and this was to stop--encourage kids not to take drugs you know it was a, it had a just say no component to it and we ran a pilot in, I forget how many cities, and at the time that was the largest grant we had. It would--ended up being about three quarters of a million dollars so those were big programming funds in those days.$$So where did the grant money come from?$$I knew you were gonna ask me that. I wanna think it was NIDA, which is the National Institute for Drug Abuse [sic. National Institute on Drug Abuse] under NIH.$$Okay, National Institute of Health [sic. National Institutes of Health], right okay--$$Um-hm.$$--okay.$$And that program is still going today.$$Okay.$$We call it one of our signature programs.$$Okay. So, now you were--you're president from '86 [1986] until when?$$Ninety [1990].$$Okay. So it's a four year term?$$Yes. Well actually at that--things change, you know the more things change, the more they remain the same, at that time it was a two year term and then I was reelected.$$Okay so it's two, two year terms, okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Um-hm.