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Ann Fudge

Chief executive officer Ann M. Fudge was born on April 23, 1951, in Washington, D.C., to Malcolm and Bettye Lewis Brown. In 1973, she graduated from Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts with her B.A. degree in management. She earned her M.B.A. degree from Harvard Business School in 1977.

After graduating from Simmons College, Fudge was hired in the human resources department of General Electric. She joined General Mills in Minnesota as a marketing assistant after she earned her M.B.A. degree, and was part of the marketing team around Honey Nut Cheerios cereal. In 1983, she was promoted to marketing director at General Mills; and, in 1986, Fudge accepted a position with Kraft Foods. Then, in 1994, Kraft Foods appointed Fudge the president of the Maxwell House coffee brand, making her the first African American woman to head a major corporate division. As president, she went on to run a successful campaign to rebrand Maxwell House. In 2001, one year after becoming president of Kraft’s Beverages, Desserts, and Post division, Fudge retired from the company. After a two-year sabbatical, during which she deepened her involvement with the Boys and Girls Club of America, Fudge returned to the corporate world as the chairman and C.E.O. of Young & Rubicam Brands in 2003 as the head of its advertising network. She remained in this role until 2007.

Throughout her career, Fudge served on several organization’s board of directors. She was a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, museum council member of the National Museum of African American History and Culture, director of Novartis, chair of the advisory panel of the Gates Foundation, vice-chairman of Unilever, chair of the board of trustees of WGBH Public Media, and a director of Northrup Grumman. In 2008, Fudge joined President Barack Obama’s presidential campaign finance committee; and, in 2010, she became a member of the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. In 2011, she was inducted into the National Association of Corporate Directors Hall of Fame. Fudge has received achievement awards from Ebony, the Executive Leadership Council, and the Harvard Alumni Association. She was also inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2019.

Fudge and her husband, Richard Fudge, Sr., live in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. They have two sons and five grandchildren.

Ann M. Fudge was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 18, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.040

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/18/2019

Last Name

Fudge

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Marie

Schools

Harvard Business School

Simmons College

First Name

Ann

Birth City, State, Country

Washington DC

HM ID

FUD02

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris

Favorite Quote

You Are A Child Of The Universe

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

4/23/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Favorite Food

Chocolate chip cookies

Short Description

Chief executive officer Ann M. Fudge (1951 - ) was part of the marketing team for Honey Nut Cheerios cereal and later served as president of Kraft Foods’ Maxwell House coffee brand, becoming the first African American woman to head a major corporate division.

Employment

Young & Rubicam

General Foods (Kraft Foods)

General Mills

General Electric

Kraft Foods, Maxwell House Coffee

Kraft Foods; Beverages, Desserts and Post Division

Favorite Color

Blue

Arnold Donald

Chief executive officer Arnold W. Donald was born on December 17, 1954 in New Orleans, Louisiana. He recieved his B.A. degree in economics from Carleton College in 1976 in Northfield, Minnesota, his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Washington University in St. Louis in 1977, and his M.B.A. degree from the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business in 1980.

Donald began his career in 1976, while still a student at Washington University in St. Louis, working as a summer employee in market research at the agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation Monsanto. He would serve in various positions over his 23 year tenure with the company, entering management in 1986 when he became general manager. From 1988 to 1993, Donald headed the Monsanto Lawn and Garden business, where he was credited for a fivefold increase in unit revenues from $40 million to $200 million in retail dollars. In 1993, he was named group vice president for North America and expanded his responsibilities one year later to include Latin America. In 1995, Donald was appointed to head Monsanto’s Crop Protection Unit, where he directed the company’s worldwide crop business, led the development, production, and marketing of herbicides, and some of the company’s early biotech offerings. In 1997, he was named co-president of the Monsanto Company’s newly reorganized agriculture sector. Donald served as both corporate senior vice president of Monsanto Company and president of its nutrition and consumer sector from 1998 to 2000. He joined a group of investors in 2000 who bought the company's Equal sugar substitute division to form Merisant, where he served as company CEO from 2000 to 2003, and chairman of the board from 2000 to his retirement from Merisant in 2005. From 2006 to 2008, Donald served as president and chief executive officer of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International. He became president and chief executive officer of The Executive Leadership Council in 2010, serving until 2012. The following year, Donald was named president and chief executive officer of Carnival Corporation. He had served on the board of Carnival Plc. and Carnival Corporation since 2001.
Donald has served as an independent director of Crown Holdings, Inc. from 1999 until 2019. He was also a director of Oil-Dri Corporation of America from 1997 to 2013, and of the Laclede Group, Inc. from 2003 to 2014. Donald has served as an independent director at Russell Brands, LLC since 2004. Other board memberships include Bank of America Corporation, Bank of America California, National Association, Cruise Lines International Association, Inc. where he was global chair, director of BJC Health System, Inc., Global Velocity, Inc., DHR International, Inc., Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, and Dillard University.

In 1997, Donald was named Black Enterprise Magazine’s Executive of the Year.

Arnold W. Donald was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 15, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.037

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/15/2019

Last Name

Donald

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

W.

Schools

University of Chicago Booth School of Business

Washington University in St. Louis

Carleton College

St. Augustine High School

First Name

Arnold

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

DON04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

On A Cruise Ship

Favorite Quote

Prepare Yourself, You Are Going To Run The World

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

12/17/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Favorite Food

Soft Shell Crab

Short Description

Chief executive officer Arnold W. Donald (1954 - ) worked in various positions at Monsanto over a twenty-three year tenure before serving as president and CEO of Merisant, and later being named president and CEO of Carnival Corporation in 2013.

Employment

The Executive Council

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation

Merisant Company

Monsanto Company

Carnival Corporation

Favorite Color

Purple

Dmitri Stockton

Chief executive officer Dmitri L. Stockton was born on March 30, 1964 in Martinsville, Virginia to Peggy Reynolds and Roosevelt Stockton, Jr. He earned his B.S. degree in accounting from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in 1986.

Upon graduation, Stockton began his career at Arthur Andersen in Atlanta, Georgia and subsequently joined GE Company in 1987, serving on its financial management program. After graduating from the program in 1989, he joined the corporate audit staff until he moved to GE Capital Commercial Real Estate in 1991. He remained in the real estate division for six years, ultimately rising to the level of managing director. In 1997, Stockton assumed the position of chief risk officer for GE Capital Mortgage Corporation. After two years in this role, he was promoted to chief marketing officer for GE’s $100 billion mortgage insurance operation, assuming responsibility globally for marketing, business development, government and public relations. In 2001, he moved to Switzerland to become chief executive officer for GE Capital Bank; and, in 2004, Stockton was promoted to lead GE Consumer Finance’s expansion in banking across Eastern Europe, as president and CEO. During the assignment, Stockton orchestrated the platform’s expansion into Turkey, Romania and Russia. He was then appointed a vice president of GE Company in 2005 by GE’s Board of Directors. In 2011, after a decade abroad, Stockton returned to the United States to lead the restructuring and sale of GE’s $120 billion asset management department as chairman, president and CEO. He led this business until it was sold to State Street Corporation in 2016. Stockton remained at GE as a special advisor to the chairman of GE until his retirement in 2017. That year, Stockton formed Global Investor Catalyst, LLC, serving an advisor and investor.

Stockton held positions on several corporate boards including Deere & Company, American Family Insurance, Ryder System, Inc., Target Corporation, and Stanley Black and Decker, Inc. He also served on the boards of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, A Better Chance, and the Executive Advisory Council of the College of Business and Economics at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, and been recognized by the National Association of Black Accountants and the National Association of Securities Professionals.

Stockton lives in Raleigh, North Carolina with his wife, Renee Allain-Stockton. They have two daughters: Nicole Allain-Stockton and Sydney Allain-Stockton.

Dmitri L. Stockton was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 14, 2018 and August 21, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.084

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/21/2019

Last Name

Stockton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

First Name

Dmitri

Birth City, State, Country

Martinsville

HM ID

STO09

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

Sometimes you have to to take the leap of faith to catch yourself going down.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

3/30/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Raleigh

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Chief executive officer Dmitri L. Stockton (1964 - ) served as chief executive officer of GE Capital Global Banking and chief executive officer of GE Asset Management, before founding his financial advisory firm, Global Investor Catalyst, LLC, in 2017.

Employment

Global Investors Catalyst, LLC

GE Company

GE Asset Management

GE Capital Global Banking

GE Consumer Finance Central and Eastern Europe

GE Capital Bank Switzerland

GE Capital Corporation

Arthur Andersen

Favorite Color

Black

Darrell Jackson

Business executive Darrell Jackson was born on April 6, 1958 in Chicago, Illinois to Carolyn and Erwin Jackson. Jackson graduated from Mendel Catholic High School in 1976, and went on to earn his B.A. degree in mass communication and media studies from Saint Xavier University in 1981. During college, Jackson worked in the mail room of South Shore Bank, which sparked his interest in banking. He later earned his M.B.A. degree from Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management in 2000.

Jackson began his career at BMO Harris Bank in Chicago in 1981, where he completed their commercial banking training program. Jackson went on to become vice president of Harris Bank. In 1995, Jackson became the vice president of personal financial services for Illinois for Northern Trust Corporation. He was promoted to chief executive officer of the Northern Trust Company's Illinois West Suburban Region, and later served as senior vice president and head of the private banking division. In 2010, he was promoted to executive vice president and president of Northern Trust’s Wealth Management business in Illinois. Jackson worked at Northern Trust until 2014, when he was named president and chief executive officer of Seaway Bank and Trust Company, the third largest African American owned commercial bank in the country. During his fifteen month tenure there, Jackson restructured the bank’s balance sheets, increased its liquidity position, and improved its tier one leverage ratio to an acceptable regulatory level. In 2015, Jackson became the first African American chair of the Illinois Bankers Association.

He was on the board of directors of Seaway Bank and Trust Company in addition to being president and CEO, The Delaware Place Bank, The Morton Arboretum, the Illinois Bankers Association, the 100 Club of Chicago and the Kellogg Alumni Council of Northwestern University. Jackson became the first African American chairman of the board for the Illinois Bankers Association, The Morton Arboretum and the 100 Club of Chicago. He also served on the CEO advisory board of Visage International, and served on the boards of The Chicago Child Care Society, and the Children’s Inner City Educational Fund. Jackson was a member of the Illinois BancService Corp Board and Strategic Planning Committee. Jackson was voted one of the forty leaders of color by Chicago United in 2003; and was given the 2004 Martin Luther King Jr. Legacy Award by the Boys and Girls Club of Chicago. In 2014, he received the Father John Phelps Humanitarian of the Year Award from Life Directions. Jackson is also a member of Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity.

Jackson and his wife, Valencia Ray, have two children, Lindsay and Tyler.

Darrell Jackson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 6, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.066

Sex

Male

Interview Date

04/06/2018

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Schools

Holy Name of Mary School

Mendel Catholic Preparatory High School

Northwestern University

First Name

Darrell

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

JAC42

Favorite Season

Football season - Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Barcelona - Madrid, Spain

Favorite Quote

As A Man Thinketh, So Is He.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

4/6/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Favorite Food

Fish - Catfish

Short Description

Bank executive Darrell Jackson (1958 - ) was the president and chief executive officer of Seaway Bank and Trust Company, and the first African American chairperson of the Illinois Banker Association.

Employment

South Shore Bank

Harris Bank

Northern Trust Company

Seaway National Bank

Favorite Color

Purple

Scott Syphax

Business executive Scott Syphax was born on July 13, 1963 in Detroit, Michigan to Vernettia Gilmore Syphax and Charles Syphax. Raised in Sacramento, California, Syphax graduated from John F. Kennedy High School in 1981, and became the manager of The Vortex, a nightclub in downtown Sacramento. After working as an executive fellow with the public policy and leadership training program at the Coro Foundation, Syphax then earned his B.S. degree in business administration, real estate development, and land use planning from California State University, Sacramento in 1992.

From 1992 to 1994, Syphax worked as a senior policy consultant for California State Senator Robert Presley. He then served as chief executive officer of the California State Board of Behavioral Sciences for one year, before accepting a position as senior lobbyist for the California Medical Association. From 1999 to 2001, Syphax worked as the manager of public affairs for the pharmaceutical company, Eli Lilly and Company; and then in 2001, Syphax became the president and chief executive officer of the Nehemiah Corporation of America, a real estate and community development company. In 2009, Syphax founded the Nehemiah Emerging Leaders Program; and the following year, he launched the Neighborhood Restoration Program and the Roofs for Troops program. He was also a developer for the Township Nine project, a sixty-five acre mixed-use development project in Sacramento’s River District. In 2011, Syphax became the producer and host of the PBS KVIE public television show Studio Sacramento, which won an Emmy Award in 2013 for an episode on human trafficking. After leaving the Nehemiah Corporation of America in 2017, Syphax founded Syphax Strategic Solution.

Syphax received numerous awards for his professional accomplishments, including the 2011 Exemplary Leader Award from the American Leadership Forum, the Economic Trailblazer Award from the Sacramento Black Chamber of Commerce, the Al Geiger Award from the Sacramento Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce and the Excellence in Broadcasting Award from the American Council on Arab Islamic Relations, all in 2013. Syphax was also the recipient of the Urban League’s 2016 Community Empowerment Award and the Congressman Robert T. Matsui Community Service Award from The Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Celebration Committee in 2017. Syphax served on the board of Sutter Health San Sierra, Homeaid America, the California Medical Association Foundation, Valley Vision, and the Bay Area Council. Syphax was also a member of the California Department Insurance Task Force on Board Governance and Supplier Diversity.

Scott Syphax was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 3, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.060

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/3/2018

Last Name

Syphax

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Organizations
Schools

Atkinson Elementary School

John F. Kennedy High School

California State University, Sacramento

First Name

Scott

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

SYP01

Favorite Season

Thanksgiving

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

In The Land Of The Blind The One-eyed Man Is King.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/13/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sacramento

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Business executive Scott Syphax (1963 - ) was the president and chief executive officer of the Nehemiah Corporation of America, the founder of Syphax Strategic Solutions, and the host and producer of the television show Studio Sacramento.

Favorite Color

Red

Shellye Archambeau

Chief executive officer Shellye Archambeau was born on July 6, 1962 in Washington, D.C. to Mera Archambeau and Lester Archambeau II. In 1980, she graduated from Montville High School in Montville, New Jersey, and received her B.S. degree in marketing and decision science in 1984 from the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Archambeau started her career with the IBM Corporation, where she served in several roles including general manager of direct marketing in the Asia Pacific Division. In 1999, Archambeau was promoted to vice president of public sector industries in the Asia Pacific Division, making her the first African American woman to take on an international executive role at IBM. In 1999, she joined Blockbuster Inc. as senior vice president of their nascent e-commerce division, Blockbuster.com. In 2000, she was named executive vice president and chief marketing officer of NorthPoint Communications. In 2001, she served as chief marketing officer and executive vice president for LoudCloud, Inc. In 2002, Archambeau became the chief executive officer of Zaplet, Inc., overseeing the company’s merger with MetricStream in 2004. In 2018, Archambeau stepped down as CEO.

Archambeau received many awards for her business leadership, including the JEM Luminary Award from the C200 organization, the NCWIT Symons Innovator Award from the National Center for Women & Information Technology, the Game Changer Award from the Digital Diversity Network and the Spirit of Excellence Award from the Silicon Valley Black Charter of Women. She serves on the board of directors for Arbitron, Inc., Verizon Communications, Inc., Nordstrom Inc., the Silicon Valley Leadership Group and the IT Senior Management Forum. Also a member of the Forum of Women Entrepreneurs and the Women's Council to the Board of Trustees for the University of Pennsylvania, she served on the Council on Foreign Relations, and has been inducted into the National Hall of Fame of the Negro Business and Professional Women's Club. In 2016, Archambeau co-authored the business book Marketing That Works: How Entrepreneurial Marketing Can Add Sustainable Value to Any Sized Company .

Shellye Archambeau was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 29, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.208

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/29/2017

Last Name

Archambeau

Maker Category
First Name

Shellye

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

ARC13

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Dorothy Terrell

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Someplace I've Never Been That Has Great History

Favorite Quote

Everybody's a Package

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/6/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Palo Alto

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Chief executive officer Shellye Archambeau (1962 - ) held leadership positions at IBM Corporation, Blockbuster, Inc., NorthPoint Communications, and LoudCloud Inc. before serving as the chief executive officer of MetricStream from 2002 to 2018.

Employment

IBM

Blockbuster

Northpoint

Loudcloud

Metric Stream

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Red

Lloyd Dean

Chief executive officer Lloyd Dean was born in Alabama on June 24,1950 to Susie Tripp Dean, a homemaker, and Floyd Dean, Sr., a foundry worker. Dean grew up in Muskegon, Michigan. In 1969, he enrolled at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he earned his B.S. degree in sociology, and his and M.A. degree in education. Dean then went on to graduate from Pennsylvania State University's Executive Management program.

Between 1972 and 1978, Dean worked as a junior high school teacher and paralegal assistant. He taught communications courses at Western Michigan University, and served as a news anchor for WOTV in Battle Creek, Michigan. In 1978, he met a pharmaceutical executive named Lawrence Hoff, who recruited him to work at his company, Upjohn. Dean worked at Upjohn Company, where he rose from assistant regional manager in the health care services division to Executive Vice President of Marketing and Operations, until 1990. He then moved to Illinois, where he worked at Consumer Health Service, EHS Healthcare, and Advocate Healthcare. In 2000, he was recruited to join Catholic Healthcare West, now known as Dignity Health, where he served as president and chief executive officer.

Dean served on the boards of Wells Fargo & Company, McDonald's Corp., Navigant Consulting Inc, and Cytori Therapeutics, Inc.. He was also the board chair for the Committee on JOBS, an organization that brings employment to the San Francisco Bay area.

Dean has been a strong supporter of the Affordable Care Act. He was a 2014 recipient of the CEO Humanitarian of the Year Award from the American Red Cross Bay Area Chapter. In 2014, Dean was also named among the Top 25 Minority Executives in Healthcare by Modern Healthcare. He was recognized by the San Francisco Business Times for Excellence in Leadership and received multiple awards from 100 Black Men of the Bay Area, Inc. Dean also received an honorary doctorate of humane letters from the University of San Francisco.

Dean lives in Half Moon Bay, California with his wife, Suzanne Dean. They have two children, Nathan and Nicole.

Lloyd Dean was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 18, 2015.

Accession Number

A2015.010

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/18/2015

Last Name

Dean

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

H.

Organizations
Schools

Western Michigan University

First Name

Lloyd

HM ID

DEA01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui

Favorite Quote

My Only Limitation Is My Imagination.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

6/24/1950

Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Meatloaf

Short Description

Chief executive officer and chief executive officer Lloyd Dean (1950 - ) served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Dignity Health, the fifth largest healthcare system in the U.S., starting in June 2000.

Employment

Upjohn Company

WOTV News

Advocate Health Care

Dignity Healthcare

McDonald's Corporation

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lloyd Dean's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lloyd Dean lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lloyd Dean describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lloyd Dean describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lloyd Dean describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lloyd Dean lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lloyd Dean remembers moving to Muskegon, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lloyd Dean remembers the community of Twin Lake, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lloyd Dean describes the sights, sounds and smell of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lloyd Dean recalls the Calvary Baptist Church in Muskegon, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lloyd Dean talks about his early commitment to education

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Lloyd Dean recalls his father's illnesses

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Lloyd Dean describes his parents' home remedies

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Lloyd Dean remembers his early education

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Lloyd Dean describes his relationship with his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lloyd Dean talks about the impact of busing

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lloyd Dean remembers his teachers' encouragement

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lloyd Dean remembers leaving for college

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lloyd Dean recalls his decision to attend Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lloyd Dean describes his college experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lloyd Dean remembers being harassed for associating with whites

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lloyd Dean describes Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lloyd Dean talks about his work experiences while in college

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lloyd Dean remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Lloyd Dean describes his extracurricular activities at Western Michigan University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Lloyd Dean describes his early career

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Lloyd Dean remembers joining the Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

8$12

DATitle
Lloyd Dean remembers the community of Twin Lake, Michigan
Lloyd Dean remembers joining the Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company
Transcript
Where I lived is, is out kind of in, we'd like to say in the sticks. But it was like this little community maybe thirteen miles from what I'll call the City of Muskegon [Michigan]. And there were maybe three hundred people in my community.$$And what was the name of the community?$$It's called Twin Lakes [sic. Twin Lake, Michigan]. But there's two Twin Lakes, Blue Lake Township [Michigan]. And this was a small community of predominantly African Americans and I was bused about eight miles to school.$$So would you say it was rural or a small--I mean was it a rural or a small town?$$It was it, it--there was really no sense of town because there were no public buildings. The only store that we ever had in my community my father [Floyd Dean, Sr.], when my brother passed away, opened. So it really was just a community of dwelling where people lived.$$And can you describe, can you take yourself back there and describe the street, you know, that you lived on. Can you do that for me?$$Yes. I lived on a street called White Lake Drive. And that sounds elegant, it sounds like it's on a lake, but it's not and it was a street of very, very small homes, very, very small home. An example, there were nine--nine of us and we had nine kids and two adults, and we had a three-bedroom home. These were like manufactured homes and it was a very poor community.$$Now, let's--I'd like you to, but how--were the neighbors in close vicinity?$$Yes. Yeah, even though it was out in the country, your neighbors were pretty close. But it was in a wooded area. I mean this section was never like a planned community, it's just kind of one house grew there. Other people told people about it in the South, they came there. And this one guy started building houses because there was this demand from African Americans in the--in the South.$$So were you as a family unit, were you pretty internal? Would you--would your activities occur with just the nine of you or were you playing with other neighborhood kids (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, a lot of the activities of my early life were with my brothers and sisters. But also with my, my [paternal] grandmother lived like out the backdoor, because again, she moved up there. And peop- kids in my community, but you know, not like in an urban environment. So a lot of my time was spent with my--with my family.$Now was that the person who you were talking about, was that Lawrence Hoff [Lawrence C. Hoff] (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, very good, Larry Hoff, Larry Hoff.$$Okay, okay, Lar- so what did he see in you, that's what I, I mean, I didn't quite understand how?$$Yeah, Larry, Larry--$$So he saw you where?$$Oh he heard me--he her--he saw me present. The Upjohn family kind of dominated Kalamazoo [Michigan], because they were the largest employer. So, because I was active in college [Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan], there were Upjohn executives on the various boards and committees, and they were on anything that was important in Kalamazoo. And because I was so active in the university, a lot of times I'd be called to talk about what's going on at the university, or what are students thinking, you know, what are some of their challenges. How can the Upjohn Company [Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company] be better partners with the university from a student perspective, because I, you know, was one of the top student government people. And also, because of the six hundred class, a lot--there were Upjohn executives that I would be teaching them how to do public speaking and how to deal with press conferences and that kind of thing. And one day, Larry was at some meeting and he said, "I've heard about you, I wanna talk to you, I've seen you at these meetings," and he said, "I want you to come out and have lunch with me." And so I did. And I was so blown away and at the end of the lunch they said, "We'd like you to come and work for us." And I said, "Oh no, no, no, no. I love what I'm doing and having a lot of fun teaching and I like it." And they said, "How much do you make?" And I said, "Twenty-one thousand dollars," and they said, "Well what if we offered you thirty thousand dollars?" And I said, "Oh no, you--," I meant to say no you don't have to do that and they said, "Well what about forty thousand dollars." And I said, "No it's not about the money." They said, "What about sixty thousand dollars?" And I said, "Well I'm gonna need to think about that (laughter)," 'cause I knew--I knew twenty-one times three gets you pretty close to sixty-three--gets you to sixty-three thousand dollars. And I said, "I--you know, it's not about the money. I just, you know, I love what I do and you know, I just, you know, this is a whole new thing and I appreciate that you have the confidence in me." And so I went back and I talked to one of my professors, two--Chuck Warfield [Charles Warfield], Dr. Warfield who's African American professor, and I talked to Dr. Gene Booker [Gene S. Booker] who was the head of the business department 'cause I took classes in the business department for my master's [degree]. And both of them looked at me and they said like, "Are you a fool, you should've took it at thirty, let alone at sixty." And they said, "You get your butt out there tomorrow and you tell them yes. Do you know how many thousands of people in--around the United States wanna work for the Upjohn Company? Do you know how difficult it is to get in? Do you know how--this is one of the top pharmaceutical companies, excuse me, in, in, in, in, in the world right now. Are you like--is something wrong with you?" And so I did and became the youngest executive vice president to ever receive the Upjohn Award of Excellence [W.E. Upjohn Award] in the history of the company. It was a nonfamily member for operations, for you know, you know growing the company, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera. So, and that's how I got into healthcare, and then I was there fourteen years. I got recruited to, what is now Advocate Health Care system, a smaller healthcare system, kind of like Dignity Health [San Francisco, California] and was about to become the president there and CEO. And got this call about this company called Catholic Healthcare West [Dignity Health]. But I was--had been reading about it because they were in the national news about one of the top companies in United States having problems.

Bernard J. Tyson

Chief executive officer Bernard J. Tyson was born on January 20, 1959 in Vallejo, California to Billie Tyson, a homemaker, and Moses Tyson, a minister. After graduating from Vallejo High School in 1977, Tyson enrolled at Golden Gate University. While still in college, Tyson worked as an administrative analyst for Vallejo General Hospital. He earned his B.S. degree in health service management in 1982, and went on to receive his M.B.A. degree from Golden Gate University in 1984.

In 1984, Tyson accepted a six-month internship at Kaiser Permanente and was then hired full-time in an administrative position. Tyson remained at Kaiser Permanente and in 1992, he was named chief executive officer of the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Santa Rosa, California. In 1999, he was promoted to senior vice president and chief operating officer for regions outside of California and for Kaiser’s brand strategy. In 2004, the organization launched its “Thrive” advertising campaign under Tyson’s leadership. In 2006, Tyson was promoted to senior vice president for Health Plan and Hospital Operations, during which time Kaiser opened four new hospitals. In 2010, he was promoted to president and chief operating officer of Kaiser Permanente. As president, he was vocal in his support of the Affordable Care Act, which was signed into law in 2010 and faced significant hurdles. In 2013, he became the company’s first African American chairman and chief executive officer.

Tyson served as co-chair of the World Economic Forum’s Health Governors Community. He also served on the boards of the American Heart Association, America’s Health Insurance Plans, and the International Federation of Health Plans. He was an American Heart Association CEO Roundtable Member and past chairman of the Executive Leadership Council.

Tyson also received many awards and honors over the course of his career. He was a recipient of the NAACP Freedom Act Award in 2001 and was named Golden Gate University's Alumnus of the Year in 2007. He was named among the Most Influential Healthcare Leaders in both 2014 and 2015, and was a recipient of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund’s 2014 National Equal Justice Award. In 2010, Tyson was named among the Top 25 Minority Executives in Healthcare and Top 25 Most Influential African Americans.

Tyson passed away on November 10, 2019.

Bernard Tyson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 17, 2015.

Accession Number

A2015.005

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/17/2015

Last Name

Tyson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

J.

Organizations
Schools

Farragut Elementary School

Vallejo Middle School

Vallejo High School

Golden Gate University

Springstowne Junior High School

First Name

Bernard

Birth City, State, Country

Vallejo

HM ID

TYS02

Favorite Season

Thanksgiving

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

God Bless America

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

1/20/1959

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti

Death Date

11/10/2019

Short Description

Chief executive officer and chief executive officer Bernard J. Tyson (1959 - 2019) was the first African American CEO of the $60 billion healthcare organization, Kaiser Permanente.

Employment

Kaiser Permanente

Vallejo General Hospital

Favorite Color

Burgundy

Timing Pairs
0,0:1680,23:2184,30:19322,184:23634,270:24614,281:27330,289:30642,367:30918,374:31815,388:32505,428:34920,541:35610,558:46346,720:69630,962:70390,977:73810,1035:85274,1220:93506,1353:93926,1359:102451,1421:126130,1860:131146,1907:135490,1944:135766,1949:138524,1983:139042,1991:139560,2000:142298,2054:144222,2088:144814,2100:145258,2108:147182,2150:150364,2212:158100,2294:161060,2345:174018,2529:179058,2657:179346,2662:189130,2816:197180,2975:211968,3150:227432,3344:235957,3443:236431,3451:236747,3456:237142,3462:240030,3475$0,0:1065,17:6745,199:10792,304:11076,309:18508,414:18856,420:19465,429:25468,516:27730,548:28687,565:31297,603:36158,646:38449,682:39002,690:42478,767:47850,858:57047,981:61187,1086:65051,1149:73522,1251:73817,1260:83252,1423:84734,1447:85904,1469:88244,1521:91754,1586:92066,1592:98256,1633:100840,1667:101980,1685:102284,1690:106692,1783:109352,1852:112772,1910:113076,1918:122094,2005:122605,2013:123554,2026:123992,2033:124795,2051:128664,2129:133555,2248:151850,2514:160336,2607:161126,2624:161521,2630:163575,2662:163970,2668:164286,2673:165155,2686:165471,2691:165787,2696:166340,2706:167762,2727:169105,2746:170685,2780:171870,2805:178506,2927:187672,3068:190706,3126:203620,3335:204010,3341:205414,3374:209695,3435:213970,3484:214635,3493:215015,3498:217010,3522:227737,3652:229192,3668:237922,3787:238310,3792:242810,3797
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Bernard J. Tyson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers his family's storytelling

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson reflects upon his relationship with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers his early experiences in the Church of God in Christ

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Bernard J. Tyson lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his father's work as a carpenter

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers his father's work as a builder

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his father's love of cars

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about the importance of music in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers attending Farragut Elementary School in Vallejo, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his experiences at Springstowne Junior High School in Vallejo, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers the influence of attorney Lewis G. Brown

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his middle school and high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his personality in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers experiencing racial harassment

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his relationship with his father in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his relationship with his cousin, Sly Stone

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his decision to enroll at Golden Gate University in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers staying with Sly Stone's family in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers Sly Stone's career

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his internship at Vallejo General Hospital in Vallejo, California

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his trajectory to Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his transition from resident to manager at Kaiser Pernamente

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his first experiences as a hospital manager

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson describes how Kaiser Permanente differs from other medical systems

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls the administrative positions leading to his appointment as a hospital administrator

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers the African American administrators who preceded him at Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his experiences as a hospital administrator

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers restructuring the Northern California region of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about the emergence of health maintenance organizations in the 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about Kaiser Permanente's financial situation in the 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls Kaiser Permanente's challenges outside of California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his experiences with Kaiser Permanente on the East Coast

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his responsibilities as regional president of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers the creation of an electronic records system at Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson describes Kaiser Permanente's approach to advertising

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson recalls his engagement with federal policymakers in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about what he learned from his time in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Bernard J. Tyson describes Kaiser Permanente's influence on the Clinton healthcare initiative

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about developing Kaiser Permanente's brand image

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Bernard J. Tyson remembers his transition to being vice president of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Bernard J. Tyson talks about his relationship with George Halvorson

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Bernard J. Tyson reflects upon his appointment to CEO of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Bernard J. Tyson describes his vision as the CEO of Kaiser Permanente

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Bernard J. Tyson reflects upon his legacy as a CEO

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Bernard J. Tyson reflects upon his personal legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Bernard J. Tyson recalls his decision to enroll at Golden Gate University in San Francisco, California
Bernard J. Tyson talks about his first experiences as a hospital manager
Transcript
How is it decided when you're going to col- you know, where you're going to go to college? And, and is that a, a definite thing? Immediately?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$Yeah. In fact, I decided where, and I picked Golden Gate University [San Francisco, California], because I was absolutely certain that I wanted to be a hospital administrator.$$Which is, where does that come from?$$Because I--my mother [Billie Haynes Tyson] was in the hospital a lot when we were growing up.$$Because she had diabetes (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Diabetes.$$But this is interes- because it was hereditary, right, because her--your grandmother [Tyson's maternal great-aunt, Rosie Haynes Garrett] had had it, right?$$Right. And so, my mother spent a lot of time on health and health care. So, my mother had a great set of doctors who were just passionate about her, at least from my view, and therefore, us. So, I had this imagery growing up, that, you know, doctors in white coats were wonderful people, because of how they attended after my mother, and also with us as a result of that. So when we were growing up, there were several times my mother--many times, but not many, many, many--but several times my mother would end up in the hospital. And I remember going into that environment and the doctors were, you know, providing care, and there was obviously such a great respect for them, and I grew up wanting to be like that. And then later on, clearly I began to, you know, gravitate in my own mind that I'm going to run my hospital, and I learned that from understanding what a hospital administrator did. And so when I got to high school [Vallejo Senior High School; Vallejo High School, Vallejo, California] I was looking at going to colleges, and Golden Gate University came up, and I honestly don't even remember how it came up. I started to do research, and I learned that the uniqueness of that particular school was that many of the students were already in the profession. And I thought that was like a godsend that--you know, I didn't want to go to college, you know, to hang out at college. I went to college on the mission of, you will go to school, and so I saw the benefit, in my mind, of being around people who did this every single day. And whether or not that had anything to do with how I was oriented, I don't know, but it made sense to me. And so I wasn't even sure that I would be able to get in, because I didn't have that experience. So, I went through the whole process and then they accepted me into the school.$$And that--there were, as I had read, there're a lot of older students there, right?$$Right.$$Okay.$$Right.$$And people were saying you shouldn't go there?$$Right.$$Did the--okay.$$Yeah, yeah, yeah, people were saying, "You shouldn't go there." My father [Moses Tyson, Sr.] was encouraging, so he was just proud, as it turned out. And, you know, I had people saying, "No, you shouldn't go there. You should go to a junior college or a university." And, and I, you know, I don't want to say I rejected that. I think I viewed the whole decision of going to school--you know, I obviously got help from a lot of people, but it's sort of like, I did it, you know. I felt like I had put myself in school. And I hold to this day that that was a great--that was a great decision. And I was scared and I was young, and, and I guess I was ambitious, but, you know, it, I had to get used to it, because there were so many older people there.$So, tell me then what you do then as manager [at Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, California]. And you said you were assessing? How do you even know what to assess at that point? Were you just--you know, I know you had said you had learned to look at data. But were you just observing, you know, how to (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, yeah, everything. I was observing, you know, what the workers were doing. I looked at a lot of data, you know. So, for example, they had a problem with--obviously this is thirty something years ago, but it's pretty accurate. They had a problem with--during that time, every lab slip had to be filed into medical records, so they had stacks of lab slips and they were behind. And it was a frustration for the physician, because you get the medical records and not all the medical information was in there. And so, that was one of the areas that I studied. And so I studied--I did a numbers count: how many of these slips do you have? And I did a people count: how many people are here? And then I worked with the lab techs--I mean the filers, and I would like at how many can they get done in an eight hour day? And so I started to do the analysis, and then I came up with the recommendation that two things were broken: one, the whole system was broken. Because why put the lab slip in the department when somehow you can match it to the record when the slip is available. So, you're just in time; that was my thought process. But the second one, more importantly, was I just did a number count, and said, every day, in essence, at that time, the manpower available times the time that each of them will spend, times how many they can get done against how many are coming--I can tell you what the backlog is going to be. And so, and Alva [Alva Wheatley] loved that work and that thinking, and so that was just one of maybe four or five areas. So, I put together those kinds of recommendations and said, you know, the workers needed to be better allocated, if you will, in the areas of the file room. So, instead of having someone going all over the file room, you pre-sort the lab slips into sections and you give Bernard [HistoryMaker Bernard J. Tyson] this area, because they're all numbered. And so I used to put those things together, and I put together the recommendations. And she said, "These are great. Now, you go and do it." And I was like, "It'll be very hard as a resident." So, then they hired me on as the manager, and that was the start. And then I turned that department around, and to this day, thirty something years later, I still go visit. And I still have employees in that area that were there when I was the manager, and every promotion that I've gotten in the organization, I would go into that department. And I have to say, those individuals are so proud of me, and I'm proud of them. In fact, I was in there when--after I became chairman and CEO [of Kaiser Permanente]. I went in there and we took pictures and selfies and everything. And I told them, I said, "As long as I'm here, you can--you are guaranteed that we're going to all leave together. So, nothing's going to happen to you while I'm here." You know, we had jokes like that, and they were wonderful. You know, and that's when I really had my first experience in quote (air quotes) managing people. And it was a great experience, and I had a great department, you know. And, and here was a group of what they called unmotivated people and everything, and they were fantastic; I mean they were fantastic. And I challenged them and we had fun, and we got the work done. You know, we had meetings, I informed them what was going on. It was just, you know, a very good time, and, and I got the work done.

Roger Ferguson

Chief executive officer, economist and lawyer Roger W. Ferguson, Jr. was born on October 28, 1951 in Washington, D.C. to Roger Ferguson, Sr. and Alberta Elizabeth Lawson Ferguson. After graduating from Sidwell Friends School, he received his B.S. degree in economics from Harvard University in 1973. Ferguson served as a Frank Knox Fellow at Pembroke College, before receiving his J.D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1979, and his Ph.D. degree in economics from Harvard University in 1981.

Ferguson worked as an attorney for the law firm of Davis Polk & Wardell, LLP in New York before joining McKinsey & Company Inc. in 1984, where he served as an associate, director of research and information systems; and later, as partner. In 1997, Ferguson was appointed to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, becoming the third African American in history to serve on the Federal Reserve Board. In 1999, Ferguson was appointed to serve as vice chairman of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, the first African American to serve in that role. Ferguson served as chairman of the Group of Ten Working Party of Financial Sector Consolidation, chairman of the Committee on the Global Financial System (CGFS), and the chairman of the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) during his tenure as vice chairman. In 2006, Ferguson resigned as vice chairman of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors; and, in 2008, he joined the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association – College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA-CREF) as chief executive officer and President. He also served as economic advisor to President Barack Obama, initially as a member of the President-elect’s Transition Economic Advisory Board and subsequently as a member of the President’s Economic Recovery Advisory Board.

Ferguson has received the Distinguished Service Award from the Bond Market Association, the William F. Butler Memorial Award from the New York Association for Business Economics, the Renaissance Award from the Abyssinian Development Corporation, and the Frederick Heldering Global Leadership Award from the Global Interdependence Center. He also holds honorary doctorate degrees from Lincoln College, Webster University, Michigan State University, Washington and Jefferson College, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. In 2009, Ferguson received The “Visionary Award” from the Council for Economic Education and the “Good Scout Award” from the Greater New York Boy Scout Council.

Ferguson is married to former United States Securities and Exchange Commission Commissioner Annette Nazareth. They have two children.

Roger W. Ferguson, Jr. was interviewed by the The HistoryMakers<\em> on May 14, 2012 and October 16, 2019.

Accession Number

A2012.118

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/30/2012

7/30/2012 |and| 10/16/2019

Last Name

Ferguson

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Schools

Sidwell Friends School

Harvard University

Harvard Law School

Charles E. Young Elementary School

River Terrace Elementary School

Jefferson Middle School Academy

First Name

Roger

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

FER03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Vermont

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

10/28/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

French Fries

Short Description

Chief executive officer, economist and lawyer Roger W. Ferguson Jr. (1951- ) served as vice chairman of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors before joining the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association - College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA-CREF) as president and chief executive officer.

Employment

McKinsey and Company

Davis, Polk & Wardell, LLP

United States Federal Reserve System

Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association

Swiss Re America Holding Corporation

International Flavors and Fragrances

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:8470,160:9728,176:10986,186:14982,262:15500,269:15796,274:29650,455:30420,469:31680,490:32730,508:33710,528:37000,586:51525,755:53625,796:53925,801:59400,895:60000,904:62550,950:63900,982:64425,991:66450,1035:67650,1081:76825,1205:78750,1244:80521,1273:81060,1282:83832,1344:84602,1357:84910,1362:86835,1393:92244,1423:92706,1431:96138,1515:96600,1525:98118,1553:112913,1825:113717,1839:114253,1848:125600,2076$0,0:4750,137:5130,143:6080,155:14918,261:16013,306:16451,313:17035,323:19234,336:19690,345:24402,424:26150,457:26530,464:27974,487:33124,540:34974,572:35640,583:40450,691:41264,708:53618,813:54392,823:54908,830:56972,902:57488,909:61252,943:62595,964:63385,976:64017,985:65676,1024:66071,1030:72439,1117:75427,1156:76510,1162:76790,1167:79660,1249:80010,1255:80360,1261:80780,1268:81480,1281:81970,1291:87500,1429:87920,1436:94622,1484:98263,1520:98689,1528:99967,1558:100322,1564:100819,1577:105150,1674:108524,1685:109376,1704:110796,1728:111506,1740:112926,1783:113281,1789:113636,1795:115127,1825:115411,1830:115766,1836:116831,1878:117399,1894:117683,1899:118322,1909:118961,1919:119529,1928:122156,1990:122440,2054:128590,2113:129016,2120:130365,2135:130720,2141:131288,2150:131714,2157:133560,2200:134909,2217:136400,2254:143269,2393:143537,2398:145078,2454:145346,2459:147155,2500:156598,2595:156968,2601:157708,2614:162388,2680:165441,2716:166173,2730:168125,2888:170931,2961:171480,2972:171846,2980:172761,2997:177186,3033:180588,3095:181560,3119:182127,3128:186410,3190:187130,3201:188300,3219:188840,3226:189380,3233:190190,3244:190820,3252:191630,3262:192260,3278:200315,3386:201184,3404:202527,3427:206635,3528:207504,3576:207978,3582:208847,3616:221650,3870:222370,3880:227330,3961:227970,3972:228530,3981:231534,4008:232940,4033:233902,4048:235086,4082:237056,4096:237421,4102:238662,4136:239100,4144:239757,4154:240414,4164:241728,4191:242239,4204:242896,4214:245451,4257:245816,4263:246254,4270:246692,4277:250264,4300:251065,4310:252845,4341:254269,4367:254625,4372:255426,4382:256049,4390:261834,4486:272183,4660:272806,4669:278591,4755:278947,4760:279926,4773:284910,4869:285266,4874:285622,4879:290522,4891:291546,4908:291994,4916:293360,4921:293899,4929:294592,4943:301060,5070:310825,5194:315475,5282:316000,5290:317275,5316:317650,5322:324820,5354:340285,5575:342160,5675:342460,5680:343060,5689:343735,5705:345760,5759:346210,5766:346510,5771:347035,5779:347785,5791:349885,5824:350560,5834:353560,5922:356785,5988:361630,6010:361970,6015:363160,6029:369195,6145:369875,6156:373360,6161:380344,6338:380920,6348:383152,6399:383584,6406:386320,6487:387976,6516:388408,6523:389416,6544:391792,6579:392296,6587:397370,6632
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Roger Ferguson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson talks about his paternal step grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson describes his father's athletic talents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson describes his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson describes his father's interest in finance

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Roger Ferguson describes his siblings and how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Roger Ferguson describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Roger Ferguson describes his neighborhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Roger Ferguson remembers Charles Young Elementary School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Roger Ferguson recalls River Terrace Elementary School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson recalls his childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson describes segregation in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson remembers Jefferson Junior High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson recalls his early interest in the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson recalls enrolling at the Sidwell Friends School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson describes his social life at the Sidwell Friends School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson recalls his decision to attend Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Roger Ferguson recalls the racial tension at the Sidwell Friends School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson describes his work study job at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson recalls his activism at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson recalls his economics research in Chile

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson remembers his graduation from Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson recalls his fellowship in Cambridge, England

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson recalls his decision to pursue law and economics

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson recalls his dual graduate degree program at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Roger Ferguson describes his parents' influence on his self esteem

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson talks about his decision to pursue dual graduate degrees

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson remembers working at the law firm of Davis Polk and Wardwell

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson recalls working at McKinsey and Company

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson talks about balancing his career and family

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson recalls how he came to work for the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson remembers joining the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Roger Ferguson recalls becoming vice chairman of the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson remembers serving as vice chairman of the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson remembers the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson recalls his decision to leave the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson recalls serving as the president and CEO of TIAA-CREFF

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson describes his hopes and concerns for his children

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson reflects upon his legacy at TIAA-CREF

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Roger Ferguson describes his plans for the future

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$5

DAStory

8$3

DATitle
Roger Ferguson describes his father's interest in finance
Roger Ferguson remembers the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001
Transcript
But the thing that was really distinctive about my father [Roger Ferguson, Sr.] was that he was a child of the Depression [Great Depression] and he had lots of stories to tell about the Depression and it clearly impacted him. And the way it impacted him was he became very interested in savings and investments and the way the banking system worked. So the thing I, I remember many things about my father, the thing that really influenced me was that my father got me very interested at a very young age in things having to do with finance and banking and et cetera. And, in fact, as soon as I could do math at a reasonably proficient level, you know, just adding and subtracting, multiplying and dividing, he had me balance the check book.$$Okay.$$And much of our conversation while he was an avid football fan and, you know, loved to bowl and fish, much of our conversation was really about interest rates and investments and safe banks and, and that sort of thing.$$How do you think he acquired that kind of knowledge, he had the interest but how do you think he got the, the knowledge?$$I think he may have gotten it, some from his father [sic. step father, George Ferguson], I think he got it some from school as well, but mainly he was just sort of self taught. He read the newspapers, the other thing I remember about my father is not just that he read newspapers, but he had a broad interest in life and he was a curious person as well. And it, it showed up in, in unusual ways. I've talked a little bit about his interest in, in finance and money and investing, and for a, you know, a guy who was living, my mother [Alberta Lawson Ferguson] was a school teacher, my father worked for the government, they didn't have huge amounts of money so it was unusual for him to be interested in that kind of thing. He was interested in training people in that space, not only did he train me, but my sister [Rochelle Ferguson Washington (ph.)] has a very good friend who has gotten interested in investing in only land and property and she attributes all that to my father.$The thing that proves to be most important about my tenure at the Fed [Federal Reserve System] though is 9/11/2001 [September 11, 2001]. Nine, eleven, two thousand one is a day that obviously along with other fa- sadly a few other days, lives in infamy, 'cause that was the day of the terrorist attacks in United States of America. On that day Alan Greenspan was in Europe, in Switzerland at a big meeting of central banks that occurred every six to eight weeks, sometimes he would go, sometimes I would go, it was his turn to go, all the other governors in the Fed were around the country and the U.S. doing Fed business or giving speeches of, of, or doing other things. And so I was the only governor in Washington, D.C. I'm at my desk as usual at around 8:15, my wife [Annette Nazareth] at this point is an important senior official at the SEC [U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission], she runs market regulation. And market regulation team has a desk that watches and monitors markets in real time--$$Um-hm.$$--on a daily basis. And so at about 8:20 at the time, I'm gonna get the time wrong, 8:40, 8:45, my wife calls and says, "Our market watch folks have alerted me that there's something wrong in New York [New York] because one of the World Trade Center towers is on fire, you might just wanna turn on the TV and monitor it"--$$Um-hm.$$--"we don't know what's happening," et cetera. So I turn on the TV, I see the second plane go into the second tower, obviously not a coincidence, not just bad luck, but hard to imagine what it is, you can't quite imagine that anyone would intentionally fly--$$Right--$$--airplanes into the world's tallest buildings in New York. But what it, what I do know is it's gonna be a scramble in Manhattan [New York, New York] because the World Trade Center, very close to the New York Stock Exchange [New York, New York], close to a number of other very important financial services firms and institutions including a company called Bank of New York [Bank of New York Mellon Corporation, New York, New York], which is one of the cl- clearing banks that keeps the, the system operating, the check clearing system operating, but more importantly, keeps the security systems operating and, and money flowing the system. World Trade Center was also very close to the New York Fed [Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New York, New York], so it's in the Wall Street area [New York, New York] and obviously I and my wife both know that it's gonna be a tough day that we don't know what the source of the problem is. I immediately then, you know, go to the floor where we are watching and listening to New York in the Fed, decide a couple of things that are very important, the president has announced that there has been some sort of attack and--$$This is President Bush [President George Walker Bush] at this time (simultaneous)?$$--(Simultaneous) President Bush at this point--$$Um-hm.$$--that there's been some sort of attack and that we need to evacuate Washington. I made immediately the executive decision that I was not gonna leave the Fed, others could leave, I couldn't lock the door and make the staff stay, but I was not gonna evacuate my location. That proved to be really pretty important, because everybody else was moving around the city out of touch, my phones were still working, everyone could call me, so the Fed, not just my office, but I was part of it, became the spider in the web of information flow, the SEC, the CFTC [Commodity Futures Trading Commission], the Treasury [U.S. Department of the Treasury], the White House [Washington, D.C.], the New York Fed, a number of the important banks, we in Washington, I at the Fed and my team, the Fed team were central in knowing what was going on.$$And so you kept the financial system together during that time (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So we kept the financial system together. The second thing that we announced was that the Federal Reserve System was open and operating and that we were prepared to lend money.$$Throughout the entire time of--?$$Throughout the entire time. These things, as you point out, through lots of different technical reasons basically kept the Federal, the financial system operating, all checks got paid, the money market system still worked. A lot of technical things called the repo market, still worked and that was very important because there was no panic in America. Imagine if you would come to work one day and your check didn't clear on 9/11 (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--or 9/12 [September 12, 2001], or you went to an ATM machine and you couldn't get money out of the machine, and so we kept the system operating, we kept the panic down and I truly believe that because of the good work that the Fed team did on that day, and I happen to be the one in the leadership role for the first two and a half days after 9/11, that we kept the economy from sinking into a deeper recession. At that point the economy had actually started to slow by the way. So I ran the Fed with a team but I was the team leader all on Tuesday, the September 11th, Wednesday September 12th, Alan got back very late on the 12th, he did some quite research, found that I had done a good job and basically I was responsible for the Feds initial reaction all through that first week. And, you know, I'm not a person given to immodesty, as you know--$$Um-hm.$$--and can tell, but, you know, things worked out well, the team did a really good job and in hindsight, obviously, I am pleased with the role that I played in keeping the system functioning--$$Would you say (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) after 9/11.$$--that's one of your proudest moments in your career?$$It's definitely my proudest moment. It's the moment that brought together my knowledge of the banking system, financial markets--$$And technology (simultaneous)?$$--(simultaneous) technology, the way the Fed system worked. It required a lot of international coordination as well, so having spent that time starting back in my little story about going to Chile and England, and other things that I did. So it all came together. It also was a time where communication was important and I learned a lot of communication skills from McKinsey [McKinsey and Company, New York, New York] and frankly sort of interpersonal skills, which are important all through life. So it's absolutely my finest moment and, you know, had we made other decisions, had I decided to evacuate the building or not keep the Fed System open, or not issue a statement, or not lend money, I do believe things would have been, you know, much worse.

Otis L. Story, Sr.

Healthcare chief executive Otis Leon Story, Sr. was born on November 17, 1951 in Anniston, Alabama to Martha Lou and Tom Elbert Story, Sr. Story earned his B.A. degree in the social sciences from Cornell University in 1976 and his M.A degree at the University of Chicago in 1977. Story continued his education at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, where he earned his second M.A. degree in hospital and health administration.

Story began his career at Ochsner Foundation Hospital in New Orleans, Louisiana, where he was appointed as the first African American administrator in the hospital's history. From 1985 to 1990, he worked as an administrator at the University of Alabama at Birmingham-University Hospital; and, in 1990, became the chief operating officer at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of Newark, New Jersey. From 1996 to 1998, Story served as the associate executive officer of The Health Alliance of Greater Cincinnati. Then, Story began working as the executive vice president and chief operating officer for the Memorial Health University Medical Center in Savannah, Georgia. Appointed by the board of directors, Story was named interim president and chief executive officer at Shands Jacksonville Medical Center in 2001. From there, Story served as the vice president of operations of the Cooper Health System in Camden, New Jersey. In 2003, he was hired as the executive director at St. Vincent Catholic Medical Center in New York City, and worked to amend the center’s bankruptcy status. Story was appointed as the president and chief executive officer of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia in 2007. In 2012, the Jefferson County Commission in Birmingham, Alabama hired Story to reorganize Cooper Green Mercy Hospital. From 2015 to 2017, Story served as the chief executive officer of East Orange General Hospital in East Orange, New Jersey.

In addition to his other accomplishments, Story also completed a fellowship with the National Association of Public Hospitals. He served as a member of the Regional Policy Boards at the American Hospital Association as well as The Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Knight Hospitaller.

Story lives with his wife, Ava, in Hoover, Alabama. They have three children together: Jasmyn, Avana, and Prince James.

Otis L. Story, Sr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 12, 2007, March 20, 2012 and March 27, 2017.

Accession Number

A2007.256

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/12/2007 |and| 3/20/2012 |and| 03/27/2017

Last Name

Story

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Schools

University of Chicago

Cornell University

University of Alabama at Birmingham

South Highland Elementary School

John Bowne High School

First Name

Otis

Birth City, State, Country

Anniston

HM ID

STO05

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

Thou Shall Have No Other Lord. Thou Shall Love Thy the Lord With All Thy Heart, And With All Thy Mind And All Thy Soul. And The Second is Like Unto It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

11/17/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Englewood

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Chief executive officer Otis L. Story, Sr. (1951 - ) was president and CEO of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia.

Employment

Shands Jacksonville Medical Center.

St. Vincent Catholic Medical Center

Ochsner Foundation Hospital

Playland

University of Alabama at Birmingham

University of Chicago Office of Special Programs

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Health Alliance of Greater Cincinnati

Quorum Health Resources

The Endeavor Group

Grady Health System

Azul Health Group

Tampa General Hospital

Prospect Medical Holdings, Inc.

East Orange General Hospital

Favorite Color

Burgundy, Gold

Timing Pairs
0,0:474,10:869,16:10665,203:11376,218:16962,264:18940,274:22580,332:24244,359:26844,390:27364,396:29340,432:32140,437:38620,514:39700,530:41860,562:44090,569:47389,600:47721,605:48634,619:49962,639:52890,655:55140,671:56820,693:57156,698:57912,710:58752,723:59172,729:60012,740:64700,790:67223,836:78830,906:80656,963:86312,1009:86816,1016:89643,1043:92638,1074:93520,1085:95890,1095:98470,1131:102340,1191:102856,1198:108120,1222:109240,1230:113800,1253:120166,1321:120656,1327:128250,1391:131219,1409:131753,1416:138160,1467:139018,1490:141637,1504:142064,1513:143162,1543:144565,1574:150876,1624:155574,1660:156064,1666:156848,1676:158122,1691:162707,1722:163039,1727:164367,1750:169030,1778:170322,1802:172445,1814:176675,1875:178521,1913:178805,1918:179373,1928:182438,1950:182846,1957:183526,1972:191130,2061:193290,2084:194330,2099:194730,2106:195130,2128:203250,2163:203975,2169:207455,2204:211987,2248:214190,2259:214865,2269:215240,2275:216215,2294:216890,2305:226512,2380:227456,2401:227928,2410:233857,2439:234093,2444:234565,2453:235155,2465:238233,2497:247706,2591:251608,2624:252268,2636:253060,2651:254400,2657:255692,2675:256072,2681:256680,2691:257288,2707:259340,2755:263930,2865:271030,2941:273230,2981:274891,3000:276123,3030:276662,3038:277278,3047:277663,3053:284781,3109:285996,3128:289965,3203:290775,3217:291342,3225:294896,3238:295486,3251:298078,3296:298448,3302:298818,3308:301260,3356:305415,3391:306111,3401:307416,3420:313680,3477$0,0:768,15:2432,90:6218,129:11586,218:15722,285:16602,324:21254,368:21938,378:22470,389:24598,470:40400,677:42128,702:47058,733:47666,743:49338,777:50478,800:50782,805:51086,810:51846,823:53898,859:54734,873:55570,886:56786,909:57090,914:57394,919:58230,933:59066,942:59598,951:61650,995:63170,1019:64994,1054:71544,1086:72980,1096:73825,1113:74865,1136:75385,1147:79829,1223:80153,1228:83798,1289:84203,1295:84527,1300:85418,1321:103254,1503:105858,1548:107454,1583:108210,1594:109134,1607:109554,1613:124880,1845:125820,1861:129956,1882:130826,1893:131870,1913:135993,1961:136420,1970:136725,1976:137518,1990:137945,1998:138677,2016:139714,2036:141178,2072:144748,2090:145216,2097:146308,2114:148336,2148:149896,2178:150598,2193:151300,2206:152080,2220:154342,2265:155200,2282:156682,2306:172485,2478:178400,2593
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Otis L. Story, Sr.'s interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his mother's upbringing in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about his maternal uncle

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers meeting his white relatives

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his maternal grandmother's professions

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his paternal uncles

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the community of Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the major industries in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his family's landlord in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his neighbors in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his early interest in sports

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his childhood illness

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his parents' side jobs

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about his upbringing in a working class community

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Slating of Otis L. Story, Sr.'s interview, session 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his experiences at South Highland Elementary School in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls the racial tensions in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers being chased by dogs in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes segregation in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls the Freedom Rider bus bombing in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the attack on Nat King Cole by Klansmen from Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about the attacks on his father in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his early aspirations

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers P.S. 142, Shimer Junior High School in Queens, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the integration of New York City's schools

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his experiences at John Bowne High School in Queens, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his introduction to basketball in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his high school basketball career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his coursework at John Bowne High School in Queens, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his mentors at John Bowne High School

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his college aspirations

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the New York City teachers' strike of 1968

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his involvement in the New York City teachers' strike of 1968

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls the New York City Board of Education summer retreat

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his graduation from John Bowne High School in Queens, New York

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his summer basketball league in New York City

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers working at the Playland arcade in New York City

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his father's hospitalization

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls the denial of medical treatment to black patients at Queens General Hospital

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the trip to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his experiences at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers Professor William Keeton

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his freshmen orientation at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers the Africana Studies and Research Center at Cornell University

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his freshman roommate at Cornell University

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the black basketball players' strike at Cornell University

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the aftermath of the basketball team's strike at Cornell University

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his final two years at Cornell University

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his father's death

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his aspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his admission to the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers meeting his second wife

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the role of his wife's family in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his enrollment at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls working under Larry Hawkins at the University of Chicago

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the political climate at the University of Chicago

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his decision to attend the University of Alabama at Birmingham

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his residency at the Ochsner Foundation Hospital in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers the political leaders of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about the role and responsibilities of a hospital administrator

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his philosophy of service as a hospital administrator

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls a lesson from a nun at St. Vincent's Hospital in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his sister's kidney transplant

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about New Jersey's politics

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Slating of Otis L. Story, Sr.'s interview, session 3

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about his second marriage

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the increase in HIV/AIDS and crack cocaine addiction in New Jersey

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about the racial bias in legislative responses to drug addiction

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. recalls his work at the University Hospital in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his transition to the University Hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his role in the Health Alliance of Greater Cincinnati

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his position at Quorum Health Resources, LLC, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his position at Quorum Health Resources, LLC, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers the preparations for Y2K

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about the lack of legislative concern for illnesses in the African American community

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers his move to Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his consulting work for The Endeavor Group

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about his philosophy of hospital economics

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about healthcare reform proposals

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his tenure as CEO of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his tenure as CEO of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes his article, 'Preparing Safety Net Hospitals for Healthcare Reform'

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the closure of the Cooper Green Hospital in Birmingham, Alabama, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes the closure of the Cooper Green Hospital in Birmingham, Alabama, pt. 2

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes how he came to be CEO of the East Orange General Hospital in East Orange, New Jersey

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers the lack of women's health facilities in East Orange, New Jersey

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about the need for gynecological care for older women

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about his behavioral health initiatives

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about the closure of hospitals in poor communities

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 13 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. reflects upon the future of healthcare reform

Tape: 13 Story: 8 - Otis L. Story, Sr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Otis L. Story, Sr. reflects upon his legacy, pt. 1

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Otis L. Story, Sr. reflects upon his legacy, pt. 2

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Otis L. Story, Sr. reflects upon his accomplishments at the University Hospital in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Otis L. Story, Sr. remembers establishing a partnership with the FBI

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Otis L. Story, Sr. talks about his family

Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered, pt. 1

Tape: 14 Story: 7 - Otis L. Story, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered, pt. 2

DASession

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DATitle
Otis L. Story describes the black basketball players' strike at Cornell University
Otis L. Story recalls his aspiration to become a doctor
Transcript
There's a story about the basketball team that we cannot fail to tell. Now, there was a strike. You all--the black basketball players went on a strike and--$$Yeah, we boycotted the--$$Boycotted the--now what happened, what happened?$$When I was a sophomore, I was part of a great team. I thought we had a great team. And out of the fifteen players, I believe eight were probably black. And there were, out of those eight there were five individuals of African ancestry who were capable of starting, excuse me. The first game, the coach started four of the eight blacks that weekend. And subsequently what happened, was that he got so many telephone calls from the alumni complaining about the fact that he had started four black basketball players at Cornell University [Ithaca, New York], that the pressure continued to mount over the week on him. We learned that his job, his job was placed at risk, and that if he ever put four blacks, if he ever started four blacks again, he would probably lose his job. That's what we heard. And once we found that out, we sort of, we started to watch his rotation, substitution pattern, and even the number of blacks he started. He never started four blacks again. And sort of, the problem came to a head when he started a sophomore, who was my roommate, Lynn Loncki, ahead of the black senior, Tom Sparks [Thomas Sparks]. And we knew, and Lynn knew, that he was not a better ballplayer at that time than Tom Sparks. Tom was a senior, and he was the leader of not only the black ballplayers, he was the leader of the team, he was the captain. How do you sit your captain down who's a senior, and start a sophomore who's still trying to coordinate his hands and his feet? So, he did that because he could start three blacks and still win, because Tom was not the best of the four blacks that he started. And we all knew that. Tom was a senior, and deserved to start. He was good enough to start, but he was not better than the other three blacks. One was, two were juniors and one was a sophomore. And that--once we found that out, we obviously confronted our coach, Jerry Lace. And Coach Lace was a very humble man, and he found himself in a very, very precarious situation, and we realized that. And he, he said in no uncertain terms that he was not in control of this team anymore. Now he coached the rest of the year, but he, it was the chairman, it was the athletic director, and the alumni who were actually calling the shots. And they never did start four blacks during my tenure, which was short lived (laughter), ever again at Cornell. And we walked out, and we, we wanted to support our teammates, the white teammates. And we would travel to games that were close by. And one in particular was to Syracuse University [Syracuse, New York]. And we showed up to support, and people wanted to know, "Well if you want to support your team, why don't you dress out?" We said, "Well, we couldn't do that, because that was a contradiction. Because here was a coach saying that he couldn't support starting black players at Cornell." And we said, "Well, if he couldn't support all of his players," meaning blacks and whites equally, "we couldn't go out there and represent and support Cornell. Why should we do that?" You know, once again, we're trying to break these bonds, you know, the slavery mentality--that we need to serve the master while the master is exploiting us as a people. And so, we refused to do it; we refused to do it.$Okay, so after graduation [from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York] now, what were your plans? Did you plan to--well, you said earlier you planned to become a doctor, right?$$Yeah, my interest was in medicine. I was interested in being an endocrinologist because of the diabetes. My father [Tom Story, Sr.] was, all of my life, you know, he was disabled. And it was something that was a perplexing disease for me as a child when I was in Alabama--as an eight year old child, to hear somebody had sugar. And I couldn't understand how something as sweet as sugar could be so debilitating. Because that was a big thing then in Alabama, because we'd get some sugar and put it in lemonade and--and my dad suffered. He looked normal the first ten years when he was affected by the disease. It was in the last five years of his life when he started--his sight was affected, his mobility was affected. And then the last nine months of his life his foot was amputated and his leg was amputated, and he passed. So, my dad, the last fifteen years of his life, he suffered. And I wanted to go to school to become a doctor, because I wanted to be able to do research, R and D [research and development], to help figure out how do you deal with this twelve carbon chain of sugar? You know, how do you break this thing up? How do you figure out--how do you get one of these glucose--one's ability to metabolize, you know, glucose so that, you know, you had this engine, you know, that supports one's body. And I was just, literally, it was a way of honoring my father and a service to mankind. I always was committed to doing something in the service to mankind. My mother [Martha Wilson Story] wanted me to be a preacher. You know, I wanted to be a doctor, and I came--and ultimately I decided upon hospital administration. I became a healthcare executive, which is all of that. You know, as a healthcare professional, I'm a part of the healing team. Part of what I do, in terms of human relationships with my colleagues that I work with inside of hospitals and health systems, is to minister. And I'm always committed to the community in which the hospital I work in is located. So, I'm a service to the community, a service to my colleagues, my fellow colleagues, and to the patients and the families we serve. So I think I sort of satisfied, to some degree, all of my aspirations as a young teenager, you know, in terms of what my mother wanted me to do, what I wanted to do, and what I ultimately have done over the last twenty-five years--$$Okay. Now (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) in healthcare.