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Kathryn Waddell Takara

Poet and professor Kathryn Waddell Takara was born in 1943 in Tuskegee, Alabama to Lottie and Dr. William Waddell IV. After graduating from George School in Newtown, Pennsylvania, she earned her B.A. degree from Tufts University in 1965. Takara went on to receive her M.A. degree in French from the University of California at Berkeley in 1969, and her Ph.D. degree in political science from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa in 1995.

In 1971, Takara joined the Ethnic Studies Department at the University of Hawai`i at Mānoa as an assistant professor, where she developed courses in African American and African politics, history, literature, and culture. During her thirty-one year career at the university, she rose to associate professor in the university’s Interdisciplinary Studies Program and taught French. Her poetry has been published in a variety of publications including; Interdisciplinary Studies Humanities Journal, Honolulu Stories, Words Upon the Waters, The African Journal of New Poetry, Arkansas Review, Africa Literary Journal, Julie Mango Press, Poetry Motel, Peace & Policy, From Totems to Hip Hop, Hawai`i Review, Chaminade Literary Review, All She Wrote: Hawai`i Women s Voices, and World of Poetry, An Anthology. Her essays have appeared in the Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, The Black Scholar, Multi-America: Essays on Cultural Wars and Cultural Peace, The Western Journal of Black Studies, and The Honolulu Advertiser. She performed her poetry and lectured extensively throughout the Hawaiian Islands, the Continental United States, and in Beijing and Qingdao, China. In 2003, Takara launched Pacific Raven Press, serving as its owner, editor, and publisher. She published three books of poetry: New and Collected Poems in 2003, Pacific Raven: Hawaii Poems in 2009, and Tourmalines: Beyond the Ebony Portal in 2010. She also released a poetic trilogy, including the books Love’s Seasons in 2014, Zimbabwe Spin in 2015, and Shadow Dancing: $elling $urvival in China in 2016.

Takara was the recipient of the University of Hawai’i Board of Regents Outstanding Teacher Award and was a two-time Fulbright Fellow, in 1966 and 1996. She received the 2010 American Book Award for her published work Pacific Raven: Hawai`i Poems. She was knighted into the Orthodox Order of St. John, Russian Grand Priory in 2014, and received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Education and African American history and culture in Hawai’i from the NAACP in 2016.

Kathryn Takara was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 10, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.137

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/10/2019

Last Name

Takara

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Marie Waddell Brundage

Occupation
Schools

George School

Tufts University

University of California, Berkeley

University of Hawaii at Manoa

First Name

Kathryn

Birth City, State, Country

Tuskegee

HM ID

TAK01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Qingdao, China/Bordeaux, France/Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

Favorite Quote

To Thine Own Self Be True

Speakers Bureau Region State

Hawaii

Birth Date

12/26/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Ka'a'awa

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Breakfast

Short Description

Poet and professor Kathryn Takara (1943- ), an award winning poet, has performed her works in Africa, Europe, Central America, Tahiti and China, and served as associate professor from the University of Hawai`i at Mānoa.

Employment

University of California Berkeley

Hawaii Pacific University

Chaminade College

University of Hawaii Lab School

University of Hawaii at Manoa

Winward Community College

University of Hawaii

University of Qingdao

Pacific Raven Press

Favorite Color

Aquamarine

Joanne Collins

Political leader and city council member Joanne Collins was born on August 29, 1935 in Kansas City, Missouri to William and Mary Frances Mitchell. She attended Attucks Elementary School, Northeast Junior High School, and Sumner High School. Collins attended the University of Kansas from 1953 to 1955, and went on to receive her B.A. degree in political science from Stephens College and her M.A. degree in business administration from Baker University.

After attending the University of Kansas, Collins worked as a postal clerk in Kansas City, Missouri, as a real estate agent for Robert Hughes and Company, and in community outreach at a local bank. During this time, she was an active member in the League of Women Voters and the Missouri and Jackson County Republican committees, and was appointed vice-chair of the Missouri advisory committee for the United States Commission on Civil Rights. In 1974, she was the first African American woman elected to serve on the Kansas City Council. Collins was re-elected to the position in the 1975, 1979, 1983, and 1987 general elections before retiring in 1991. During her tenure as councilwoman, she served as chair of the youth development committee, the community action committee, and the finance and audit committee, and as mayor pro-tem and acting mayor. Collins also worked part-time at United Missouri Bank while on city council.

Collins has volunteered with over fifty organizations. She served on the MOKAN Advisory Board and the Emily Taylor Women's Resource Center Advisory Board/KU. She was a member of Salvation Army, Church Women United/KCMO, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc and a lifelong member of the St. Paul A.M.E. Zion Church/KCKS. She was also a member of the Black Women’s Political Congress, the National Women’s Political Caucus, the Midwest Christian Counseling Center, and the Economic Development Corporation of Kansas City.

Collins received the Harriet Tubman Award from A.M.E. Zion in 1976, the Living Legend Award from the Heartland Women’s Leadership Council in 2010, and the James C. Denneny Spirit Award from the Economic Development Corporation of Kansas City in 2013.

Collins has two children, six grandchildren, three great-grandchildren, two step-children, and six step-grandchildren.

Joanne Collins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 7, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.123

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/7/2019

Last Name

Collins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Marcella

Organizations
Schools

Crispus Attucks Elementary School

Northeast Junior High School

University of Kansas

Baker University

Charles L. Sumner High School

Stephens College

First Name

Joanne

Birth City, State, Country

Kansas City

HM ID

COL39

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Chicago

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Missouri

Birth Date

8/29/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Kansas City

Country

USA

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Political leader and city council member Joanne Collins (1935- ) was the first African American woman elected to the Kansas City council, serving from 1974 to 1991.

Employment

Hull House

Kansas City Post Office

Robert Hughes and Company

Kansas City City Council

United Missouri Bank

Clendenning Medical Library

Kansas City, Missouri City Council

Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company Junior Association

Hall's Crown Center - Retail Sales Division

Wheatley Provident Hospital

The Greater Kansas City Baptist and Community Hospital Association, Inc.

United States Department of Commerce

United States Post Office

Favorite Color

Red

Aileen Clarke Hernandez

Civil rights, union and women’s rights activist Aileen Clarke Hernandez was born Aileen Clarke on May 23, 1926, in Brooklyn, New York. Her Jamaican-born parents, theatrical seamstress Ethel Louise Hall Clarke and Garveyite brushmaker Charles Henry Clarke, named their daughter for Aileen Pringle, a film actress. Hernandez, who grew up in the ethnically-mixed Bay Ridge neighborhood of New York City, attended elementary school at P.S. 176 and graduated in 1943 as school newspaper editor, vice president, and salutatorian of Bay Ridge High School. At Howard University, she was taught by E. Franklin Frazier, Ralph Bunche, Sterling Brown, Alain Locke, Howard Thurman, Emmit Dorsey, Charles Hamilton Houston, James Nabrit, and Thurgood Marshall. Hernandez was a member of the Howard Players, edited The Hilltop, and was active in the NAACP with her friend Pauli Murray. Hernandez graduated magna cum laude from Howard University with her B.A. degree in political science in 1947.

Returning briefly for graduate studies at New York University, Hernandez moved to Los Angeles to take an internship with the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) and later went on to earn her M.S. degree in government from California State University at Los Angeles in 1961.

Hernandez worked for the IGLWU from 1951 to 1960; eventually she backed the efforts of the Federation of Union Representatives to obtain benefits from the IGLWU. In 1960, Hernandez resigned from the IGLWU to join the successful re-election campaign of California State Comptroller and future United States Senator Allan Cranston. In 1962, Hernandez was appointed by California Governor Pat Brown to be assistant chief of the California Division of Fair Employment Practices and began enforcing the state’s 1959 anti-discrimination law. In 1965, Hernandez was appointed a commissioner of the newly-formed United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) by President Lyndon B. Johnson. As the first female and second minority appointed to the EEOC Commission, Hernandez paid particular attention to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1966, Hernandez co-founded the activist group, National Organization for Women (NOW), with her friend and Episcopal priest, Pauli Murray, author Betty Friedan, and others. From 1970 to 1971, Hernandez served as the second national president of NOW, following Friedan. In 1971, Hernandez helped found the National Women’s Political Caucus, and in 1972 helped create NOW’s Minority Women’s Task Force. That same year, Hernandez formed Sapphire Publishing Company with nine other black women. Leaving NOW in 1979, Hernandez served on the board of the Ms. Foundation from 1976 to 1985. Hernandez toured China in 1978, and after touring South Africa in 1981, released the book, South Africa: Time Running Out.

Hernandez served as the president of Hernandez and Associates, which she founded in 1967; she has taught at San Francisco State University and the University of California at Berkeley. Hernandez was a Regents Scholar in Residence at the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1996. Hernandez has been honored by the National Urban Coalition, the Northern California American Civil Liberties Foundation, Howard University and many other organizations. In 2005, Hernandez was one of 1,000 women from 150 nations who were collectively nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize for their work in social justice and civil rights.

Hernandez passed away on February 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2007.134

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/12/2007

11/8/2013

Last Name

Hernandez

Maker Category
Middle Name

Clark

Schools

New York University

P.S. 176 The Ovington School

Bay Ridge High School

Howard University

First Name

Aileen

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

HER03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Ah, But A Person's Reach Should Exceed Its Grasp, But What Is Heaven For?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/23/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

USA

Death Date

2/13/2017

Short Description

Labor activist and foundation executive Aileen Clarke Hernandez (1926 - 2017 ) was the co-founder of the National Organization for Women; the National Women’s Political Caucus; the Sapphire Publishing Company; and Hernandez and Associates.

Employment

Ladies Garment Workers Union

Alan Cranston State Comptroller Campaign

California Division of Fair Employment Practices

United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Hernandez & Associates

San Francisco State University

University of California, Berkeley

University of California, San Francisco

Favorite Color

Red

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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483910">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Aileen Clarke Hernandez's interview, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483911">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483912">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483913">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about discrimination in Jamaica</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483914">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her mother's education and occupation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483915">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483916">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her father's occupation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483917">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes how her parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483918">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the Jamaican community in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483919">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her parents' personalities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483920">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483921">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483922">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her extended family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483923">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls St. Philip's Episcopal Church in Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483924">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her early experiences of discrimination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483925">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her grade school education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483926">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls Bay Ridge High School, Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483927">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the entertainment of her youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483928">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers her activities at Bay Ridge High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483929">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her decision to attend Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483930">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers segregation in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483931">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her father's political involvement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483932">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her professors at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483933">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the activists at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483934">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers Pauli Murray</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483935">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers organizing protests in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483936">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about racial discrimination in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483937">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her activities at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483938">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers the end of World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483939">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers her influences at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483940">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers graduating from Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483941">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls becoming a union organizer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483942">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the conditions in the garment factories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483943">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers training with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483944">Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her parents' response to her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483945">Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls organizing a strike for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483946">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the history of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483947">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about her marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483948">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the California Fair Employment Practices Act of 1959</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483949">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls leaving the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483950">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her role at the Fair Employment Practices Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483951">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers working for politician Alan M. Cranston</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483952">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her support for President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483953">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her support for President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483954">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers joining the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483955">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the reaction to her appointment to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483956">Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the Civil Rights Act of 1964</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483957">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers Lady Bird Johnson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483958">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the start of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483959">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about gender discrimination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483960">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers Pauli Murray's role in the women's movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483961">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the history of the women's movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483962">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the stereotypes of the women's movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483963">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the founding of the National Organization for Women, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483964">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the founding of the National Organization for Women, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483965">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls resigning from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483966">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers Evenson v. Northwest Airlines, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483967">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls becoming an urban consultant</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483968">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her decision to step down as president of the National Organization for Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483969">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the divisions within the women's movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483970">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers the challenges to the Equal Rights Amendment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483971">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the divide over abortion in the National Organization for Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483972">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the debate over labor equality in the National Organization for Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483973">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about equality in the U.S. military</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483974">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon the political changes since 1970</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483975">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her work as an urban consultant</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483976">Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls speaking at a conference in Germany</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483977">Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers her international labor rights work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483978">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers the California Women's Agenda</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483979">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the California Civil Rights Coalition</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483980">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483981">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483982">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483983">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483984">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483985">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Aileen Clarke Hernandez's interview, session 2, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483986">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the women's rights movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483987">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483988">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her testimony to the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483989">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the formation of National Organization for Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483990">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the failings of the National Organization for Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483991">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her decision to leave the National Organization for Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483992">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon the National Organization for Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483993">Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon the Civil Rights Act of 1964</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483994">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls discrimination within the National Organization for Women</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483995">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her role as an advocate for human rights</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483996">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483997">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about President Barack Obama, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483998">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about President Barack Obama, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/483999">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon the election of President Barack Obama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484000">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about Hillary Rodham Clinton's presidential candidacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484001">Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her career, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484002">Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her career, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484003">Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484004">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484005">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484006">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484007">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez narrates her photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484008">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez narrates her photographs, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/484009">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez narrates her photographs, pt. 3</a>

DASession

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DATape

3$5

DAStory

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DATitle
Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls becoming a union organizer
Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the founding of the National Organization for Women, pt. 1
Transcript
So what did you do after you recovered from tuberculosis?$$I went back to New York [New York] and de, decided to go ahead and get my master's [degree] at NYU [New York University, New York, New York] and was about two courses away from getting my master's (laughter) at NYU when I was sitting in the library doing a term paper. And there was a magazine on the table and I decided I needed a rest from doing my term paper so I started reading the magazine. And I opened up a page and on the page it said not the exact words but this was the tenor of it said, "Are you an oddball? Would you like a career that doesn't pay very much money but gives you lots of psychic rewards?" And there was a telephone number at the bottom of it, so I called the telephone number, and the telephone number turned out to be the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union [ILGWU]. And they were just establishing what they called their training institute, David Dubinsky, who headed that union had come to the conclusion that they needed to get more leadership from outside. Primarily from the universities and colleges because the, the employers were hiring people who were technologists in those days, to do time and motion studies on how you could do more work for less money in the garment industry, so he figured he had to get some people who could at least compete in some ways with those guys. So, he decided to set up a training institute and he put out this information all over the place about a year's training that ILGWU would give you. And at the end of the training, you would have an opportunity to decide where in the ILGWU family you would like to go work. So I, I applied, I got a chance to, to get in for a couple of reasons. One was because my mother [Ethel Hall Clarke] had been a member of the union during the Second World War [World War II, WWII] and secondly, I had been very active in the Americans for Democratic Action. And at, at that, in the Americans for Democratic Action, one of the people who I'm, I met during that period was a guy by the name of Gus Tyler. Who was a, a pretty much up in the higher echelons of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. And so when I needed to get a reference, he helped on giving me the reference too, so I got accepted, and I was one of four women among, out of thirty-two people selected for the program.$$So even, even for working for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Working for the union--$$Mostly men were--$$Working for--$$--were-$$A union that had like 85 percent of it's members were women, they all of the of, all of the officers except for one on the executive board were men. All of them were also white in those days; they were mostly Italian and Jewish, because the industry was immigrant industry. And though, and so a lot of those people had just recently come to the United States and had found a way to get work in that area. Dubinsky was a genius in a lot of ways and a person who had a lot of ideas about what you could do to make life better for people who were in jobs that were pretty well limited jobs. You, you could work in the garment industry, in the sportswear industries, without any kind of, of skills, 'cause you did piecework, you did section work. You didn't do a whole garment; you just sewed one seam all day long on a dress, and then it passed on to somebody else. Who added the cuff and it passed on to somebody else who did the hem and all the rest of it. And so what he did was he started out by having a resort for the union members, we could go on a two-week vacation at the union's resort, which was called Unity House up in the Pocono Mountains [Pennsylvania]. They started the first of the, the medical benefits for workers; tuberculosis was pretty rampant in the industries. So that they had set-up a lot of programs, they were very big with the City of Hope [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California] in those days. Which focused a lot on new techniques for tuberculosis, which of course interested me at that point in time, too.$--Tell us about the development of NOW [National Organization for Women], 'cause this, this kind of that, you know this, this NOW is about Pauli Murray kind of sets the stage for that.$$Yeah Pauli was very signif- significant figure in it, not just in terms of what she said in the newspaper. But she was doing some work with the [U.S.] Department of Labor and a lot of the help that was given to the formation of NOW came from the department, of the Women's Bureau. Where, where Pauli had been working on these issues and so Pauli had good vibes in that, in that community. She worked with a lot of those women, she had done a lot of the research work on the, on the commission's [Presidential Commission on the Status of Women] report. So Pauli was very active in the entire discussion about what she had already said to The Times [The New York Times], how do you organize women to be more forceful about pushing for this law? 'Cause if there's nobody out there pushing, nobody's gonna do anything in terms of them enforcing the law, that was pretty clear. Especially with these big, big issues of how many, how many cases have been filed with us, and how much backlog we had. They were gonna do whatever was there first, there was no question about it, so what, part of it was to get more women to file complaints. Where there was a problem and Pauli did a lot of that, and secondly was to make sure that whatever was put together was not gonna be in competition. That we're not competing with each other, the women, women's rights versus minority rights, that these were two interlocked communities. And they needed to work together on these issues, and Pauli in what she said in the statement of purpose made that very clear. But because of the way in which NOW got formed, because it actually got formed at a meeting of the Commissions on the Status of Women. And it was just after we had gotten Title VII [Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII] passed, I spoke at the first meeting of the, with the Commission on the Status of Women about the change in the law. And by the time we got to the second meeting, I was saying the same thing that Pauli was saying you know. That you need to have somebody out there speaking on this, I worked with a lot of the women in the Women's Bureau. The issues around sex discrimination 'cause they were the place to go for information. And Pauli had put her two cents in there and things were moving along very well, and women got together. And they decided at one of the Commissions of the Status of, of Women that they were gonna come back and they were going to ask the Commission on the Status of Women to take action on a particular issue. The issue that they were gonna take action on was the fact that the way the, the Title VII was written, commissioners served a five-year term was the maximum term that you had. And then you had to be reappointed if you were gonna be appointed. But because we were the first commission, they had staggered the terms, so that you wouldn't lose all of the commissioners at one point in time. So I had the shortest term, the first term, I had a one-year term, but because they hadn't done anything for one year, I actually wound up with the largest term. Because I then was reappointed for a five-year term, and then somebody had a four-year term and somebody had a three and two and a one. And the person who had the one-year term at that point was Richard Graham [Richard A. Graham] who was the businessman from Wisconsin. The Republican businessman from Wisconsin who had taken on the responsibility for the sex discrimination part of the law. We had, we had no staff, so we had to divide up who would do what, they wanted to give me sex discrimination and I said, "No. I think we need to get somebody else to get the information on this." Besides I have to deal with the relationship between the state commissions on, on equal employment opportunity and our federal commission. 'Cause the law also said that if there is a state that has a commission that relates to, to equal opportunity and employment or housing, that state has the right to take the complaints. And the EEOC [Equal Employment Opportunity Commission] should work out some arrangement with them where they get paid for doing those kinds of things. So I was supposed to work out that agreement, it was kind of interesting 'cause I had never been one of them before. I had known all of these people for all these times, (laughter) I went to the first meeting as a member of the commission. And they were up there saying, "Well you guys do this," (laughter), and I said, you, "I'm one of you, don't you remember me (laughter)?"