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Cora Masters Barry

Professor and civic leader Cora Masters Barry was born on May 7, 1945 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma to Isabell and Alfred Masters. She graduated from Paseo Academy in Kansas City, Missouri in 1962. Barry briefly attended Pasadena City College and Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri before graduating from Texas Southern University with her B.A. degree in 1969. She subsequently earned her M.A. degree in urban studies and public administration from Howard University in 1972.

In 1971, Barry began working on Walter Fauntroy's congressional campaign where she first met Marion Barry, whom she married in 1994. In 1976, Barry began teaching political science at the University of the District of Columbia, where she specialized in teaching “Black Politics, Comparative Political Studies, the Presidency, and the Constitution.” She was later hired as the northern Virginia minority coordinator for President Jimmy Carter's reelection campaign in 1980. That same year, Marion Barry, then mayor of Washington D.C., appointed her to the District of Columbia's Boxing and Wrestling Commission, making her the first woman in the United States to hold such a position. She later became chairwoman of the commission. Barry later ran a voter registration drive for Marion Barry's 1994 re-election campaign and chaired his inaugural committee. As First Lady of the District of Columbia, Barry founded the Recreation Wish List Committee (RWLC) in 1995 to support recreational activities and provide a nurturing learning environment for underserved youth in Washington D.C. That same year, she, with Dr. Dorothy I. Height, co-organized the “Women for the Million Man March.” In 2001, she founded the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center, a premier tennis and education facility.

Throughout her career, Barry has been the recipient of numerous awards, including the DC Chamber of Commerce Community Impact Award, being named the 2013 Washingtonian of the Year by Washingtonian Magazine, the USTA Founders Award, and the National Recreation and Park Association’s Robert Artz Citizen Advocacy Award. She was also inducted into the USTA’s Mid-Atlantic Tennis and Education Foundation’s Hall of Fame and the Black Tennis Hall of Fame.

Cora Masters Barry was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 6, 2005 and June 16, 2012.

Accession Number

A2005.121

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/6/2005

6/16/2012

Last Name

Barry

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Masters

Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Cora

Birth City, State, Country

Oklahoma City

HM ID

BAR07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

West Africa

Favorite Quote

It's Not Gonna Turn Out Right.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/7/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Potatoes

Short Description

Professor and civic leader Cora Masters Barry (1945- ), as the First Lady of the District of Columbia, founded the Recreation Wish List Committee in 1995 and the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center in 2001, and co-organized the “Women for the Million Man March.”

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167915">Tape: 1 Slating of Cora Masters Barry's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167916">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167917">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her maternal family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167918">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her mother, Isabell Masters</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167919">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her father, Alfred Masters</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167920">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her father's experience with racism in the U.S. Marine Corps</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167921">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her maternal family ancestry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167922">Tape: 1 Cora Masters describes her maternal family ancestry and the Exodus of 1879</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167923">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her parents meeting at Langston University in Langston, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167924">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167925">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry talks about moving to Los Angeles, California in the second wave of the Great Migration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167926">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her family life as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167927">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes growing up in predominantly white suburbs of Los Angeles, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167928">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her experience at Cienega Elementary School in Los Angeles, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167929">Tape: 1 Cora Masters Barry describes her neighbor, comedian Tim Moore who played Kingfish on 'Amos 'n' Andy,' pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167930">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry describes her neighbor, comedian Tim Moore who played Kingfish on 'Amos 'n' Andy,' pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167931">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry talks about her experience at Gompers Middle School in South Central, and Washington Junior High in Pasadena, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167932">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry describes living in a predominantly white neighborhood in Pasadena, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167933">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry describes her experience at John Muir, Manual Arts, and Paseo Academy High Schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167934">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry talks about de-facto segregation at John Muir High School and Manual Arts High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167935">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry talks about transferring to Paseo Academy High School in Kansas City, and being the first black performer in its student talent show</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167936">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry describes her experience at Pasadena City College, and explains how she got to Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167937">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry describes her freshman year at Lincoln University in 1964</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167938">Tape: 2 Cora Masters Barry describes leaving Lincoln University and working as a teacher's assistant in California's Head Start pilot program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167939">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry describes her first semester at Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167940">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry talks about the influence of black-nationalism at Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167941">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry talks about the 1968 shooting of unarmed students at Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167942">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry talks about graduating from Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas in 1969</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167943">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry talks about the black power movement in northern California and the arrest of Black Panther chief of staff David Hilliard</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167944">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry describes Texas Southern University after Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination and anti-war demonstrations in Berkeley, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167945">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry talks about finishing her graduate degree in urban policy at Howard University in Washington D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167946">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry describes working on HistoryMaker Walter Fauntroy's 1971 campaign for congress with HistoryMaker Marion Barry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167947">Tape: 3 Cora Masters Barry talks about working with the National Council of Negro Women, and on HistoryMaker Marion Barry's campaign for the D.C. school board</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167948">Tape: 4 Cora Masters Barry describes working as the coordinator for "The Committee to Draft HistoryMaker Marion Barry for Chairman of City Council"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167949">Tape: 4 Cora Masters Barry talks about the Home Rule Act and the election of HistoryMaker Walter Fauntroy as Washington, D.C.'s delegate for the U.S. Congress</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167950">Tape: 4 Cora Masters Barry talks about her teaching appointment in political science at the University of the District of Columbia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167951">Tape: 4 Cora Masters Barry talks about organizing a boxing fundraiser for athletic programs in Washington D.C.'s public schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167952">Tape: 4 Cora Masters Barry talks about working as the northern Virginia minority coordinator for President Jimmy Carter's reelection campaign, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167953">Tape: 4 Cora Masters Barry talks about working as the northern Virginia minority coordinator for President Jimmy Carter's reelection campaign, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167954">Tape: 4 Cora Masters Barry talks about her controversial nomination to the District of Columbia Boxing and Wrestling Commission, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167955">Tape: 5 Cora Masters Barry talks about her controversial nomination for the District of Columbia Boxing and Wrestling Commission, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167956">Tape: 5 Cora Masters Barry describes her experience of gender discrimination at her first weigh-in as boxing commissioner</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167957">Tape: 5 Cora Masters Barry describes chairing the District of Columbia Boxing and Wrestling Commission and her involvement with the International Boxing Federation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167958">Tape: 5 Cora Masters Barry talks about the 1988 court proceedings around allegations of "double-dipping," pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167959">Tape: 5 Cora Masters Barry talks about the 1988 court proceedings around allegations of "double-dipping," pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167960">Tape: 5 Cora Masters Barry talks about female government officials in boxing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167961">Tape: 5 Cora Masters Barry talks about her relationship with HistoryMaker Marion Barry, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167962">Tape: 5 Cora Masters Barry Cora talks about her relationship with HistoryMaker Marion Barry, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167963">Tape: 6 Slating of the second session of Cora Masters Barry's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167964">Tape: 6 Cora Masters Barry talks about her relationship with HistoryMaker Marion Barry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167965">Tape: 6 Cora Masters Barry talks about support of HistoryMaker Marion Barry in Washington, D.C.'s black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167966">Tape: 6 Cora Masters Barry talks about HistoryMaker Marion Barry's 1994 re-election campaign and 1995 inauguration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167967">Tape: 6 Cora Masters Barry explains the founding and function of the Recreation Wish List Committee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167968">Tape: 6 Cora Masters Barry talks about early supporters of the Recreation Wish List Committee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167969">Tape: 6 Cora Masters Barry describes conceiving the idea for the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167970">Tape: 6 Cora Masters Barry describes the first phase in development for the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167971">Tape: 6 Cora Masters describes the first phase in development for the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167972">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry talks about the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center campaign kickoff event</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167973">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry explains how she secured a developer for the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167974">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry talks about the Washington Tennis Foundation's effort to block the development of the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167975">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry talks about fundraising for the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167976">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry talks about Mayor Anthony Williams' contribution to the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167977">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry talks about the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center grand opening ceremony</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167978">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry talks about educational and athletic programming at the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167979">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry talks about celebrity philanthropists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167980">Tape: 7 Cora Masters Barry talks about educational and athletic programming at the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167981">Tape: 8 Cora Masters Barry talks about the poverty and socioeconomic issues in Southeast Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167982">Tape: 8 Cora Masters Barry talks about receiving an eviction notice from the Washington D.C. Mayor Adrian Fenty's office, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167983">Tape: 8 Cora Masters Barry talks about receiving an eviction notice from the Washington D.C. Mayor Adrian Fenty's office, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167984">Tape: 8 Cora Masters Barry talks about the involvement of HistoryMakers Dorothy Height and Maya Angelou in defense of the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167985">Tape: 8 Cora Masters Barry talks about the eviction court proceedings of the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center building, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167986">Tape: 8 Cora Masters Barry talks about the eviction court proceedings of the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center building, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167987">Tape: 8 Cora Masters Barry describes former Washington, D.C. Mayor Adrian Fenty's vision for the Southeast Tennis and Education Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167988">Tape: 8 Cora Masters Barry talks about importance of the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167989">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry talks about the talented players at the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center and hosting the National Junior Tennis League tournament</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167990">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry talks briefly about her home church, Union Temple Baptist</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167991">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry talks about the tenth anniversary of the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167992">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry describes the social services available at the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167993">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167994">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry talks the future of the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167995">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry talks about her daughters</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167996">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry talks about her mother, Isabell Masters' presidential campaign and an interaction with former U.S. president William "Bill" Clinton</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167997">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry talks about her friendship with HistoryMaker Marion Barry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/167998">Tape: 9 Cora Masters Barry talks about how she would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

1$2

DATape

2$6

DAStory

7$7

DATitle
Cora Masters Barry describes her experience at Pasadena City College, and explains how she got to Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri
Cora Masters Barry describes conceiving the idea for the Southeast Tennis and Learning Center in Washington, D.C.
Transcript
After high school [Paseo High School, later, Paseo Academy of Fine and Performing Arts, Kansas City, Missouri], then where did you go--$$Went back to Pasadena [California], went to Pasadena City College [Pasadena, California] and promptly flunked out.$$Now what do you attribute that to?$$Not being interested. I made an A and--let me see, I made an A, and a F, and the rest were Ds. I think the A was in a cappella choir and the D was in the gym--the F was in gym, which it meant, of course, that I never went. The D was in all the rest of it.$$Okay, so what did you after that?$$You mean what did my mother [Isabella Arch Masters] do?$$Yeah, what did your mother do?$$She told me I was going to get a college education or get a job, which, of course, terrified me the thought of getting a job.$$All right. So what did your mother--(simultaneous)--$$Well I was quite all right with flunking out because I really--they used to have a thing at Pasadena College called, The Wall. I used to spend a lot of time on it.$$This is w-a-l-l?$$You know where you hang out and talk, and just, you know. I was having a ball. The problem was a lot of my friends from high school were going to PCC [Pasadena City College]. You know, Pasadena City College was probably the highest rated junior college in the United States at that time. I mean Pasadena was--you know.$$This is '62 [1962], '63 [1963]?$$Yes. But her thing was, "You're going to get a job or you're going to get back into college," which, of course, the job thing kind of terrified me because I wasn't used to that. So she wanted me to go to Langston [University, Langston, Oklahoma]. I did not want to go to Langston because everybody in my family--my mother graduated from Langston, my father [Alfred Masters] graduated from there, my uncle, my aunt. I wasn't going to do the Langston thing. So she--I think they turned me down anyway. I think she applied. My grades were so bad. She said, "You apply as a freshman, forget that first disastrous year," which I told her I was going to do, but I never did. So my brother, which I hadn't mentioned, was a child preacher, started preaching three years old. So he was on the road a lot. I used to travel with him, singing a lot.$$This was an older brother?$$Baby brother.$$Okay.$$He's a bishop right now in West Palm Beach, Florida. But he used to travel all over the country and he was a preacher and I was the singer. There's a lot of stuff in my life. I can't remember all of it at one time.$$Now, you sang gospel?$$Mm-hmm.$$Okay.$$So were on the road that summer. Mother stopped talking to me about what--I don't know I probably lied and said I had applied and had not heard back or whatever. So were just traveling around the country and then we got to St. Louis, Missouri and we were on the way to Kansas City, Missouri, I think he preached in St. Louis we were on our way to Kansas City, Missouri which is where my aunt lived, which I'm sure he had some appointments to preach there also. And when we got to a place called Jefferson City, Missouri, my mother drove up this long hill and we were at this school called Lincoln University [Jefferson City, Missouri]. She went inside the building, the administration building, came back out with the dean of students, and took my suitcase out and said, "You're going here to college."$$And what happened?$$I had a fit. I wouldn't talk to the man. She had not warned me. But, see, I had graduated from a high school in Missouri and this was a state school, so if you graduated, it didn't matter. You could just-and she had told him all this and he said, "Contingent on her records, I'm going to take your word for it that she is a graduate from a school in Missouri, so we can take her now because we're having freshman orientation." My mother dropped me off in the middle of nowhere at Lincoln University. They took me over to a dormitory hall called Anthony Hall, which was nothing but freshman and she took me to my room. I was furious. I didn't want to speak to her. I didn't even say good bye. She dropped me and my little suitcase off in the middle of nowhere is where I describe it. She went on about her business. Well, she tells the story that she went to Kansas City, where she was heading. Jefferson City, Missouri is almost in the middle between St. Louis and Kansas City, so like maybe 130 miles from one and about 140 miles from the other. So she went to Kansas City, Missouri and her plan was to check back and if I was still in that mode, she would come back and get me. So she left me there. She called back about seven or eight o'clock. I don't know what time. I didn't have time to talk to her. I had met some kids from Cincinnati [Ohio], from Chicago [Illinois], from Dallas [Texas], and from Oklahoma City [Oklahoma], and one of our friend's father--her name was Jamilla Gibson[-Bell] . Her father [Joseph Deighton Gibson Jr.] was Jockey Jack and they used to call him "Jack, the rapper." Before he died, everybody knew him around the country, he is well-known. But, at the time, he was with Motown. So she had this portable battery-operated record player and they had all the advanced, pre-released versions of all Motown songs and another girlfriend that I met from Oklahoma City named Sandra Biggers [ph.] had a jug and on it wrote "medicine," but in it was wine. So between the records and the wine and the cards I was having a ball. So my mother called back. I was like, "I'm having fun." You know, "Alright thank you, talk to you later." So that's how I ended up at Lincoln University.$Okay, so you had projects all over the city [Washington, D.C.] at first. And then--so when did you focus in on this particular project here?$$Well, I really didn't focus on it as a project initially, not to the extent that it is now. One day I was riding down the street and I saw this property, this land, and there were a lot of young people hanging out, looking like they could get themselves in a little trouble and I saw these poles that looked like they were tennis things. And I checked and said, "Yeah, there used to be courts there." They used to be called The Hart Court because it's right next to Hart Junior High School [later, Hart Middles School, Washington, D.C.], and I said, "I wonder if we renovate or build some courts, will the kids come?" So I did a little cursory marketing survey. We built six courts, and all the tennis organizations starting playing courts on them and having programs. The Washington Tennis [and Education] Foundation started using it for their Arthur Ashe [Children's] Program, the (unclear) Tennis Council used it, Totally Tennis, Tennis at Shiloh, all those different organizations that had junior tennis programs started using these courts and myself used to come and play tennis with my husband [HM Marion Barry] and also my coach was Dr. Arnold McKnight. And I would come and play tennis with Marion and then be coached by Arnold, and I started playing with some of the kids and I just took an interest in them. And I found out that through playing tennis with them and watching them--they could really play tennis because many of them were playing with the Washington Tennis Foundation at that time because they had an inner-city program, although they were up on 16th Street. They had a sort of busing situation, but those kids would settle their difference or their beef on the corner at the tennis matches or they would be flipping the birdie at each other, or call each other names. I began to do what I considered informal mentoring. For example, I would give them assignments. For instance, I would say, "Today, I want you to write when you go to school, good attitude, good results, bad attitude, bad results. Give me five things you did that when you had a good attitude, what happened, and five things that happened when you had a bad attitude." Then I'd be there the next day to collect it and talk with them. Finally, one day, I was standing on the corner with Dr. McKnight and I said, "You know what, doc?" I just put the racket--I just dropped my racket, and I said, "You know what? I want to build a building." I really believe to this day and I will believe it until the day that I die that was a vision from the Holy Spirit; just something came over me and said, "You should build a building." He looked over across there and he said, "What do you mean?" I said, "This is not enough. Tennis is not enough for these kids. These kids need--they need mentoring; they need homework assistance, they need guidance, they need more in their life. Tennis is not going to get them where they're going, not from this community." He always laughed because he said, "Okay, that's great but right now we gotta finish this tennis lesson because I gotta go," he was a principal up at [Ferebee-Hope Elementary School, Washington D.C.] and he needed to get to school. It was early in the morning. And that was my first inspiration about doing something here on this property that we are sitting in right now.$$Now about what year was that?$$That was probably about 1995.

Gayle Holliday

Transportation executive, business consultant, and political activist Gayle Holliday was born on May 18, 1944 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma to Helen and George Smith. She graduated from Fredrick Douglass High School in 1962 before attending Howard University and ultimately graduating from Oklahoma City University with her B.A. degree in political science in 1968. Holliday later earned her M.P.A. degree from Central Michigan University in 1978 and her Ph.D. in management and applied technology from Webster University in 2004.

From 1969 to 1971, Holliday was the assistant dean of students at Federal City College in Washington D.C. She subsequently became a reporter and writer for Kansas City, Missouri’s CBS affiliate, KCMO-TV. In 1975, Holliday was hired by the Kansas City Area Transportation Authority as the personnel and equal employment opportunity manager. She was later promoted to the director of human resources; and, in 1986, she became deputy general manager. She left the Kansas City Area Transportation Authority in 1996 upon founding and becoming president and CEO of G&H Consulting, LLC where she monitored minority and women business enterprise compliance on the renovations of Kauffman and Arrowhead stadiums, the Kansas City Zoo, and a new police crime laboratory. G&H Consulting has also been a major consultant on five disparity studies for women and minorities, including for the City of Kansas City, Missouri; the State of Missouri; the Kansas City Area Transportation Authority; Jackson County, Missouri; and Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools.

Holliday has served on numerous committees throughout her career, including appointments to Bill Clinton’s presidential transition team in 1992; Kansas City, Missouri Mayor Emanuel Cleaver II’s task force on race relations in 1996; the Sixth Circuit Judicial Commission of Kansas City, Missouri in 2006; co-chair of Kansas City, Missouri Mayor Sly James’ Charter Commission in 2016; co-chair of Jackson County, Missouri’s Jail Task Force from 2016 to 2018; and Missouri Congressman Emanuel Cleaver II’s Black/Brown Coalition in 2017. She was also a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Links, Inc., and the Greater Kansas City Chamber of Commerce. In 2019, Holliday was named co-president of Freedom, Inc.

Holliday has received many awards, including being named one of the Top 50 Most Influential Black Women in Kansas City, Missouri in 1983; the Thomas G. Neusom Founder's Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Growth and Development of Minorities presented by the Conference of Minority Transportation Officials in 1989; the 1992 Service Award from the National Conference of Black Mayors; the 2005 Congressional Black Caucus’s Unsung Hero Award; and the 2018 Kansas City Area Transportation Authority’s Rosa Parks Trailblazer Award. She was also recognized by the 109th Congress for Outstanding Service in the State of Missouri and working to promote economic and political empowerment for African Americans and other minorities.

Gayle Holliday resides in Kansas City, Missouri, and has two children with her late husband, Harold Holliday, Jr.: Holli and Harold Holliday, III.

Gayle Holliday was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 6, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.132

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/6/2019

Last Name

Holliday

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Patricia

Schools

Dunbar Elementary School

F.D. Moon Junior High School

Frederick A. Douglass High School

Howard University

Oklahoma City University

Central Michigan University

Webster University

First Name

Gayle

Birth City, State, Country

Oklahoma City

HM ID

HOL26

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Fail To Plan, Plan To Fail

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Missouri

Birth Date

5/18/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Kansas City

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Any American Dish

Short Description

Transportation executive, business consultant, and political activist Gayle Holliday (1944- ) began working for the Kansas City Area Transportation Authority in 1975 before founding and becoming president and CEO of G&H Consulting, LLC. in 1996, and president of Freedom, Inc. in 2019.

Employment

Federal City College

KCMO-TV

Kansas City Area Transportation Authority

G&H Consulting, LLC

Favorite Color

Pink

Jewel Jones

Municipal administrator Jewel Jones was born on December 7, 1941 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma to Joseph and Jewel (neé Hathyel) Fisher. Jones received her B.S. degree in sociology in 1962 from Langston University in Langston, Oklahoma, and later obtained her M.A. degree in public administration in 1974 from University of Alaska, Anchorage.

Jones taught at the Seidman School, in Los Angeles, California in 1962 and then served as a correctional officer for the State of California Department of Corrections from 1963 to 1965, and as a probation officer for the County of San Bernardino, California from 1965 to 1967. She moved to Anchorage, Alaska in 1967 where she was hired as deputy executive director at the Community Action Agency in Anchorage from 1967 to 1970. As the social services director for the City of Anchorage from 1970 to 1987, Jones was instrumental in the establishment of the Anchorage Senior Center in 1981. She was then named social services manager for the Municipality of Anchorage and worked there from 1987 to 2000, and went on to the role of director, health & human services for the Municipality of Anchorage until 2003. Jones served on the sponsoring committee supporting the establishment of the Anchorage Urban League in 2006 and served as interim executive director of Anchorage Community Land Trust in 2007 and accepted the permanent position later that year serving for seven years until 2014.

Jones was inducted into the Alaska Women’s Hall of Fame in 2013. The Jewel Jones Community Center opened in 2016 in Anchorage’s Mountain View neighborhood, was named in her honor for her advocacy and work in community development.

Jones received the 2003 Anchorage Chamber of Commerce ATHENA Award and the Meritorious Service Award for significant public, academic, volunteer or philanthropic service to the University of Alaska community in 2016.

In addition to her public and private service career, Jones has been active on many boards and community groups, including the board of Commonwealth North, United Way of Anchorage and the board of Alaska Center for the Performing Arts. She spent eight years as the chair of the board of the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation, where she helped to ensure that senior housing projects were built across the state. Jones has worked to provide opportunities for women and minorities in Alaska and she has been active in the Alaska Black Caucus and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She currently serves as a member of the board of trustees of Alaska Regional Hospital and board member of Cook Inlet Lending Center.

Jones and her husband Maurice have two adult children, Anthony and Carmen.

Jewel Jones was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 21, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.100

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/21/2018

Last Name

Jones

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Jewel

Birth City, State, Country

Oklahoma City

HM ID

JON43

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York

Favorite Quote

Sometimes, You Think Good Things Happen To Those That Keep Working At It

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alaska

Birth Date

12/7/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Anchorage

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Tacos

Short Description

Municipal administrator Jewel Jones (1941- ) helped to establish the Anchorage Urban League in 2006, and served as the executive director of the Anchorage Community Land Trust in 2007.

Favorite Color

Teal

Charles N. Atkins

Investment banker Charles N. Atkins was born on December 12, 1952 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma to Dr. Charles Atkins, Sr. and Hannah Diggs Atkins. Atkins’ mother was the first African American woman to be elected to the Oklahoma House of Representatives in 1958, serving until 1980. Atkins graduated from Bishop McGuinness Catholic High School in Oklahoma City in 1971, and went on to receive his B.A. degree in political science, magna cum laude, from Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1975. Atkins then earned his J.D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1978.

Following his graduation from Harvard Law School, Atkins served as an associate assistant to President Jimmy Carter, and as the second legislative counsel to U.S. Senator David L. Boren of Oklahoma. In 1984, he was named deputy director of the Democratic National Convention platform committee, as well as deputy campaign manager for Walter Mondale’s vice-presidential candidate, Geraldine Ferarro. Atkins worked as a senior vice president at Lehman Brothers from 1988 to 1990 before leaving to join Morgan Stanley. As executive director, Atkins focused on corporate structured finance and utility sector recapitalization, and headed the corporate reorganization of Constellation Energy. He also served on President Bill Clinton’s presidential transition team in 1993, and was appointed by President Clinton to serve on the Advisory Committee of the U.S. Export-Import Bank. Atkins left Morgan Stanley in 2013 to found Atkins Capital Strategies LLC. In 2015, he became the executive chairman of Premier League Basketball in the United Kingdom, and a partner at Maroon Capital Group LLC. In 2017, Atkins became a senior advisor at Guggenheim Securities, LLC in New York City, focusing on corporate structured finance for corporate and financial sponsor clients.

Atkins was a trustee of The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the American Folk Art Museum, in addition to serving on the board of advisors for his elementary school, Casady School in Oklahoma City. Atkins also worked with McKinsey & Company, publishing multiple financial reports such as Global Capital Markets: Entering a New Era, in collaboration with a team of economists. Atkins has been awarded two U.S. patents for innovative financing structures.

Charles N. Atkins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 16, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.040

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/16/2016

Last Name

Atkins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Middle Name

N.

Schools

Bishop Mcguinness Catholic High School

Harvard Law School

Edwards Elementary School

Casady School

Howard University

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Oklahoma City

HM ID

ATK01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean Beaches

Favorite Quote

The Struggle Continues.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/25/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Macaroni And Cheese, Peach Pie

Short Description

Investment banker Charles N. Atkins (1953 - ) served as the executive director of Morgan Stanley from 1990 to 2013, the founder of Atkins Capital Strategies LLC, and a senior advisor at Guggenheim Securities, LLC.

Employment

The United States Government

United States Senate

Democratic National Convention

Geraldine Ferarro's Campaign

Lehman Brothers

Morgan Stanley

Atkins Capital Strategies

Maroon Capital Group LLC

Akin Gump

Butler and Binion

Favorite Color

Bright Orange, Orange-Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665429">Tape: 1 Slating of Charles N. Atkins' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665430">Tape: 1 Charles N. Atkins lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665431">Tape: 1 Charles N. Atkins describes his father's family background, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665432">Tape: 1 Charles N. Atkins describes his father's family background, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665433">Tape: 1 Charles N. Atkins describes how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665434">Tape: 1 Charles N. Atkins talks about his father's medical career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665435">Tape: 1 Charles N. Atkins talks about the African American community in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665436">Tape: 1 Charles N. Atkins describes his mother's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665437">Tape: 2 Charles N. Atkins describes his mother's family background, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665438">Tape: 2 Charles N. Atkins talks about his maternal family's education and professions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665439">Tape: 2 Charles N. Atkins recalls his early civil rights activities in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665440">Tape: 2 Charles N. Atkins remembers integrating the Casady School in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665441">Tape: 2 Charles N. Atkins describes his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665442">Tape: 2 Charles N. Atkins describes his community in rural Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665443">Tape: 2 Charles N. Atkins describes his experiences of desegregation in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665444">Tape: 3 Charles N. Atkins remembers the desegregation of the Oklahoma City Public Schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665445">Tape: 3 Charles N. Atkins talks about his mother's activism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665446">Tape: 3 Charles N. Atkins describes his mother's political career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665447">Tape: 3 Charles N. Atkins describes his mother's involvement with the National Black Political Conventions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665448">Tape: 3 Charles N. Atkins describes his experiences at Howard University, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665449">Tape: 3 Charles N. Atkins describes is experiences at Howard University in Washington, D.C., pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665450">Tape: 3 Charles N. Atkins describes his undergraduate honors thesis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665451">Tape: 4 Charles N. Atkins talks about his high school activism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665452">Tape: 4 Charles N. Atkins describes his early experiences of religion</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665453">Tape: 4 Charles N. Atkins talks about his decision to attend Harvard Law School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665454">Tape: 4 Charles N. Atkins remembers his professors and classmates at Harvard Law School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665455">Tape: 4 Charles N. Atkins talks about the diverse student body of Harvard Law School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665456">Tape: 4 Charles N. Atkins recalls Harvard University's divestment from South Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665457">Tape: 4 Charles N. Atkins talks about his summer law internships</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665458">Tape: 5 Charles N. Atkins describes his experiences at Akin Gump Strauss Hauer and Feld LLP</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665459">Tape: 5 Charles N. Atkins describes his role in the Office of Public Liaison under President Jimmy Carter</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665460">Tape: 5 Charles N. Atkins remembers working as legislative counsel to Senator David Boren</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665461">Tape: 5 Charles N. Atkins remembers meeting Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665462">Tape: 5 Charles N. Atkins describes his work on the Democratic Party Platform Committee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/665463">Tape: 6 Charles N. Atkins narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Charles N. Atkins recalls his early civil rights activities in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Charles N. Atkins describes his work on the Democratic Party Platform Committee
Transcript
And so we have here, here is, (displays photograph) here is my--this is in Oklahoma City [Oklahoma], in, on November 7th in 1955. This is a particular photograph that was done by an Associated Press for--person. This was upon the, the, upon the particular ruling by the Interstate Commerce Commission that basically train travel in, would, would basically no longer be, be segregated. And so this was in the Santa Fe train station, Oklahoma City [Santa Fe Depot, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma], in 1955, and so I'm that young, almost three year old, in my dad's [Charles N. Atkins, Sr.] arms and we were a nice looking Negro family, and we were looking up at a sign that said Negro waiting room. And so this is the whole story about how I was born into Jim Crow. As a, as a young child at the ages of four and five I remember participating in sit-in demonstrations in Oklahoma City, which were 1957, 1958. We had the longest continuous sit-in of demonstration in American history, which was, which was basically prior to Greensboro [North Carolina] in 1960. In Oklahoma City, the NAACP Youth Council led by Miss, Miss Clara Luper, all of us marched, and so as a child I marched. And I have vivid memories of white and colored signs. And, and, and so I also attended an outstanding segregated elementary school, Edwards Elementary School [Oklahoma City, Oklahoma], where I, I got a, a great start and then in 1965, we--our particular family is third or fourth generation Episcopalian, active in the Episcopal church in Oklahoma City. My older brother Edmund [Edmund E. Atkins] who was in that particular photo, was not allowed to attend the Episcopal prep school in Oklahoma City, which is Casady School, which is still absolutely the best school in Oklahoma, Casady School. He was not allowed to attend even though it is an Episcopal school.$$Because he was black?$$Yes. And it was all-white.$$And what year was this?$$This was up until '65 [1965]. In '65 [1965] I was part of four students who integrated Casady School as sixth graders, and it was all students from our church, and which was a black Episcopalian church in Oklahoma City, the wonderful, the wonderful Church of the Redeemer [Episcopal Church of the Redeemer] and so I integrated Casady School, a tremendous education. I studied classical Greek. I studied Latin. I studied French. It was, it was a top notch, you know, more of a New England style prep school with, with chapel every day, uniforms, jackets and ties at chapel and at lunch and I have lifelong friends. It was a tremendously positive experience integrating that.$David Boren was a good man. He was a seatmate of Hannah's [Atkins' mother, Hannah Diggs Atkins] in the Oklahoma Legislature. He was in the, the House of Representatives [Oklahoma House of Representatives], he was one of the youngest governors and he was the close, close friend. I worked for him. He was a good friend of my dad's [Charles N. Atkins, Sr.]. He, he gave a wonderful eulogy at Hannah's funeral, along with the governor and, but we will get to that in our next round.$$Okay.$$But from the, from the Boren office, my dear, my dear late wife Gayle [Gayle Perkins Atkins], she was editorial director at, at Channel 4 [WRC-TV] in D.C. [Washington, D.C.]. She had, she had, she had a particular session with Ann Lewis who is basically Barney Frank's sister, and Lewis was a major, major Democratic Party activist. And she mentioned to Gayle that there was this woman in [U.S.] Congress from Queens [New York] named, named Geraldine Ferraro who was gonna be chair of the Democratic Party Platform Committee, and so Ann Lewis mentioned to Gayle, "You know what, we're doing staff for the, for the Democratic Party Platform Committee," and she asked Gayle, "Do you know anybody who, who, might be good on that staff?" And Gayle said, "Yeah, my husband" (laughter). And so I became right after I worked, I helped David Boren do the response to the State of the Union, I helped him write that, I moved over to the, to the DNC [Democratic National Committee]. This was '83 [1983]. This was basically February of '83 [1983], and I, it was Susan Estrich who was also, who was a year or two, year or two of me--year or two ahead of me at Harvard Law School [Cambridge, Massachusetts], was the first, the first woman to be president of the Harvard Law Review. She was active in, in, in, in Democratic Party politics. And so it was, it was me and Susan Estrich who headed up the, that, that, that staff for the Democratic Party platform. All throughout '83 [1983] and '84 [1984], so it was Jesse Jackson [HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson] campaign, Gary Hart campaign and Walter Mondale campaign and we held maybe ten or fifteen hearings. [HistoryMaker] Richard Arrington who was the, the, the first black mayor of, of Birmingham [Alabama], was the chair of the, was the basically deputy chair and then Geraldine was the chair, so after doing that whole, that whole complex Democratic Party platform with three active Democratic Party--three active presidential campaigns, I'm there in San Francisco [California] at the Democratic, at the, at the San Francisco convention [1984 Democratic National Convention, San Francisco, California], and I'm there in the hotel suite with, with Geraldine. I was there when Walter Mondale called her to join the 1984 ticket, and so I was her first hug. I gave her her first hug and she said, "Charles [HistoryMaker Charles N. Atkins] I want you on the campaign plane with me, I want you there with me." And so I became deputy campaign manager, 1984 presidential campaign and it was a great, eighty-four campaign stops in twenty-five states and a great historical experience, even though we lost, lost forty-nine states, it was a great experience.

Clifford Houston

Microbiologist Clifford Wayne Houston was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on December 3, 1949. Houston attended Oklahoma State University where he earned his B.S. degree in microbiology and chemistry in 1972, and his M.S. degree in biology in 1974. He went on to receive his Ph.D. degree in microbiology and immunology from the University of Oklahoma in 1979. Upon completion, Houston was awarded a James W. McLaughlin postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB).

Houston began at UTMB in 1981 as an assistant professor. He was then promoted to associate professor with tenure in 1987, and became Full Professor and Associate Vice President for Educational Outreach in 1991. As a researcher at UTMB, Houston focused on the role that bacterial toxins play in the pathogenesis of disease. His findings have been published in academic journals such as the Journal of Bacteriology, the Journal of Clinical Microbiology and the Journal of Infectious Diseases. As an administrator, Houston participated in the management development program at the Graduate School of Education at Harvard University in 1994. In 1997, Houston was named the Herman Barnett Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Immunology. He also served as deputy associate administrator for education in the Office of Education at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. from 2003 to 2005. At NASA, he provided day-to-day oversight and guidance for three primary divisions: elementary and secondary education, higher education and informal education.

Houston has been active in many professional organizations, including serving as chair of the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students Steering & Planning Committee, and chair of the American Society for Microbiology Education Board. He also sat on the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences External Advisory Council. In 2011, Houston was appointed by the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services to the National Advisory Board for Bio-security.

Throughout his career, Houston has received numerous honors and awards. He received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring in 2000. Houston was elected to the American Academy of Microbiology in 1997; and, in 2006, he became the first African American elected as president of the American Society for Microbiology – the world’s largest professional biological research organization. Houston also continued to devote the time to mentoring and youth outreach. He established many educational programs and activities in the Galveston, Texas community as well as across the country to enhance the interest of young students in mathematics and science.

Clifford W. Houston was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 31, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.030

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/31/2013

Last Name

Houston

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Occupation
Schools

Oklahoma State University

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Clifford

Birth City, State, Country

Oklahoma City

HM ID

HOU02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/3/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Galveston

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Steak, Potatoes (Baked)

Short Description

Microbiologist Clifford Houston (1949 - ) , the first African American elected as president of the American Society for Microbiology, is the Herman Barnett Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at University of Texas Medical Branch.

Employment

Oklahoma State University

Langston University

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

University of Texas Medical Branch

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Favorite Color

Browns, Earth Tones, Grays

Timing Pairs
0,0:2924,27:3582,35:4146,42:4522,47:7436,67:8094,75:8752,83:9974,109:10726,120:14486,170:15050,177:56644,682:62236,698:66232,826:68230,861:69784,895:70154,900:71338,920:71856,928:72374,937:72892,945:74298,964:75926,992:81368,1022:81664,1027:86622,1112:87806,1129:88102,1134:89138,1155:89434,1160:95263,1204:102390,1289:104653,1332:104945,1342:105894,1359:106989,1386:107427,1393:110639,1438:113530,1449$0,0:728,4:3920,55:5972,81:6580,91:7644,108:9316,184:10000,194:25640,396:26280,405:27000,416:27560,424:28200,433:30520,464:31320,481:31800,488:32520,499:33240,511:37661,522:39715,540:40505,551:41769,556:43191,580:43507,587:44929,628:45482,633:46509,649:47062,657:48405,686:48958,697:49353,703:51565,744:58206,791:59146,803:62329,829:64606,855:65497,865:66388,876:66982,883:68665,906:72615,928:74915,952:76525,975:84490,1041:85458,1062:86338,1075:95490,1147:96293,1159:96658,1165:97023,1171:99359,1215:99724,1221:103520,1298:105856,1340:111460,1370:117834,1523:120426,1560:140220,1749:140580,1754:142560,1795:160820,2024:162978,2056:165053,2086:165883,2099:167958,2126:173676,2157:174356,2170:177008,2217:177620,2227:177960,2233:182544,2284:186740,2322:187250,2330:187590,2335:188100,2343:189035,2354:189375,2359:193200,2413:193540,2418:195070,2444:195665,2453:196005,2458:196515,2465:202084,2473:204220,2501:205021,2511:205377,2516:209115,2551:209471,2556:213302,2581:214382,2591:214958,2603:216542,2628:219494,2708:220070,2726:222374,2765:222662,2770:226558,2780:228556,2806:231442,2856:241964,2992:242612,3002:251624,3113:252443,3123:252807,3128:254536,3148:255173,3158:257840,3168:258152,3173:261116,3231:261506,3237:261974,3245:262676,3252:263534,3265:265952,3301:266654,3312:267044,3318:270480,3332:270680,3337:271080,3347:271380,3354:271730,3362:274088,3388:274496,3395:274768,3400:276020,3412
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25518">Tape: 1 Slating of Clifford Houston's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25519">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25520">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25521">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston talks about his mother's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25522">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25523">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston talks about how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25524">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston talks about his parents' jobs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25525">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston describes his parents and who he takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25526">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston talks about his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25527">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25528">Tape: 1 Clifford Houston describes his childhood homes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25529">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about the Gordon Oaks sub-division of Oklahoma City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25530">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25531">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about his growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25532">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston describes his childhood neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25533">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about his elementary and middle schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25534">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about his high school and the demographics of Oklahoma City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25535">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about his childhood research lab</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25536">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about his interest in medicine while</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25537">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about meeting his first role model</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25538">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about his elementary school teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25539">Tape: 2 Clifford Houston talks about his science experiment on the behavioral effects of removing adrenal glands from rats</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25540">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about his adrenal gland experiment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25541">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about his involvement in the church and his interest in music growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25542">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about his high school experience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25543">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about scientific breakthroughs and his interest in science fiction during his formative years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25544">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about his childhood jobs and career aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25545">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about his extracurricular activities at Northeast High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25546">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about his high school science projects</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25547">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about his decision to go to college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25548">Tape: 3 Clifford Houston talks about Oklahoma State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25549">Tape: 4 Clifford Houston talks about his experience teaching at Langston University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25550">Tape: 4 Clifford Houston talks about his master's thesis on the isolation of plant enzymes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25551">Tape: 4 Clifford Houston describes his doctoral research on the pathogenicity of bacteria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25552">Tape: 4 Clifford Houston talks about flesh-eating bacteria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25553">Tape: 4 Clifford Houston talks about his post-doctoral mentor and his post-doctoral student</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25554">Tape: 4 Clifford Houston talks about Herman Barnett</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25555">Tape: 4 Clifford Houston reflects on his experiences with racism in Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25556">Tape: 5 Clifford Houston reflects on his experiences with racism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25557">Tape: 5 Clifford Houston talks about his work with NASA</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25558">Tape: 5 Clifford Houston talks about the microbiological risks of long-term space travel and NASA's spin-off technologies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25559">Tape: 5 Clifford Houston talks about deficiencies with U.S. primary and secondary education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25560">Tape: 5 Clifford Houston talks about his experience as president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25561">Tape: 5 Clifford Houston talks about his transition from research into administration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25562">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about his work at the University of Texas Medical Branch</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25563">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about his student, Monique Ferguson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25564">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about microbiology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25565">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about the lack of conflict between creationism and evolution</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25566">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about his future plans and interests in the field of microbiology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25567">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about receiving the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25568">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston reflects upon his life choices</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25569">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25570">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25571">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about his son</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25572">Tape: 6 Clifford Houston talks about the T-STEM Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25573">Tape: 7 Clifford Houston talks about how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/25574">Tape: 7 Clifford Houston describes his photos</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

11$2

DATitle
Clifford Houston talks about his science experiment on the behavioral effects of removing adrenal glands from rats
Clifford Houston talks about his work with NASA
Transcript
Okay. So, now, at John F. Kennedy Junior High School, was there a special teacher there that you remember?$$That's, so that would be, wait a minute, seventh through the eighth grade. I think so, yeah, but I'm blanking on her name. I probably had a crush on her, too (laughter). But she helped me with science. And she helped me with my first science project. I can't call her name right now. But all the guys just thought she was the most beautiful woman they'd ever seen (laughter). Of course, we were just in the seventh grade. But I remember she spent time with me working on a science project, and it was a very sophisticated project. So, you're asking me--so, but at that time I was still doing stuff down in my parents' [Mae Frances Hanley and Edgar Houston] basement at this other house. And that's where I really had the rats and stuff like that. And so, she helped me with this project where I was working with the adrenal glands in rats, to determine, you know, if you remove the adrenal glands, if that will have an impact on them in terms of their behavior. Because the adrenal glands, that's the gland that produces the hormone that tells you when to either run or fight. You know, it makes you stronger than you normally would be. So, when you're challenged, that gland kicks in and produces a hormone that will allow you to run faster and allow you to do things that you normally wouldn't do under peaceful conditions.$You spent a time as Deputy Assistant Administrator for Education Programs in the Office of Education at the National Aeronautical and Space Administration [NASA].$$I was definitely an associate administrator.$$Okay, associate administrator.$$Then that's like two levels below the administrator, which is the highest position at the headquarters. There, I was in charge of all of the educational programs across the country that are implemented at the seven space centers that are spread across the country, as well as in charge of museums associated with space. For example, we have a space center in Houston [Texas] which is just adjacent to the Johnson Space Center. And there are several of these types of museums. We call them informal education venues. And it's a way in which you educate the public. And so, I was in charge of that as well as secondary education, higher education and informal education. And I was also over the Office of Technology and product production at NASA headquarters.$$Okay. So, you did that for two years, right?$$I did that for two years. It was a good experience, from 2003 to basically 2005. And the interesting thing about that was, I was in the middle of packing to leave Texas to move up to Washington, D.C. [District of Columbia]. And on the day that I was packing--the movers were at my house to move me to D.C., and that was the day that the shuttle crashed [Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster, February 1, 2003]. And I can remember, my son and I were sitting on the bed looking at what was going on, and it just exploded. So, my son paused, and he says, "Well, are you still going?" And I said "Yes, I'm going to still go." And so, I went there and the morale was pretty low at headquarters. Sean O'Keefe was the administrator of NASA at that time. And we were in a mode. Immediately, we were in a mode of returning the flight. In other words, getting to the point where we could start flying the shuttle again. As you know, it's currently, it's now retired as a spacecraft. But I got involved with not only doing my job in terms of the Education Office, but also advising NASA in terms of what could be the impact from a microbiological point of view of long-term space travel. As you might imagine, the majority of the workforce at NASA are engineers. And many of them have no idea about what happens if you have long-term human space flight, and what impact that might have in terms of your immune system, which long-term exposure to radiation will cause a immunocompromised state in your body where you lose your function, your immune functions to protect you against infections.$$So, if you don't use them, if they're not being used, they start--$$No. The radiation is killing the antibodies in your body. It causes mutations in genes that would then harm your function of your immune system. Your immune system is what protects you from getting sick, getting infected. So, that's one thing. But at the same time, the long-term exposure to radiation has your immune system, in terms of suppressing your immunity; the long-term exposure to radiation will cause mutations and germs, or bacteria, that will cause them to become more virulent. In other words, cause them to become stronger and tougher organisms, and enhances its ability to cause disease. So, with those two things working together, then that makes people more susceptible.

Legand Burge, Jr.

Engineer and academic administrator Legand Burge, Jr. was born on August 3, 1949 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. His parents, Bobbie and Legand Burge, Sr., had a profound impact on their children’s lives. Burge’s father, an electronics radar technician by background, served in the U.S. Navy during World War II and rose to the rank of master sergeant in the U.S. Air Force after the war, and continued to work with radar technology for the Federal Aviation Administration. Burge excelled in math and science during elementary school, and upon graduating from Oklahoma City Douglass High School in 1965, he was offered a scholarship to study at Oklahoma State University, where he earned his B.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1971. During college, Burge held internships with Oklahoma Gas and Electric. He considered establishing a career there, but through his acceptance to the Air Force Institute of Technology, he earned his M.S. degree in 1973. He was then assigned to work at the Sunnyvale Air Force Base in California with the National Reconnaissance Office. After four years of service, Burge returned to Oklahoma State University to study under Dr. Rao Yarlagadda, earning his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1979.

Burge’s career has focused on information theory, coding theory, digital signal processing, and communications—areas of research that had become very popular during the 1970s and 1980s with the rise of both commercial technology and the military needs of the Cold War. Burge taught at the Air Force Academy before being selected to serve in the Intermediate Service School at the Air Command and Staff College. Shortly after, he was invited to work at the Pentagon under General Colin Powell’s supervision. Burge was assigned to the research and development group of the air staff’s International Program. In 1987, Burge became a lead researcher at the National Security Agency and later returned to the Pentagon, working as a cost estimator for the defense secretary. Burge retired from the military in 1999 after having served as vice commander of the entire Air Force ROTC program and the dean of the Acquisition Management School at the Defense Systems Management College. He was subsequently named a professor of electrical engineering and Dean of the College of Engineering, Architecture, and Physical Sciences at Tuskegee University.

Burge has been recognized for his administrative and research capabilities throughout his career. He was elected to the American Society of Engineering Education Executive Board in 2005. He has also worked with his son, Legand Burge, III to operate LL Burge & Associates, a consulting firm that addresses information technology needs.

Burge is the father of three adult children: Legand Burge, III, LeAnn Crisp, and Lamuelle Burge, and the step-father of Louis Burge.

Legand Burge, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 11, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.016

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/11/2011

Last Name

Burge

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L

Schools

Frederick A. Douglass High School

Oklahoma State University

F. D. Moon Academy

Truman Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
Archival Photo 2
First Name

Legand

Birth City, State, Country

Oklahoma City

HM ID

BUR19

Favorite Season

Winter

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

You Got To Have A Program.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/3/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tuskegee

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Academic administrator and electrical engineer Legand Burge, Jr. (1949 - ) became the dean of the College of Engineering, Architecture, and Physical Sciences at Tuskegee University in 1999, after a thirty-year career in the United States Air Force.

Employment

Oklahoma Gas & Electric

Air Force Academy

United States Department of Defense

National Security Agency (NSA)

L. L. Burge & Associates

Tuskegee University

United States Air Force

Defense Systems Management College

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:7171,143:7668,151:9017,189:12922,256:13206,261:19667,386:32726,489:33384,497:37614,549:40820,558:43988,577:46004,601:46964,615:48308,628:51572,662:51956,667:52916,682:62020,769:68851,874:77212,965:77524,970:78226,980:81034,1029:94815,1234:99656,1268:118257,1459:119742,1481:121524,1502:132974,1653:137798,1762:147466,1944:152692,2156:160898,2322:162360,2346:171390,2485:181782,2613:184568,2633:188294,2702:188780,2709:189347,2718:190481,2740:215040,3070:215400,3079:216750,3096:217380,3105:218550,3116:218910,3121:219360,3127:231050,3268:232250,3293:237520,3353$0,0:1138,9:2356,30:2994,40:3226,45:3690,55:4154,64:4386,69:4618,74:7190,86:8020,97:11976,133:12558,141:19462,212:21828,257:22283,263:22829,270:24467,285:24922,291:25650,302:31410,339:32010,346:34160,357:34660,363:37720,382:38398,390:40867,421:45670,435:57202,512:58570,539:60658,581:61018,587:61306,592:62170,602:66738,688:72670,776:75212,828:75540,833:76278,844:76934,866:79230,911:81034,957:81526,964:85042,984:85609,993:87472,1023:89902,1082:97840,1119:98180,1160:102884,1239:103196,1244:106154,1261:106960,1278:111174,1328:111958,1339:114030,1351:114555,1360:114855,1365:115905,1388:119505,1474:122580,1578:128348,1635:128833,1641:129803,1650:131064,1664:131937,1673:132810,1685:133877,1697:134847,1714:135429,1722:136108,1730:143418,1842:148662,1951:149802,1978:150410,1988:151322,2004:155880,2009:156501,2024:158157,2057:158778,2070:159468,2081:159744,2086:160434,2097:160917,2106:161400,2113:166870,2142:167816,2154:168160,2159:168934,2169:169278,2174:170826,2207:171342,2215:174352,2261:175298,2275:176416,2295:177964,2318:178480,2325:183085,2341:183535,2349:186610,2409:189160,2461:189535,2467:192085,2505:193060,2522:200000,2587:200714,2595:203170,2621:203995,2634:204595,2645:213765,2715:215070,2724:219618,2758:220448,2775:224266,2845:224930,2854:225843,2867:226175,2872:226756,2881:227503,2892:231132,2919:234220,2925:234808,2934:235816,2946:236488,2955:238000,2981:238504,2988:239092,2996:242360,3011:242728,3016:245490,3043:246896,3073:247858,3085:249708,3120:250448,3131:250818,3137:251632,3149:252076,3156:252668,3167:253112,3174:253556,3182:254296,3193:254666,3199:259001,3224:259333,3229:260661,3248:261823,3264:262155,3269:263649,3308:264147,3315:268712,3392:269044,3397:269874,3408:275221,3452:275760,3457:276607,3469:277223,3478:277762,3487:279225,3509:279533,3514:279841,3519:280534,3531:281150,3541:282074,3556:282613,3563:283075,3570:287110,3588:287608,3595:289019,3633:289434,3639:292173,3684:293169,3703:293750,3711:298979,3814:300888,3847:306305,3887:307052,3898:307467,3904:307799,3909:310621,3977:314937,4095:316016,4106:317261,4127:318174,4139:321670,4144
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30712">Tape: 1 Slating of Legand Burge's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30713">Tape: 1 Legand Burge shares his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30714">Tape: 1 Legand Burge talks about his mother's side of the family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30715">Tape: 1 Legand Burge explains his family's involvement in the history of negro spirituals</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30716">Tape: 1 Legand Burge talks about his family's Native American lineage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30717">Tape: 1 Legand Burge talks about his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30718">Tape: 1 Legand Burge talks about his father's side of the family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30719">Tape: 1 Legand Burge talks about his father's siblings and home town</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30720">Tape: 2 Legand Burge talks about his father's education and military experience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30721">Tape: 2 Legand Burge explains the parceling of the family property, part 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30722">Tape: 2 Legand Burge explains the parceling of the family property, part 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30723">Tape: 2 Legand Burge talks about his father's military promotions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30724">Tape: 2 Legand Burge talks about his parents' meeting and his mother's cooking ability</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30725">Tape: 2 Legand Burge explains his mother's approach to home training</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30726">Tape: 3 Legand Burge discusses the nature of his segregated school system</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30727">Tape: 3 Legand Burge discusses his school's tracking system</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30728">Tape: 3 Legand Burge talks about playing the piano at his church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30729">Tape: 3 Legand Burge responds to a question about the Church of the Nazarene</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30730">Tape: 3 Legand Burge recounts how he got into electrical engineering</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30731">Tape: 3 Legand Burge talks about his school experience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30732">Tape: 3 Legand Burge discusses educational philosophy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30733">Tape: 4 Legand Burge recalls his high school mentors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30734">Tape: 4 Legand Burge describes how family gatherings minimized the effect of his parents' divorce</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30735">Tape: 4 Legand Burge describes his father's remarriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30736">Tape: 4 Legand Burge talks about his social and extracurricular high school experience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30737">Tape: 4 Legand Burge talks about his favorite musicians</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30738">Tape: 4 Legand Burge recounts his experience at Oklahoma State University, part 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30739">Tape: 4 Legand Burge recounts his experience at Oklahoma State University, part 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30740">Tape: 5 Legand Burge details his memory of the Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination in 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30741">Tape: 5 Legand Burge discusses his family's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30742">Tape: 5 Legand Burge recalls his involvement in black student organizations at Oklahoma State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30743">Tape: 5 Legand Burge talks about speech recognition technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30744">Tape: 5 Legand Burge talks about his experience in the Air Force ROTC program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30745">Tape: 5 Legand Burge talks about his work as a satellite officer in the Air Force ROTC</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30746">Tape: 5 Legand Burge explains how he got his master's degree</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30747">Tape: 5 Legand Burge talks about the effects of his Ph.D. studies on his marriage, part 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30748">Tape: 6 Legand Burge talks about the effects of his Ph.D. studies on his marriage, part 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30749">Tape: 6 Legand Burge explains his Ph.D. dissertation in speech recognition technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30750">Tape: 6 Legand Burge describes accents and speech recognition software</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30751">Tape: 6 Legand Burge discusses speech recognition technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30752">Tape: 6 Legand Burge talks about his 1984 experience in the Air Command and Staff College of the Air Force Academy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30753">Tape: 6 Legand Burge details his work at the Pentagon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30754">Tape: 6 Legand Burge relates his achievements at the Pentagon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30755">Tape: 7 Legand Burge talks about his work at the National Security Agency</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30756">Tape: 7 Legand Burge responds to a question about tracking technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30757">Tape: 7 Legand Burge recalls his experience during the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30758">Tape: 7 Legand Burge talks about technological developments and U.S. national security</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30759">Tape: 7 Legand Burge talks about his experience in the Air War College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30760">Tape: 7 Legand Burge discusses his work for the Secretary of Defense at the Pentagon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30761">Tape: 7 Legand Burge recalls his job as commander of ROTC programs at Tuskegee University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30762">Tape: 8 Legand Burge talks about his transition from the military to the electrical engineering department at Tuskegee University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30763">Tape: 8 Legand Burge shares a story about nearly leaving his position at Tuskegee University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30764">Tape: 8 Legand Burge talks about creating L.L. Burge and Associates with his children</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30765">Tape: 8 Legand Burge reflects on his life's accomplishments</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30766">Tape: 8 Legand Burge shares his thoughts on the future of Tuskegee University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/30767">Tape: 8 Legand Burge responds to a question about how he would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

2$7

DATitle
Legand Burge discusses his school's tracking system
Legand Burge relates his achievements at the Pentagon
Transcript
A kind of tracking system.$$And it tracked, it tracked us from the time we left elementary. The better students were kind of tracked in their special courses. We got the better math, the better science, the better physics and all that through the junior high school. And we were forced into this higher end math. I actually had calculus before I left high school, all right. So we were tracked into the whole thing. As a matter of fact, my high school class, 1967, has today, of any Douglas High School group, of the whole time, more lawyers, doctors, colonels, high-end administrators. We got three or four politicians, just significant achievement from that class. We had about 420 to graduate. And I understand about 80 percent of the folk actually went to college, okay. We're talking 1967 now. I went to Oklahoma State [University, Stillwater, Oklahoma] and twenty of us went to Oklahoma State in engineering, all right. Seven of us graduated. So just unusually high preparation for, you know, achieving in the science and the engineering and the math. So that's really quite (unclear). And that happened out of [Frederick] Douglass [High School]. We had people winning science fairs, nationwide, out of Douglas, statewide. We had folks going to music, state music, and winning competition. As a matter of fact, the choir, the band, it was not unusual for us to win the statewide competition in choir and band because we were just that good, and I'm talking classical, you know, producing the kind of development with the entire repertoire, you know, doing concerts. That was just unusual, all right. So we were exposed to this business in the '50s [1950s] and '60s [1960s]. And you gotta understand that a lot of those professors were coming from, you know, Florida A and M [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida], and they ended up going to, you know, coming to Oklahoma City. We had people coming out of Tuskegee [University, Tuskegee, Alabama], coming here, you know, Howard [University, Washington D.C.], Hampton [University, Hampton, Virginia]. They would come and they'd work there and what have you. As a matter of fact, the guy who taught music actually studied at Fisk [University, Nashville, Tennessee], a guy named Leroy Hicks. He was there for like twenty or thirty, forty years. I had French from a black lady who had studied over in Paris [France], and she taught French. Matter of fact, Madam James, as her name was called, taught us one first, second, third year of French as you--and when you, believe it or not, I never had anymore French, and I could still go to France and be very comfortable with interacting with the people over the years since I've been around. One of the things as far as the fine arts goes, we did at Douglas was every year they performed 'The Messiah', all right. I'm talking about the Christmas version of it, all right. And then they did something in the spring too that was related. So the choir and the band and the orchestra at the time would put this on with the community and we would be exposed to this whole business every year. So you had those kind of fine arts things that were going on with the sciences and the math, you know, and the kind of things that would really give you wide exposure to, you know, what this is all about.$Okay, so when you were at the Pentagon, what would you consider your most significant project or achievement?$$Showing up and coming back to work on time every day (laughter). I have to share this with you. My wife, Janice (ph.) now, we have been married about twenty years now, was there when I got promoted to colonel. And one of the things that I was gonna have her do was to walk in with me because we had to both show up. And from North Parking to the Pentagon is a trek. It's a long, long way. And I said, you might wanna wear some tennis shoes 'cause, you know, she'd never done this trek before. And if you walk around, if you go around the Pentagon now, you find a lot of ladies wearing tennis shoes when they walk and going from the parking lot and all that, long way. Well, she says, oh, no, I don't wanna do that because of this and that and the other. I'd have to change shoes. I said, I think you wanna wear tennis shoes. Well, she didn't heed my advice. So she's in these heels and we're walking from North Parking. I'm talking about the last row. It's probably, if it's not a half a mile, it's three quarters of a mile, long way; nice sidewalk, but she's walking and says, how far is it? I said, we're going over there. She says you've got to be kidding. No, I said (laughter). So we walk over there and, indeed, she says the next time, I'm either gonna take the Metro in here (laughter), and that's the way you get in now, or you're gonna drop me off in the front (laughter). And since 9/11 [September 11, 2001], you know, you can't even get close to the Pentagon. You have to (unclear). But I do think that the international programs piece was a significant place to be. It gave me another dimension of what the whole world was all about. I'd been to all the NATO [North American Treaty Organization] countries, the Middle East, been to Korea. You know, I, I mean I've been like all over. You go to a lot of places, you know, and as a result of that you get to meet people and the cultures. You get to understand issues. You understand that everything that the United States is putting out is not necessarily what everybody else needs (laughter), okay. And you need to understand that, okay. And that's one of the reasons why I think, where we are right now in this very global environment, we need to appreciate that, what's going on. So--$$Can you give us an example of what you mean by that?$$Well, one of the first meetings I went to was a NATO meeting that was held in Brussels [Belgium]. And we had to get the--at that time, it was sixteen countries, you had to get everybody to agree on a decision that was gonna be made for something. My job was to get the staffers together and to share appropriate reasons why, how much it was gonna cost, you know, etc., etc. and just lay out what we called a consensus so that when the member was speaking, he would--or she would make the appropriate positive remarks towards where the United States' position was. That takes a lot of effort, all right. It's a win, win. You have to get rational discussions. You have to understand where everybody's coming from. You really have to appreciate their perspective too and that your perspective is not necessarily the only perspective, all right (laughter). So that's what I got out of a lot of this thing. And so at the end of the day, we got this particular item, you know, approved, and our guys went back happy. And everyone else was supportive of it, and they felt like it was theirs as opposed to the United States saying "do it", a little different there, all right. See, the other people have to feel like its theirs. If you look at all of the various consensus that are going on with the Desert Storm [1990-1991], the Iraq Wars [2003-] and all that, the coalition has to agree that it's their interests, all right (laughter). You're not doing that because the United States is forcing you to do this. This is very, very key in the international environment, all right. We just can't go in and push around and say, hey, this is not, this is my idea. It's gotta be everybody's idea.

Renee Ferguson

TV journalist and investigative reporter Renee Ferguson was born on August 22, 1949 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma to Eugene and Mary Ferguson. Attending Edwards Elementary School, Ferguson graduated from Frederick Douglass High School in 1967. At Indiana University, she covered the student unrest at Jackson State and Kent State Universities and worked as a Washington Post student intern during the summer of 1970. Ferguson earned her B.S. degree in journalism in 1971.

Ferguson worked in Indianapolis, Indiana as a writer for the Indianapolis Star newspaper and then as a news reporter for television station WLWI-TV. When she joined Chicago’s WBBM-TV in 1977, she became the first African American woman to work as an investigative reporter in Chicago. In 1980, she worked as a network news correspondent for CBS News in New York City and Atlanta. Ferguson returned to Chicago in 1987, joining the UNIT 5 investigative team at NBC affiliate WMAQ-TV.

Ferguson has reported on many issues including strip searches of women of color at O’Hare Airport by United States Customs officials; sexual harassment at Chicago’s Ford Motor Plant; the deaths of children involved in a clinical drug trial; a high school undercover investigation of drug and alcohol abuse and gun and drug sales held in the property room of the Gary, Indiana police department.

A recipient of seven Chicago Emmy Awards, the DuPont Award, the Gracie Award, the Associated Press Award for Best Investigative Reporting and many other accolades, Ferguson lives with her husband Ken Smikle and their son in Chicago’s Kenwood neighborhood.

Accession Number

A2005.058

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/3/2005

7/20/2005

Last Name

Ferguson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Frederick A. Douglass High School

Edwards Elementary School

Indiana University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Renee

Birth City, State, Country

Oklahoma City

HM ID

FER01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

Sponsor

Ed and Bettiann Gardner

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Quote

Wear The World As A Loose Garment.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/22/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chitterlings

Short Description

Television reporter Renee Ferguson (1949 - ) was Chicago's first African American female investigative reporter. She reported on many issues, including the strip searches of women of color at O’Hare Airport and sexual harassment at Chicago’s Ford Motor Plant.

Employment

WLWI TV

WBBM TV

CBS News

WMAQ TV

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156016">Tape: 1 Slating of Renee Ferguson's interview, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156017">Tape: 1 Slating of Renee Ferguson's interview, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156018">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson lists her favorites, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156019">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson lists her favorites, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156020">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson describes her view of French nationalism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156021">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson lists her favorite phrase</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156022">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson talks about her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156023">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson talks about taking care of her great-aunt, Hattie Brown</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156024">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson talks about her mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156025">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson talks about the uncertainty surrounding her father's birth date</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156026">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson talks about her father's family ancestry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156027">Tape: 1 Renee Ferguson talks about her paternal grandfather's lost land in California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156028">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson talks about how her parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156029">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson describes her parents' personalities and her likeness to them</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156030">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson talks about growing up in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156031">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson remembers fighting in elementary school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156032">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson describes unpleasant smells in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156033">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson describes her childhood house</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156034">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson talks about her childhood social life and her high school prom night</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156035">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson talks about being a member of the Methodist church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156036">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson talks about the role of music and television in her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156037">Tape: 2 Renee Ferguson talks about her interest in journalism, ethical journalism and what makes journalism enjoyable</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156038">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson describes newspapers she read as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156039">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson talks about Edwards Elementary School, Moon Junior High School and Douglass High School in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156040">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson talks about Willard Pitts, her mentor in journalism, and working at the Daily Oklahoman</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156041">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson talks about civil rights activity in 1960s Oklahoma City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156042">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson describes deciding to become a journalist</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156043">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson describes deciding to transition into broadcast journalism after college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156044">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson describes her experience as an undergraduate student at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156045">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson describes working for the Daily Herald-Telephone, the Indiana Daily Student and Indiana University's public relations department</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156046">Tape: 3 Renee Ferguson describes her social life as an undergraduate student at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156047">Tape: 4 Renee Ferguson describes her interview for an internship with The Washington Post</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156048">Tape: 4 Renee Ferguson describes her experience as an intern in the editorial department at The Washington Post</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156049">Tape: 4 Renee Ferguson describes working with journalist Robert C. Maynard at The Washington Post</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156050">Tape: 4 Renee Ferguson describes the role of conflict in journalism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156051">Tape: 4 Renee Ferguson describes the influence of Washington Post editor Philip Geyelin and journalist Meg Greenfield</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156052">Tape: 4 Renee Ferguson describes her experience at Indianapolis News after graduation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156053">Tape: 4 Renee Ferguson talks about joining WLWI-TV in Indianapolis, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156054">Tape: 4 Renee Ferguson talks about refusing to straighten her hair at WLWI television</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156055">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson talks about covering the 1972 National Black Political Convention in Gary, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156056">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson describes the political climate in 1970s Indianapolis, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156057">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson talks about covering the United States Border Patrol</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156058">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson responds to an inquiry about broadcast circulation through WLWI</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156059">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson talks about being hired at WBBM-TV in Chicago, Illinois and going undercover as a high school student</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156060">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson continues to describe going undercover as a high school student</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156061">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson describes undercover journalism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156062">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson talks about her expose of teacher and HistoryMaker Marva Collins, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156063">Tape: 5 Renee Ferguson talks about her expose of teacher and HistoryMaker Marva Collins, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156064">Tape: 6 Renee Ferguson describes the aftermath following her expose of HistoryMaker Marva Collins</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156065">Tape: 6 Renee Ferguson talks about political corruption in 1970s Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156066">Tape: 6 Renee Ferguson describes leaving WBBM CBS TV Chicago for CBS National news in 1981 and meeting her husband, HistoryMaker Ken Smikle</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156067">Tape: 6 Renee Ferguson describes working for CBS National News on CBS Sunday Morning in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156068">Tape: 6 Renee Ferguson talks about Mayor Harold Washington's legacy and death in 1987, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156069">Tape: 6 Renee Ferguson talks about Mayor Harold Washington's legacy and death in 1987, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156070">Tape: 6 Renee Ferguson talks about Mayor Harold Washington's legacy and death in 1987, pt. 3</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156071">Tape: 7 Second slating of Renee Ferguson's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156072">Tape: 7 Renee Ferguson talks about her frustrations working as a general assignment reporter</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156073">Tape: 7 Renee Ferguson describes fighting to become an investigative reporter at WMAQ-TV, NBC 5 Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156074">Tape: 7 Renee Ferguson describes endorsements she received in support of her promotion from HistoryMakers Carol Mosley Braun and Reverend Jesse Jackson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156075">Tape: 7 Renee Ferguson talks about her prize-winning investigation of O'Hare International Airport Customs strip-searching black women, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156076">Tape: 7 Renee Ferguson talks about her prize-winning investigation of O'Hare International Airport Customs strip-searching black women, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156077">Tape: 7 Renee Ferguson describes her career in investigative journalism, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156078">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson describes her career in investigative reporting, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156079">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson describes her reporting style and the stories that interested her</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156080">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson talks about misconduct in the Chicago Police Department</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156081">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson talks about drug smuggling procedures</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156082">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson describes her future goals</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156083">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson describes the fiction reading and writing she enjoys</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156084">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson describes her reporting philosophy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156085">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American demographic</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156086">Tape: 8 Renee Ferguson imagines a racism-free future</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156087">Tape: 9 Renee Ferguson considers what she may have done differently</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156088">Tape: 9 Renee Ferguson talks about her independent research on chondrocalcinosis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156089">Tape: 9 Renee Ferguson talks about having an experimental procedure done to manage her chondrocalcinosis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156090">Tape: 9 Renee Ferguson considers her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156091">Tape: 9 Renee Ferguson talks about her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156092">Tape: 9 Renee Ferguson urges young people to consider careers in socially productive journalism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156093">Tape: 9 Renee Ferguson talks about her relationship with the Investigative Reporters and Editors organization and the National Association of Black Journalists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156094">Tape: 9 Renee Ferguson describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

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Renee Ferguson describes her interview for an internship with The Washington Post
Renee Ferguson talks about her prize-winning investigation of O'Hare International Airport Customs strip-searching black women, pt. 1
Transcript
So I got to tell you about my college [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana] adventure.$$Right, right.$$I interned at The Washington Post, which was really fun; and Indiana University, being located in Bloomington, Indiana did not get the--our journalism school did not receive the leaflets or any invitation for interns to go to The Washington Post. The Washington Post sent its intern program applications to the seven sister colleges and to the Ivy leagues. I didn't know anything about that. I just knew that it was the paper where [Robert] Bob Maynard wrote. Bob Maynard, as you know, was a great black journalist. He is dead now, but he was an amazing writer, and he wrote with such passion, and he saw things in such a way; and I would just hang on to every word that he wrote in The Washington Post, so I knew I wanted to go there as an intern. And I kept waiting for the internship application to come and it never came; and by the time it did arrive--well, it didn't arrive, I called them. And they sent me one, but by the time they sent it, they had already chosen all their--you know, the deadline had passed, so I said, so "You didn't send one to Indiana [University]," and they said, "We're sorry, we'll send it," and then I sent it in, and I got a call from a man named Philip [L.] Geyelin and Phil Geyelin was the editorial page editor at the [Washington] Post at the time, very famous man, Pulitzer Prize winning writer, he called me and said, "Well, I'm going to be in Chicago [Illinois] to interview our applicants. I'll be at the Newsweek office. Will you come for an interview?" I said, "Of course, I will." And I had no money, and no way to get there, and no bus fare, and no car fare, and nothing to get to Chicago on very short notice, so I took my rent money, and I got a bus, and found my way to the Newsweek building, and I interviewed with Mr. Geyelin and he said at the time, "Well, we really don't have anymore openings." And I said, "Well, why did you have me come here if you weren't going to really consider me?" He said, "Well, that's a good question, isn't it." I said, "Yeah." I said, "I don't think that's fair." I said, "You can have as many openings as you want," and he said, "We can, can't we?" I said, "Absolutely." He said, "Well, I'm going to interview other people." He said, "I'll call you and let you know." And I said, "Well, I hope the phone is on because I spent all my money for my rent and the telephone to come up here." He looked at me and started laughing. He said, "Well, okay." And he goes in his wallet--I've never seen that much money in my life. He pulls out a $100.00 bill and hands it to me. He says, "How are you going to get back?" I said, "Well, I was going to hitch hike." He said, "No." He said, "Here's the money. Take the bus, pay your rent, pay your phone bill. I have kids in college and I understand." He said, "I don't want you out there on the road hitchhiking." He was so nice, and a few days later, I got the call and I got the job, so that summer, I worked on--they created that position 'cause they didn't (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Now, this is what summer?$$It must have been 1970--it must have been 1970, yeah.$$Okay, so this is just after the Kent State [shootings, at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio in May 1970] and all that.$And right after that, I won--I did a story that won the DuPont [Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Awards], which is like the Pulitzer Prize, so they immediately saw that they had made a good decision, and have been supportive of my efforts ever since.$$Now what was the story that won the duPont prize?$$I did a story on African American women who were strip searched at O'Hare [International Airport, Chicago, Illinois]. I got a call one day from a woman at six in the morning, I happened to be at work, and I got a call from her saying that she had just cleared customs at O'Hare and had been taken into a small room and forced to take her clothes down, and even take her tampon out and show it to the guards, women guards, customs officer, to proof that she was not carrying drugs internally, and when I met her, she was a very tall woman with her hair in dreadlocks and she a woman who traveled quite a bit to work with children of war. She was very extraordinary and she came back to this greeting and to this profiling, is what it really was. It was really racial and gender profiling because the thinking was that if you were a woman and black, or of color, traveling alone, you must have been working as a mule for some drug dealers and have heroin packets inside your body.$$There was also, I guess, a cultural aspect of it too, the dreadlocks maybe stereotyped her (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Dreadlocks stereotyped her--what was interesting is when she told me this, I said, "Well, you must have some kind of criminal history. You must have something--they must have probable cause to search you." Well later, I found out they have to have probable cause to search your house or to search your garage. They do not have to have probable cause to search your body at the border. The standard is much lower, and it's a standard called reasonable suspicion. So they only have to have reasonable suspicion. Later, as I investigated, I found out that reasonable suspicion can be anything essentially, and in her case, they said [U.S.] Customs [and Border Protection] that day after I interviewed her--her name is Denise Pullian--after I interviewed Denise, Customs said to me, "Oh, yes, we did that. We can do that, and we did that because she was wearing loose clothing; and we thought because she was wearing loose-fitting clothing that that gave us reasonable suspicion that she might have drugs under there." So then we put that story on the air that night, and the next day, I got a deluge of calls from people who said, crying over the phone, that this had happened to them. So I got them all together in an hotel room, and that's what we learned that they were all African American women.$$Not a single person from another--(simultaneous)-$$Not a single white woman. A room with fifty women in it who had been strip-searched and humiliated. They were all innocent. None of them were carrying drugs, none of them had any criminal history--most of them didn't even have a traffic ticket. We checked them out--were pulled over and were subjected to this tremendous humiliation. Now, these days, of course, you might as well as go--after September 11 [2001], you might as well go to the airport naked. You know, everyone gets patted down or subjected to a secondary search of some type at some point, take your shoes off and all of that, but this was very intrusive. What we were talking about here and what these women described were actually body cavity searches. Some of them were taken to hospitals and put in stirrups, or given laxatives to see if, and held for seventy-two hours to see if they would pass drugs. One woman was even pregnant, one woman was a Fulbright scholar coming back from Africa. One woman was an actress who had come from Germany, where she had a very brilliant commercial career. There were teachers, there were politicians, there were some women who called me. There was a judge. There were people who were high up in political administrations here. Many people called me who did not want to go public, but the women who were courageous enough to go public did so, and we just kept doing their stories.