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The Honorable Edith Ingram

Judge Edith J. Ingram was born on January 16, 1942 in Sparta, Georgia to Katherine Hunt and Robert T. Ingram. She attended East End Elementary School and L.S. Ingraham High School. She moved in briefly with her Aunt Mae in New York City after high school and enrolled in Manhattan Medical School, but moved back to Georgia in 1960 where she earned her B.S. degree in education from Fort Valley State College in 1963.

Ingram taught at Moore Elementary School in Griffin, Georgia and at Hancock Central High School, which was established by her father and maternal grandfather. After five years of teaching, her father, the only African American on the Hancock County School Board, prompted her to run for a judgeship. In 1969, Ingram became the first African American female judge in Georgia and upon being elected to serve on the Hancock County Court of the Ordinary. In 1973, she moved to the county’s probate court, making her the first African American female probate judge in the United States. She served as probate judge for thirty-six years, presiding over wills, marriages, misdemeanors, felonies and civil disobedience cases. In 1983, Ingram was appointed to serve as a member of the State Democratic Executive Committee by President Jimmy Carter (then Governor of Georgia) and Lieutenant Colonel Ade De Camp. That same year, she was also appointed to the Governor’s Staff by then Governor Joe Frank Harris. She retired from the bench in 2004.

Ingram was active in the Sparta community and was a member of the Georgia Association of Probate Judges, the Hancock Chapter of the Georgia Coalition of Black Women where she was president, the National College of Probate Judges, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., the Hancock Women’s Club, the Hancock County NAACP, and the Democratic Club. She also served on the board of the Ebony International Learning Academy and Preparatory School. She is also the recipient of the Higher Education Award, and was profiled in the book Black Firsts: 4,000 Ground-Breaking and Pioneering Historical Events.

Ingram passed away on June 5, 2020.

Edith Jacqueline Ingram was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 25, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.007

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/25/2006

Last Name

Ingram

Maker Category
Schools

East End Elementary School

L. S. Ingraham High School

Fort Valley State University

First Name

Edith

Birth City, State, Country

Sparta

HM ID

ING01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Fishing

Favorite Quote

The Bottom Rail's Gonna Come To The Top.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

1/16/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sparta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

6/5/2020

Short Description

Judge Edith J. Ingram (1942 - 2020) served on the Hancock County Court of the Ordinary, making her the first African American female judge in Georgia, and later served on the Hancock County Probate Court, making her the first African American female probate judge in the United States.

Employment

Hancock Central High School

Hancock County

Moore Elementary School

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360114">Tape: 1 Slating of The Honorable Edith Ingram's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360115">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360116">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360117">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360118">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her paternal grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360119">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360120">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her father's childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360121">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes how her parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360122">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her paternal grandfather</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360123">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers her maternal grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360124">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls her maternal ancestors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360125">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360126">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her childhood in Sparta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360127">Tape: 1 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360128">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers her grandmothers making homemade whiskey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360129">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her family's traditional foodways</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360130">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers her favorite teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360131">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers her schools in Sparta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360132">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers her family's chores</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360133">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls preparing hogs to eat with the community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360134">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls her childhood aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360135">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers L.S. Ingraham High School, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360136">Tape: 2 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes holidays in her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360137">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers L. S. Ingraham High School, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360138">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram lists her siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360139">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers her brief education in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360140">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls attending Fort Valley State College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360141">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls her first teaching jobs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360142">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes the Fort Valley State College dormitories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360143">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls vesper and her classes at Fort Valley State College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360144">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls the Fort Valley State College dress code</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360145">Tape: 3 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers pledging Delta Sigma Theta Sorority</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360146">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers student teaching</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360147">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls her mother's adoption of an orphaned girl</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360148">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her life after graduating college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360149">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes the changes in Sparta's education system</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360150">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls her decision to run for probate judge</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360151">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls African Americans' disenfranchisement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360152">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers her family resisting the Ku Klux Klan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360153">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls the incumbent probate judge, Helen Miller</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360154">Tape: 4 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls being the sole black official in Hancock County, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360155">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls her reception as probate judge</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360156">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers organizing African American voters</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360157">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls being repeatedly accused of voter fraud</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360158">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram explains how her faith gave her strength</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360159">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram lists her honors and influential connections</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360160">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls memorable moments as a probate judge</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360161">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls facing racism as a probate judge</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360162">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls her retirement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360163">Tape: 5 The Honorable Edith Ingram reflects upon her father's influence on her</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360164">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers Sparta, Georgia's arms race</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360165">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls how black domestics helped her win elections</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360166">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls fighting for school desegregation in Sparta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360167">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes the officials who succeeded her</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360168">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her relationship to the people of Sparta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360169">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram explains why she wanted to share her story</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360170">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360171">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram offers advice to aspiring judges and educators</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360172">Tape: 6 The Honorable Edith Ingram describes her legacy and how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360173">Tape: 7 The Honorable Edith Ingram narrates her photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/360174">Tape: 7 The Honorable Edith Ingram narrates her photographs, pt. 2</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
The Honorable Edith Ingram recalls her decision to run for probate judge
The Honorable Edith Ingram remembers Sparta, Georgia's arms race
Transcript
Now after teaching, now you decided to run for judge.$$Uh-huh.$$Now, how did that come about?$$Well, in 1966 my father [Robert Ingram] ran, as I told you. And then my brother [Robert Ingram], in '67 [1967] was getting ready to go to the [U.S. military] service, and my mother [Katherine Hunt Ingram] was still sick. So I came home so that I would be home with her. And in 1966, when Daddy ran for office, the ordinary then, Ms. Miller [Helen Miller], a white woman, had told them they could have poll workers during the election process. And they had to go through the black community and muster up somebody to serve as poll workers. You know, back then they were afraid to serve as poll workers. And on the election morning when they got to the courthouse to serve, she screamed out and ran and told them, "Y'all can't come in and serve, because the white people told me don't let no niggers work in the election." So they promised her then that her politicking days were over.$$This is your father?$$My father and James Smith. And before that, at my church, my brother Robert and a guy named James Clayton, Jr. had worked with the voter registration drive, and they had registered a whole lot of people--$$Okay.$$--who were going to go out and vote. And so they just wanted some representation during the election process. And I came home, and they had a club called the Democratic Club [Hancock County Citizens Democratic Club]. It didn't mean that it was Democratic as a party affiliation; they just named it the Democratic Club. And they were looking for somebody to run for ordinary, and they asked me about running. And I said initially that was not interested. But my daddy and others kept explaining to me the importance of it. And their main reason was because an ordinaries, one of her duties is to supervise the elections.$$Okay.$$So, one night in the middle of the night I decided that I would run, and I proceeded to call and tell people that I was going to run. And that's how it all got started, that was in 1968. And I was elected in November of 1968. Well, when I got elected I went to the courthouse one Saturday and asked Ms. Miller if she would show me around the office, because I was going to come in in January. And she went and opened the door and told me to get the hell out of there and come back when my time was. At that time, she gave the key to the ordinary's office to the clerk of the superior court, who was a white guy, and the ordinary's office would not open anymore until I came to open it. She just closed up, period. And when I got in there, I thanked God and a few other responsible people that she did not show me around. Because she had death certificates and birth certificates mixed in together. Her recordkeeping was just totally mixed up. And I said it was a blessing that she did not show me around, because I would have had to unlearn what she had taught me. But I went to, I believe it was Marietta [Georgia] and visited an office. But the operation was so much larger than this office's operation, and it didn't really relate. And I just had to wait until I got in there and hit the books.$$Now, why do they call it ordinary?$$I don't know. The ordinary court came from England a long time ago, as much as I know about it. And the duties of the ordinary were duties that the kings and queens did not attend to. And then next in line was the ordinary, the court of ordinary, that's where they got it from. And early on, they changed it to probate court, probate judge.$Now, we were talking about the submachine gun incident. Explain, tell us what happened.$$Well, black people started hearing the firing of machine guns during the night in their communities.$$And what year was this?$$This was in 1971.$$All right.$$And they came to the meetings. We used to meet every week in a church, every Thursday night. And we would go from community to community to community so that we would be able to address the problems of each community. And they started bringing this information to the meetings. John McCown was the county commissioner then. I was in office [as probate judge of Hancock County, Georgia], and Daddy [Robert Ingram] was in office [on the board of education]. And they ordered ten machine guns, submachine guns, the white community did, to use them, they said in the black community. And one of the druggists, who was one of the persons who helped pay for the machine guns, said they shouldn't have gotten machine guns, that they should have gotten bazookas. Well, we decided that if they were going to attack us with machine guns, we needed to have something to counteract their attack. So, my mama [Katherine Hunt Ingram] ordered thirty machine guns from a company in Miami [Florida] with the understanding that they would not deliver the guns until we said bring them on. We just put them on order. And we told the white community that we would cancel our order if they got rid of their guns. Well, it went back and forth and back and forth, and they wouldn't get rid of the guns. We could still hear them at night. So, the governor, Governor Carter [James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.] was contacted. And of course the GBI [Georgia Bureau of Investigation] the FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation], the justice department, everybody came. Governor Carter came down here in his little helicopter and landed somewhere and came. And they would meet with us, and then they'd go and meet with the white community because the white community didn't want to meet with no niggers.$$Now, what was the name of your group?$$We were just the Democratic Club [Hancock County Citizens Democratic Club]. Of course, in the meantime, Mr. Wiley [Leroy S. Wiley], who was the clerk of the court, and John McCown and myself had decided that we would organize a sporting rangers group. And of course, the sporting rangers were just supposed to be a group--because the only activities we had around here were fishing and hunting. So, this was just to promote fishing and hunting and marksmanship. It had nothing to do with the machine gun situation, but they thought it did.$$Well, marksmanship, wouldn't you think--$$Well, it didn't have anything to do with us ordering machine guns.$$Exactly.$$We hadn't thought about machine guns until they got them.$$All right, so--$$So, that was one of our things, too, that we would disband that group, since they thought that was for them, to get rid of their machine guns. But we had thirty on order, ready to be delivered to us anytime we said the word. Of course, we already had some pretty nice guns ourselves that we used when the Night Riders came through. And they came down and they--well, the FBI and all them would be walking through the courthouse looking in my office all day long, but never said anything to me. I lived out in the woods in a mobile home. And if you didn't know where it was, you didn't just readily see it from the road. About eleven or twelve o'clock at night they came down to my house. And I saw a car drive up in my driveway right at my bedroom window. But the only thing I could see was the silhouette of two men, one smoking a cigarette. Then they came and I asked them to show me their ID, and then I let them in. And there was a rifle sitting beside the front door, and they wanted to know why I had so many guns. And I said, "You know, to protect myself from people who choose to come to my house unannounced so late in the night." And then they asked me if Mr. Wiley had any machine guns. So I said, "You passed his house on the way to my house, so you'd better go back up there and ask him does he have any machine guns, I don't know." And they left. And then they did a lot of investigation, and they finally talked to us and talked to them, and finally got them to give up their machine guns. And they put them in the trunk of somebody's car. And to make sure they left, we had our black deputy to escort them out of town to the county line with the machine guns. But Governor Carter and all of them had been down here trying to smooth the situation over. And in the meantime, we told them that if they didn't get rid of the machine guns we were going to boycott the town. So, they didn't get rid of them, so we threw a boycott. And we bussed our people in our cars and vans and stuff to Milledgeville [Georgia] to do their shopping. And the grocery made about twenty-five dollars in a whole week. So after that, you know they got on the white community to get rid of those guns because it was affecting their livelihood. That's how they finally decided to get rid of them because the white merchants was on their case about it, so we could start shopping at the stores. But--$$Now, this was at--$$We actually never got--$$The machine guns?$$Our machine guns.$$Right. But they did get rid of theirs?$$They got rid of theirs, and we canceled ours.$$And this was right at the outset of your--$$This is 1971.$$--election. And you were elected for four years at a time?$$Um-hm.

Anita J. Ponder

Anita J. Ponder is president of the Macon City Council and director of education at the Tubman African American Museum in Macon, Georgia, the largest museum of its kind in the Southeast. Prior to serving on the city council, Ponder served as judge of the Municipal Court in her hometown of Fort Valley, Georgia. Ponder was born April 16, 1961, the oldest of three children of Clifford and Margie Ponder of Fort Valley, Georgia.

Ponder received her B.S. degree in journalism/communications from Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida, and her J.D. degree from South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas. She served as editor of the Law Review during her second year of law school. Ponder formed a lucrative partnership with a fellow classmate and practiced criminal and personal injury law immediately following law school. She resigned from the firm and returned to her hometown to fulfill her life long ambition to work in the public sector. Ponder became judge of the Municipal Court in Fort Valley, a position that she held for four and a half years. She volunteered at the Tubman African American Museum in Macon, Georgia, while it was in its infancy. She helped the museum to expand its exhibits nationally and internationally, and became director of its educational programs.

Ponder was appointed to the Macon City Council in 1998. In her role as president of the council, she has aided in the revitalization of the city through the neighborhood redevelopment plan. She continues to play a major role in the construction of the multi-million dollar facility that will house the Tubman Museum. Annually, in December, Ponder and friends host the Holiday Feast for All that feeds community members during the holiday season. Ponder is the editor of a recently published book: Standing on Their Shoulders: A Celebration of the Wisdom of African American Women by Dr. Catherine Meeks. She raises Arabian horses, collects antique cars, and organizes antique car shows.

Ponder serves on the boards of the Macon State College Foundation, Macon Chamber of Commerce, Georgia Coalition of Black Women, and Newtown Macon. She is a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority and Rotary International.

Accession Number

A2006.002

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/19/2006

Last Name

Ponder

Maker Category
Schools

Peach County High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Houston College of Law

Fort Valley Middle School

Hunt Elementary School

First Name

Anita

Birth City, State, Country

Fort Valley

HM ID

PON01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Francisco, California

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/16/1961

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Macon

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Museum executive and city council member Anita J. Ponder (1961 - ) was the president of the Macon City Council and director of education at the Tubman African American Museum in Macon, Georgia.

Employment

Ponder and Jordan

City of Fort Valley, Georgia

City Of Macon, Georgia

Tubman Museum

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290314">Tape: 1 Slating of Anita J. Ponder's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290315">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290316">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder describes her maternal family's farm</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290317">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290318">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder describes her mother's childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290319">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder remembers her paternal grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290320">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder remembers her paternal great-aunt's cake business</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290321">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder describes her paternal grandmother's neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290322">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder recalls her maternal grandmother's farm</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290323">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290324">Tape: 1 Anita J. Ponder describes her family's tobacco farm</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290325">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder describes her maternal family's businesses</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290326">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder describes her family's social standing in Lakeland, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290327">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder remembers the death of her cousin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290328">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder describes how her cousin's death impacted her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290329">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder describes her grandparents' racial background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290330">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder describes her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290331">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder describes her paternal great-grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290332">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder recalls spending time with her paternal grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290333">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder describes how her parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290334">Tape: 2 Anita J. Ponder describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290335">Tape: 3 Anita J. Ponder remembers playing and learning at Fort Valley State College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290336">Tape: 3 Anita J. Ponder describes her family life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290337">Tape: 3 Anita J. Ponder lists her siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290338">Tape: 3 Anita J. Ponder recalls her childhood neighborhood in Fort Valley, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290339">Tape: 3 Anita J. Ponder recalls playing games with her friends in Fort Valley, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290340">Tape: 3 Anita J. Ponder remembers playing baseball in Fort Valley, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290341">Tape: 3 Anita J. Ponder describes the Ponderosa neighborhood in Fort Valley, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290342">Tape: 3 Anita J. Ponder remembers learning the history of racism in the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290343">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder recalls influential teachers in the Peach County school system</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290344">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder describes her childhood personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290345">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder describes her childhood ambition</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290346">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder remembers attending Trinity Baptist Church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290347">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder describes her childhood friendships</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290348">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder recalls playing tennis and basketball</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290349">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder remembers travelling to play tennis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290350">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder describes her high school tennis and basketball coach</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290351">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder describes her childhood influences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290352">Tape: 4 Anita J. Ponder describes attending Peach County High School in Fort Valley, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290353">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder remembers playing the drums</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290354">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder recalls the 1975 tornado in Fort Valley, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290355">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder describes the effect of basketball on her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290356">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder describes tourist attractions in Peach County, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290357">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder recalls deciding to attend Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290358">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder describes attending South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290359">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder describes her journalism major</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290360">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder remembers encountering racism at South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290361">Tape: 5 Anita J. Ponder remembers her early career as a criminal defense lawyer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290425">Tape: 6 Anita J. Ponder recalls her experiences on the South Texas Law Review</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290426">Tape: 6 Anita J. Ponder describes her partnership at Ponder and Jordan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290427">Tape: 6 Anita J. Ponder remembers deciding to leave Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290428">Tape: 6 Anita J. Ponder remembers volunteering at the Tubman African American Museum</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290429">Tape: 6 Anita J. Ponder recalls being a judge in Fort Valley, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290430">Tape: 6 Anita J. Ponder remembers resigning as judge and running for the Macon City Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290431">Tape: 6 Anita J. Ponder describes her housing initiatives on the Macon City Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290432">Tape: 6 Anita J. Ponder describes revitalizing a neighborhood in Macon, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290362">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes her work as president of Macon City Council</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290363">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes the museum district in Macon, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290364">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes the musical history of Macon, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290365">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes serving on boards as Macon City Council president</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290366">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes the Tubman African American Museum in Macon, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290367">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes exhibits and fundraising at the Tubman Museum in Macon, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290368">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes the work of Richard Keil</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290369">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder talks about the significance of history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290370">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290371">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder gives advice to aspiring young professionals</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290372">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes her hopes for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290373">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290374">Tape: 7 Anita J. Ponder reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290375">Tape: 8 Anita J. Ponder narrates her photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290376">Tape: 8 Anita J. Ponder narrates her photographs, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/290377">Tape: 8 Anita J. Ponder narrates her photographs, pt. 3</a>

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Anita J. Ponder recalls her experiences on the South Texas Law Review
Anita J. Ponder describes the work of Richard Keil
Transcript
Now while you were in law school [South Texas College of Law Houston, Houston, Texas], are there any memories that you have that you would like to share with us?$$You know, actually, law school is what people visualize it to be, and I mean it's pretty much all I did. I mean, you know, they have--it was the, a period in my life, unlike college [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida], where I really didn't have a life other than, you know, other than law school. And then, for some reason, it, it--something within me looking at, you know, the makeup of that school, wanted to really excel. And, you know, you know, college, high school [Peach County High School, Fort Valley, Georgia], and all that kind of stuff--I didn't really try, you know. It, you know, it just all worked out grade-wise. In law school, because I had this feeling of, you know, some people thinking that we were inferior (laughter), whether they thought it or not, I felt that, that's what they thought. It was important to me to, to, you know, to, to try to excel in law school. And so, it, you know, law school is hard. And so, it, it took a lot, especially, you know, your first year to--it, it took a lot of work and study to--to do that. Made it on law review [South Texas Law Review], first black ever to--you know. Law review in law school is a huge deal, regardless of what school it is. That's why even when you see your TV shows, you know, that still goes on your resume, that: was on law review, you know. I didn't really know what that meant, but I knew they thought it was a big deal. And it came to being that writing was important because, you know, Law Review was all about writing. And so, you know, you know, things, you know, turn out the way they did. And I had put such a focus on writing, and that kind, and that kind of thing. It was good enough to get on, on law review, and later became one of the editors--$$Okay.$$--of, of law review, which was historic in of it, you know, in of itself. And I think at least in that arena, you know, I had professors who really just look- they looked at the body of work, for the body of work and, you know, what you could do. And they, you know, didn't, didn't really see race I felt, you know--I was beginning to feel anyway. And then, I kind of got an easiness to know that, okay, just because I know that's what he feels--that particular professor, 'cause I noticed that he feel- he feels that I'm inferior. I shouldn't blame the school for that, you know. And so, it kind of helped me getting accepted. The law review kind of helped me get back balance--that, you know, all people are not--you know I came to law school, thinking all people are not a certain kind of way--look at them individually. I got there for a minute, and started grouping everybody together, like we so often do, got accepted on law review, and that was kind of like a crosswords, crossroads for me, in that it, it reminded me that, okay, don't let me get this one mixed up with this one, and that one mixed with that one, you know. And so, in terms of that whole thing, got back on, you know, back on track. And, you know, finished, and started making my first paycheck 'cause you remember, I've been in school all my life by that time.$Tell us something about how the museum [Tubman African American Museum; Tubman Museum, Macon, Georgia] got started?$$Well, it, it was founded back in 1981 by a white Catholic priest by the name of Richard Keil who had been, you know, real active in the Civil Rights Movement and other places, like Alabama and Mississippi, and some of your other southern states. And he became a priest here at one of the Catholic churches. And as he looked around Macon [Georgia], he saw, you know, while there were, the Museum of Arts and Sciences [Macon, Georgia], and a lot of things going on in Macon, there was no real place to hear or tell the stories of, of African Americans. And so, he decided--I want to put together this--at that time, he called it a cultural center, and had a hard time getting the support, and the loans to get a building to do so. And so, you know, he had just, you know, a few willing friends to, to join him in starting the center. Finally, he found a warehouse that you know, he could afford to just outright buy, and, and, and the funny thing is it's a warehouse where the inventory at one time was guarded by dogs. I mean, you know, so you had--I mean, it took a lot to get it up to what it needed to be. He purchased it, you know, had a vision to get it to a place that was even, you know, made for people--it took from '81 [1981] to almost '85 [1985] for them to turn it into the--even the center that they wanted. And, you know, you've gone from there, from, you know, three to five thousand visitors to sixty-five thousand visitors and, you know, a thirty thousand dollar budget to a $1.5 million budget. And so, you know, his vision is alive and well; and and, and he's the kind of leader that he founded the museum, knew it wasn't his expertise, and say, you know, this is something that I just wanted, you know--no ownership in it, no whatever, and turned it over to the, you know, the people. And it's governed by a board and, you know, and the staff of the museum. He has no--other than being an active participant in the programs that come, and come in to visit us, and bringing us little notes and candies, and all that kind of stuff. That's all he does. You know, he knew, you know, for it to grow, he needed to let it go. And then--and he did. Yeah.$$Okay. And what did you say one of his current projects is, and how that he has the African American museum up and running?$$Right, right now, he's been working real close with the Hispanic community. The Hispanic community is just like it is all over the country--has really, the population is really growing in, in Macon and Bibb County [Georgia]. And as a result of the, you know, the ability--the lack of ability to communicate, you know, the focus, Spanish speaking, and that kind of thing, he sees where there's a real need to, to make sure that they're not taking advantage of, and that kind of thing. And so, he's formed a group that he's really turned over to the Hispanic community, but just helped them get it started where, you know they have resources to--you know, all the kinds of things that helped them make sure that, you know, they're not getting taking advantage of in their housing, and language barriers, and making sure they can get to school, and that they're needing that, that kind of thing. And so, that's kind of been one of his focuses now.