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Nichelle Nichols

Actress Nichelle Nichols was born on December 28, 1932 in Robbins, Illinois near Chicago. Her father, Samuel Earl Nichols, was a factory worker who also served as the mayor of Robbins and as its chief magistrate. Her mother, Lishia Mae (Parks) Nichols, was a homemaker. As a child, Nichols’ family moved to Chicago where she studied dance at the Chicago Ballet.

During the late 1940s, Nichols was discovered by jazz legend Duke Ellington and toured with both Ellington and Lionel Hampton as a lead singer and dancer. Her acting career began in the film Porgy and Bess (1959); and her first television role was on “The Lieutenant” (1964). Nichols went on to record two albums, including “Down to Earth” (1968), and “Out of This World” (1991).

In 1966, Nichols was cast as Lieutenant Commander Uhura in Star Trek, which marked one of the first times that an African American actress was portrayed a non-stereotypical role on television. Nichols went on to appear as Uhura numerous times in the Star Trek movie and television series, including Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979), Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (1982), Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984), Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986), , Star Trek V: The Final Frontier, Paramount (1989), Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991). She was also cast as Ruana in two Tarzan films: Tarzan’s Jungle Rebellion (1967) and Tarzan’s Deadly Silence (1970).

In 1975, Nichols established Women in Motion, Inc., a company that produced educational materials using music as a teaching tool and was expanded to become an astronaut recruitment tool after Nichols won a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This resulted in thousands of women and minorities applying to NASA’s space program, such as Sally Ride, Judith Resnik, Ronald McNair, and Ellison Onizuka. In addition to her autobiography Beyond Uhura: Star Trek and Other Memories (1994), Nichols is co-author of Saturn’s Child (1995), and a contributor to publications of the National Space Institute.

In October of 1984, Nichols was presented with NASA’s Public Service Award for her many efforts towards integrating the U.S. space program. She was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1992, and became the first African American actress to place her handprints in front of Hollywood’s Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, along with the rest of the Star Trek cast. Nichols was elected as an honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.; and, on June 8, 2010, she received an Honorary Doctorate Degree from Los Angeles Mission College.

Nichelle Nichols was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 17, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.343

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/17/2013

Last Name

Nichols

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Englewood High School

Betsy Ross Elementary School

First Name

Nichelle

Birth City, State, Country

Robbins

HM ID

NIC04

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Illinois

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/28/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Actress Nichelle Nichols (1932 - ) was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her role as Lieutenant Commander Uhura in the original Star Trek television series and movie franchise.

Employment

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios

Paramount Pictures, Inc.

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:13700,134:17480,184:17840,189:18650,247:25580,365:36166,480:40170,542:43481,635:43789,640:45098,662:45406,667:45714,672:50312,689:52208,733:52524,738:56237,805:62828,862:63360,870:63892,879:64804,893:66856,930:68756,965:72480,1029:73164,1039:75596,1082:75900,1087:80370,1099:80994,1105:86770,1162:87850,1173:89410,1187:98563,1255:100620,1278:104064,1310:105282,1325:108675,1383:112068,1436:115390,1453:116325,1467:116920,1476:118450,1496:119470,1511:122190,1541:122530,1546:127830,1576:130050,1594:130890,1604:138664,1685:142140,1704:147516,1786:147852,1791:148608,1807:149280,1819:151044,1847:151800,1858:152388,1869:161198,1956:163692,1999:166100,2041:167390,2064:199160,2396:221912,2590:222770,2603:226436,2657:228386,2688:229244,2700:233788,2711:238432,2793:238862,2799:244783,2840:245257,2848:246363,2858:249839,2928:250234,2934:256916,2989:258164,3006:259880,3039:263682,3053:264098,3058:265034,3069:273458,3173:278310,3194:280550,3221:281670,3241:282150,3249:282470,3254:286980,3291$0,0:1782,62:2349,75:14150,235:15218,251:33096,440:35648,476:36088,482:38552,523:40048,539:45255,567:46038,578:46560,589:47256,598:49692,633:55695,729:56130,735:56478,740:65720,793:66155,799:66851,808:72162,832:72498,837:73086,845:80002,885:87530,950:87938,957:91134,1021:92630,1049:92902,1054:95072,1077:96728,1112:103780,1132:104715,1146:111175,1238:113640,1298:114490,1309:120078,1336:120406,1341:122456,1372:122948,1379:123276,1387:123850,1396:124424,1407:124752,1412:125490,1423:133128,1533:133480,1538:134888,1559:135240,1564:143152,1623:143440,1628:152682,1695:153354,1710:153690,1715:155538,1746:171714,1872:172158,1880:172824,1895:174748,1942:188896,2065:193120,2084
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Nichelle Nichols' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her home in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Nichelle Nichols lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Nichelle Nichols describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Nichelle Nichols describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Nichelle Nichols talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Nichelle Nichols describes her parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Nichelle Nichols lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her sisters' acting skills

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Nichelle Nichols remembers her neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Nichelle Nichols remembers her neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Nichelle Nichols recalls Betsy Ross Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Nichelle Nichols describes her experiences at Betsy Ross Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her early appreciation for the arts

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Nichelle Nichols remembers her scholarship to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her early dance training

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Nichelle Nichols recalls developing an interest in tap dance

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Nichelle Nichols remembers combining ballet and tap dance techniques

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her training under Carmencita Romero

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Nichelle Nichols remembers completing high school while dancing professionally

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her early experiences of religion

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Nichelle Nichols recalls dancing at the Sherman House Hotel in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Nichelle Nichols remembers segregation in downtown Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her parents' support for her aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Nichelle Nichols recalls dancing at a resort in Hawaii

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Nichelle Nichols remembers her decision to focus on singing

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her singing career

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Nichelle Nichols remembers her marriage to Foster Johnson

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Nichelle Nichols recalls the birth of her son

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Nichelle Nichols remembers developing her acting talent

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Nichelle Nichols recalls singing in the chorus of 'Porgy and Bess'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Nichelle Nichols recalls her appearance in 'Kicks and Company'

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Nichelle Nichols remembers her role on 'The Lieutenant,' pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Nichelle Nichols remembers her role on 'The Lieutenant,' pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Nichelle Nichols remembers working with James Baldwin

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Nichelle Nichols recalls being offered a part on 'Star Trek'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Nichelle Nichols remembers creating the role of Uhura

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Nichelle Nichols recalls working with Leonard Nimoy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Nichelle Nichols talks about Gene Roddenberry's commitment to diverse casting

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Nichelle Nichols recalls the casting of William Shatner and DeForest Kelley on 'Star Trek'

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Nichelle Nichols remembers the pranks on the set of 'Star Trek'

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Nichelle Nichols recalls the challenges during the first season of 'Star Trek'

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Nichelle Nichols describes meeting the network producers of 'Star Trek'

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Nichelle Nichols talks about the appeal of 'Star Trek'

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Nichelle Nichols recalls the minority guest appearances on 'Star Trek'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Nichelle Nichols talks about the racial commentary in 'Star Trek'

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Nichelle Nichols talks about the representation of women on 'Star Trek'

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Nichelle Nichols recalls her experiences of discrimination on the set of 'Star Trek,' pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Nichelle Nichols recalls her experiences of discrimination on the set of 'Star Trek,' pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Nichelle Nichols remembers filming the first interracial kiss on television

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Nichelle Nichols recalls her decision to continue acting on 'Star Trek'

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Nichelle Nichols remembers the cancellation of 'Star Trek'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Nichelle Nichols recalls the syndication of 'Star Trek'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Nichelle Nichols talks about the 'Star Trek' animated series

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Nichelle Nichols describes her film work after the original 'Star Trek' series

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Nichelle Nichols talks about the Trekkie phenomenon

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Nichelle Nichols recalls the growth of the 'Star Trek' franchise

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Nichelle Nichols remembers writing her autobiography

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Nichelle Nichols describes her efforts to recruit black women as astronauts

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Nichelle Nichols talks about the Kwanza Foundation

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Nichelle Nichols describes the aims of the Kwanza Foundation

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her hopes for the future

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Nichelle Nichols reflects upon her life

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Nichelle Nichols reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Nichelle Nichols talks about her family

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Nichelle Nichols describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
Nichelle Nichols recalls dancing at the Sherman House Hotel in Chicago, Illinois
Nichelle Nichols remembers creating the role of Uhura
Transcript
It became--and, and, and Carmencita [Carmencita Romero], oh took us downtown and, and she called my mother, I guess this is so--I was fourteen now and I came and I'm walking home from high school [Englewood High School, Chicago, Illinois] with my books you know, and my mother's knocking on the window, "Come in here." And, "What?" And she said, "You need to get downtown, Carmencita Romero at the, at the, at the hotel [Sherman House, Chicago, Illinois] and, and she wants you down there, and she said, 'Ms. Nichols [Lishia Parks Nichols] have her look grown, not just those'--." Well my oldest sister [Marian Nichols Michaels] had just given me, we wore the same size shoe and she had just given me my first heels but I couldn't wear them. My, my mother said they'll have to be saved 'til you're old enough right? And I'm fourteen and, and mother, and I'm getting ready to leave and I'm looking as old as I can and you know sophisticated as I can, and mother brings out these heels and said, "Try them on," and they worked perfectly with my--and Carmencita had said, "Get her down here to the hotel immediately," because--from school, and I was, you can't imagine my first pair of heels and I got on the, the elevated line ["L"], which went down to subway and went to the hotel and I walked in with this beautiful suit that my sister, older sister, one of my older sisters had given me and these high heels that the other one had given me and the gloves and my hair was long so, but it was always worn in school in braids and you know like that, and my other--combed it down for me and I walked in there and Carmencita and, and the Ernie Byfield and, and everybody was up on the stage and, and I'm going gulp, and I straightened my shoulders and I walked up, and the stage is not like that, it's like that, and I walked up on it and they're sitting in chairs on, talking on the stage and because she doesn't have to audition, she already, he already knows how, how great she is and so I go up there and I don't--it doesn't occur to me that there's steps on, over either side, so I go up (laughter) and I and I, and I put my hand out, Ernie Byfield goes--Carmencita was, everything she could do to keep from a--keep a straight face and I, I was a really accomplished dancer at that time and I just raised up and sat on the stage and, "Thank you, sir," and (laughter) talking to the owner of half of downtown Chicago [Illinois] and, and that was it. He said if she's with the, with the--and Carmencita was the lead and, and, and Carmencita [sic. Ernie Byfield] said, "Now if you could just find me someone to match you," and I had, and she had two big guys, magnificent dancers with magnificent bodies and that was Carmencita Romero and her dancers, and her dancers were, and that was my first professional job, and of course I had to have my mother or father [Samuel Nichols, Sr.] or both come to the--to take me down--so after school, and I had to keep whatever grade that I had in school, I had to maintain it. Well I happened to have an A. I been working so hard towards that A and I've got an A and I've gotta maintain an A and, which is the highest score, you know; and, and I did because I was--anything to work, to be able to work at that wonderful profess- as a professional.$I often wondered how--who named your character, Uhura?$$ Who named what?$$Your character in 'Star Trek,' Uhura, who named--$$ Guess who?$$I would guess you, but I'm not sure.$$ Of course. That was one of those lunches (laughter). That was one of those lunches and, and he says (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Where does the name--$$--but I want her to be different. I don't want her to be ordinary and, and I said, "Well, she can be from, from--her parents can be from South Africa," right? And so he said he liked that. And, and that, that keeps her in two places you know as an American black and as the parents that have that history.$$Yeah, so the African root and--$$ The African roots yes, and everything and yet she's very American, you know. And, and, oh you're bringing up stuff that I'd forgotten; and Gene was very excited about it and he had--oh my god, he's an incredible man, Gene Roddenberry, and he took me to lunch and we talked about, and it was early, too early for lunch. It was about ten o'clock instead of the noon time that, and it was right around the corner from where we're working and, and he would pick my brain, that I found out later, that's what he was doing you know. I mean he was so obvious about it you know. He wanted me to know and, and we were a great team together. We were a great team together.$$So you, what you're saying here is that you know-- not only played the role of Uhura--$$ Um-hm.$$--you developed the role of Uhura.$$ Oh yes and, and I, I told him who her parents came from and how she got that name and, and the whole thing. He let me--when it came to that character he let me, he gave me full, full range. He gave me full range. It was just amazing and of course I was so excited you know. I'm just (makes sounds) and, "Guess what else I am thinking?" And he used just about everything, and I was just so excited and he says, "And guess who's gonna play her?" And I said, "Well it better be me" (laughter), but at first to tell you the truth, I wasn't thinking, I wasn't thinking as I was working then, yeah.

Judy Pace-Flood

Actress Judy Pace Flood was born Judy Pace on June 15, 1942, in Los Angeles, California. Attending Marvin Avenue Elementary School, and Louis Pastuer Junior High School, Pace graduated from Dorsey High School in 1960. Trained in modeling by her sister, Betty, Pace auditioned for the Ebony Fashion Fair and became the youngest model for the show’s 1961 to 1962 national tour.

In 1963 Pace auditioned for Columbia Pictures and was cast in William Castle’s horror film The Candyweb. Pace played a regular role in the 1969 season of Peyton Place and went on to appear in many other shows, including Batman, Bewitched, The Flying Nun, I Spy, The Young Lawyers, The Mod Squad, That’s My Mama, Sanford and Son, What’s Happening?, Good Times, and Sucker Free City.. Cast in Billy Wilder’s The Fortune Cookie in 1966, Pace also played roles in the movies Three in the Attic, The Thomas Crown Affair, and the acclaimed TV movie Brian’s Song. In 1970, Pace won acclaim for her role as Iris in the Ossie Davis directed Cotton Comes to Harlem; in 1973, she played Adelaide in a Las Vegas production of Guys and Dolls.

Pace married Ironsides actor Don Mitchell in 1972 and took time out for civic duties and to raise her two children during the 1980s. Divorced from Mitchell in 1986, Pace then married baseball’s Curt Flood. Since Flood’s death in 1997, Pace acted as a major spokesperson for his role in establishing free agency in professional sports. Pace founded the Kwanza Foundation with Nichelle Nichols.

Accession Number

A2005.085

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/29/2005

Last Name

Pace-Flood

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Organizations
Schools

Susan Miller Dorsey High School

Marvin Avenue Elementary School

Louis Pastuer Junior High School

Los Angeles City College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Judy

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

PAC02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui, Hawaii

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/15/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Salmon (Wild)

Short Description

Actress and film actress Judy Pace-Flood (1942 - ) has acted in many television and film productions, including: Batman, Bewitched, The Flying Nun, I Spy, The Young Lawyers, The Mod Squad, That’s My Mama, Sanford and Son, What’s Happening!!, Good Times, Three in the Attic, The Thomas Crown Affair, and Brian’s Song.

Employment

Columbia Pictures

Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation

Paramount Pictures

American International Pictures

Favorite Color

Fuchsia, Magenta

Timing Pairs
0,0:4625,60:6585,86:13116,181:13572,188:16560,295:24750,414:38530,608:48685,739:49960,763:59225,943:65610,1009:72436,1167:74096,1194:79657,1293:83807,1359:85135,1378:86048,1399:86463,1405:88040,1431:88538,1438:89949,1463:96955,1487:100092,1502:100540,1511:102204,1545:105596,1614:106044,1624:106364,1630:107068,1657:108604,1690:108924,1696:110140,1724:110588,1733:111228,1748:120090,1841:122458,1901:124954,1980:127002,2032:129882,2165:132058,2211:133594,2252:141396,2348:142276,2375:156740,2637:157630,2666:158342,2677:158698,2682:159499,2695:164928,2810:173311,2940:173716,2946:181735,3129:185218,3195:186838,3249:192722,3273:199080,3347:199525,3353:205588,3408:207580,3439:208904,3455:209890,3466$0,0:1232,28:2310,41:3157,56:3465,61:3927,69:4389,76:5852,109:9163,177:9933,192:11088,210:11473,216:12397,229:12936,238:13244,243:14630,274:15169,282:32946,474:41966,573:42589,581:42945,586:43479,594:43835,599:44280,605:47582,644:48248,665:51134,736:51948,752:57646,887:73984,1104:74655,1123:75204,1133:75631,1147:83012,1320:88480,1414:89040,1423:89920,1435:94240,1499:94560,1504:94880,1509:95520,1518:96560,1532:103822,1620:117162,1843:124995,1962:125867,1972:137320,2130:137880,2140:138520,2149:138840,2154:139880,2175:142840,2241:144200,2278:144520,2283:149510,2314:150706,2329:151902,2343:154290,2370:158930,2456:159330,2462:160130,2498:160530,2504:163650,2592:172580,2693:173210,2705:173700,2719:176080,2783:178530,2838:180210,2885:182100,2972:184690,3024:200482,3174:200952,3180:204148,3263:214602,3388:223370,3510:224195,3542:230570,3644:238540,3752:241700,3787
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Judy Pace-Flood's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Judy Pace-Flood lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her family's migration from Jackson, Mississippi to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her paternal ancestors' experience in slavery

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Judy Pace-Flood lists her parents' occupations and her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her childhood neighborhood in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Judy Pace-Flood remembers her family's move to Los Angeles, California's Westside

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Judy Pace-Flood remembers the demographics of her elementary and junior high schools in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her upbringing and educational experiences in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her favorite activities growing up in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about notable classmates who attended Susan Miller Dorsey High School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Judy Pace-Flood remembers her interest in show business growing up in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about the importance of church in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her activities at Susan Miller Dorsey High School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her demeanor and interests at Susan Miller Dorsey High School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her family's knowledge of African American history and the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about pursuing a modeling career after graduating from Susan Miller Dorsey High School in Los Angeles, California in 1960

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Judy Pace-Flood remembers modeling for the Ebony Fashion Fair

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her experiences with the Ebony Fashion Fair and Johnson Publishing Company in the early 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her father's work for Douglas Aircraft Company

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her contract with Columbia Pictures Corporation and her role in 'The Candy Web'

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her television roles with Columbia Pictures Corporation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her roles on 'Batman'

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her role on 'Peyton Place' and the growing presence of African Americans in Hollywood in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Judy Pace-Flood remembers the reception to 'Julia'

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Judy Pace-Flood remembers how appearing on 'The Dating Game' led to Curt Flood contacting her

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her first date with Curt Flood at Dodgers Stadium in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about marrying Don Mitchell

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about colorism and how her acting success helped undermine that

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her leading role in 'Three in the Attic'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Judy Pace-Flood talks her starring roles in movies with American International Pictures

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her role in 'Cotton Comes to Harlem'

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her role as Adelaide in an all-black version of 'Guys and Dolls' at the Aladdin Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about studying theater under Lillian Randolph in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her decision to leave show business to focus on motherhood in the late 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her daughters' careers in show business and law

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her return to acting when cast in Spike Lee's 'Sucker Free City'

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Judy Pace-Flood describes Major League Baseball's reserve clause

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about Curt Flood's talents and refusal to be traded to the Philadelphia Phillies

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about Curt Flood's challenge to Major League Baseball's reserve clause

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about the buildup to Flood v. Kuhn, 1972

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Judy Pace-Flood recalls challenges Curt Flood faced when challenging Major League Baseball in Flood v. Kuhn, 1972

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about discrimination Curt Flood faced as an African American baseball player

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Judy Pace-Flood shares Curt Flood's experience with racism during a Minor League Baseball game

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Judy Pace-Flood describes the significance of Oakland, California for Curt Flood and other African American athletes

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Judy Pace-Flood explains how Curt Flood's most valuable player award ceremony was marred by segregation

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about the impact of Curt Flood's family on his career

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Judy Pace-Flood recalls the U.S. Supreme Court decision for Flood v. Kuhn, 1972

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Judy Pace-Flood describes a mysterious incident that happened to Curt Flood during his lawsuit against Major League Baseball

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about Curt Flood receiving threatening messages while playing for the Washington Senators

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about Curt Flood's five-year stay in Majorca, Spain and subsequent return to Oakland, California

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her daughters' impression of Curt Flood

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her future plans

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Judy Pace-Flood talks about her favorite African American actors and performers

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Judy Pace-Flood describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Judy Pace-Flood reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Judy Pace-Flood reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Judy Pace-Flood describes the formation of the Kwanza Foundation in the 1970s

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Judy Pace-Flood describes the purpose of the Kwanza Foundation

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Judy Pace-Lett shares her hopes for memorializing Curt Flood's baseball career

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Judy Pace-Flood describes how she would like to be remembered

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Judy Pace-Flood talks about her experiences with the Ebony Fashion Fair and Johnson Publishing Company in the early 1960s
Judy Pace-Flood talks about her leading role in 'Three in the Attic'
Transcript
And I get a phone call from Mrs. [Eunice] Johnson, the Mrs. Johnson, and she's going, she's telling me how sorry she is that they'll have to send me back home because I look like a little girl dressed up in my mother's clothes. "You're a lovely little model, but you look like a little girl in your mother's clothes, and darling you just, you just look like you got in your mother's closet," and I did. I looked like a kid prancing around in her mom's grown-up clothes, and they put me on a little plane and sent me back home [to Los Angeles, California]. Now you know that was crushing. You go off just being grand and then you're sent home.$$So, so you were only out about how long?$$About maybe a month, about a month and you gotta come back and face your friends and they've given you a going away party, and you're off on your big modeling career, and here you are back and they're in school and you're not in school because you took that break. But, about three weeks after I was home I get a call from [HistoryMaker] Mr. [John H.] Johnson, and he tells me, "Not to worry, next year we're gonna have you back [for the Ebony Fashion Fair]." I'm like, yeah right, uh-huh, right. So, they called me again and sure enough they did. And what they had done they had clothes especially designed for me with a more youthful flare to them, and I was the young model in the young clothes that a young nineteen, twenty-year-old person would wear and I did the whole show for them and then it, that, that was really a fun, fun time with Terri Springer, all these legend models and being with them for you know a good six, seven months, so that, that was, that was fabulous and seeing the whole country, just traveling all over the country it was just, it was great.$$Did you have a favorite place to visit when you--$$I lived everywhere. Some of them had been on, done the tour before, a number of times and so we would get to a city and I'm like, "I need to go, let's go on a tour, let's, let's go, go see this and let's go see that," and they were like, "Oh, [HistoryMaker] Judy [Pace-Flood], just, just go, let us know when you get back." So, I would be out there with maybe one or two other girls who'd never been anywhere before, and we would just be out there having a good old time. We'd take ourselves on tours and go see whatever was going on. I wanted to see everything, and we did. We just, we just would go and we would do it. And it was Johnson's publication [Johnson Publishing Company, Chicago, Illinois] who recommended me to Columbia Studios [Columbia Pictures], so.$$Okay, now these were the days, too, I might point out, correct me if I'm wrong, but most people, most young black people had never, in fact most black folks in the neighborhoods unless your parents had a whole lot of money hadn't been on planes or gone very far--$$No, no.$$--and so it was a real big deal.$$It was a big deal.$$You're part of the first generation to actually get out there and see the world (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) I got, with the flight I took to go see Mr. Johnson, the editor of Ebony--of Ebony magazine was like a big deal. You're going to go--$$Was that your first plane ride?$$That was my first plane ride was to go see Mr. Johnson to meet him, so that was like a big deal, you know, and then to go to New York [New York] we're talking '60s [1960s], '61 [1961], '62 [1962], so that, that was, that was an exciting time for me; it really was.$And then I think within our community we also had put a very narrow, narrow range of what was supposed to be pretty and what was supposed to be attractive, so if you are taught that you would never even pursue doing something or going in that direction. I wanted to be the leading lady. I wanted to be the, the Lena Horne. I wanted to be the pretty girl, the one the men were chasing after. That's what I wanted to be. I wanted to be the, that's who I wanted to be. I wanted to be the heroine, that's what I wanted, and my mind was set on that and modeling helped me acquire that kind of feel about myself. I was a Pepsi[-Cola; PepsiCo] girl. I did all the Pepsi ads. Face was all on the billboards, all over the, all over the country. I was Johnson [Products Company] hair products girl and dark girls weren't doing those kinds of ads. They weren't being, you know, the hair commercials, I mean the hair ads and the, the big face blown up on the billboards. You didn't see dark girls doing that, so my little chocolate face was on these billboards when somehow or another the agents thought that I was cute or something because they, they would hire me and I would go out, I'd tell my agent [Sy Marsh], "I want to go out for those kinds of things," so I didn't, I didn't hold that back, and I always had to encourage one of sisters and my mom [Kitty Griffin Pace] to, to encourage me to do that. So, when the opportunity came for a film like 'Three in the Attic' I got a three picture deal with American International Films [American International Pictures], and there was a nude scene in that film and it wasn't a black film. I was the only black person in the film. It was, it was with Yvette Mimieux and Christopher Jones and we were on location for about two months shooting this film.$$That was about 1970 or?$$No, it was around '68-ish [1968]--$$Okay.$$--sixty-eight [1968]. It could have been, maybe '67 [1967]. It could have been right around in there. It was, it was after [sic. before] I'd done 'Peyton Place.' I hope I don't have it flipped. It was after I'd done 'Peyton Place,' and I was just so happy, so thrilled that they had me in and I tested for the role and I got the role. I was the happiest child because I knew it would be the first time that it was a dark brown woman being the love interest of a Caucasian man with another Caucasian woman with Yvette Mimieux, and we were playing equal roles, so I was, I was quite thrilled with that.$$I think it was three women that, you know--$$Right--$$Yeah.$$Jennifer [sic. Maggie Thrett], oh God I don't. Jennifer Luxton [ph.], Jennifer--I can't think of her name.$$Okay.$$Pretty brunette girl. So, I was happy to do that and then that, we did another, I did another film ['Frogs'] for American International and then I did another film for American International, and in all three of those films they put me in the prettiest costumes, made sure I was the most gorgeous thing there. They always wanted me to be sassy and, and sexy and that had not happened before.$$You were the most gorgeous person in the movie (laughter), but how, now how did your--$$And, and, and--$$--family feel about these nude scenes? (Unclear).$$Well as my grandmother said when somebody, when her church was telling her that, about my nude scene and my, my butt was, they had by butt was shown. It was my butt. It was a profile of my butt. That was the nude scene. You know like you'd see women walking around now at the beach. It was the profile of my butt on a bed and that was the nude scene with a blanket draped across one leg and all you saw was like okay butt, then that was it. And my grandmother said, "Well, I think it's cute, but I've seen it already," (laughter). So that was my grandmother's comment--