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The Honorable Byron Rushing

Massachusetts state representative Byron Douglas Rushing was born in New York City on July 29, 1942. His father, William Rushing, worked as a janitor in the Washington Heights neighborhood of New York City. His mother, Jamaican native Linda Turpin, migrated to New York City working as a seamstress. The family moved to Syracuse, New York, where Rushing attended Madison Junior High. He was praised for his public speaking, and entered various oratorical contests. He also attended a youth summer camp, under the direction of the Universalist Unitarian Church, which taught world peace and cultural understanding by bringing various racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups together. Rushing attended this camp throughout high school.

In 1960, Rushing graduated from Syracuse Central High School. Members of the Quaker church whom he met at his summer youth camp invited him to participate in another youth summer program operated by the American Friends Service Committee. Rushing was able to travel through Eastern and Western Europe. In the fall of 1960, Rushing attended Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. At the end of his junior year, Rushing decided to postpone his studies and fully dedicate his efforts to the Civil Rights Movement. He returned to Syracuse to work with the local chapter of CORE [Congress of Racial Equality] tackling issues of employment integration and police brutality.

Rushing moved to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1964 to work for the Northern Student Movement. He operated programs of youth tutoring, and voter education and registration. During this time, Rushing volunteered for various programs involving the Episcopalian church, his religious faith. He was hired by St. John's Church to set up a community information center. The Massachusetts Council for Churches then hired Rushing to establish a community organizing project called Roxbury Associates. It was at Roxbury Associates that Rushing met his first wife, Andrea Benton.

From 1967 to 1969, Rushing worked as an orderly at Rochester General Hospital. In 1969, Rushing returned to Boston as the Director of the Urban Change program for the Urban League. Between 1972 and 1985, he worked as president of the Museum of Afro-American History. As president, he helped raise money for the purchase and restoration of what was cited as the oldest African American church building in the United States, the African Meeting House.

In 1982, Rushing was elected as a representative of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He was the chief sponsor of the law to end discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in public schools, and an original sponsor of the gay rights bill in Massachusetts. Rushing also led the Massachusetts state pension fund to launch community development investment of poor communities of Massachusetts. Rushing is an elected deputy to the General Convention of The Episcopal Church; a founding member of the Episcopal Urban Caucus; and serves on the boards of the Episcopal Women's Caucus and the Episcopal Network for Economic Justice.

Accession Number

A2006.013

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/8/2006

Last Name

Rushing

Schools

Syracuse Central High School

Madison Junior High School

Harvard University

P.S. 2 Morrisania School

Washington Irving Elementary School

First Name

Byron

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

RUS07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Men May Not Get Everything They Pay For, But They Must Certainly Pay For Everything They Get.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

7/29/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork

Short Description

Museum director and state representative The Honorable Byron Rushing (1942 - ) has sponsored civil rights and community development legislation in Massachusetts since his election in 1982. Between 1972 and 1985, he worked as president of the Museum of Afro-American History.

Employment

Massachusetts House of Representatives

Museum of Afro-American History/Museum of African American History

Congress of Racial Equality

Northern Student Movement

St. John's Episcopal Church

Massachusetts Council of Churches

Center for Inner City Change

Rochester General Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of the Honorable Byron Rushing's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes her parents' professions

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his parents' reunion

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the neighborhood of Morrisania in the Bronx, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls places his mother took him as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing remembers P.S. 2 Morrisania in the Bronx

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his baptism in the Presbyterian church

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his schools in Syracuse, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls teachers and friends who influenced him

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his neighborhood in Syracuse, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls how his mother faced employment discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls his experiences at Syracuse Central High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls his parents' NAACP involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his involvement with the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls meeting Ralph Abernathy and Eleanor Roosevelt

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his trip to Europe with the American Friends Service Committee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his decision to attend Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls how he became involved with CORE

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work with CORE in Syracuse

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls CORE's demonstration against urban renewal

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains his work with CORE and the Northern Student Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his role at the Northern Student Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Community Voter Registration Project

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes Blue Hill Avenue's African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work in Episcopal organizations

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Lower Roxbury Community Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains how he came to work for the Center for Inner City Change

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls working with Melvin King and Hubie Jones

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the accomplishments of the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls the archeological investigation of the African Meeting House

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Boston African American National Historic Site

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing reflects upon his achievements at the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains his role at the Roxbury Historical Society

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls running for the Massachusetts House of Representatives

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes Boston's Ninth Suffolk District

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his roles in the Massachusetts House of Representatives

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his legislative work against the apartheid

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls creating Massachusetts' Burma Law

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his work for marriage equality in Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work to alleviate homelessness

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his family life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls how Malcolm X changed his religious views

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing gives advice to young African Americans

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

7$4

DATitle
The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls CORE's demonstration against urban renewal
The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work to alleviate homelessness
Transcript
(Laughter) So, so we go out to find a place where they're tearing down some buildings. The only building--they're, they're not tearing down any houses on that particular day. They're tearing down a gasoline station. So we go to the gasoline station and, and we walk onto the site and we--and, and the workers just go berserk, right. They start yelling at us and start throwing things at us, and we tell 'em we have to close the whole thing down. We're, of course, nonviolent, and the police come. The police call up the urban renewal authority. The, the, the director and two or three other people of, of, of the urban renewal authority are in Washington [D.C.] because they went to the March on Washington (laughter) and so no one can get--so they--so the whole--so they tell the workers to go home and we have our big success. We close down (laughter)--and so we get all of this publicity and we have a big meeting inside CORE [Congress of Racial Equality]. There, there were a lot of people in the chapter who were mad at us. They think we didn't go about it in the right way. We didn't have enough discussion about doing this demonstration. And now we're sort of stuck 'cause we're now in the--we made the chapter be anti-urban renewal, right, and how are we gonna do all of this with just a bunch of volunteers? And when the school starts, they won't have the volunteers, right 'cause everybody will be in school. And they say--they, they turn to me and they say, "Why don't you stay instead of going down to Louisiana? Why don't you stay here, right, and you spend your year here working for us? And also, you have this big advantage, is that you won't be an outside agitator which was a big thing then, right, always accusing all the civil rights groups of being outside agitators. You're from Syracuse [New York]." So, I said okay and I spent a year working, running the chapter in Syracuse.$$Right. I see.$$I was their twenty-five dollars a week staff person.$$For the record, we should indicate what CORE stands for.$$CORE is the Congress of Racial Equality (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--which is an early civil rights organization--$$Back in the '40s [1940s].$$--I mean, which began in the '40s [1940s]--$$Yeah, yeah.$$--in the North based on Gandhian [Mahatma Gandhi] principles. And, and actually the word congress, they took because that's the word that Gandhi used for his political organization [Indian National Congress] was--in India was the--was a--was the congress. And that--and so--and this was the Congress of Racial Equal- Equality.$Now, on a--on a day to day basis, I have to spend a lot of time with the issues that relate directly to my constituency [from the 9th Suffolk District]. Now, sometimes those issues are very interesting issues and sometime--you know, and sometimes they're--and, and apply to other people and sometimes those issues just apply to the South End [Boston, Massachusetts] and, and, and everybody else would glaze over as I talk about the fact that we have flooding problems or that a good deal of the South End is built on filled in land and we're--and we're having problems with foundations of buildings and who should be responsible for that, but I get involved in that a lot. But on the other hand, as I said earlier, I'm very concerned that we have as good housing for poor and working class people as possible in, in, in our community. Now, I want that housing, a lot of that housing, to be in my district. But when I work for improving housing for poor and working class people, when I work for a, a housing trust fund set up by the state so there'll be money available for developing that kind of housing, I, of course, not just doing work for my own constituents, I'm doing work for that whole class of people throughout the state that need--that needs that. That has drawn me, though into what I consider one of the real disgraces of the United States and the--and cities in the United States, and that is homelessness. I mean, you and I can remember when there was no such word as homeless. We could--you can--I can remember when almost everybody had some place to live. We--our--we complained about the, the conditions with which we lived in but we usually didn't complain that they didn't have a roof at all, and that is something that has only happened in the past twenty years. And we don't--and we seem to be just--buy into it, taking it for granted, assuming it's gonna be with us forever, so we set the--we--so the issue becomes, we set up shelters and we try to make sure we have enough beds available for everyone who wants to come in off the street, right, but we're not saying, no. There was a time when this didn't exist and it doesn't need to exist now. So I've been spending a lot of time trying to reframe the question around homelessness and to move it from how to we take care of people who--in shelters and how do we have decent family shelters, get 'em out of--out of hotels and motels and into some kind of shelter where they can get some services when, when, when--but to move it away from that conversation which is an important conversation to the conversation of how do we end homelessness? How do we supply enough housing so that nobody has to be homeless, right? And I find that there are not a lot of people thinking that way. And so I've been working with people here and in other parts, in other states in the country, Wisconsin, Minnesota, who are coming up with working plans, really business plans on how to end homelessness. So I have legislation to establish a commission to come up with a working plan to end homelessness in Massachusetts, a plan that has benchmarks like any business plan, had--will know how much it would cost to do this, how long it would take, spending this amount of money to have this accomplished, and that's one of the things that I've been spending a lot of time on--$$Okay.$$--most recently.$$I'm gonna follow that initiative. I wanna watch it.$$That's good.

Charles "Chuck" Turner

Boston, Massachusetts, civil rights activist Charles “Chuck” Turner was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1941. Turner was raised by his aunt, Mamie K. Faulkner, and his grandmother, Laura Troy Knight; his grandfather, Doctor Charles Henry Turner, was a pioneering animal behavior biologist, while his father, Darwin Turner, was a pharmacist.

Turner graduated from Harvard University in 1963 with his B.A. degree in government; he then spent a year in Washington, DC, reporting for The Afro-American Newspaper. Turner then moved north, first to New York, then to Hartford, where he joined the influential civil rights group the Northern Student Movement.

In 1966 Turner returned to the Boston area, joining the South End Neighborhood Action Program (SNAP) where he worked to help the community and assisted families who were losing their homes to gentrification. Turner formed a community action group which pressured the local government to provide trash clean-up in black neighborhoods and led demonstrations which highlighted how inadequately city inspectors enforced building codes in public housing.

A former leader of the United Community Construction Workers and one-time chair of the Boston Jobs Coalition, Turner spent several years crusading against job discrimination in the city. Turner campaigned for increased hiring of blacks on city construction jobs; in 1991, unsatisfied with the mayor’s enforcement of fair employment practices, he led a four hour sit-in at the mayor’s office, which resulted in a number of key concessions being made.

Turner also used his activism strategies and leadership skills to spearhead other community efforts; he played a leading role in a successful campaign to prevent the city from building a highway through predominantly black neighborhoods. Turner also chaired the Southwest Corridor Land Development Corporation.

Referred to as one of the best-known agitators in the city, Turner was elected to the Boston City Council in 1999, a position he held for over ten years. As a city council member, Turner continued his defense of civil and human rights; he authored an ordinance protecting transgendered people from discrimination. Turner successfully led an effort to protect the affirmative action guidelines of Massachusetts when Governor Mitt Romney sought to change them. As chairman of the Education Committee, Turner rallied against educational inequality in the Boston public schools.

Accession Number

A2005.080

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/25/2005

Last Name

Turner

Maker Category
Middle Name

"Chuck"

Occupation
Schools

Whittier Elementary School

Walnut Hills High School

Harvard University

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Cincinnati

HM ID

TUR03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Watermelon

Short Description

City council member Charles "Chuck" Turner ( - ) served as a member of the Boston City Council for over ten years. He has advocated for fair employment practices within the city of Boston, as well as the rights of those living in under-served and minority communities.

Employment

Washington Afro-American

Northern Student Movement

South End Neighborhood Action Projects

Boston City Council

Industrial Cooperative Association

Third World Workers Association

Circle Inc.

Northeastern University

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles "Chuck" Turner's interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Charles "Chuck" Turner's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles "Chuck" Turner lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his mother's educational background and occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his maternal grandmother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his father's educational and occupational background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his paternal grandfather, scientist Dr. Charles Henry Turner

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his grandfather's research and his lack of recognition in the field of biology

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his earliest childhood memory and his childhood household

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his early relationship with his brother, Darwin T. Turner

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his experiences at Whittier Elementary School in Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes his experiences at Walnut Hills High School in Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles "Chuck" Turner remembers attending St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles "Chuck" Turner recalls his decision to attend Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles "Chuck" Turner remembers working on a riverboat that traveled down the Ohio River

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his activities at Walnut Hills High School in Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Charles "Chuck" Turner remembers challenges adjusting to the culture at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his experience at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his knowledge of racial issues during his time at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles "Chuck" Turner explains why he decided to attend Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about arriving in Washington D.C. during the March on Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about writing for the Washington Afro-American and interviewing Fannie Lou Hamer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his work for the Northern Student Movement in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about becoming an organizer for the South End Neighborhood Action Project

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his work as an organizer for South End Neighborhood Action Project

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about community issues he tackled with South End Neighborhood Action Project

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about leaving the South End Neighborhood Action Project

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Charles "Chuck" Turner remembers protesting against highway development projects in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about becoming the director of the African American institute at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his work as director of the Circle Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about forming Third World Workers Association to represent minorities in newly integrated construction unions

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about the development and dissolution of Third World Workers Association

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about becoming education director of Industrial Cooperative Association

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about the influence of his spiritual beliefs on his community organizing and political work

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his decision to run for Boston City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his work on the Boston City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about the committees that he has chaired on the Boston City Council and his current work

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his motivation to continue Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s work

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his wife's support of his career

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his work in building coalitions among people of color in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about his Fund the Dream campaign

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about the importance and unique aspects of African American history

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about the importance of educational mentoring

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Charles "Chuck" Turner reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Charles "Chuck" Turner reflects upon his aspirations

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Charles "Chuck" Turner describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Charles "Chuck" Turner narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Charles "Chuck" Turner narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$9

DATitle
Charles "Chuck" Turner remembers protesting against highway development projects in Boston, Massachusetts
Charles "Chuck" Turner talks about the committees that he has chaired on the Boston City Council and his current work
Transcript
They were gonna come in with a highway and we organized against the highway couple of years later, but they had a whole plan just to re- kind of reconfigure the, the community, but weren't ultimately successful because people kept organizing and pushing back.$$You said they were coming with a highway. Who were they and what was this highway?$$Well, there had been a plan to build a, to complete I-95 through Boston [Massachusetts]. I-95 was the, kind of federal highway that was justified as a, security highway where you could move troops from Florida to, Florida to Maine, and there was a highway trust fund that provide money for the building of highways. Every gallon of gas you, you bought you paid some money and it went into a trust fund, and so everybody assumed that it was going to be built, they were going to building a sixteen lap lane highway. It was like the Dan Ryan [Expressway] in Chicago [Illinois] where you got the, about six lanes, four lanes of traffic on each side, parking lanes and then the railroad running down the center. That's what they intended to have run through Hyde Park [Boston, Massachusetts] and Jamaica Plain [Boston, Massachusetts] and into Roxbury [Boston, Massachusetts] and then downtown Boston.$$So you're saying this highway, super highway would have cut through four of Boston's neighborhoods--$$Oh yeah.$$--and particularly Roxbury on the South End [Boston, Massachusetts] that was predominately black and Spanish speaking peoples.$$Yep. And then there would be an interbelt coming from Cambridge [Massachusetts] that would meet at Ruggles [Street] and Columbus [Avenue] and so you'd have this interchange, these, this about six level interchange right between Whittier Street and the Mission Hill [Boston, Massachusetts] housing developments. And so we, you know, just a, I had helped from that point from a group called the Boston Black United Front that kind of came out some thinking that Stokely Carmichael [Kwame Ture] and others had about the need to form alliances between middle class blacks and working class, low income blacks to kind of fortify themselves against the attack that we thought that was going to come against those of us who re more radical. And so formed the United Front and then one of the first projects we focused on was the highway and it became part of a regional highway fight which fortunately we won and then the plans were, you know, were changed around. We actually wound up developing our own plan for how the land would be used while the struggle is going and then once the struggle is ended, our plan that had the RCC [Roxbury Community College, Roxbury Crossing, Massachusetts] where it is now, and Marvin Gilmore is development, industrial development that he had conceived, was part of our plan, and what's interesting is the state spent probably millions of dollars designing, making this elaborate design of a plan that we had developed with $30,000 from Model Cities [Program] (laughter).$(Unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) What committees have you chaired [on the Boston City Council]? You chaired one important committee which was--?$$Education. Education and now I chair the human rights, you know, committee and those are, those are probably the two main committees that I chaired, but we worked on the CORIS [Criminal Offender Record Information (CORI)] issue. We$$CORIS, what is that?$$Criminal Offenders Record Information System, where, because what we were finding was that people were not being, being discriminated against by employers because they had a record. They couldn't get housing because of federal law if they had a felony in public housing, they couldn't get money for education until five years after they had been out of jail, and nobody would talk about it, you know, the state was even moving to put these regulations in and everybody was just staying silent again, and so a group of us had a sit-in down at the department of public health, to make it a major issue, which, which worked, that is, that once, there's something magical about the power of people engaging in civil disobedience and magical in that it really kind of just triggers interest and so we were able to use that phenomena to put a spotlight and continue to work on now. What, the main thing I'm working on now are two things. One is, both of them are national. One is that we have to end the war on drugs. We have to legalize drugs. Prohibition, alcohol was made illegal from 1919 [sic. 1920] to 1933. In 1933 violent crime in the streets was rampaging, police corruption had reached an all-time high, people were killing themselves with what they were drinking and [U.S.] Congress said we can't afford to have alcohol be illegal. And it's the same situation, with drugs. Right now the United States government is overseeing the shipments of heroin out of Afghanistan into this country. The head of the drug unit, said at a hearing held last year that to evaluate the war on drugs, that he had to admit they couldn't stop the flow, the flow of drugs so they arrest people all the time, but they can't stop the flow of drugs. And in the community with the kind of poverty we have, then the reality is there's always a new supply of dealers and so my, my prospective is that when you look at the fact there were 500,000 people of all races in jail in 1973 and today there are two million and a million of them are black, black men and women. Eighty-three percent of the people in jail are there for drug related crimes. It's clear that this is, we've gotta, we've gotta be rational, we don't have money for, we don't have money for recovery, you know to deal with the problem itself. We're number one in Boston [Massachusetts] in heroin, two in cocaine, nationally. One in heroin, two in cocaine, one in OxyContin. So, essentially, I've got a bill now that I'm filing next week that would take half of the money now that the DA's office and police get from forfeiture of monies from drug dealers and give it to the Boston [Public] Health Commission. As the beginning of a campaign to eventually legalize, legalize drugs.