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The Honorable Valerie Jarrett

Lawyer, businessperson, and civic leader Valerie Bowman Jarrett was born Valerie Bowman, November 14, 1956, in Shiraz, Iran to education expert Barbara Bowman and Dr. James Bowman, a pathologist and pioneering geneticist. Her maternal grandfather was Chicago housing legend, Robert Taylor. Moving from Iran to London, Jarrett attended Tetherdown Elementary School. Returning to the United States, she attended Shaesmith University of Chicago Lab School and graduated from Northfield Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts in 1974. Jarrett received her B.A. degree in psychology from Stanford University in 1978 and obtained her J.D. degree from the University of Michigan Law School in 1981.

Beginning her career as a corporate banking associate at Chicago’s Pope, Ballard, Shepherd, and Fowle, Jarrett then joined the real estate department of Sonnenschein, Carlin Nath and Rosenthal. In 1987, she was tapped to serve as deputy corporation counsel for finance and development for the City of Chicago under Mayor Harold Washington and continued service under Mayor Eugene Sawyer and Mayor Richard M. Daley. From 1988 to 1989, Jarrett also served as director of Leadership Greater Chicago. In 1991, she served as Mayor Daley’s deputy chief of staff. Jarrett was appointed Chicago’s commissioner of planning and development where she consolidated three departments and was awarded the Women’s Business Development Center’s Government Support Award. In 1995, Mayor Daley appointed her as chairman of the Chicago Transit Authority where she served for eight years and was responsible for a budget of over $800 million. That same year, Jarrett was appointed Vice President of the Habitat Company. In 2003, Jarrett was elected to a three-year term as chairman of the Chicago Stock Exchange. In 2007, Jarrett was named president of the Habitat Company.

A longtime advisor of President Barack Obama, Jarrett served as co-chairperson of the Obama-Biden Presidential Transition Team. She is Senior Advisor and Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs and Public Liaison.

Accession Number

A2006.165

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/13/2006

Last Name

Jarrett

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

Stanford University

University of Michigan

Northfield Mount Hermon School

Beulah Shoesmith Elementary School

First Name

Valerie

Birth City, State, Country

Shiraz

HM ID

JAR04

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

And That Is That.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/14/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Iran

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Real estate lawyer, city government appointee, and presidential advisor The Honorable Valerie Jarrett (1956 - ) served as president of the Habitat Company, and was a former chairman of both the Chicago Transit Authority and the Chicago Stock Exchange. She was also the Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama, and Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs and Public Liaison.

Employment

Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal LLP

City of Chicago

Chicago Transit Authority

The Habitat Company

Chicago Stock Exchange

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Valerie Jarrett's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls her childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes how her upbringing shaped her worldview

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls how she was perceived in Iran and England

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett reflects upon her childhood experiences abroad

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls appearing on 'Bozo's Circus'

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls her teacher at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her decision to attend Stanford University

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls her childhood exposure to politics

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers her changing academic interests

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls her psychology professors at Stanford University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls her social life at Stanford University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers her decision to attend law school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers the University of Michigan Law School in Ann Arbor

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls joining Harold Washington's administration in Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her early roles in Chicago's city government

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers Chicago's Harold Washington administration

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls Harold Washington's sudden death

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls the transition to Eugene Sawyer's administration

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls becoming Richard M. Daley's chief of staff

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls forming Chicago's Department of Planning and Development

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her work for The Habitat Company

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett talks about the redevelopment of Chicago public housing

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls the opening of Chicago's Robert Taylor Homes

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett reflects upon the role of civil service

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes the impact of Section 8 housing vouchers

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls her appointment to the Chicago Transit Authority board

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls reforming the Chicago Transit Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls the Illinois Fund for Infrastructure, Roads, Schools and Transit

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett talks about Mayor Richard M. Daley

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes The Habitat Company's recent projects

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett talks about her career plans

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her corporate board leadership

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett narrates her photographs

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sponsors of 'An Evening with Valerie Jarrett'

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Introduction to 'An Evening with Valerie Jarrett'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Michele Norris introduces The Honorable Valerie Jarrett

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Michele Norris greets The Honorable Valerie Jarrett

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Film reel of The Honorable Valerie Jarrett's family background

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her maternal great-grandfather

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her maternal grandfather

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett talks about how her parents met

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes her education

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Film reel of The Honorable Valerie Jarrett's civil service career in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls her transition to the City of Chicago government

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls the impact of Harold Washington's death

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers her redevelopment efforts in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers meeting Barack Obama

Tape: 6 Story: 15 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett talks about the importance of balancing work and family life

Tape: 6 Story: 16 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls her early support for Barack Obama

Tape: 6 Story: 17 - Film reel of The Honorable Valerie Jarrett's foray into national politics

Tape: 6 Story: 18 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett talks about President Barack Obama

Tape: 6 Story: 19 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers Barack Obama's presidential campaign

Tape: 6 Story: 20 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett recalls a moment from President Barack Obama's campaign trail

Tape: 6 Story: 21 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett talks about the political climate in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 22 - The Honorable Valerie Jarrett remembers the death of Trayvon Martin

Tape: 6 Story: 23 - Conclusion of 'An Evening with Valerie Jarrett'

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

10$7

DATitle
The Honorable Valerie Jarrett describes how her upbringing shaped her worldview
The Honorable Valerie Jarrett talks about the redevelopment of Chicago public housing
Transcript
How did you deal with questions of identity as a small child--and well, you were so young in Iran, I don't know if that was a question or not, but (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well, part of the reason my parents [HistoryMaker Barbara Bowman and HistoryMaker Dr. James Bowman] moved back here--it didn't really affect me whatsoever, but they felt it was hard to raise this little black child in a Muslim country where people had servants and it was kind of con- they thought I was getting a confused upbringing. I don't, I don't know, I--maybe kids are, they adjust pretty well. I think having grown up in the Middle East and then England and then Hyde Park [Chicago, Illinois], gave me a perspective on the world and a perspective on people that is pretty unique. And my father traveled extensively with us throughout Africa and Mexico and the Far East, and I guess I--and I wish I had the opportunity to do that with my daughter [Laura Jarrett] to the degree my parents did because I think it gives you a sense of self that, you know, the people in the United States would rather think of themselves and the United States as rather self-important. And I think it helps you understand, you know, where you fall in the total scheme of things. But I also think it gives you a sense of people and that they really are pretty similar the world over, and I think I am comfortable sitting down talking to, you know, the residents that I work with who live in public housing and connecting with them. And I'm perfectly happy to have a conversation with the leader of the free world, president of the United States. And I think, you know, I've been to villages in the poorest parts of Africa and played with the kids while my father was doing his work. And, you know, I've played with people who were, you know, related to royalty so--and everyone in between. And I think that world-rounded experience certainly shapes you. And it's probably better for other people to say how it shapes you, but it certainly gives you a level of comfort with all kinds of people which I think is important.$I guess, back to the redevelopment, I remember in the mid-'90s [1990s], Chicago housing coalition, a lot of groups, there was a lot of demonstrations outside of Cabrini [Cabrini-Green Homes, Chicago, Illinois] (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yep, yes.$$--people, the community was in a flux as to what should be done--$$Yes.$$--with those high rise units.$$Huge fights. We had demonstrations, we had lawsuits, we had everything you can think of. And last week, we were at Cabrini for a groundbreaking for the new redevelopment of the onsite at Cabrini that's being done by a developer here in town. And I was asked to give a speech, and I said, you know, I started working on Cabrini in 1991, and so the moral of the story is if you live long enough and you are tenacious and you have a dream, you know, magic can actually happen. And I think, you know, we had lots of problems along the way, but the one thing we continued to do was to talk to one another and the residents who, you know, I remember meeting with in there in the mid-'90s [1990s] in the dead of winter in their office haggling over all kinds of issues were the same ones who were there, you know, all standing together last week. And, you know, I feel like we've grown up together, and if you think about over a fifteen-year period, eventually, if you're patient, you get to a really good place. And I think the residents forced us to really think hard about what was important to them, and we forced them to say, you know, you're not in isolation anymore. You're part of a community, and it can't just be what's in your--what you think is in your best interest. We've got to look at it as a community as a whole. And so, in the end, it was a love fest, and it was a--it's a better development having had that friction. Do I wish it hadn't taken as long? Of course, I do. But I think sometimes things take a long time. If I look at, you know, the neighborhood around North Kenwood-Oakland [Chicago, Illinois]. When I started the planning commissioner, as a planning commissioner, this is, you know, the neighborhood like 47th [Street] to 39th [Street], the lake [Lake Michigan] to Cottage [Cottage Grove Avenue], 70 percent of the land was vacant in that community. And 50 percent of what was vacant was owned by the city. And everyone said, well, it's a terrible neighborhood. Well, I'd grown up at 49th [Street] and Greenwood [Avenue], and I can remember driving down 47th Street and only looking south and never looking north. And I can remember thinking, well, why is there this invisible line on 47th Street, you know. And how could it be so close to South Kenwood [Chicago, Illinois] and be perceived so poorly. And so I looked at that vacant land as potential. I said, well, if the city controls all that land, you know, we can help rebuild the community. And if you drive through the neighborhood today, it doesn't look a thing like it did fifteen years ago. And, but it required, you know, community hearings and community input and a lot of back and forth, and in the end I think, again, you make a far healthier community having heard all the voices as opposed to just one. And that's what I really enjoy. That's the community process that I enjoy, and I think what ties it back to my [maternal] grandfather [Robert Rochon Taylor] is that he really believed that public housing should be woven back into the urban fabric and that there should be--it should be temporary. It should be a place for you to go when times are tough and you need to get back on your feet. But while you're there, he was a strong believer in requiring a sense of responsibility.

Ralph G. Moore

Minority business consultant Ralph G. Moore was born in Evanston, Illinois on July 4, 1949. His mother, Alberta, worked in the post office, while his father, William, was a railroad worker. After graduating from Evanston Township High School in 1967, Moore attended Southern Illinois University, where he earned his bachelor’s degree in accounting in 1971. The following year, he was awarded his CPA license.

After earning his bachelor’s degree, Moore took a position with accounting firm Arthur Andersen, where he remained until 1973. From there, he served as vice president for the Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Company and was controller for the Parker House Sausage Company. In 1979, Moore founded Ralph G. Moore & Associates (RGMA). Today, RGMA is one of the premier consulting firms for helping employers to diversify their suppliers. In addition, they consult government agencies with the development and implementation of Affirmative Action programs and help entrepreneurs raise capital.

In addition to his consulting work, Moore serves on the board of directors of several firms. He has also been a contributor to the Harvard Business Review and MBE Magazine. He is also a co-founder and the president of the Alliance of Business Leaders and Entrepreneurs. Since 1994, Moore has served as a trustee of the City Colleges of Chicago, and he is also a trustee of the University of Chicago Hospitals & Health System.

Moore’s numerous awards over the years include “Entrepreneur of the Year” from Inc. Magazine and Enrst & Young and the Governor’s Minority Small Business Advocate of the Year Award from former Illinois Governor George Ryan.

Accession Number

A2004.121

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/9/2004

Last Name

Moore

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Evanston Township High School

Southern Illinois University

First Name

Ralph

Birth City, State, Country

Evanston

HM ID

MOO03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

We're All In This Together.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

7/4/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Business consultant and business consulting chief executive Ralph G. Moore (1949 - ) founded Ralph G. Moore & Associates (RGMA) in 1979. Over the years, RGMA became one of the premier consulting firms for helping corporations diversify their supply chain.

Employment

Arthur Andersen

Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Company

Parker House Sausage Company

Ralph G. Moore & Associates

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ralph G. Moore's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ralph G. Moore lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his mother's move north to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ralph G. Moore describes his mother's life in Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ralph G. Moore recalls the lack of family conversation about racism during his childhood visits to Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ralph G. Moore lists his mother's jobs in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ralph G. Moore explains his father's reasons for leaving the South

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ralph G. Moore recalls stories about his paternal aunt and father

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ralph G. Moore recalls his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Ralph G. Moore recalls the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Ralph G. Moore describes the racial dynamics of his childhood neighborhood and elementary schools in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Ralph G. Moore recalls his frustrations with his Evanston Township High School's academic expectations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ralph G. Moore describes his personality during the time he attended Evanston Township High School in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ralph G. Moore recalls the impact of his teachers at Evanston Township High School in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ralph G. Moore comments on the racial and ethnic demographics of Evanston, Illinois in the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ralph G. Moore compares the histories of the African American community and Jewish community

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ralph G. Moore explains his decision to attend Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ralph G. Moore talks about black student body at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his social activities and interests during his teenage years

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his older brother's influence on his decision to attend Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ralph G. Moore recalls his initial experience at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ralph G. Moore recalls challenging an accounting professor at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ralph G. Moore recalls his activities as a member of the Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ralph G. Moore recalls organizing a black arts festival in Marion prison in Marion, Illinois with his fraternity, Kappa Alpha Psi

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ralph G. Moore talks about how he managed to finance his college education at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ralph G. Moore recalls his initial experiences working at Arthur Andersen

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ralph G. Moore explains how he was able to advance despite initial discrimination at Arthur Andersen

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ralph G. Moore recalls leaving the Chicago Board of Trade to work for the Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Company in 1947

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his experience working at Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Company

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his involvement with various community and business organizations in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ralph G. Moore talks about Habilitative Systems, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his trusteeship at the University of Chicago Medical Center

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ralph G. Moore talks about black accountants in Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his business, Ralph G. Moore & Associates

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ralph G. Moore talks about the personal significance of his company's work with baseball

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his daughter's affinity for history

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his relationship with his daughter's mother and becoming a father

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his daughter, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his daughter's influences and aspirations

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ralph G. Moore talks about Ralph G. Moore & Associates' role in promoting supplier diversity and minority business development

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ralph G. Moore talks about the National Minority Supplier Development Council

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ralph G. Moore gives examples of what suppliers do within the business world

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ralph G. Moore explains the importance of supplier diversity and its implications for minority businesses

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ralph G. Moore talks about the importance of buying from companies that work with minority vendors

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ralph G. Moore describes his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ralph G. Moore talks about racial disparities he encountered at Arthur Andersen and witnesses in corporate America

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ralph G. Moore reflects on the importance of teaching black youth their history

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ralph G. Moore talks about the importance of remembering the history of African American struggle

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ralph G. Moore reflects on opportunities he has been given and his hope for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ralph G. Moore reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ralph G. Moore talks about his family's reactions to his accomplishments and his mother's struggle with Alzheimer's disease

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ralph G. Moore describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ralph G. Moore narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ralph G. Moore narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

3$4

DATitle
Ralph G. Moore talks about black accountants in Illinois
Ralph G. Moore talks about the importance of buying from companies that work with minority vendors
Transcript
So, I'm involved; also, the Cosmopolitan Chamber of Commerce [Chicago, Illinois], and this is where the clock kind of swings around. In 1972, I passed the CPA [certified public accountant] exam. That's another, I'm one of those stories. It's hard to imagine and it just speaks to how we've been denied opportunity, but in 1972, I passed the CPA exam, November. I was the 68th black CPA in the state, in the history of the State of Illinois. Now, I mean you can celebrate that, but it means, to me it's a tragedy. Now there are hundreds of black CPAs, but at the time we were less than 100, and you know Lester, and [HistoryMaker] Jim [James] Hill [Jr.], they came before--[HistoryMaker] Lester McKeever, they all came before me, but in the history of the state, to be number sixty-eight tells me that there's a problem. But, what happened, and even there it speaks to the whole issue of race, again about Arthur Andersen [Chicago, Illinois], and there's another brother there, Reggie Burton [ph.], who was another black person who started the same as me, University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois], M.B.A., Roosevelt [University, Chicago, Illinois] undergraduate, very--I wouldn't call it arrogant, but very full of himself. Well, [HistoryMaker] Ralph [G. Moore], he went to SIU [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois]. That exam should be pretty tough for a year but, you know, you should do, you know, study hard, you might do okay. You might make it through. So, we took the same exam, right. Long story short, the results came out. I passed it the first time and, a matter of fact, it was one of those tests November '72 [1972] test, I look back and look at the statistics, only 12 percent of the people who took it the first time passed it. Reggie Burton, who was, needless to say he didn't pass it, not only did he not pass it that time, he took it another seven times before he passed it, so I was very, that was one of those moments. I said, we partied, but we got a couple things done.$$You said accounting is an exact science, so you know it or you don't.$$You either know it or you don't. But I think the other issue, I mean the reason I go back and tell that story is that just to be an accountant, you know, not to, to be able to use these tools for the betterment of the community really is what makes it so good for me. So, I volunteered, I've done work with the National Association of Black Accountants [NABA]. We formed a group called the National CPA Society [ph.], which were the first CPAs, and is trying to help other accounting students come through the program, accounting programs. So, it's been a number, I've done a number of things in the community.$One of the stories I tell in our training, we talk about the value proposition. We [Moore and his daughter, Avery Moore] were in a grocery store. She's nine years old. Now, your daughter is fourteen. When she was nine, when you turned into the cereal aisle of the grocery store, you lose control. Whatever is going to go in that cart, she's, she already knows what she wants. She, some Co-Co this or something she saw on TV. So, when we got to the, she reached for her favorite cereal, which was from a company that was not doing that much with supplier diversity at the time. I said, "Well Avery, let's look at this. This company doesn't do much with minority vendors. So, if we give them our money, that money's gonna go straight outside the community. None of it will ever come back into the community." Now here's the--Cap'n Crunch. I always thought it was Captain but it's Cap'n, Quaker Oats. "Cap'n Crunch--now here's a product that you love. I've seen you eat it, Quaker Oats does a lot of work in the community and when we give them our money, that money, they give money back to our community and that money floats around and some of that money ends up in my checking account, and that's the money I take you to [Walt] Disney World [Orlando, Florida] with." And she looked like wait a minute! No Disney World, Disney World??? Why didn't you tell me?? She was mad that I hadn't told her before that if we buy products from, in our house there's only good companies or bad companies. The good companies work with minority vendors, the bad companies don't. So, the good companies are the ones we support. Same thing when she goes shopping. Now, you've heard about the Tommy Hilfiger problem, true or false, Tommy Hilfiger doesn't seem to do a lot in my community. So, we don't buy Tommy Hilfiger. That was a tough lesson for her because she was, you know, it was a big thing for her. My only point to her was we have to shop with companies that have, that are members, that are national members of the national supplier, the NMSDC, the National Minority Supplier Development Council [New York, New York]. Nordstrom's is a member, Express is a member, Limited is a member, which owns Express, Bloomingdale's is a member (unclear) stores, so it turned out that all of the stores that she would like to shop at are members. So, now, what's the one that had a Ghettopoly game, Urban Outfitters, they're not a member, and they, and plus after that Ghettopoly mess, we don't give 'em any of our money. But the reality is there's enough good companies out there that we can support, and the things I tell her, if you can't buy from a black company, buy from a black salesman in a white company. And if you can't buy from a black salesman in a white company, buy from a company that at least works with black businesses and minority businesses. So, she's armed and ready. Again, if we could get more people thinking like her, we could turn this around. You have companies like SONY records [Sony Music Entertainment, Inc., New York, New York], and my lawyer told me to stop calling names, probably because it's amazing how people hear what I say, 'cause I speak a lot around the country. But, you have companies like SONY records, who don't do anything with supplier diversity. How dare you take all that money out of our community with rap music and not do anything with minority and black vendors! It's crazy. So, there's another point in my career, after I get to this plateau where everything's working fine. I get the book written, I'm going on a one-man crusade to help educate black consumers, minority consumers, so we can start buying from companies that do business with us. And that's really been, that would be the final chapter of my career; that I've done very well in creating the strategies for companies who get it to do well, but now we have to go after those companies who don't get it.