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Edward Lewis

Magazine publisher and entrepreneur Edward Lewis was born on May 15, 1940, in the Bronx, New York. His father was a night shift janitor at City College; his mother a factory worker and beautician. Lewis attended De Witt Clinton High School, where he excelled academically and was a star fullback on the football team. Upon graduating from high school in 1958, he earned a football scholarship to the University of New Mexico. Lewis received his B.A. degree in political science in 1964 and his M.A. degree in political science and international relations in 1966, both from the University of New Mexico. He later graduated from Harvard University’s Small Business Management Program.

Lewis worked first as an administrative analyst for the City Manager’s Office in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 1964 to 1965, and then as a financial analyst at First National City Bank in New York City from 1965 to 1969. In 1969, he co-founded Essence, a magazine specifically targeted to black women, and went on to serve as CEO and publisher of Essence Communications, Inc. for three decades. In the 1980s and 1990s, Lewis expanded Essence Communications to include a weekly television show, fashion line and mail order catalogue, as well as an annual awards show and Essence music festival. In 1992, Lewis acquired Income Opportunities from Davis Publishing; and, in 1995, he co-founded Latina magazine, a bilingual publication geared toward Hispanic women.

In 1997, Lewis became the first African American chairman of the Magazine Publishers of America. In October 2000, Lewis engineered a partnership with Time, Inc. and Essence Communications was sold to Time in 2005. He later joined the private equity firm Solera Capital as a senior adviser and published a memoir, The Man from Essence: Creating a Magazine for Black Women, in 2014.

Lewis has sat on the boards of TransAfrica, the Rheeland Foundation, New York City Partnership, the Central Park Conservancy, A&P, Jazz at Lincoln Center, the Teachers College of Columbia University, Spelman College, Tuskegee University and the Harlem Village Academy; and served as chairman of Latina Media Ventures. He also served on President Barack Obama’s Board of Advisors for the Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

Essence magazine ranked seventh on Advertising Age’s 2003 “A-List,” which was the first time that an African American targeted publication received the honor. Lewis’s personal awards include the Entrepreneur of the Year Award for Publishing from Ernst & Young; the President’s Award from One Hundred Black Men of America, Inc.; the Frederick Douglass Award from the New York Urban League; the United Negro College Fund’s Lifetime Achievement Award; the American Advertising Federation Diversity Achievement Award; the Henry Johnson Fisher Lifetime Achievement Award; and the Henry Luce Lifetime Achievement Award. He was inducted into the Advertising Hall of Fame in 2014.

Edward Lewis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 7, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.224

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/7/2014

Last Name

Lewis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

DeWitt Clinton High School

University of New Mexico

Georgetown University Law Center

P.S. 35 Stephen Decatur School

P.S. 2 Morrisania School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Edward

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

LEW20

Favorite Season

Thanksgiving

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bali, Indonesia

Favorite Quote

No Doubt About It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/15/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Sweet Potato

Short Description

Magazine publishing chief executive and entrepreneur Edward Lewis (1940 - ) cofounded Essence Communications, Inc., where he served as the CEO and publisher of Essence magazine.

Employment

Solera Capital

Essence Communications, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663549">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Edward Lewis' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663550">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Edward Lewis lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663551">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Edward Lewis describes his father's personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663552">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Edward Lewis describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663553">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Edward Lewis talks about his experiences as an only child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663554">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Edward Lewis describes his mother's personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663555">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Edward Lewis talks about his maternal family members</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663556">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Edward Lewis describes his relationship with his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663557">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Edward Lewis talks about his maternal family's decision to move north</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663558">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Edward Lewis remembers his maternal aunt, Matilene Spencer Berryman</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663559">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Edward Lewis describes his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663560">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Edward Lewis describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663561">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Edward Lewis remembers his early aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663562">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Edward Lewis describes the racial dynamics of the Bronx, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663563">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Edward Lewis remembers his education in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663564">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Edward Lewis describes his upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663565">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Edward Lewis talks about his mother's second marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663566">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Edward Lewis describes his relationship with his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663567">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Edward Lewis remembers caring for his paternal grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663568">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Edward Lewis remembers visiting his maternal family in Farmville, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663569">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Edward Lewis describes his neighborhood in the Bronx, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663570">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Edward Lewis remembers DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663571">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Edward Lewis recalls his recruitment to the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663572">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Edward Lewis talks about adjusting to the University of New Mexico</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663573">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Edward Lewis remembers losing his college athletic scholarship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663574">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Edward Lewis recalls his coursework in Russian history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663575">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Edward Lewis describes his student activism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663576">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Edward Lewis remembers his admission to Georgetown Law School in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663577">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Edward Lewis talks about the careers of his football teammates at the University of New Mexico</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663578">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Edward Lewis talks about President Richard Nixon</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663579">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Edward Lewis recalls losing his scholarship to Georgetown Law School in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663580">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Edward Lewis remembers his experiences at First National City Bank</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663581">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Edward Lewis remembers the formation of The Hollingsworth Group, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663582">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Edward Lewis remembers the formation of The Hollingsworth Group, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663583">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Edward Lewis describes the initial structure of The Hollingsworth Group</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663584">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Edward Lewis remembers the first issue of Essence magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663585">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Edward Lewis talks about the founding of Essence magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663586">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Edward Lewis describes the early advertising in Essence magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663587">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Edward Lewis recalls the overhead costs at Essence Communications, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663588">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Edward Lewis remembers his mentors in the publishing industry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663589">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Edward Lewis talks about the success of Essence magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663590">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Edward Lewis talks about the early editors in chief of Essence magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663591">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Edward Lewis remembers his former business partners' lawsuit</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663592">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Edward Lewis describes Essence's relationship with Playboy Enterprises, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663593">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Edward Lewis remembers Marcia Ann Gillespie</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663594">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Edward Lewis recalls promoting Susan Taylor as the editor in chief of Essence magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663595">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Edward Lewis talks about the magazine industry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663596">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Edward Lewis describes the growth of Essence Communications, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663597">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Edward Lewis remembers creating the Essence Music Festival</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663598">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Edward Lewis talks about the success of the Essence Music Festival</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663599">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Edward Lewis talks about Black Enterprise magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663600">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Edward Lewis describes the advertising challenges at Essence Communications, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663601">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Edward Lewis remembers his business relationship with John H. Johnson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663602">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Edward Lewis talks about Camille Cosby's board membership at Essence Communications, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663603">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Edward Lewis describes the negotiations between Essence Communications, Inc. and Time Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663604">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Edward Lewis describes his departure from Essence Communications, Inc., pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663605">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Edward Lewis talks about the future of Essence magazine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663606">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Edward Lewis describes his departure from Essence Communications, Inc., pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663607">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Edward Lewis talks about the title of his book, 'The Man from Essence'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663608">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Edward Lewis talks about his plans for the future</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663609">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Edward Lewis describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663610">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Edward Lewis reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663611">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Edward Lewis describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663612">Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Edward Lewis reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663613">Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Edward Lewis talks about his second marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663614">Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Edward Lewis describes his aspiration to become a blues singer</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
Edward Lewis recalls his coursework in Russian history
Edward Lewis remembers creating the Essence Music Festival
Transcript
Well, you also took up Russian studies and?$$I was very--my curiosity in terms of reading, I read some of the great Russian novelists: Tolstoy [Leo Tolstoy], Dostoyevsky [Fyodor Dostoyevsky]; and I decided to take Russian history. And--I had already taken Russian civilization--that's required when you, in your first years at the university [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico]. But my interest in Russian history, the professor there was a man named Henry Tobias [Henry J. Tobias]. Henry was a graduate, from Paterson, New Jersey, went to Ohio; got his Ph.D. in Stanford [Stanford University, Stanford, California]. But he taught Russian history, and I took this course. And just--I just ate it up. And I did not know that Professor Tobias was interested in me; and I was on my way--I had gone to the student administration building. I was on my way to the student union to get some coffee, he was coming out, the professor, and he said, "Ed [HistoryMaker Edward Lewis], are you going to have some coffee?" And I said yes. He said, "Do you mind if I sit with you?" I said, "By all means, please." And we sat and he proceeded to--he and I proceeded, to talk for the next three and a half hours. I had never had anyone do that with me. And so as a result of that, this man just opened my head up intellectually; and then I took Russian history. He also taught Chinese history, so I took Chinese history. And so my background in terms of--I was a political science major, but I had an interest in international affairs--particularly, Russian and Chinese history. And so in my travels, I've gone to the Far East, I'm going to China, I've not been to Russia yet but I hope to go to Moscow [Russia] and St. Petersburg [Russia] at some point. But I have a, just a familiarity of Russia, in particularly how serfs, serfdom was portrayed, and how these Russians had to overcome that; and I compare that to how we as blacks had to live in a society in terms of how we had to overcome, too. So I just sort found some familiarity in things of--and when I looked at what happened to the people who were really slaves too and looked at what is happening to us.$So talk about how that came, came about 'cause--?$$That came about because--1994, I was having drinks with a legend in the jazz world, impresario, a man by the name of George Wein. He--George started Newport Jazz Festival, he has a New Orleans jazz festival [New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival]. And he and I were having drinks, and I was telling him about my upcoming, upcoming twenty-fifth anniversary of Essence [Essence Communications, Inc.]. And I'd like--and I, I said, "I'm gonna do the same thing, big party in New York [New York], thank all the advertisers and thank everyone," I said, "I'd like to do something a little bit different." He said to me, "Have you ever thought about doing a music festival in New Orleans [Louisiana] at the Superdome [Louisiana Superdome; Mercedes-Benz Superdome] over the 4th of July weekend?" I looked at him, "No, I had not thought about that." But there was a germ of a, of a, a synergistic opportunity. New Orleans, music, magazine--maybe there's something there. So I suggested he come to my office, make a presentation. He did to Clarence [Clarence Smith], Susan [HistoryMaker Susan Taylor] and my chief financial officer [Harry Dedyo]. Everyone was lukewarm. I listened and thought about it and decided to come to do it and he and I were partners. We were equal partners, 50/50 partners, and that's how we came together in 1995. Lo and behold we had about--roughly, about 100--between 100 and 145,000 people who came. And I can remember giving my speech to fifty thousand people at the Superdome, thanking everyone from the bottom of my heart. I was humble that people would come out and, and be supportive of Essence over its twenty-five years of being in business; and that's how it happened. And the very next year, however, I was about to pull the plug because the, the governor, the new governor of the State of Louisiana, Robert Foster [sic. Mike Foster], made the decision to eliminate all affirmative action programs for the State of Louisiana. I'm a big proponent of affirmative action; and, and, and the way we promoted the festival [Essence Music Festival] was through the magazine, and so word of mouth had gotten out that we may not be doing this, and as you can well imagine, that precipitated a reaction. Marc Morial [HistoryMaker Marc H. Morial], who is now leader of the Urban League [National Urban League] was mayor of, of, of New Orleans. I was--as I said, I was not going back, but then the lieutenant governor of Louisiana, Blanco [Kathleen Blanco], who ultimately became the governor called me and asked if I would be willing to meet with the governor of Louisiana and tell you a story. And I was open to that. And I was--and I also knew that the Urban League was going to hold its convention in New Orleans several weeks later. So I called Hugh, [HistoryMaker] Hugh Price, and told him what I was thinking: "Why don't you hold off doing the, doing the Urban League and you and I go together to Louisiana, Baton Rouge." We went and I explained to the governor why affirmative action is so important to me. I said there's one of our great entertainers, it was a man by the name of James Brown, he had some lyrics, one of his songs ['I Don't Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing'], open the door. And all I asked, in terms of how I define affirmative action, is to open the door. Once the door's open, you don't need to give me anything. I can compete with anybody, but what happens is that we don't even get a chance to open the door. And so if you don't open the door, I'm gonna fight you tooth and nail. And he listened, got him to modify his affirmative action edict enough for me to make the decision to go back in 1996. By the time I had decided to go back, word had gotten out that we were not coming back, we're not able to get the sponsors; I lost over a million dollars. And George Wein, who had been my partner decided that this was too onerous and so that's when I made another decision that Essence would do this on its own; and, and so the rest is really history.

Dr. Louis W. Sullivan

Federal cabinet appointee and college president Dr. Louis Wade Sullivan was born on November 3, 1933 in Atlanta, Georgia to Lubirda Priester and Walter Wade Sullivan. After graduating from Booker T. Washington High School, Sullivan received his B.S. degree in biology from Morehouse College in 1954. He went on to receive his M.D. degree from Boston University School of Medicine in 1958, completing his residency at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center.

In 1960, Sullivan began a pathology fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, before working at Boston City Hospital and studying hematology at the Thorndike Laboratory. He was hired as co-director of hematology at Boston University Medical Center in 1966; and, in 1967, he founded the Boston University Hematology Service. In 1975, Morehouse College Medical Education Program was founded and Sullivan returned to Atlanta to serve as its first dean, teaching biology and medicine and founding the Medical Education Program at Morehouse College. The Morehouse School of Medicine became independent from Morehouse College in 1981, with Sullivan as its president and dean. In 1988, President George H.W. Bush appointed Sullivan to serve as the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services. He returned to Morehouse School of Medicine in 1993 as president, retiring from the position in 2002.

In 1976, Sullivan helped found the Association of Minority Health Professions Schools to promote a national minority health agenda; and, in 1999, he hosted the public television show “Frontiers of Medicine.” In 2003, he was appointed by President George W. Bush to chair the White House initiative on historically black colleges and universities advisory committee. He also served as chairman of the National Health Museum and on the boards of United Therapeutics, Emergent BioSolutions, General Motors, Cigna, and Equifax.

Sullivan has received more than sixty honorary degrees, including an honorary M.D. degree from the University of Pretoria in South Africa. He received the Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Award for Humanitarian Contributions to the Health of Humankind from the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases in 2008 and his autobiography received the NAACP Image Award for Literature in 2015.

Sullivan and his wife, E. Ginger Williamson Sullivan, have three children: Paul, Shanta, and Halsted.

Dr. Louis Wade Sullivan was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 21, 2002 and August 17, 2019.

Accession Number

A2002.028

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/21/2002

11/6/2004

11/29/2004

8/17/2019

Last Name

Sullivan

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Wade

Schools

Boston University School of Medicine

Booker T. Washington High School

Morehouse College

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Louis

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

SUL01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

All, and Medical, Business, Scientific and Governmental Groups

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $10,000+

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium Specifics: $5000-25000
Preferred Audience: All, and Medical, Business, Scientific and Governmental Groups

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

We can do it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/3/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Federal cabinet appointee and college president Dr. Louis Wade Sullivan (1933- ) served as founding dean and president of Morehouse School of Medicine, and as U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services from 1988 to 1993.

Employment

Thorndike Memorial Laboratory Boston City Hospital

New Jersey College of Medicine

Boston University Medical Center

Morehouse College School of Medicine

United States Department of Health and Human Services

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13763">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Louis Sullivan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13764">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan's favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13765">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan discusses his mother's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13766">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan discusses his father's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13767">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan talks about growing up in Albany, Georgia and Blakely, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13768">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan talks about his father's funeral home business and his parents' activism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13769">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Louis Sullivan describes his personality during his early years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13770">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan talks about attending school in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13771">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan shares memories from his childhood in Blakely, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13772">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan discusses his high school experience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13773">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan reflects on his early interest in becoming a doctor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13774">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan talks about making the decision to attend Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13775">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan discusses his experiences at Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13776">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Louis Sullivan talks about several distinguished professors who taught at Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13777">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Louis Sullivan reflects on numerous leaders from Atlanta's black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13778">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan talks about his decision to attend medical school at Boston University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13779">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan talks about his experiences as a student at Boston University School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13780">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan explains why he chose to help found the Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13781">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan discusses the various phases of his career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13782">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan discusses the origins of the Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13783">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan explains the strategy behind founding the Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13784">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan discusses the significance of fundraising in the success of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13785">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan explains how he became Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13786">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan discusses how Morehouse School of Medicine received federal funding</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13787">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan talks about his experiences as U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13788">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Second slating for Louis Sullivan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13789">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan talks about other black students during his time at Boston University Medical School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13790">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan discusses his mentors while attending Boston University Medical School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13791">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan talks about his interest in hematology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13792">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan talks about developments in the practice of hematology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13793">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan discusses the challenges of medical school and his decision to specialize</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13794">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Louis Sullivan discusses how his decision to become a doctor was significant for his family and community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13795">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Louis Sullivan reminisces about the first time he saw a cadaver</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13796">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan talks about death and objectivity in the practice of medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13797">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan talks about his interview with and decision to intern at New York Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13798">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan shares a story from his early experiences at New York Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13799">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan discusses race and class demographics of patients at New York Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13800">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan discusses his decision to return to Boston, Massachusetts as a hematology fellow</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13801">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan describes his hemalogical research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13802">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Louis Sullivan talks about early research on sickle cell anemia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13803">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan talks about the formation of the National Center for Sickle Cell Disease</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13804">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan discusses his decision to pursue medical research rather than become a general practitioner</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13805">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan explains how his administrative skills helped him found Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13806">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan explains the conditions that led to the founding of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13807">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan provides historical details on the formation of the Atlanta University Center consortium</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13808">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan explains how Atlanta University Center accepted the formation of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13809">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan talks being recruited to become dean of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13810">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan talks about the areas of specialization offered by Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13811">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan explains the strategy used to build the faculty of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13812">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan explains how Morehouse School of Medicine gained full accreditation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13813">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan describes Morehouse School of Medicine's relationship with the Atlanta University Center consortium</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13814">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan discusses various resources that have helped fund Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13815">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Third slating for Louis Sullivan interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13816">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan talks about the significance of state funding for Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13817">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan discusses the financial challenges of founding Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13818">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan identifies individuals who were instrumental in the development of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13819">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan discusses the recruitment of the first students to attend Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13820">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan describes Morehouse School of Medicine's relationship with other historically black medical schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13821">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Louis Sullivan discusses several early challenges to the development of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13822">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan talks about Barbara Bush joining the board of trustees of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13823">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan explains how black members of Congress helped secure federal funding for Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13824">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan reflects on the impact of the Civil Rights Movement on politics and education in Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13825">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan discusses the relationship between Morehouse School of Medicine and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13826">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan talks about the challenge of developing a strong medical institution</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13827">Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan provides additional details about his selection as U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13828">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan continues his discussion about accepting the nomination for U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13829">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan reflects on leaving Morehouse School of Medicine to serve as the Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13830">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan discusses various tasks and duties as Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13831">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan discusses dealing with controversial issues as U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13832">Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan talks about dealing with the press during his Senate confirmation process</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13833">Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan talks about his accomplishments as the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13834">Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Louis Sullivan tells of how he fought with the tobacco industry as U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, part 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13835">Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan tells of how he fought with the tobacco industry as U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, part 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13836">Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan discusses the health dangers of smoking and the fight for ingredient labels for cigarettes and food</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13837">Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan talks about the challenge of addressing the AIDS panic of the late 1980s and early 1990s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13838">Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan explains challenges unique to the office of U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13839">Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan talks about the responsiblities associated with being U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13840">Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan identifies memorable experiences as U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13841">Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Louis Sullivan talks about his decision to return to Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13842">Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Louis Sullivan discusses David Satcher's recruitment developing a succession plan at Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13843">Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Louis Sullivan discusses his hopes and vision for Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13844">Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Louis Sullivan discusses the present state of the medical profession</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13845">Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Louis Sullivan explains his feelings of commitment and responsibility to the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/13846">Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Louis Sullivan considers his legacy</a>