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Gay McDougall

Lawyer Gay McDougall was born on August 13, 1947 in Atlanta, Georgia to Inez Johnson and Louis Johnson. After graduating from Booker T. Washington High School in 1965, McDougall became the first African American student to attend Agnes Scott College. She transferred to Bennington College in 1967, and received her B.A. degree in social science from there in 1969. McDougall went on to receive her J.D. degree from Yale University in 1972 and her L.L.M degree in international law from the London School of Economics in 1978.

McDougall worked at the firm of Debevoise, Plimpton, Lyons & Gates from 1972 to 1974, before joining the National Conference of Black Lawyers as general counsel in 1975. She served as a staff attorney in the minimum standards unit of the New York City Board of Correction in 1976, worked at the African National Congress Office to the United Nations in New York in 1978, and served as associate counsel in New York’s Office of the Deputy Mayor for Criminal Justice in 1979. From 1980 to 1994, McDougall served as executive director of the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law’s Southern Africa Project, securing the release of thousands of political prisoners in South Africa and Namibia and founding the Commission on Independence for Namibia. In 1994, McDougall was appointed to serve on South Africa’s Independent Electoral Commission, where she worked closely with Nelson Mandela. She joined Global Rights in 1995 as executive director; and, in 1997, she was elected to serve a four-year term as an independent expert on the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. In 2005, McDougall was appointed the first U.N. Special Rapporteur on minority issues. She served as a distinguished scholar in residence at American University Washington College of Law in 2006 and as the Father Robert F. Drinan Visiting Professor in Human Rights at Georgetown University Law Center in 2011. In 2015, she was elected to another four-year term on the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, and served as vice-chair.

McDougall served on the board of the Southern Africa Legal Services and Education Project, the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Foundation, and Africare. She also served as vice chair of the board of Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) USA from 2001 to 2003, and as chair of the governance committee of CARE International from 1994 to 2003. In 2005, she joined the board of the Global Fund for Women. McDougall also served on the advisory council of Realizing Rights and on the executive council of the American Society of International Law.

In 1999, McDougall received the MacArthur Foundation “Genius Grant” for her work on behalf of international human rights. She also received the Candace Award from the National Coalition of 100 Black Women in 1990, the Thurgood Marshall Award from District of Columbia Bar in 2010, and the Goler T. Butcher Medal from American Society for International Law in 2011.

Gay McDougall was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 23, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.114

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/22/2019

Last Name

McDougall

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Johnson

Occupation
Schools

English Avenue Elementary School

Anderson Park Elementary School

Booker T. Washington High School

Agnes Scott College

Bennington College

Yale Law School

London School of Economics

First Name

Gay

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

MCD09

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches in the Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/13/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Lawyer Gay McDougall (1947 - ) served as executive director of the Southern Africa Project from 1980 and 1994, securing the release of thousands of political prisoners. She later served on the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and as the first United Nations Special Rapporteur on minority issues.

Employment

Debevoise, Plimpton, Lyons & Gates

National Conference of Black Lawyers

New York City Board of Corrections

African National Congress Office to the United Nations

Office of the Deputy Mayor for Criminal Justice

Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law

United Nations Council on Namibia

Commission on Independence for Namibia

Independent Electoral Commission

Global Rights

United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

United Nations

American University Washington College of Law

Georgetown University Law Center

Favorite Color

Purple

The Honorable Gabrielle Kirk McDonald

Judge Gabrielle Kirk McDonald was born on April 12, 1942 in St. Paul, Minnesota to James Kirk and Frances English. McDonald was raised in Manhattan, New York and in Teaneck, New Jersey, where she graduated from Teaneck High School in 1959. In the early 1960s, she attended Boston University and Hunter College. She then went on to attend Howard University School of Law, where she was Notes Editor for the Howard Law Journal and received several academic awards. McDonald graduated cum laude and first in her class with her LL.B. degree in 1966.

Upon graduation, McDonald was hired as a staff attorney for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. From 1969 to 1979, she was a founding partner, with her then-husband, attorney Mark T. McDonald, of the Houston, Texas law firm of McDonald & McDonald. While in private practice, she also taught law as an assistant professor at the Thurgood Marshall School of Law, Texas Southern University, and then as a lecturer at the University of Texas School of Law.

In 1979, McDonald was appointed as a judge on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas. She was the first African American to be appointed to the federal bench in Texas (and the South) and only the third African American woman federal judge in the country. McDonald resigned from the bench in 1988 and joined the law firm of Matthews & Branscomb. She also returned to academia, teaching first at St. Mary’s University School of Law, and then at the Thurgood Marshall School of Law. In 1991, she became counsel to the law firm of Walker & Satterthwaite, and later served as Special Counsel to the Chairman on Human Rights for Freeport-McMoRan, Inc.

In 1993, McDonald received the highest number of votes from the General Assembly of the United Nations and served as one of eleven judges on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In 1997, she became the Tribunal’s president. Then, in 2001, McDonald was called to serve as an arbitrator on the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague, Netherlands, where she remained until her retirement in 2013.

Her publications include the co-edited volume, Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts, and numerous articles including The International Criminal Tribunals: Crime and Punishment in the International Arena, and Problems, Obstacles and Achievements of the ICTY.

McDonald was a member of the Board of Trustees of Howard University for twenty-three years. She also served on boards for the American Bar Association Human Rights Center and the American Arbitration Association, as well as on the Genocide Prevention Task Force. In 2014, she was elected Honorary President of the American Society of International Law. Her honors include the National Bar Association's first Equal Justice and Ronald Brown International Law Awards; the American Society of International Law's Goler T. Butcher Award for Human Rights; the Open Society Institute's first Women Groundbreakers in International Justice Award; the Dorothy Height Lifetime Achievement Award; and the Doctor of Laws Honoris Causa from several institutions. She was inducted into the Texas Women’s Hall of Fame in 1993 and the National Bar Association Hall of Fame in 2008.

McDonald has two children, Michael and Stacy, who are both lawyers.

Gabrielle Kirk McDonald was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 27, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.184

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/27/2014

Last Name

McDonald

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Kirk

Occupation
Schools

Howard University School of Law

Hunter College

Boston University

Teaneck Senior High School

The Manumit School

JHS 101

Ps 108 Philip J Abinanti School

St Peter Claver School

First Name

Gabrielle

Birth City, State, Country

St. Paul

HM ID

MCD07

State

Minnesota

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

4/12/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Short Description

Judge and educator The Honorable Gabrielle Kirk McDonald (1942 - ) was the first African American to be appointed to the federal bench in Texas and the third African American woman federal judge in the country. She also served as a judge on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and as an arbitrator on the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal.

Employment

NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.

McDonald & McDonald

Texas Southern University Thurgood Marshall School of Law

University of Texas School of Law

United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas

Matthews & Branscomb

St. Mary's University School of Law

Walker & Satterthwaite

Freeport-McMoRan, Inc.

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

Iran-United States Claims Tribunal