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Brenda Wood

Broadcast journalist Brenda Blackmon Wood was born on September 8, 1955 in Washington, D.C. to Welvin Bray and Bernice Blackmon. Wood graduated from Takoma Academy in Takoma Park, Maryland in 1973. She went on to receive her B.A. degree in speech communication and mass media from Loma Linda University in Southern California in 1977.

Upon graduation in 1977, Wood was hired as a news reporter for WAAY-TV in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1978, she left that market for a brief time to serve as a general assignment reporter at WSM-TV in Nashville, Tennessee. One year later, Wood returned to WAAY-TV as the evening news anchor. In 1980, she moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where she spent eight years as the evening weekday news anchor for WMC-TV. In 1988, Wood was hired as the evening news anchor and reporter at Atlanta, Georgia’s WAGA-TV, where she also hosted the Emmy award-winning news magazine show, Minute by Minute. She then joined WXIA-TV in Atlanta in 1997, where she anchors the 6pm and 11pm weekday newscasts, as well as her signature newscast, The Daily 11 at 7 with Brenda Wood. Wood was also co-producer and host of WXIA-TV’s Emmy award-winning prime time show, Journeys with Brenda Wood, which has received the National Association of Black Journalists’ 1998 award for Community Affairs Programming.

Throughout her career Wood has received numerous honors and awards, including eighteen Emmy awards from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (NATAS) Southeast Region; six awards from the Atlanta Association of Black Journalists (AABJ); and three awards from the Georgia Association of Broadcasters (GAB). In 2013 she was named Georgia Woman of the Year by the Governor's Office of the Georgia Women's Commission, and received the Legacy Award from the Atlanta Business League. Wood has also been named Who's Who in Atlanta; awarded the NAACP's Phoenix Award for "Best News Anchor," and named "Best Local News Anchor" by Atlanta Magazine in 1998. Wood has also received an award from the Georgia Chapter of Women in Communication, the Gabriel Award of Merit from the National Association of Catholic Churches, and a journalism award from the Georgia Psychological Association, as well as several awards and honors from local civic and community organizations.

Wood is a member of the NATAS, the NABJ, the AABJ, the Atlanta Press Club, and Women in Film. She serves on the boards of Kenny Leon's True Colors Theater Company and Chayil, Inc., a nonprofit that helps domestic abuse victims. In addition, Wood serves on several local advisory boards in the Atlanta area.

Wood lives in Atlanta, Georgia and has two daughters, Kristen and Kandis.

Brenda Wood was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 21, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.072

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/21/2014

Last Name

Wood

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Blackmon

Schools

Takoma Academy

Loma Linda University

Oakwood Adventist Academy

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Brenda

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

WOO11

Favorite Season

Fall

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Turks and Caicos

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/8/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Macaroni, Cheese

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Brenda Wood (1955 - ) has worked as a reporter and news anchor for Atlanta, Georgia’s WAGA-TV and WXIA-TV for over thirty-four years. She has received eighteen Emmy awards, six awards from the Atlanta Association of Black Journalists, and the NAACP's Phoenix Award for "Best News Anchor."

Employment

WAAY TV, Huntsville

WSM TV, Nashville

WMC TV, Memphis

WAGA-TV (Television Station: Atlanta,Ga.)

WXIA-TV, Atlanta

Favorite Color

Teal

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158791">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Brenda Wood's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158792">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Brenda Wood lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158793">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Brenda Wood talks about her biological mother and her adoptive mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158794">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Brenda Wood talks about her adoptive parents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158795">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Brenda Wood describes the history of musicianship in her maternal family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158796">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Brenda Wood describes her adoptive father's family background and talks about his career as a musician</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158797">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Brenda Wood talks about the death of her biological mother in 1960, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158798">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Brenda Wood describes her adoptive mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158799">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Brenda Wood describes growing up in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158800">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Brenda Wood talks about the death of her biological mother in 1960, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158801">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Brenda Wood explains why her adoptive father, Henry Blackmon, immigrated to the Netherlands</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158802">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Brenda Wood recalls her earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158803">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Brenda Wood talks about her upbringing as a Seventh Day Adventist and attending Seventh Day Adventist schools throughout her education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158804">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Brenda Wood describes her experience at Smothers Elementary School in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158805">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Brenda Wood talks about her experiences at Woodson Junior High School and the Dupont Park Church Seventh Day Adventist School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158806">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Brenda Wood remembers taking piano lessons from her mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158807">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Brenda Wood remembers watching JC Hayward and Max Robinson on Channel 9 in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158808">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Brenda Wood talks about her mother's friendship with singer and actress Joyce Bryant</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158809">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Brenda Wood talks about her mother's relationship with singer Roberta Flack</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158810">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Brenda Wood talks about wanting to be a Broadway performer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158811">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Brenda Wood describes her experience at Takoma Academy in Takoma Park, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158812">Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Brenda Wood remembers the riots in Washington, D.C. in 1968 after Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158813">Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Brenda Wood describes the racial demographics of the student body at Takoma Academy in Takoma Park, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158814">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Brenda Wood describes how she became interested in speech and communications</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158815">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Brenda Wood talks about deciding to attend Oakwood College in Huntsville, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158816">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Brenda Wood talks briefly about the Loma Linda University Medical Center's legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158817">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Brenda Wood talks about transferring to Loma Linda University and wanting to become an investigative filmmaker</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158818">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Brenda Wood remembers being interviewed by WAAY-TV in Huntsville, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158819">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Brenda Wood talks about joining WAAY-TV in Huntsville, Alabama in 1977</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158820">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Brenda Wood explains why she chose not to leave Huntsville, Alabama for Ohio State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158821">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Brenda Wood talks about receiving an offer to join WSMV-TV in Nashville, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/158822">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Brenda Wood talks about her marriage in 1978</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

8$5

DATitle
Brenda Wood remembers watching JC Hayward and Max Robinson on Channel 9 in Washington, D.C.
Brenda Wood remembers being interviewed by WAAY-TV in Huntsville, Alabama
Transcript
So, now, did you pay--considering what you're doing today, did you pay special attention to news people on television?$$No, not really. I do remember, I was--I remember when JC Hayward and Max Robinson arrived at Channel 9 in Washington [D.C.] and loved them, probably, I guess, because I don't know this to be a fact, but we watched Channel 9 all the time. And they were the first blacks that I saw on TV giving the news. So, my mom [Alma Montgomery Blackmon] was very, very proud of that. She loved Max Robinson, you know. They were always in--so I watched them growing up. I can't say, though, that I, you know, that was not--I didn't look--I don't know. You know, I, I admired them greatly, but I don't really recall thinking one day I want to be JC Hayward, you know what I'm saying? Don't--it wasn't that. But I did watch them all the time.$$Okay, so you were keenly aware of them, but you weren't--$$Absolutely.$$--you didn't see them as future, you know--$$No, you know, at the time, I wanted to be a Broadway singer, or you know opera singer. That's kind of where my head was 'cause that's, that'a what I was hearing all the time.$I was--by this time I was engaged. My fiance was slated to graduate in December, and then we were gonna get married. And then I was gonna start the master's fellowship there in Ohio [at Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio]. He was gonna do his residency there. So between June of graduation from undergrad and December I had this free time. So I applied for a job somewhere in Huntsville [Alabama]. And I, you know, I had done a little bit of radio in college at the college radio station, and I had done some internships--$$I was gonna ask you if they had a station there?$$Yeah, they did. It was all automated, so, yeah, I didn't do very much but punch buttons. And I had done some internships in Los Angeles [California] with a couple of independent film companies. So I had a small resume. I'd sent it back home to then Huntsville. And I just, you know, sent it everywhere to radio, TV, newspapers, just, you know, I just needed something to do. And I wanted to do something in communications. And--$$Now, this is in the space between Loma Linda [University, Loma Linda, California] and Ohio State?$$Correct.$$Would have been Ohio State.$$Right, so I sent out my resume like in April. I knew I was gonna be graduating in June, so I had put together a little resume and sent it out before graduation. I got an inquiry before graduation from a couple of newspapers, little local newspapers, couple of radio stations that were interested, and a television station. And my first week back home from, after graduation, I only went to the TV station for the interview, not smart, you know. It's like, "Oh, I don't wanna work at a newspaper. And I don't wanna work at a radio station." I wanted to--and the reason why I wanted to do the TV was because they shot film. And this is 1977. So they're still shooting film. So in my little brain, I'm thinking, well, I wanna do film, and they do film. So I'll (laughter) do film. So I went, I accepted the, the invitation to come and do an interview at the television station there.$$Okay, so you saw yourself as behind the cameras kind of--$$Yeah, yeah, right, but they--and they were, I knew they were looking for a reporter. And I had taken one journalism class. So, you know, I wasn't so much interested--what drew me to the TV station wasn't that I wanted to be a reporter or let me see what reporting is like? It was, I, you know, I don't know. I knew nothing. So, you know, it was like, they shoot film, and I wanna do film. So I'll go to the television station and apply to be a reporter. And it doesn't really connect. But that's what I did. And Adrian Gibson was the news director at the time, and he interviewed me, and I said, really all the wrong things, thinking back on it. You know, I said, I don't wanna be, I'm not interested in being a reporter. You know, have you ever done any reporting? No, taken, you know, have you taken classes? Just one. Yeah, well, what do you see in your future? Well, I wanna be a filmmaker. Do you wanna be a reporter? "No, not really. And by the way, I'm leaving in six months 'cause I'm going to Ohio State to get my master's in filmmaking. And then I'll be gone. Oh, and on top of that, I don't work on Friday nights or Saturdays 'cause I'm Seventh Day Adventist." And this man hired me (laughter). I don't know why. I did a, they put me in front of the camera on the news set in the studio and asked, you know, just said, talk, you know, just talk to the camera. And I did, and I don't even know what I said.$$This is your first time talking, I mean being the talent on a television program.$$(No audible response) 'Cause, you know, we didn't have the--different from today. At, at--neither at Oakwood [College, Huntsville, Alabama] nor at Loma Linda did they have a studio set up, you know, did they have a, you know, a little news operation. They had none of that where I was, none of that. So it really was the first time I'd been in a studio, the first time I'd talked in front of a camera or any of that.$$Okay. So did they build your work around your religion and other--$$Yeah, they did. They gave me a Sunday through Thursday schedule. Fortunately, because they're in Huntsville, they knew of Oakwood's existence. They knew of the Seventh Day Adventist College. So they--and the woman that I was replacing who was also a black female, ironically, left to go to Ohio State University to work on her master's degree. Isn't that just funny how life works. So, you know, and because it was the '70's [1970s], and I filled two quotas, I was black and female, you know, I would, I was, you know, I was a twofer. So they wanted to hire--they had a slot for (laughter) a twofer. They were losing one, a black female. And so they get to hire one. So that probably was more of the motivating factor than anything else (laughter) in hiring me. I was there (laughter). I was a warm body (laughter).$$Now, well, you had the credentials which some, it was like a driver's license in some ways. You have a degree in communications.$$Yeah.$$So they can say, they can justify your hiring by pointing to these degrees.$$Right. It wasn't a degree in journalism.$$I mean in communications.$$That would have been helpful. Well, yeah, it was in communications. You said it right. You know, it was very broad, very generic, yeah.$$All right.$$But I filled the bill.$$Okay, okay, and ever--anyone ever told you that you looked like a television talent?$$No.$$Really, up to that point?$$Oh, no. No, as a matter--$$Interesting.$$--of fact, when I was in college, people would say to me, you know, "What's your major?" "Communications." "Oh, what's that?" You know, that--it's the '70s [1970s]. It was a new major. "What's that?" And my standard answer in explaining what that was, you know, "Well, you know, I wanna go into filmmaking." "Huh?" And then my retort would be, "Well, anything but news."

Condace Pressley

Journalist Condace Pressley was born in 1964 in Marietta, Georgia. She graduated from Marietta High School in 1982, where she was a columnist for her high school paper and co-editor of the school’s year book. She then went on to attend the University of Georgia and served as the news director of the college’s radio station before graduating magna cum laude with her B.A. degree in journalism in 1986.

Pressley was first hired at Cox as a reporter/anchor in 1986. She worked her way up, and in 1999, became the assistant program director and worked on radio stations AM750 and NOW95.5FM News/Talk WSB. In 1992, she was promoted to Cox’s general manager; and in 2012, became the general manager for WSB-AM. Pressley hosts her own show, Perspectives , where she interviews celebrities, authors, news makers and community leaders. She also contributes news reports to Atlanta's Morning News with Scott Slade and the Sean Hannity Show .

Pressley has been recognized numerous times for the quality of her journalism. In 1990 and 1991, she was named Radio News Woman of the Year Atlanta by the American Women in Radio and Television; and in 1990, she was also named Radio News Woman of the Year Atlanta by the American Women in Radio and Television. Pressley was elected president of the Atlanta Association of Black Journalists in 1993. In 2001, she was elected president of the National Association of Black Journalists, and became director of the Radio Television News Directors Association. Pressley was honored at the 2010, YWCA Tribute to Women Leaders, and named a Pioneer Journalist by the Atlanta Association of Black Journalists in 2012. Marietta Mayor Steve Tumlin named July 11, 2012, Condace Pressley Day.

Pressley has been published in the Nieman Reports , the Federal Communications Law Journal , and The Atlanta Daily Journal , and has served as a featured as a guest on CNN and C-SPAN .

Condace Pressley was interviewed by The History Makers on February 19, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.049

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/19/2014

Last Name

Pressley

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Levica

Schools

St Joseph Catholic School

Marietta High School

University of Georgia

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Condace

Birth City, State, Country

Marietta

HM ID

PRE05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida Panhandle

Favorite Quote

It Doesn't Matter Who Gets the Credit as Long as You Get the Job Done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/10/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Condace Pressley (1964 - ) is the assistant program manager for Cox Media Group in Atlanta, hosts the radio program Perspectives, and was previously the president of the National Association of Black Journalists and the director of the Radio Television News Directors Association.

Employment

Cox Media Group Atlanta

WSB Radio

Georgia Radio News Atlanta

WRFC Radio, Athens

WNGC/WGAU Radio

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133855">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Condace Pressley's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133856">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Condace Pressley lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133857">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Condace Pressley describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133858">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Condace Pressley describes her mother's upbringing, education, and nursing career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133859">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Condace Pressley describes her mother's career as a nurse at Kennestone Hospital and at the Lockheed Corporation in Marietta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133860">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Condace Pressley recounts her mother's experiences during the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133861">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Condace Pressley describes her father's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133862">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Condace Pressley describes her father's family background, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133863">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Condace Pressley talks about her father's career as a shopkeeper for the Lockheed Corporation and the Ford Motor Company in Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133864">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Condace Pressley recounts how her parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133865">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Condace Pressley describes her parents and her brother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133866">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Condace Pressley talks about her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133867">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Condace Pressley describes her childhood homes in Marietta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133868">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Condace Pressley recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Marietta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133869">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Condace Pressley recalls her childhood neighborhood in Marietta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133870">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Condace Pressley talks about her grade school years at St. Joseph's Catholic School in Marietta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133871">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Condace Pressley talks about the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968, and her mother's mentor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133872">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Condace Pressley describes her transition to Marietta High School in Marietta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133873">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Condace Pressley talks about her experience at Marietta High School in Marietta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133874">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Condace Pressley describes changes in Georgia during the 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133875">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Condace Pressley describes working on the yearbook staff at Marietta High School in Marietta, Georgia, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133876">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Condace Pressley describes working on the yearbook staff at Marietta High School in Marietta, Georgia, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133877">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Condace Pressley recounts her decision to attend the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133878">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Condace Pressley talks about her parents' divorce</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133879">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Condace Pressley describes her teachers and her first radio journalism jobs while at the University of Georgia in Athens</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133880">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Condace Pressley talks about athletes at the University of Georgia and Marietta High School, like Herschel Walker, Dominique Wilkins, and Dale Ellis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133881">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Condace Pressley describes HistoryMakers Monica Kaufman and Jocelyn Dorsey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133882">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Condace Pressley talks about her A.B.J. degree and her extracurricular involvement at the University of Georgia in Athens</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133883">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Condace Pressley talks about extracurricular activities at the University of Georgia in Athens</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133884">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Condace Pressley describes interning and working at the Georgia Radio News Service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133885">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Condace Pressley recounts how she was hired at WSB Radio in Atlanta, Georgia while working at the Georgia Radio News Service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133886">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Condace Pressley describes working at WSB Radio in Atlanta, Georgia with Skinny Bobby Harper</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133887">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Condace Pressley describes covering politics on WSB Radio in Atlanta and meeting four U.S. presidents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133888">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Condace Pressley recalls working with Atlanta, Georgia mayor Maynard Jackson while president of the National Association of Black Journalists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133889">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Condace Pressley recalls interesting local stories she covered at WSB Radio in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133890">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Condace Pressley describes becoming president of the Atlanta Association of Black Journalists and hosting the first UNITY conference in 1994</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133891">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Condace Pressley talks about covering politics during the 1994 election of Atlanta, Georgia mayor Bill Campbell</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133892">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Condace Pressley describes interviewing civil rights leaders including Coretta Scott King and HistoryMakers John Lewis and Andrew Young</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133893">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Condace Pressley recalls the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133894">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Condace Pressley talks about professional boxer Evander Holyfield</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133895">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Condace Pressley explains her journalistic philosophy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133896">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Condace Pressley talks about her radio program, 'Perspectives,' on WSB in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133897">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Condace Pressley recalls the 1994 and 2000 Super Bowl games in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133898">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Condace Pressley reflects on the major events in Atlanta, Georgia since the 1990s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133899">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Condace Pressley remembers the September 11 attacks at the World Trade Center, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133900">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Condace Pressley remembers the September 11 attacks at the World Trade Center, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133901">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Condace Pressley recounts her term as president of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) from 2001 to 2003.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133902">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Condace Pressley reflects upon African American representation among news directors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133903">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Condace Pressley talks about challenges facing African American news directors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133904">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Condace Pressley explains how broadcast news programming has changed since the 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133905">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Condace Pressley reflects upon how the cable news networks like CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC have affected the American news market</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133906">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Condace Pressley reflects upon how African American political views are represented in cable and broadcast news</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133907">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Condace Pressley explains why conservative voices dominate the talk radio format</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133908">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Condace Pressley talks about news and en Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133909">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Condace Pressley talks about her civic involvement and about HistoryMaker Xernona Clayton</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133910">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Condace Pressley reflects upon her future plans and what she would do differently</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133911">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Condace Pressley describes attending the 2009 and 2013 presidential inaugurations of HistoryMaker Barack Obama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133912">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Condace Pressley talks about Antoinette Tuff, who convinced a gunman to surrender at McNair Discovery Learning Academy in DeKalb County, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133913">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Condace Pressley talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133914">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Condace Pressley describes her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133915">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Condace Pressley reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133916">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Condace Pressley describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/133917">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Condace Pressley narrates her photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
Condace Pressley describes covering politics on WSB Radio in Atlanta and meeting four U.S. presidents
Condace Pressley reflects upon how African American political views are represented in cable and broadcast news
Transcript
I remember February 17, 1991, when the air war started [Gulf War], that was the moment at which our program director morphed our station [WSB Radio, Atlanta, Georgia] from being a full-service radio station into a news talk radio station. We went to all news in the morning, talk throughout the day, news--heavy news presence in the afternoon. And that has evolved in the twenty-plus years since.$$Okay. Okay. So. So you became the morning show producer in '87 [1987], is that?$$Yes. Yes.$$Okay. All right. And this is [Skinny] Bobby Harper is on in the morning?$$Yes. He was with us until--Bobby left--Bobby and Kathy [Fishman] left--they left in '91 [1991], 'cause I remember that I was here. The [Atlanta] Braves went worst to first. I got to cover the World Series that year. That was a lot of fun. And then, as I say, when the Gulf War started, me at the radio--the one thing that is certain about working in radio is the uncertainty of working in radio. And so the program director then, they blew up the radio station, and Bobby and Kathy left. And we put on--we pull our guy out of the helicopter, the traffic reporter, and made him the host of our morning show. His name is Scott Slade, and he's still hosting our morning show today. But, yes. I went from being a nighttime anchor to being a producer and a reporter, a morning reporter, and then I was the news assignment editor, and then I was the assistant news director--the assistant program director, and now the manager of programming operations and community affairs.$$Wow. So you covered the Democratic National Convention [DNC] in '88 [1988]?$$Yes, I did.$$Here in Atlanta? Yeah.$$Yes. I think I've covered every political convention since '88 [1988].$$Yeah. [HM Reverend] Jesse [L.] Jackson was a big feature in that.$$And that was that eternally-long Bill Clinton speech. Yes. (laughs).$$Okay.$$Well, yeah. Jesse was here for that one as well.$$And Michael Dukakis (simultaneous)--$$Yes.$$--was the nominee of the Democratic Party.$$Yes. He was. He was--that was--I actually have--I've had great--covering politics, I've great experience covering politics and presidents. I covered the DNC in '88 [1988], and I've covered the DNC and the RNC [Republican National Convention] since. We used to do what we call ascertainment interviews. And we would invite in community leaders when--before deregulation of the industry. And we would sit in the big boardroom and have lunch and discuss issues of community interest. And once President [Jimmy] Carter came, and I had to sit next--in the big boardroom in our old building, I sat next to Jimmy Carter, and we had lunch, and we talked, and he was the nice--he is the nicest man. He is a true WYSIWYG, "what you see is what you get." And I remember asking him, I was like, you know, what was, as he looked back on his presidency, you know, what was the thing that's really troubled him the most. And he talked to me about, you know, staying up at night during the Iran Contra hype--hostage situation [Iran Hostage Crisis 1979 - 1981] and not being able to resolve that, because, you know, it was his failure to resolve that, the hostage crises that led to [Ronald] Reagan's election, and what happened after that. But I got to cover Reagan. That was back in the day when the White House would do regional media visits. And this was very early in my career, and it was in the early term of the Reagan presidency. And they would invite regional media to come up and participate in a White House news conference. And I knew that President Reagan's favorite color was red, because Helen Thomas would always be sitting on the front row with her red suit, and I got to go and I put on my red suit and got to stand up and go, "Mr. President, Mr. President." And it was--$$So you did your homework.$$I did. I did my homework. And the only thing was I still messed up though, because there was another regional reporter there who managed to get President Reagan to say, "You know, when I am in Nashville [Tennessee], I listen to W dot dot dot." And she got it, she fed it down the line, and the radio station in Nashville turned it into a promo on a company hour I.D., and they said, "Why didn't you get him to do that? 'Cause he's not supposed to do that." And they got--it ran, maybe, three or four hours before--of course, they got a cease and desist from the White House that says the President doesn't do promos. So, but I did. I got to ask--I asked Reagan a question. I was--actually rode in a presidential motorcade. I was pool reporter when Bush Forty-One [George H.W. Bush] came to Atlanta for the first observation of the [Reverend Dr.] Martin Luther King [Jr.] federal holiday. And we went out. We met Air Force One up at Dobbins [Air Reserve Base]. I've never driven that fast, and there's never been as little traffic on the Atlanta interstates as when there's a presidential motorcade riding through the city; and did that; came to the King Center, met Bill Clinton through my work with the NABJ [National Association of Black Journalists]. And really, the only president I haven't either interviewed or met is [HM] President [Barack] Obama. But I think I've got a few more years to perhaps make that happen.$Is there any--what program today do you think comes closer to representing the interests of the African American community?$$(Pause). I think to the extent that there are those who want to put the African American community in one box, there probably is not one program. Because in 2014, I don't think that the color is necessarily black or white, or brown or white. The color is, and for many years now, has always been green. So you are going to have your church-going conservative African-Americans who are going to gravitate to the likes of a Herman Cain and other personalities on the Fox News Channel. Then you are going to have more progressive African-Americans who are going to gravitate to the message of [HM] the Reverend Jesse Jackson or [HM] Reverend Al Sharpton on MSNBC. And then you're going to have, yet, another group of African Americans who believe that I can make an opinion on my own; I don't need to have your opinion to tell me what to think. And they're gonna read and choose CNN and do some of those other things and just gather the information and make decisions for themselves. We got a lot of great black journalists out there, and many of them are my friends. I love [HM] Roland Martin and what he's doing over at TV One. I love [HM] Tavis Smiley. He's a terrific interviewer. I love what he's doing over at PBS. But, again, even in that arena they still each bring a certain point of view and a certain amount of their personality to the journalism that they do in order to attract, again, a very well-researched audience.$$Okay.$$It's very niche now, I think it is.$$Yeah. I'm going to raise a contradiction here. This is something that--I think that the only place where you see a balance of black conservatives and black liberals is on television, 'cause you don't see it in real life. You don't see half black people conservative and half progressive or--you know, you just don't see that in real life. Even conservative black church-goers tend to not be really supporters of the conservatives--you know, of the conservative mindset, even though they have Herman Cain or (simultaneous) (unclear)--$$Maybe on some issues. Not on all of the issues, but certainly on some issues. I can see that.$$Yeah. It seems like the media has more of them gathered than they, you know, represent--than are represented in terms of votes and that sort of thing in the real world. But, would you (simultaneous) (unclear)--$$Oh, well, there's a reason why President Obama [HM President Barack Obama] has a 89 to a 90 percent approval rating among African Americans. I mean, clearly, African Americans are--you know, I don't want to say that we--I don't think we as a people, you know, vote in the lockstep. I think there is certainly a certain significance, the fact that, that he's the President of the United States, that he--a reelected President of the United States for a second term, which means the first term was not an accident as some people perhaps would like to say. But I think to the extent that some people might suggest, especially people who are not black, that all black people think alike. I think that's definitely not true.

Ernie Suggs

Journalist Ernie Suggs was born in 1967 in Brooklyn, New York. He entered into college at North Carolina Central University in 1985, where he was editor and chief and sports editor for the college’s award winning newspaper, The Campus Echo , and a member of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. He graduated in 1990, with his B.A. degree in English Literature.

In 1990, Suggs was awarded an internship by the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) to work for Gannett Newspapers based in White Plains, New York. He returned to Durham, North Carolina in 1992, as a writer for The Herald-Sun . In 1996, Suggs was awarded a fellowship from the Education Writers Association, which culminated in his seventeen piece series Fighting to Survive: Historically Black Colleges and Universities Face the 21st Century . He went on to become a reporter at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution in 1997, where he covered politics, civil rights and race. In 2001, Suggs authored the Aetna African American History Calendar, which was focused on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

Suggs’ series on HBCUs was the most in-depth newspaper examination of the topic ever undertaken, and was recognized for many awards: Journalist of the Year from the American Association of University Professors; First Place, Salute to Excellence Journalism Award for Investigative Reporting from the National Association of Black Journalists; Journalist of the Year from the North Carolina Black Publishers Association; Journalist of the Year from the North Carolina Press Association; and was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. In 2002, he was named director of Region IV of the NABJ, and became vice-president of the organization in 2005. Suggs was chosen for the prestigious Nieman Fellowship at Harvard University in 2008, and in 2009, he joined the Nieman Foundation’s board. In 2010, he was the keynote speaker at 61st Annual Honors Convocation at North Carolina Central University; and he was given the Pioneer Black Journalist Award by NABJ in 2013.

Ernie Suggs was interviewed by The History Makers on February 18, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.073

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/18/2014

Last Name

Suggs

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Terrell

Occupation
Schools

PS 241 Emma L Johnston School

J W Parker Middle School

G R Edwards Middle School

Rocky Mount High School

North Carolina Central University

Harvard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Ernie

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

SUG02

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

Be The Best You Can Be.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/18/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Journalist Ernie Suggs (1967 - ) is a reporter for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, the former vice president of the National Association of Black Journalists, and author of the award-winning series Fighting to Survive: Historically Black Colleges and Universities Face the 21st Century.

Employment

Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Durham Herald-Sun

Gannet Westchester Newspapers

Favorite Color

Gold

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159237">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ernie Suggs' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159238">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159239">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159240">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about his maternal grandmother's education at an all-black boarding school in Whitakers, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159241">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs describes the people who raised his mother: his maternal grandfather, his great aunt Clarene, and Alice Wells</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159242">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs describes his mother's childhood in Edgecombe County, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159243">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs talks about his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159244">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159245">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs talks about his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159246">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs describes his parents' relationship and his similarity to his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159247">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs talks about being reunited with his sister</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159248">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs describes his sister's disappearance</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159249">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about his sister and her upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159250">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159251">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs reflects upon his childhood neighborhood and his early academic ambitions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159252">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs talks about growing up in Brooklyn, New York during the 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159253">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs talks about his early interest in the news and attending P.S. 241 in Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159254">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs talks about his favorite teachers and his favorite subjects in elementary school at P.S. 241 in Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159255">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs describes his interest in comic books and the Marvel Universe</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159256">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs explains his mother's decision to move to North Carolina in 1979</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159257">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about the early New York City hip hop scene</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159258">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs talks about his school experiences in North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159259">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs talks about taking college prep courses at Rocky Mount High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159260">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs talks about his high school extracurricular activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159261">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs explains the social relations at Rocky Mount High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina during the 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159262">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs describes his college application process</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159263">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ernie Suggs recalls his decision to attend North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159264">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs describes HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's 1984 and 1988 presidential campaigns</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159265">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs talks about his mentors at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159266">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs talks about writing for the Rocky Mount Telegram and the Campus Echo, the student newspaper at North Carolina Central University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159267">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs explains his English literature major at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159268">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs talks about his National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) internship at Gannett Westchester Newspapers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159269">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs talks about graduating from North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina and his post-college job plans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159270">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs describes working for Gannett Westchester Newspapers in Westchester County, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159271">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs explains his responsibilities as a journalist for the Herald Sun in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159272">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs recalls the stories he covered as a reporter for the Herald Sun in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159273">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ernie Suggs talks about reporting on historically black colleges and universities in the late 1990s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159274">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs explains the challenges facing historically black colleges and universities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159275">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs talks about the future of historically black colleges and universities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159276">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs talks about his award-winning series on historically black colleges and universities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159277">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about volunteering at and reporting on the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159278">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs talks about North Carolina Central University's sports programs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159279">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs talks about joining the Atlanta Journal-Constitution as a staff journalist in 1997</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159280">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs talks about his membership in the National Association of Black Journalists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159281">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs talks about stories and individuals he reported on for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159282">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs describes the movie industry in Atlanta, Georgia and the opportunities the city offers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159283">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ernie Suggs talks about Georgia state and Atlanta city politics in the early 21st century</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159284">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ernie Suggs talks about Martin Luther King, III's presidency of the SCLC and the organization's activism in the early 21st century</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159285">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ernie Suggs talks about how Martin Luther King, Jr.'s legacy has impacted his children</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159286">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ernie Suggs talks about the controversies surrounding the Martin Luther King, Jr. family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159287">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ernie Suggs talks about the legal battles waged by the children of Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159288">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ernie Suggs talks about the children of Martin Luther King, Jr. and their control over his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159289">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ernie Suggs describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159290">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ernie Suggs recalls his time at Harvard University as a Nieman Journalism Fellow in 2008</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159291">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ernie Suggs talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/159292">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Ernie Suggs reflects upon his legacy</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

8$8

DATitle
Ernie Suggs talks about his early interest in the news and attending P.S. 241 in Brooklyn, New York
Ernie Suggs talks about stories and individuals he reported on for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Transcript
Back to the newspapers though, you would--why would you be so desperate to get a newspaper?$$I liked to know what was going on so I would--you know, back in those days and I'm sure it's still now they had the newsstands where the newspapers would just basically be out and I would just walk by and pick one up and just keep walking (laughter). So that was my--that was the existence of my life of crime. So I would steal the [New York] Post, the [New York] Daily News, the New York Times to just kind of read what was going on. I enjoyed--I think I was able to understand the Post and the Daily News a little better because it was about New York, and it always had those spectacular headlines. The New York Times is a little bit high-brow for a preteen. But yeah I would just read it, pick it up and take it to the house, let somebody else read it but you know that was one of things I would do, steal newspapers.$$So there wasn't a particular part, I know you were a sports writer at one point in high school.$$No, it wasn't anything--$$It wasn't because of the sports necessarily.$$No, I would read everything. I would read what was going on in the city, you know, the blackout.$$The blackout was yeah go head.$$The '70s [1970s] there was so much stuff going on in New York City with the blackouts with the bankruptcy, the Bella Abzug and [Mayor] Ed Koch. For me it was a very exciting time. There was always stuff happening. So I would want to know what was going on. I would want to know what was actually going on in the city in terms of murders, the [New York] Yankees of course, TV shows. I loved watching television so reading was probably an extension of that. So yeah I wanted to read everything. I wanted to know what was going on particularly in the city.$$Okay.$$So I imagine I stole the Post and the Daily News more than the Times.$$Did you have any favorite writers in the newspaper?$$No it wasn't any--it was just like what's going on in the news today. I would just go by and snatch it and just keep walking and that was it (laughter).$$Okay.$$I wasn't trying to go see what Bill Madden wrote or anything.$$So at P.S. 241 [Emma L. Johnston School, Brooklyn, New York] you're in a gifted program and like who's in school with you? Is it mostly African American or is it mixed?$$It's mostly African Americans. It's a Brooklyn neighborhood so it's mostly African American but it was--it had a good deal of diversity as well particularly in the gifted program.$$Okay.$$So, yeah as I said the diversity was there. I mean, I learned a lot about diversity in New York in, at P.S. 241 in terms of different cultures, languages, different types of people.$I know you said James Mallory was here already at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution but what else attracted you to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution?$$Atlanta [Georgia], you know Atlanta at that time was the black mecca, so to speak, Atlanta and Washington, D.C. It was only five hours away from North Carolina--my home in North Carolina so I can drive quickly. I had a lot of friends who were moving here and people were always just talking about Atlanta as this place that people were coming to that you can make a lot of money. There was a big music scene that was coming about that was kind of changing. Atlanta was becoming a focus of that. Not that I was a music person but Atlanta was becoming the focus of a lot of things and it was a place that--it was a big city and you know as I said, you always want to go to a bigger city when you work for a newspaper. So Atlanta was at the top of my list. It was always at the top of the list and you know New York [City], of course, going back to New York to work in the city. But Atlanta was a reasonable place that was close and it was kind of southern and I had kind of gotten used to the whole southern thing living in North Carolina so this was the place where I wanted to come.$$Okay what were some of the notable stories that you've been involved in with your writing here in Atlanta?$$Well I've been here since 1997 as you said so that's about seventeen years so I've covered everything. I came here as a night cops reporter. So my first job--it's weird because after covering all this great stuff in Durham where you're kind of the big fish in the little pond, you become the little fish here. So my first job for the first six months was night cops. So I would come in every day at 3:00 and work until 12:00 until after the news went off covering cops. Shootings, accidents, traffic jams just you know you name it, I did it. So I did that for about six months then I moved on to education, covered higher education and then K-12. So I've basically covered everything at this paper that you can cover. I've covered cops, education, I've done some sports, I've done some features. I've done crime, of course, but the thing that I cover that's kind of always been an overriding theme of all my coverage has been race. I've covered government politics, elections but race has always been kind of the main area that I've become--that I've become an expert in, that a lot of my coverage always kind of goes back to. So if I'm covering government or if I'm covering politics and something racial happens or there is a racial or an event that happens or some situation that involves race, I'm usually the guy that gets pulled in to cover that because of my expertise and because of my interest in it. So with Atlanta being the home of the Civil Rights Movement because of the people who live here. So I've covered [HM] Joseph Lowery and [HM] C.T. Vivian and Hosea Williams and [HM] Andrew Young and [HM] Fred Shuttlesworth and you know, [Reverend Dr.] Martin Luther King [Jr.], his life and legacy hovers over all of that. So I've covered everything about the King legacy since day one. Since I've gotten here that's kind of been what I've been in charge of doing. So I'm that guy who covers all of that and it's been great 'cause these are the kind of people when you talk about the history, I've always had a keen interest in history, these are the kind of people I read about growing up. These are the people that I--and to be able to meet Coretta Scott King and [Andrew] Andy Young and Joseph Lowery--Joseph Lowery performed my wedding. So these are the kind of people that I've read about who I kind of consider the second founding fathers of the country that I'm covering now on a regular basis who call me every now--it's funny we talked about [HM Reverend] Jesse [L.] Jackson and my first kind of experience watching his campaign. You know, Jesse Jackson has my cell phone number and I--sometimes I look on my phone and I see, oh man Jesse's calling and I don't have time to talk to him right now (laughter). You know what I'm saying so it's kind of weird that you know, this guy that you grew up idolizing now becomes kind of a peer or someone that you kind of can, you know, feel comfortable talking to and kind of reaching out to and, and associating yourself with.

Sidmel Estes

Media consultant and executive television producer Sidmel Estes was born on November 27, 1954 in Marysville, California, to Emellen Estes and Sidney Estes. Estes attended elementary and high school at public schools in Atlanta. She earned her B.S.J. degree in 1976, and her M.S.J. degree in 1977, both from Northwestern University’s Medill School of Journalism in Chicago, Illinois.

In 1979, Estes returned to Atlanta and was hired at WAGA-TV/Fox 5, where she served as the executive producer of numerous programs. She was the co-creator and executive producer of Good Day Atlanta, which became the number one show in its market, and won seven Emmy Awards under her direction. In 2006 Estes left WAGA-TV in order to found and serve as CEO of BreakThrough Inc., a media consulting firm whose clients include the Frederick Douglass Family Foundation, the McCormick Tribune Fellows Foundation, the Tupac Amaru Shakur Foundation and the Atlanta Center for Creative Inquiry. She has also taught as an adjunct professor at Emory University and Clark Atlanta University.

In 1991, Estes was elected the first woman president of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ). Under her leadership NABJ increased its membership to over 2,000 journalists and was included in Ebony’s list of Top 100 Black Organizations. In 1994, she was a leader and co-creator of the first Unity Conference, an alliance of journalists of color, and was instrumental in the release of their report Kerner Plus 25: A Call For Action, which outlined steps the media industry should take to improve racial diversity.

During her prolific career in television and journalism, Estes has been recognized numerous times. Atlanta’s Mayor Andrew Young proclaimed “Sidmel Estes-Sumpter Day” on November 18, 1988 after she was named Media Woman of the Year by the Atlanta Chapter of the National Association of Media Women. She was featured in Ebony’s 100 Most Influential Black Americans in 1993, and in More Magazine’s book 50 Over 50. Estes was honored with the Silver Circle Award from the Television Academy and has won several Emmy Awards. She received Northwestern University’s Alumni Service Award after being elected as president of the Northwestern Black Alumni Association in 2004.

Estes married B. Garnett Sumpter in 1983, and they had two children, Joshua and Sidney.

Sidmel Estes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 17, 2014.

Sidmel Estes passed away on October 6, 2015.

Accession Number

A2014.065

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/17/2014

Last Name

Estes-Sumpter

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Karen

Schools

M. Agnes Jones Elementary

Northside High School

Northwestern University

Frank L. Stanton Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sidmel

Birth City, State, Country

Marysville

HM ID

EST02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Orleans, Louisiana; Miami, Florida; Beaufort, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Everybody Needs A Breakthrough

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/27/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Honey Baked Ham

Death Date

10/6/2015

Short Description

Media consultant and television producer Sidmel Estes (1954 - 2015 ) was the founder and CEO of BreakThrough Inc. and the first woman president of the National Association of Black Journalists. She worked as an executive producer at WAGA-TV, where she created Good Day Atlanta.

Employment

BreakThrough, Inc.

WAGA-TV (Television station: Atlanta,Ga.)

KUAM-TV

Chicago Daily News

Chicago Defender

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:2472,63:4322,171:7504,263:8096,272:10094,331:13202,397:18900,507:24560,525:25120,535:26800,568:28200,594:35200,773:35620,780:47830,955:51637,1034:52123,1041:71198,1305:74206,1343:74582,1348:75522,1364:81350,1470:82572,1493:83324,1505:89305,1533:90835,1566:98995,1707:99420,1713:99845,1735:111584,1878:112128,1889:119054,1969:123464,2055:128868,2104:155647,2604:169159,2755:170761,2774:171473,2784:176036,2856:193107,3150:194186,3169:198253,3228:198585,3233:204618,3342:204942,3347:205509,3356:216670,3538$0,0:3655,40:4985,57:5745,66:10210,128:12585,170:15435,210:20090,302:23450,317:24890,349:25210,354:25610,360:26010,366:26890,379:27290,385:27850,394:31918,438:32450,446:36174,510:36478,515:40681,562:42175,587:46491,683:46823,688:49894,766:50724,777:51139,783:51637,790:53214,837:55206,875:55953,887:56368,893:57032,902:57613,910:58360,921:62842,1001:63257,1007:74434,1107:75666,1120:76226,1125:79987,1171:80532,1177:92668,1286:93124,1291:94834,1308:96202,1320:96772,1326:98368,1343:98824,1348:107149,1388:108227,1405:108920,1415:109921,1430:113732,1534:117956,1630:118436,1636:118820,1641:120548,1676:120932,1681:134190,1793:134890,1808:136780,1842:137200,1849:137550,1855:138670,1875:139020,1881:140210,1899:140770,1910:141120,1916:142100,1935:149765,2023:151140,2033:165786,2250:166220,2258:171410,2352:173020,2359:174220,2374:179300,2429:179840,2436:180740,2446:181100,2451:183170,2473:185310,2484:185884,2492:188918,2563:189738,2577:190476,2588:196516,2642:196804,2647:209444,2885:209888,2892:210184,2897:236375,3210:237007,3219:237876,3232:238271,3238:238587,3243:239061,3252:239456,3258:240483,3274:241510,3291:241905,3297:242221,3302:243090,3311:243564,3318:243880,3323:244512,3332:245065,3340:245460,3346:259574,3498:264782,3619:266042,3637:267470,3659:271760,3670:272360,3676:287305,3822:287660,3828:288015,3834:291472,3859:293344,3898:293890,3911:295762,3953:298336,3998:299194,4010:300286,4026:305545,4062:306070,4070:309140,4167:310500,4190:312180,4216:313540,4237:317140,4375:317620,4381:321140,4534:321860,4544:323700,4576:335460,4707:339970,4780
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663615">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sidmel Estes' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663616">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663617">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663618">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers her maternal grandfather</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663619">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes talks about the Collier Heights neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663620">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes describes her mother's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663621">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes remembers her first experience of racial discrimination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663622">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes describes her father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663623">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes lists her siblings, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663624">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sidmel Estes describes her likeness to her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663625">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Sidmel Estes lists her siblings, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663626">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes talks about her siblings' professions</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663627">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663628">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes talks about her early education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663629">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers the advice of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663630">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes talks about the community organized busing in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663631">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes recalls her decision to become a journalist</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663632">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes describes the community on Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663633">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663634">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes recalls her decision to attend Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663635">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Sidmel Estes remembers the student activism at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663636">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes talks about her internship at the Chicago Defender</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663637">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes remembers prominent black journalists from the start of her career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663638">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes recalls her experiences as an intern at the Chicago Defender</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663639">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers her internship at the Chicago Daily News</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663640">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes describes her experiences at the Medill School of Journalism in Evanston, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663641">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes remembers becoming a television reporter in Guam</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663642">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes describes her experiences at KUAM-TV in Guam</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663643">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes remembers joining WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663644">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes talks about the Atlanta Missing and Murdered Children cases, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663645">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes talks about the Atlanta Missing and Murdered Children cases, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663646">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes talks about the changes in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663647">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes describes her reaction to the Janet Cooke scandal</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663648">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers meeting her former husband</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663649">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes talks about her involvement in the National Association of Black Journalists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663650">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes talks about her civic engagement in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663651">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes recalls the major events of the late 1980s in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663652">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes talks about the FOX takeover of WAGA-TV</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663653">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes remembers developing the 'Good Day Atlanta' morning news show</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663654">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Sidmel Estes remembers her election as president of the National Association of Black Journalists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663655">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes describes her tenure as president of the National Association of Black Journalists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663656">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes talks about FOX's management of WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663657">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes talks about Paula Walker Madison</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663658">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers founding BreakThrough Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663659">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes describes her book projects</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663660">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes talks about the future of journalism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663661">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes describes the services offered at BreakThrough, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663662">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes talks about her teaching activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663663">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes describes the documentary 'Kerner Plus 40: Change or Challenge'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663664">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Sidmel Estes describes her hopes and concerns for African American journalists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663665">Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Sidmel Estes remembers her proposal to buy Ebony and Jet</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663666">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes talks about the UNITY: Journalists of Color organization</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663667">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663668">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663669">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663670">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes talks about her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663671">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663672">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes narrates her photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/663673">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes narrates her photographs, pt. 2</a>

DASession

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DATape

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DATitle
Sidmel Estes remembers the advice of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Sidmel Estes describes her tenure as president of the National Association of Black Journalists
Transcript
Now, you had an incident when y- when you were in, I guess the third grade [at M. Agnes Jones Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia], when you were eight?$$Um-hm.$$You took ballet--$$Um-hm.$$--with Yoki King [Yolanda King], you were telling us.$$Right.$$There's an historic moment that you experienced here. Tell us what happened.$$Well, like I said, Yoki and I were both sort of the little chunky girls in ballet, because they like you to be (gesture) this thin, being a ballerina. But to Atlanta Ballet's credit, they were trying to reach out to the community. So, they would send their top teachers. And I will never forget, a woman named Madame Hildegarde [Hildegarde Bennett Tornow] would always come to Spelman College [Atlanta, Georgia] to teach. And so, we were taking ballet. Like I said, we did 'The Nutcracker' [Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky] every Christmas. But these little skinny girls decided to make fun of me, and they pulled a chair out from up under me. And fortunately, we were practicing in the gym, so it was a wooden floor, not a concrete floor. So, I wasn't seriously hurt, but my feelings were hurt more. So, Yoki and I after class were outside waiting on our ride. And here drives up Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] in a, I will never forget it, a black, big black car. And when he--I sat in the back seat, and I was just crying, crying. He said, "Child, what's wrong with you?" And I told him what had happened. And to this day, I will never forget. He said, "Child, if that's the worst thing that's going to ever happen to you, you are a blessed child." And I never forgot that. And I had--my tears went away then, because I just sat there and I would think about it: that wasn't really that bad, especially some of the things that I have faced later on in life. But he was being prophetic to me then, at eight years old, that I was going to go through stuff in life, and I had to get used to it.$$Hm, okay. So, what kind of car did he have? Do you remember?$$It was a Buick. I remember the big, black Buick.$$Now, this is 1962, I guess, right, when you were eight?$$Yeah, something like '61 [1961], '62 [1962].$$Did he have a new car, or it was an old, older car?$$It was sort of used, it wasn't brand new. It wasn't fancy. It wasn't huge. You know, it was a regular old car.$$Okay, okay. And do you remember the color? I'm just, I'm just thinking--$$Black.$$Black, okay. I'm thinking it was black in my head, but I don't--$$Um-hm, um-hm. Yeah, black on black. I will never forget that (laughter).$$Well, that's something. So, that's, that is--now he's picking her up himself from--$$Yeah, and that was the only time I ever remember him picking her up. And very rarely did he make our recitals. Because we're now talking, you know, the height of the Civil Rights Movement. So, he was never there.$$Yeah, things really got--$$Yeah, '62 [1962], '63 [1963] (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) involved. Yeah, '63 [1963], Birmingham [Alabama], '64 [1964] was, you know, leading into Selma [Selma to Montgomery March] and all that.$$He was never home, never home.$$Yeah, the March on Washington was the next year.$$Right, right.$$So, he was very busy. And, did your parents [Emellen Mitchell Estes and Sidney Estes] know him, I mean, know Dr. King?$$They knew him cursorily, they were not close to him. But they trusted him enough to pick up their daughter and get me home. And then we did, you know, vice versa. So, I guess it's a mutual trust society going on there.$Well, tell us. What was your agenda as president of the National Association of Black Journalists, what--in 1991? What--where were you going to take the organization?$$Well, people tease me. The night I was inaugurated and they announced that I had won and tears were just streaming down my face, I stood up and I told the industry, I said, "You have never dealt with a black woman from the South before." And I meant that, you know, because sometimes they would take advantage of NABJ, a lot of these big news organizations. So, my agenda--$$In what way? What do you mean?$$Well, people who were supposed to get promoted weren't getting promoted.$$Okay.$$Our numbers were not very high at the time (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Not organizationally, but as individual black people working in the--$$Right, in the newsroom.$$The members of NABJ.$$Now, remember I had from two to three thousand members across the country. It started out at two thousand. By the time I finished, it was up to three thousand. But one thing I did do, we had what we call the Pierre summit. And it was at The Pierre hotel in New York City [New York, New York]. And it was me and every president of journalists of color organizations. There was four of us. And I'm the only woman. But we sat down with the CEOs of every major media company and told them what we had--from Knight Ridder, to the president of the Newspaper Association of America [News Media Alliance], to you know, the Tribune Company [Tribune Media Company], to the Gannett Company [Gannett Company, Inc.], to The New York Times, Washington Post [The Washington Post]. These guys came to that meeting. And for two very long days, and very difficult days, we sat down and we told them why we have a problem in the industry--how the stories aren't being told properly--because your people don't know how to go into these communities. So, that was a major accomplishment. I also think that we did have a significant number of people who entered the business. I even have people now who run up and tell me, kind of embarrasses me, and say, "I remember you when I was in college, and you came to speak. And you inspired me so much." I was like, "Thank you." And now, they're in--they're working journalists, or they're on the air, and doing things like this. So, that was number one, was jobs. Number two was justice in terms of telling the story like it is. And number three was fair representation of the community, because that was not being shown. Merv Aubespin [Mervin Aubespin] used to say that, "Unless people see themselves in the newspaper, they can't use it." And most newspapers, you don't see yourself, you don't see your neighbors, you don't see people of achievement out there. So, people aren't going to buy the papers. And they wonder why there's a problem. So, and we were very, very successful. People were scared, as they put it, of Sidmel [HistoryMaker Sidmel Estes].$$Okay, okay. So, did you get, you know, compliance generally from--I mean were they, did things change any?$$Yeah, it changed. And it--and we did have--even though it was a different administration--we did have the power of the law. You know, the fairness doctrine was still very strong. Equal opportunity and equal hiring was still very strong. People were actually talking about racial issues in the community. And so, that's what I think made the big difference from then, and as--instead of right now.$$Okay. So, anything else from your tenure? Did--as president?$$Well, we created the Ethel Payne scholarship [Ethel Payne Fellowship], which is a scholarship where journalists can go to Africa and spend time there and follow stories from there. And that was a big accomplishment. We su- supported and strengthened the Ida B. Wells Award, which is still being given out to- today. We also put the organization--not only in terms of the number of members, but the--our financial position was tremendous. We were giving out scholarship money right and left. I remember we did one at The Kennedy Center [The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Washington, D.C.], where we gave out scholarships. So, the fact that--and we started both broadcast short courses during my administration--one at FAMU [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida] and the other one at North Carolina A and T [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina]. And those two programs just celebrated their twentieth anniversary. I'm very proud of that.$$Okay, okay. So, you were president from '91 [1991] until--$$Ninety-three [1993].$$Okay.$$And then I was the immediate past president. I was on their board longer than (laughter) than I ever knew.