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Gary May

Electrical engineer and academic administrator Gary Stephen May was born on May 17, 1964 in St. Louis, Missouri. He was one of two children born to Warren May, Jr., a postal clerk, and Gloria Hunter, a teacher. As a high school student, May participated in a summer program called “Developing Engineering Students” at McDonnell Douglass Corporation in St. Louis, Missouri for three summers. He was subsequently employed by the company as a cooperative education student. May received his B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1985, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California at Berkeley in 1987 and 1991, respectively.

May joined the George Tech College Engineering in 1991 as a member of the microelectronics research group. In 1992, May created the Summer Undergraduate Research in Engineering/Science (SURE) program with a grant from the National Science Foundation. May is also the co-founder and director of the Facilitating Academic Careers in Engineering and Sciences (FACES) program, for which he has received over $10 million in funding from NSF to increase the number of African American Ph.D. degree graduates produced by Georgia Institute of Technology. In 2001, May was named Motorola Foundation Professor, and was appointed associate chair for Faculty Development in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE). Then, in 2005, May was promoted to Steve W. Chaddick Chair of ECE; and, in 2011, he became Dean of the College of Engineering at Georgia Tech.

Throughout his career, May has published numerous articles in academic journals, including Journal of Applied Physics, the International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing Processes. He also served as editor-in-chief of IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing. In 2006, May was the co-author of Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control; and in 2003, he co-authored Fundamentals of Semiconductor Fabrication. May is also the recipient of professional and academic awards. In 2004, May received Georgia Tech’s Outstanding Undergraduate Research Mentor Award, as well as the Outstanding Minority Engineer Award from the American Society of Engineering Education. In 2006, he received the Mentor Award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). For his academic contributions, May was named a fellow of the AAAS, the IEEE, and received an honorary doctorate from the Universidad Latina de Panama.

May and his wife, LeShelle Mary, live in Atlanta, Georgia with their two daughters, Simon and Jordan.

Gary Stephen May was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 10, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.207

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/10/2012

Last Name

May

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Stephen

Schools

University of California, Berkeley

Georgia Institute of Technology

First Name

Gary

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

MAY07

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/17/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Electrical engineer and academic administrator Gary May (1964 - ) is the Dean of the College of Electrical Engineering of Georgia Institute of Technology.

Employment

Georgia Institute of Technology

University of California, Berkeley

Bell Laboratories

McDonnell Douglas Technical Services Company (MDTSC)

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23887">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gary May's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23888">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gary May lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23889">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gary May describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23890">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gary May describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23891">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gary May describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23892">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gary May describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23893">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gary May describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23894">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gary May describes his interest in comic books and science fiction</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23895">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gary May talks about his elementary and middle school experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23896">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gary May describes his reaction to the television mini-series, 'Roots'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23897">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gary May describes his experience in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23898">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gary May talks about his experience in the Developing Engineering Students summer program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23899">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gary May describes his teenage interests</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23900">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gary May describes what influenced his college choice</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23901">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gary May talks about his experience at the Georgia Institute of Technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23902">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gary May describes his experience at Bell Laboratories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23903">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gary May talks about the University of California at Berkeley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23904">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gary May talks about his doctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23905">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gary May describes his decision to stay at Georgia Tech for his Ph.D.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23906">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gary May describes his work with science education at Georgia Institute of Technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23907">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gary May describes his computer preferences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23908">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gary May talks about programs to increase minority representation in engineering</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23909">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gary May talks about his professional activities and awards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23910">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gary May talks about his career at the Georgia Institute of Technology, part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23911">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gary May talks about his career at the Georgia Institute of Technology, part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23912">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gary May describes his goals as dean of the engineering school at Georgia Institute of Technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23913">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gary May reflects on the effects of automation on the loss of jobs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23914">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gary May discusses the balance between his research and administrative responsibilities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23915">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gary May describes cutting edge research in semiconductors and electrical engineering</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23916">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gary May reflects on his career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23917">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gary May shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23918">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gary May reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23919">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gary May talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23920">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Gary May describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Gary May describes his reaction to the television mini-series, 'Roots'
Gary May describes his work with science education at Georgia Institute of Technology
Transcript
Yeah, well, we were talking off camera about 'Roots' [Alex Haley]--$$Emm hmm.$$--now that came out in 1977--$$Right.$$--and you'd have been ahh what, thirteen?$$Yeah, I was like ahh eighth grade or so.$$Yeah, thirteen years old?$$Emm hmm.$$And tell us about your reaction to "Roots."$$I was fascinated by it. It was probably the most compelling television I had ever seen, and maybe still to this day have seen 'cause, you know, I watched every episode. My face was glued to the television, riveted by every, every--'cause I had never--had no concept of slavery in the middle passage and what sort of things black people had endured. I mean we had some of this in school, but you know reading it in a textbook just didn't come alive the same way it did on television there with, you know, the story was so well-done and well-acted, and it was just a significant milestone in my life, seeing that series.$$Okay, and you expressed some surprise that your white classmates weren't watching.$$Yeah. So, you know, at school we'd get there in the morning and everyone would say, "What did you do last night? What did you watch on television?" And, you know, I was stunned that my white classmates weren't watching it. I couldn't imagine anybody wouldn't be watching this (laughter), but, you know, and they didn't, and not because they were bad people or anything; it just wasn't part of their experience or interest, and that was also something--a learning experience for me that there was some difference between myself and my, my classmates.$$Okay, okay. So did your teachers discuss it at school at all?$$We did not discuss it in school very much at all. It was more of a family--you know my whole family was watching it together and we'd discuss it, you know, during and after.$$Okay, okay. Did you have a sense that your own family history was--part of that was your own family history?$$Well I would ask a lotta questions. You know, it was the same kinda thing that our family experienced, and I was able to generalize that show to the black experience more broadly, and didn't have specific details on my family like Alex Haley did, but could sort of identify with it.$Okay. All right. So you became professor of engineering and computer engineering?$$Electrical and Computer Engineering--$$Okay.$$--that's the way we were organized here, but I still do electrical engineering myself, but we also had computer engineering degree and we're in the same department.$$Okay. Okay. It's interesting here and like almost the second year you're here, in '92 [1992], you founded and became director of the Summer Undergraduate Research and Engineering Science program, SURE--$$Right. The SURE program.$$--the SURE program.$$So, you know, my other real passion, in addition to my research, was in attracting other minorities to engineering and science and helping grow the field and replicate myself, if you will. I never could understand why there were so few of us. You know, if you believe, as I do, that the types of talents that make for good engineers are distributed uniformly across populations, there should be--you know, we should be a parity in engineering--black people, but we're not. So that's been a real passion of mine to contract more people to engineering, more African-American people to engineering. So at this program, the SURE program that you mentioned was an offshoot of something we did in graduate school where we brought students from other universities to campus at [University of California] Berkeley for the summer to recruit them to graduate school there.$$Now was that the Superb program?$$Superb. So my colleagues and I, when we were still graduate students, started the Superb program at Berkeley. And so the SURE program--the first name actually was called GT Supreme and forget what--it was another long acronym, but the same general model where the idea was to bring students from all over the U.S., black students who were at that time just electrical engineers, to Georgia Tech to (1) get them interested in graduate school, and (2) to hopefully recruit them to Georgia Tech for their graduate education. And I did that--that's probably, as I think about it, that was actually the first proposal I ever got funded as a faculty member, was for the SURE program. And starting that, as you said, right after I came in 1992, and it's been going strong every year since then so--the program is twenty-two years old now.$$Now did you get this program funded for $2.3 million back in '92 [1992]?$$No, no. The very first grant I got was for about $50,000, yeah.$$Oh, so this is the accumulation of all years, I guess (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--yeah, that's (unclear). Yeah.$$--'cause I was gonna say "Wow, it's astonishing."$$(Laughter) That would be great if that was my first grant, no. That first--it was just for one summer, a 50,000 grant--$50,000 grant for one summer, for '92 [1992], that would fund about ten students. And then after that, I wrote a, you know, renewal proposal and have been renewing it ever since then, typically every three years. The cumulative amount of funding there has been more than two million dollars.$$Okay. So it's funded by the National Science Foundation [NSF].$$Primarily. There have been a few other foundations, but that's been the bulk of the amount.$$Okay. Well--and that's for approximately how many students?$$So we started out with just ten students that summer, but now we have about thirty-five or forty students every summer. Cumulatively, we've had over 400 students since the program started. No students themselves have gone on; some of them have started similar programs and gone to graduate school and are professors at other universities, and it's been quite a success story.$$Okay. All right. Now, let's see. What were you working on? Was your time at Georgia Tech split between research and teaching?$$It was. At any research university, the responsibilities of the faculty member include both the research mission of the university as well as your teaching--your educational mission of the university. And there's some service and professional things that you do as well, but you have to be good at all those things to be successful, to get tenure and get promoted. And I was doing what I was supposed to doing.$$What kind of research were you (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) (unclear)--work. I was continuing that. I had students working on, you know, various sensors and modeling and process control systems, and all again designed to improve the efficiency and productivity of integrated circuit manufacturing.$$$$Okay. All right. So it says here that in 1997, you're thirty-three years old, you take on a leadership role at the National Science Foundation.$$Yeah, I was working as a--on a committee for NSF [National Science Foundation], and I think what I was doing then, if I remember that particular role, that was the--that's probably--it could be one of two things. It was a Committee on Equal Opportunity and Science Engineering. Is that the one you're talking about?$$Yeah, right.$$Yeah. So I was on that committee for a while and I eventually became Chair of that committee. I guess I was Chair in 2000.$$Okay. (Coughing). And in 1998, you founded the Facilities Academic Careers in Engineering and Sciences (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--So that's a FACES program. Facilitating Academic Careers in Engineering and Science. That was another grant from NSF that we got through a program that was originally called Minority Graduate Education, but now it's called The Alliances for Graduate Education (unclear). And the idea there was (1) to increase the number of underrepresented minorities getting PhD's in STEM fields, and more importantly than to get those folks with the PhD's into academic careers. And that was--we were one of the first cohort of universities that got one those grants and I was the principal investigator of the grant.

John Slaughter

Electrical engineer and academic administrator John brooks Slaughter was born in Topeka, Kansas, on March 16, 1934. His father, Reuben Brooks Slaughter, was hard-working and held a variety of jobs to support his family; and, his mother, Dora Reeves Slaughter, was a homemaker. Slaughter graduated from Topeka High School in 1951 and enrolled at Washburn University, but transferred after two years to attend Kansas State University. There, he earned his B.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1956. Slaughter went on to receive his Ph.D. in engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1961, and his Ph.D. in engineering sciences from the University of California, San Diego in 1971.

Slaughter joined the U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory in San Diego in 1960. In 1975, he became Director of the Applied Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington; and, in 1977, Slaughter was appointed Assistant Director for Astronomics, Atmospherics, Earth and Ocean Sciences at the National Science Foundation. From 1979 to 1980, Slaughter was Provost and Academic Vice President at Washington State University. The, he serves as the director of the National Science Foundation in Washington D.C. for two years. Between 1982 and 1988, Slaughter was the Chancellor of the University of Maryland, College Park, where he made major advances in e recruitment and retention of African-American students and faculty. Slaughter then was elected President of Occidental College in Los Angeles from 1988 through July 1999. In August 1999, he assumed the position of Melbo Professor of Leadership in Education at the University of Southern California. In June 2000, Slaughter was named President and CEO of The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Inc.

Slaughter holds honorary degrees from more than 25 institutions of higher education. He was also a recipient of the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Award in 1997, and UCLA’s Medal of Excellence in 1989. Slaughter was honored with the first U.S. Black Engineer of the Year award in 1987, and received the Arthur M. Bueche Award from the Nation Academy of Engineering in 2004, where he is also a fellow. Slaughter is married to Dr. Ida Bernice Slaughter, an educational consultant and former school administrator. They have two children: a son, Dr. John Brooks Slaughter, Jr., DVM, and a daughter, Ms. Jacqueline Michelle Slaughter.

John Brooks Slaughter was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 28, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.205

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/28/2012

Last Name

Slaughter

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Brooks

Schools

University of California, Los Angeles

University of California, San Diego

Kansas State University

Topeka High School

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Topeka

HM ID

SLA02

Favorite Season

Fall, September

State

Kansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

Some people would rather have a cause than an effect.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/16/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Ribs (Pork Spare)

Short Description

Electrical engineer and education administrator John Slaughter (1934 - ) was the first African American to direct the National Science Foundation and developed computer algorithms for system optimization and discrete signal processing.

Employment

Convair

United States Naval Electronic Laboratory Center

United States Naval Applied Physics Laboratory

University of Washington

Washington State University

National Science Foundation (NSF)

University of Maryland, College Park

Occidental College

University of Southern California

National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Inc.

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23834">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John Slaughter's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23835">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - John Slaughter lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23836">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - John Slaughter describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23837">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John Slaughter describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23838">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John Slaughter talks about his father's work in the coal mines</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23839">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John Slaughter talks about his parents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23840">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John Slaughter talks about his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23841">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John Slaughter describes his childhood home</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23842">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John Slaughter shares his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23843">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John Slaughter describes his childhood neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23844">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John Slaughter describes his experience at Buchanan Elementary School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23845">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - John Slaughter describes his skill with electronics and his desire to become an engineer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23846">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - John Slaughter talks about his extracurricular activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23847">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - John Slaughter talks about the teachers that influenced him</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23848">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - John Slaughter describes his experience of World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23849">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - John Slaughter talks about his family and the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23850">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - John Slaughter talks about his teacher, Howard Anderson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23851">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John Slaughter talks about Washburn University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23852">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John Slaughter describes the impact of his liberal arts education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23853">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John Slaughter talks about the Kansas State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23854">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John Slaughter talks about teachers at Washburn University that influenced him</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23855">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - John Slaughter describes his experience with computers at the Kansas State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23856">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - John Slaughter talks about organizations he joined as an undergraduate</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23857">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - John Slaughter talks about the Brown vs. the Board of Education decision</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23858">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - John Slaughter talks about his cousin, Lucinda Todd</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23859">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - John Slaughter describes his decision to work at General Dynamics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23860">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - John Slaughter talks about the offer to be "the Jackie Robinson of Westinghouse"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23861">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John Slaughter describnes his work at General Dynamics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23862">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John Slaughter describes his work with the U.S. Navy Electronic Laboratory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23863">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John Slaughter talks about his graduate studies and his decision to pursue his Ph.D.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23864">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - John Slaughter describes his doctoral research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23865">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - John Slaughter talks about his work at the University of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23866">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - John Slaughter describes his work with the National Science Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23867">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - John Slaughter describes his work at Washington State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23868">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - John Slaughter talks about his work to restore funding for science education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23869">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - John Slaughter talks about the difference between science and engineering</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23870">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - John Slaughter talks about his time at the University of Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23871">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - John Slaughter talks about the challenges he faced at the University of Maryland (part 1)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23872">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - John Slaughter talks about the challenges he faced at the University of Maryland (part 2)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23873">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - John Slaughter talks about his inspiration and role models</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23874">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - John Slaughter describes his work at Occidental College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23875">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - John Slaughter talks about former students of Occidental College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23876">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - John Slaughter describes his work at the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23877">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - John Slaughter describes his work at the University of Southern California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23878">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - John Slaughter talks about the Rodney King incident</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23879">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - John Slaughter talks about affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23880">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - John Slaughter describes his current role at the University of Southern California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23881">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - John Slaughter shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23882">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - John Slaughter reflects on his career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23883">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - John Slaughter talks about his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23884">Tape: 6 Story: 10 - John Slaughter talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23885">Tape: 6 Story: 11 - John Slaughter tells how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23886">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - John Slaughter describes his photos</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
John Slaughter describes his skill with electronics and his desire to become an engineer
John Slaughter talks about his work to restore funding for science education
Transcript
Now you grew up with no television, right?$$That's right.$$And in terms of radio, did you have a radio?$$We had a radio. Like I said, my dad was a used furniture salesman, so he would sometimes get old radios, and we had plenty of them around. And that was important to me, because my dad would go to auction houses and buy things that needed repair. And so he'd buy tables and chairs and things and bring them along and repair them and clean them. And sometimes he'd buy radios. And so, he had a barn out in the backyard for this old furniture that he would buy and fix up. And I started playing with the radios, and then I started fixing some of them, and making them play. And my dad realized that maybe this was a God-send. So, my dad built me in the backyard a little radio shack, a radio shop for me. And my mother bought me test equipment, and I went into the radio repair business. And all the time I was in high school, I had a radio repair business. And I used to advertise that I would fix any radio in Topeka [Kansas] for $4 plus parts. And I paid for a lot of my education through my radio repair business. That was a significant part of my upbringing because I loved to take things apart and see how they worked. And that's what I think led me to become an engineer.$$Now, those are the days I remember when you would go to the store and buy a vacuum tube to test the vacuum tube--$$Yeah.$$--to figure out--$$Yep, I had a vacuum tube tester. I told my mother I needed a vacuum tube tester and we found a used one at a radio store in Topeka. And she couldn't afford it, but she bought it for me. She knew that that was something that I wanted and needed for my radio repair business.$$Okay. How much did it cost? I guess I'm curious now.$$I think it was about $25 at the time.$$That's a lot of money in those days.$$Yeah.$$$25 may have been equivalent to a couple hundred dollars today.$$That's right, exactly. My dad's annual salary during that time was about $2500 a year or so. (laughter). So, you just imagine that $25 was an important part of that one percent.$$Right, right. But you were able to make money with it.$$Yes.$$So, I would guess you would contribute money back into the home, that sort of thing?$$Yes.$$So, it was probably significant income.$$Well, it was $4 plus parts, and I did the best I could. (laughter). But it helped pay for my college education, so my parents didn't have to pay for that as much, certainly for the first two years.$$Okay. Now, did you ever encounter a radio that you couldn't fix and a problem you just couldn't deal with?$$I don't think so. I think there was one car radio that a friend of mine had that I had difficulty and may not have been able to complete, but I became very good at it.$$Okay. So, did you have any kind of consultation with anybody about how to do it, or did you just start to tinker?$$I took a class when I went to high school. I'll back up. When I was in junior high school, our junior high school was integrated. And it was more integrated, actually, in many ways, than the high school. But in junior high school I decided that I wanted to be an engineer. And I'm not absolutely certain how that revelation came, other than the fact that I was curious and I liked, like I said, to take things apart and see how they worked, and build things. So, I would get old copies of 'Popular Mechanics Magazines,' and they always had projects you could build. And I made cameras and I made various electronic devices, and I decided I wanted to be an electrical engineer. And I would tell anybody who was in earshot, that I wanted to be an electronic engineer. People thought I was crazy, because nobody had heard of a--first of all, engineers in Topeka were not anybody other than people who drove the Santa Fe Railroad train, you know. And certainly nobody had ever heard of a black engineer. And you know, here is this kid saying I want to be an engineer. And I don't even think my parents really understood what it was that I was saying I wanted to be. So, I went to high school, and I remember saying to the counselor that I wanted to be an engineer. And what they said, which is not uncommon for black kids at that time was, "You need to go to vocational school." So, I ended up in trade school where I learned about radios.$$Okay. Now, I'm going to go back. These counseling stories, we can begin to make a book out of them.$$I know.$$The same advice.$$Yeah.$$But we're going to go back to--now in high school, in Topeka High School, how were your grades?$$My grades were good. I wasn't perfect, but I had--I graduated--but with excellent grades. I was always a good student.$Alright. So, you were the director of NSF [National Science Foundation] from '80' [1980] to '82' [1982].$$Right.$$And what were some of the issues and duties, well, duties as president at NSF in those days?$$Well, it was a difficult time. And the biggest issue I had was that shortly after I was confirmed, well, shortly before I was confirmed, actually, Jimmy Carter was defeated by Ronald Reagan. I was the last Carter appointee to be confirmed by the Senate because they were waiting for Reagan to come on.$$Had you interacted with Ronald Reagan when he was governor of California?$$No. I had not. But I had interacted a lot with members of his transition committee. And I had actually good relations with them, and I think that's the reason that they approved my appointment and I was able to transcend the period from Carter to Reagan. But I wanted to make sure that I, before I moved my family from Pullman, Washington to Washington, D.C. [District of Columbia], I wanted to make certain that I had the support of the new administration before I would go back to Washington to take the job. But it was very clear early on that many of the things that I believed in were not necessarily supported by the new administration. They wanted to eliminate science education, for example, from the budget. As a matter of fact, they did eliminate it. So, the biggest issue I had for the two years I was there was getting it restored. And that occupied a significant part of my time, getting science education restored.$$I guess the philosophy of the administration was that this was something that the public sector ought to fund, science education.$$Yes. Science education and behavioral and social sciences were on the chopping block. And the hardest thing that I had to do was to go to the science education director and about 125 people, and tell them that they had just lost their jobs, because I didn't believe in what the administration was doing. So, with the support of some people in Congress, mainly Ted Kennedy, we were able to get it back on the radar screen in the Congress and ultimately get science education restored, even though the full restoration didn't occur until after I left. But we laid all the groundwork during that time. The other thing that was significant during the time I was director was that we were able to establish engineering as a full directorate at NSF. Up until that time, only the pure sciences had been considered a part of the NSF portfolio, and there had been a long standing desire on the part of the engineering community to be included. And I think the fact that I am an engineer was important, and during the time I was there we were able to get engineering established.

Dawn Wright

Professor and oceanographer Dawn Jeannine Wright was born on April 15, 1961 to Jeanne and Robert Wright. Wright grew up on the island of Maui, Hawaii, fascinated by stories of adventure and discovery of the open seas. She graduated cum laude with her B.S. degree in geology from Wheaton College in 1983. She then earned her M.S. degree from Texas A&M University in oceanography in 1986. During her graduate studies, Wright served as a graduate research assistant and a marine laboratory specialist with the Ocean Drilling Program at Texas A&M University. Following her work as a marine laboratory specialist, Wright received her Ph.D. degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1994 with her dissertation entitled “From Pattern to Process on the Deep Ocean Floor: a Geographic Information System Approach.”

The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hired Wright as a postdoctoral research associate following graduation. She began her teaching career in 1995 as an assistant professor in the Department of Geosciences at Oregon State University. By 2002, she was promoted to full professor. Wright is an expert on geographic information systems, and her work has focused on mapping the ocean floor in locations around the globe including: Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, in American Samoa, the East Pacific Rise in the Pacific Ocean, the Tonga Trench in the South Pacific Ocean, and the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the North Pacific Ocean. Along with her work in mapping the sea floor, Wright has assisted with a number of outreach programs, hoping to encourage more minority and female students to consider a career in the sciences.

Wright has published a large number of papers detailing her investigations. She has received several awards in recognition of her work, both as a teacher and as a leading scientist in her field. She won the United States Professor of the Year for the State of Oregon in 2007, and has been listed as one of fifteen scientists featured in Portraits of Great American Scientists. She was also named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Wright has co-authored the reference book, Arc Marine: GIS for a Blue Planet.

Accession Number

A2012.204

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/27/2012

Last Name

Wright

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Jeannine

Occupation
Schools

Texas A&M University

Wheaton College

Wide Lake High School

Henry Perrine Baldwin High School

Aptos Middle School

Lao School

Wailuku Elementary School

University of California-Santa Barbara

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Evenings, Some Days

First Name

Dawn

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

WRI06

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Youth, Adults, Seniors, people interested in science and maps of oceans

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches, National Parks

Favorite Quote

Just do it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/15/1961

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Ice Cream (Vanilla), Ice Cream (Coffee), Apricots (Dried), Cherries

Short Description

Oceanographer Dawn Wright (1961 - ) is an expert on the Geographic Information System and has traveled the world mapping the ocean floor.

Employment

Oregon State University

NOAA

University of California, Santa Barbara

Texas A&M University

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23772">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dawn Wright's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23773">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dawn Wright lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23774">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dawn Wright describes her mother's family background - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23775">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dawn Wright describes her mother's family background - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23776">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dawn Wright describes her mother's education and her career as a college professor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23777">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dawn Wright describes her father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23778">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dawn Wright talks about the medical complications surrounding her birth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23779">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dawn Wright describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23780">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dawn Wright describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23781">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dawn Wright talks about her mother's decision to move from Baltimore to Canada and then Hawaii</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23782">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dawn Wright describes her mother's decision to move to Canada and then Hawaii, and her family's early lives there</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23783">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dawn Wright describes her family's early life on the island of Maui, Hawaii</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23784">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dawn Wright describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Hawaii</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23785">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dawn Wright talks about the people of Hawaii and her experience while growing up there</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23786">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dawn Wright talks about adjusting to her new life in Hawaii as well as her experience at school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23787">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dawn Wright describes her childhood attraction to the ocean and its influence on her career aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23788">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dawn Wright talks about her interest in space exploration and science fiction</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23789">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dawn Wright talks about her interest in Christianity at the age of eight</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23790">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dawn Wright describes the influence of her fourth grade teacher, Sue Okata</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23791">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dawn Wright talks about growing up in Hawaii and the weather and sports</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23792">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dawn Wright talks about attending middle school in Hawaii and California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23793">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dawn Wright talks about her high school coach and her interest in track and field at Baldwin High School on Maui, Hawaii</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23794">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dawn Wright describes her mother's decision to return to the Baltimore, Maryland in the 1970s to take care of her ill grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23795">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dawn Wright describes her experience at Wild Lake High School in Columbia, Maryland and how it differed from Hawaii</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23796">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dawn Wright talks about the teachers who mentored her at Wild Lake High School, and the community of Columbia, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23797">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dawn Wright talks about her athletics and academic performance at Wild Lake High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23798">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dawn Wright describes her decision to attend Wheaton College and major in geology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23799">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dawn Wright describes her experience at Wheaton College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23800">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dawn Wright talks about majoring in geology at Wheaton College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23801">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dawn Wright describes the non-conflicting emphasis on religion and science at Wheaton College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23802">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dawn Wright talks about her social life at Wheaton College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23803">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dawn Wright describes her involvement with sports and the BRIDGE program at Wheaton College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23804">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dawn Wright describes her geology field training experiences at Wheaton College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23805">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dawn Wright describes her decision to pursue graduate studies in oceanography at Texas A&M University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23806">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dawn Wright describes her first research experience aboard a research ship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23807">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dawn Wright describes her master's degree dissertation research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23808">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dawn Wright describes the principles that underlie bathymetric measurements</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23809">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dawn Wright talks about her master's thesis advisor, William Sager</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23810">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dawn Wright describes her experience as a marine technician for the oceanic drilling program at Texas A&M University - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23811">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dawn Wright describes her experience as a marine technician for the ocean drilling program at Texas A&M University - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23812">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dawn Wright describes her decision to pursue her doctoral studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23813">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dawn Wright talks about her Ph.D. dissertation research committee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23814">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dawn Wright talks about her first encounter with oceanographer Sylvia Earle</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23815">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dawn Wright describes her historic dive aboard the Deep-Submergence Vehicle, Alvin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23816">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dawn Wright describes her bicycle team's third place win in the 1992 NCAA Collegiate Road Nationals</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23817">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dawn Wright describes her doctoral dissertation research on mapping the ocean floor using the geographic information systems (GIS) technique</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23818">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dawn Wright describes her decision to work at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and at Oregon State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23819">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dawn Wright describes her experience at Oregon State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156824">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dawn Wright talks about the importance of mapping the oceans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156825">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dawn Wright talks about her book, 'Marine and Coastal Geographical Information Systems'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156826">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dawn Wright talks about her research activities in Samoa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156827">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dawn Wright talks about the ArcGIS model and its applications</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156828">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dawn Wright talks about her professional activities - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156829">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dawn Wright talks about her professional honors and awards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156830">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dawn Wright talks about her professional activities - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156831">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dawn Wright reflects upon her life and career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/156832">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dawn Wright describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23829">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dawn Wright reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23830">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dawn Wright talks about African American oceanographers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23831">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dawn Wright talks about her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23832">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dawn Wright talks about how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23833">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dawn Wright describes her photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$7

DAStory

3$3

DATitle
Dawn Wright describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Hawaii
Dawn Wright talks about her research activities in Samoa
Transcript
Now tell me, we always ask this question in terms of growing up, what were some of the sights and sounds and smells of growing up?$$Ooh, well in Hawaii, growing up for me the ocean, the sights and the smell of the salt water. I spent a lot of time in the water swimming, a lot of time on the beach playing and I loved growing up in Hawaii because it was, it is such a cross roads of the Pacific. So I actually grew up with children, Japanese American children, Chinese American, Filipino, Hawaiian, Portuguese, and everybody was mixed race. So all of these foods from these different cultures were a big part of our lives, even in our school lunches we would have Japanese food or poi, the Hawaiian poi and so all of those smells and tastes, I just loved it. Absorbed all of that and loved it. I loved all of the local foods so that was another big thing and all of the different kinds of plants, the trees and flowers. I loved to climb trees and there was a big banyan tree that was down the street from our house in a little park and I loved that tree. Banyan trees have these huge root systems and huge trunks and they've got long vines so for children it's just fantastic. You can swing on the vines and climb up them and you can sleep on the branches because they're such big voluptuous trees so that was a big memory. So there are so many things, just the landscape and the culture of Hawaii and then the ocean as well so all of those things made a big impact on me right away.$Okay. All right, now in 2001, you spend your sabbatical year in Samoa, right?$$Yes. Now I wasn't living in Samoa the whole year. I was actually living in Santa Barbara so I was able to return to Santa Barbara and that was a--Samoa was important at the time because, so this is where Sylvia Earle comes back into the picture because Sylvia Earle at that time had launched this initiative called the Sustainable Seas Expeditions. And she had gotten some major funding to map all of the or most of the national marine sanctuaries and she was educating the world, but certainly educating the United States about the importance of our National Marine Sanctuary System and how these are really our national parks that are off shore and I think most people at the time just didn't realize that. Similar to Yosemite National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park we have these sanctuaries such as the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Most of the sanctuary is underwater and these are essentially part of the United States, very important parts of the United States that have been--that are being protected and preserved and parts that you could, you can actually visit. Well the smallest and most remote of the National Marine Sanctuaries is the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary in American Samoa. So I wrote a proposal, a research proposal to do mapping in that sanctuary along the spirit, same lines as Sylvia Earle's sustainable seas expeditions initiative to map that sanctuary. And so that's where the Samoa connection came in. Fagatele Bay is actually, it's going to be--happily this sanctuary has just recently been expanded so they're changing the name of it and it's going to cover larger areas. American Samoa a lot of people don't realize is also a part of the United States because it's one of our territories.

Fillmore Freeman

Organic chemist and chemistry professor Fillmore Freeman was born in April 10, 1936 in Lexington, Mississippi. Freeman earned his high school diploma from John Marshall High School in Chicago, Illinois in 1953. In 1957, he graduated summa cum laude from Central State College in Wilberforce, Ohio, with his B.S. degree, and then went on to pursue his graduate studies at Michigan State University, where he received his Ph.D. degree in physical organic chemistry in 1962.

After a brief stint working with a private firm, Freeman served as a National Institutes of Health Fellow at Yale University in 1964. The following year, he became an assistant professor at California State University at Long Beach. During this time, the school expanded its chemistry and biochemistry programs to accommodate the growing interest in these fields. In 1973, Freeman became a professor of chemistry at the University of California at Irvine, where he continued to work for the duration of his professional career. With his background in physical organic chemistry, Freeman has conducted research on a number of topics, including organic synthesis pathways and reactions, particularly those of cyclic compounds. His research has also relied heavily on the use of computational chemistry. In 1991, Freeman was the recipient of a grant from the National Institutes of Health to study the biochemical properties of allicin, a component of garlic chemistry. Freeman’s work has had a strong emphasis in isolating, researching and synthesizing compounds with anti-tumor and anti-viral properties.

Freeman has received much recognition for his work in the field of physical organic chemistry. He was named an Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellow and a Fulbright-Hayes Senior Research Fellow. He also had the opportunity to serve as a visiting professor at the Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry and the University of Paris. Author of numerous academic papers, Freeman was identified as the third most highly cited African American chemist in a 2002 report by Oklahoma State University.

Fillmore Freeman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 27, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.203

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

11/27/2012

Last Name

Freeman

Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

John Marshall Metropolitan High School

Central State University

Michigan State University

Yale University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Fillmore

Birth City, State, Country

Lexington

HM ID

FRE06

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France, Berlin, Germany, Spain

Favorite Quote

The time before memories.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/10/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

USA

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Organic chemist and chemistry professor Fillmore Freeman (1936 - ) joined the faculty of California State University in 1973. He has conducted significant research in the field of physical organic chemistry, particularly in the synthesis and structural understanding of potential anti-tumor and anti-viral compounds.

Employment

University of California, Irvine

California State University, Long Beach

California Research Corporation

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Université de Paris VII

Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles

Max-Planck-Institut

Favorite Color

Blue, Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23710">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Fillmore Freeman's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23711">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23712">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23713">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23714">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about segregation and slavery in Mississippi</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23715">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his paternal family owning land in Mississippi, and his father's role as a Baptist minister</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23716">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his father's training to become a Baptist minister</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23717">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his parents moving to Chicago, his mother's death, his father remarrying, and his four siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23718">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the socio-economic dynamics of skin color in the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23719">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman lists his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23720">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman describes his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23721">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about moving to Chicago when he was five years old, and his early experience there</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23722">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23723">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the Chicago public school system, and the condition of the city's housing projects in the 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23724">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in Catholic school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23725">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about gang activity in Chicago in the 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23726">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about leaving Chicago in 1953</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23727">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman talks about graduating from elementary school and attending high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23728">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about attending his father's church as a child, and his perspective on religion</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23729">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his parents' employment in Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23730">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his jobs as a youngster in Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23731">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23732">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about Maxwell Street in Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23733">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about playing basketball in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23734">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his academic performance in high school and the pressures of life for African Americans who lived in the housing projects</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23735">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman describes his studies and his extracurricular activities in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23736">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to attend Central State University, and his involvement in the ROTC Program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23737">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his professors at Central State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23738">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about Charles Wesley, HistoryMaker, Alice Windom, and segregation in Wilberforce and Xenia, Ohio in the 1950s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23739">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to pursue a doctoral degree at Michigan State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23740">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman describes his Ph.D. dissertation on tetracyanocyclopropanes chemistry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23741">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the interest in cyclopropane chemistry in the 1950s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23742">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman describes being involved in a serious laboratory accident at Michigan State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23743">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his recovery from a serious laboratory accident in 1959 - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23744">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman talks about meeting his wife in Chicago, and getting married in 1959</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23745">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his recovery from a serious laboratory accident in 1959 - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23746">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to work at Standard Oil of California, and his experience there</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23747">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience as a postdoctoral researcher at Yale University and his decision to work at California State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23748">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the lack of African American faculty and students at the University of California, Irvine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23749">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his sabbatical at the University of Paris, and accepting a tenured position at the University of California, Irvine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23750">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman describes his research on using chemical compounds to combat Chagas disease</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23751">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his involvement with NOBCChE</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23752">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in Paris in 1972</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23753">Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Fillmore Freeman describes the university system in California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23754">Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his early research in synthetic organic chemistry, screening chemical compounds against HIV, and his work on carbenes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23755">Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his sabbatical at the University of Illinois, Chicago in 1976</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23756">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his experience on sabbatical at the University of Illinois at Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23757">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience at the Max Planck Institute in Germany and at Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles in France</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23758">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the African American demographics at the University of California, Irvine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23759">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about serving as a visiting scientist and program director of organic and macromolecular chemistry at the NSF in 1989</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23760">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his research in the area of organosulfur chemistry, and his collaboration with Professor Eloy Rodriguez</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23761">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the health benefits of garlic and its component compounds - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23762">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the health benefits of garlic and its component compounds - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23763">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his report on the properties of di-tert-butyl chromate in the Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23764">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the dwindling number of African American faculty in chemistry departments across the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23765">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman describes the field of computational chemistry, and its applications in medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23766">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman shares his perspectives on the impact of computers on society and the future of physical organic chemistry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23767">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his work to promote undergraduate chemistry research and his goals for the future</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23768">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman reflects upon his career and his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23769">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23770">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his hobbies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/23771">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman shares how he would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$5

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
Fillmore Freeman describes his research in the area of organosulfur chemistry, and his collaboration with Professor Eloy Rodriguez
Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to work at Standard Oil of California, and his experience there
Transcript
So it seems in 1991, it seems you received a grant of $507,750 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study tropical plants in Latin America and Africa that fight various fungal diseases, viruses and--$$Yeah, but that was in conjunction with Professor Eloy Rodriguez who was in the School of Bio [Biological] Science, so it was a joint grant.$$Okay, all right, and this is something. Did you have much experience with folk remedies growing up?$$No.$$Okay.$$Well, not experience, but I knew about them. I mean if you got sick in the old neighborhood, there's no such thing as going to a doctor. Everybody had some kind of folk remedy, many of which did not work, but that's all you could have.$$I just wondered if your family had any folk remedies, you know, that you remembered growing up?$$No, the medicine I remember most of all is Vicks VapoRub because of the way it smelled, and they'd rub it on your chest, and that's supposed to cure you when you got sick or have a cold. But that was an interesting collaboration. He's at Cornell [University, New York] now, but we inadvertently become, became sort of world experts in organosulfur chemistry. And when I was in Germany, they had some money left over. And they asked me did I want to go to a conference. And so I looked around, and in Yugoslavia, there was an organosulfur conference. And so I decided, hey, they want me to go so I will go. So I went to this conference which was on the Adriatic Sea. It's a place called Portoroz, and it's just like California. This was when Tito [President Marshal Tito] was still in power in Yugoslavia. But it was just capitalism. It was a tourist place. But it was, after being in Germany for that winter, it was so nice to get to this warm coast. And these sulfur chemists were arguing about a particular reaction intermediate called an alphadisulfoxide. So, you know, I just said, well, we'll just, we can just oxidize this and oxidize that because we know how to oxidize things. So everybody just laughed. So I came back to the [United] States after Germany. And there was a graduate student, Christos Angeletakis, a Greek fellow. And he wanted to do research with me. And we were looking for this elusive intermediate, the alphadisulfoxide. And one way to do that is to work at very low temperatures so you could (unclear) the rate of reactivity. And we were looking and we were looking. We couldn't get any spectroscopic evidence for it. But finally we did. So we became the first ones to identify or to build an alphadisulfoxide. And so we got into sulfur chemistry. Now, to get back to Professor Rodriguez, he's the big world's expert on plant chemists, chemistry. Now, there is this lady, Goodall, who studied the chimpanzee,--$$Yeah, Jane Goodall.$$You're right. Well, when she was studying some of these chimpanzees, she noted that they would eat leaves from a certain plant. They would just keep the leaves in their mouths. They wouldn't chew it. They'd spit it out. Some of them swallowed it. And so it turned out that some Canadian chemist was interested in this, Professor Rodriguez. And so they started isolating the chemical components of this particular plant. And it turns out that the significant component was some brilliant red compound. It had a six-membered ring and all kinds of things on the side. But in the six-membered ring, they had two sulfur atoms. So since we were thought to be world experts on organosulfur chemistry, and that's when I started collaborating with Professor Rodriguez. Again, all unplanned, but, you know, we've done a lot of sulfur chemistry.$Now, what did you do between '62 [1962] and '64 [1964]?$$I worked for Standard Oil of California. This is in the Bay Area [San Francisco, California], and it's a little--there's Berkeley and next to Berkeley is a little town called Richmond. And next to that, there's a bridge that goes from Richmond over to Marin County. And that's where the Standard Oil refinery was. At that time, Standard Oil had a lot of administrative offices over on Bush Street in San Francisco. And so I worked there for two years, and one of the reasons I went to work there was because they promised that we were gonna do basic research as opposed to industrial research. Well, there were about eleven of us in basic research. And that lasts for six months. After that, as with any big company, profits drive everything. And so we used to have these, what we called "dog and pony" shows where the people from Bush Street would come over, and we'd tell 'em what we're doing. And all they wanna know is how much money is that gonna make us. And so basically, during that two-year period, almost all of us had moved over, moved from basic research over to some industrial routine kind of work. And out of the eleven of us, nine of us left, and became professors somewhere in the United States because, again, we had wanted to do basic research. In industry, at that time, Standard Oil was one of the big people in the detergent industry because when they would crack petroleum to get these low molecular weight compounds, we all alkanes, and they could just put--and alkenes, and they could just put a sulfonate group on it. So you needed alkane, alkene that's nonpolar and a sulfonate group that's polar. So this is how you make suds and things. The non-polar part gets out the dirt and the oil and the polar part (unclear) solubility. But these things would not break down easily in the environment. Streams were getting blocked and plugged up, and so we were just looking for ways to improve making those, but also to make alternatives. So what you would do is to run a reaction and then you have to try all different concentrations. So it's routine, the same thing. Then you'd try different temperatures. Then you'd add, change one reagent, and so industrial chemistry is necessary from the profit motive. But intellectually, it's not very challenging. It's very routine. And so that's when I left to go back to Yale [University, New Haven, Connecticut] when I got a National Institutes of Health [NIH] post-doctoral fellowship.$$Okay, this is in 1964?$$Right.$$Okay, so this is a post-doc at Yale University in New Haven [Connecticut]. And--$$Now, the California Research Corporation eventually became the Chevron Research Corporation. And so--$$Oh, the California, I mean the Standard Oil?$$Right, the California Research Corporation was the research arm of Standard Oil.$$Okay.$$And so now it is the Chevron Research Corporation. And, of course, getting a job there was a big deal because growing up in Chicago [Illinois], I had always wanted to live in California. But that was also part of the big migration in the United States to the West. And there were not many jobs for chemists at that time. Shell had a facility at Emeryville which is north of San Francisco. And in Albany, California, there was a government lab. So basically, those three labs, California Research Corporation, Shell and the government lab were the only ones that were hiring people. So everybody was trying to get to the West Coast. And that's when I was in Detroit [Michigan]. I went from Lansing [Michigan] to Detroit. It was 13 [degree Fahrenheit] below [zero]. Got to San Francisco. This is in January on my interview trip. And they were having a heat wave. It was 88 degrees. Now, even since being a little kid, growing up in Chicago, I know I'm going to California. And that trip just solidified everything. There's no way I wanted to live back in the Midwest or where there was cold weather.

William Jackson

Chemist and academic administrator William M. Jackson was born on September 24, 1936 in Birmingham, Alabama. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemistry from Morehouse College in 1956 and Catholic University of America, CUA in 1961, respectively. His expertise is in photochemistry, lasers chemistry, and astrochemistry.

Jackson has been a research scientist in industry at Martin Co (now Lockheed-Martin) and the government at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) and NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). He has been an academician at the University of Pittsburgh (1969-1970), Howard University (1974-1985), and the University of California, Davis (UCD). He joined the faculty at UCD as a chemistry professor in 1985. He then became a distinguished professor in 1998, and chair of the chemistry department from 2000 to 2005. He was awarded millions of dollars in research and education grants and has taught and mentored under representative minority students at Howard University and UCD. Under his direction, the minority student population of the UCD chemistry graduate students increased. He continues to do research, as well as, recruiting and mentoring minority students in chemistry, even though he is officially retired.

In the field of astrochemistry, Jackson observed comets with both ground-based and satellite telescopes and used laboratory and theoretical studies to explain how the radicals observed in comets are formed. He led the team that made the first satellite (IUE) telescope cometary observation. His laboratory developed tunable dye lasers to detect and determine the properties of free radicals formed during the photodissociation of stable molecules. He continued to use lasers in the laboratory to map out the excited states of small molecules important in comets, planetary atmospheres, and the interstellar medium decompose into reactive atoms and radicals and are important in the chemistry of these astronomical bodies. Jackson published over 176 scientific papers, has a United States patent, and has edited two books.

Jackson is the recipient of many awards from universities and scientific organizations. They include the National Organization of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers (NOBCChE) Percy Julian Award (1986), a Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (1989), the CUA alumni award for scientific achievements (1991), the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Research Award (1996), the Morehouse College Bennie Trail Blazer award (2011) and election as a Fellow in the American Physical Society (1995), in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2004) in, and American Chemical Society (2010). He is one of the six founders of NOBCChE; and in 1996, the Planetary Society named asteroid 1081 EE37 as (4322) Billjackson in his honor for contributions to planetary science.

William M. Jackson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 6, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.212

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/6/2012

12/2/2017

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Middle Name

M.

Occupation
Schools

Catholic University of America

Morehouse College

Central High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

JAC32

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/24/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Davis

Country

USA

Short Description

Astrophysicist William Jackson (1936 - ) was one of the founders of NOBCChE and a fellow of the APS, ACS, and AAAS. He also had an asteroid named in his honor.

Employment

University of California, Davis

University of Pittsburgh

Howard University

Diamond Ordinance Fuse Laboratory

Martin Marietta Corporation

National Bureau of Standards (NBS)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center

University of California Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

National Taiwan University

Goddard Space Flight Center

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24088">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Jackson's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24089">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Jackson lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24090">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Jackson describes his mother's family baclground</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24091">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Jackson describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24092">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Jackson describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24093">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Jackson describes his father's educational background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24094">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Jackson describes how his parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24095">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Jackson talks about his parents' personalities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24096">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Jackson describes his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24097">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Jackson describes his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24098">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Jackson describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24099">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Jackson describes the racial climate of Birmingham, Alabama in his youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24100">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Jackson talks about his home on Dynamite Hill</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24101">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Jackson describes the difference between "black" and "colored"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24102">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Jackson describes his experience with polio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24103">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Jackson describes his involvement in sports</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24104">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Jackson describes his recovery from polio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24105">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Jackson describes his experience at Immaculate Catholic School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24106">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Jackson talks about his decision to attend Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24107">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Jackson describes his experience at Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24108">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Jackson describes his social life at Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24109">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Jackson talks about Dr. Benjamin Mays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24110">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Jackson talks about Omega Psi Phi Fraternity</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24111">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Jackson talks about those that influenced him</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24112">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Jackson talks about his decision to attend the Catholic University of America</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24113">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Jackson describes his influences at the Catholic University of America</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24114">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Jackson talks about meeting is wife</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24115">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Jackson describes his research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24116">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Jackson talks about completing his Ph.D. degree</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24117">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Jackson describes his work at the Martin-Marietta Company and the National Bureau of Standards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24118">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Jackson describes his work at the Goddard Space Flight Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24119">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Jackson describes the faculty at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24120">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Jackson describes his work at the University of Pittsburgh</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24121">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William Jackson describes his inspiration for building his laser</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24122">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - William Jackson describes his work at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24123">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - William Jackson describes his decision to work at the University of California, Davis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24124">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - William Jackson describes his work at the University of California and abroad</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24125">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - William Jackson talks about efforts to produce more minority Ph.D.s in science (part 1)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24126">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - William Jackson talks about efforts to produce more minority Ph.D.'s in science (part 2)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24127">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - William Jackson talks about his work as Chair of the Chemistry Department at University of California, Davis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673531">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - William Jackson describes his early interest in chemistry, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673532">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - William Jackson describes his early interest in chemistry, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673533">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - William Jackson talks about his decision to become a physical chemist</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673534">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - William Jackson describes how he came to attend Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673535">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - William Jackson talks about his research assistant position at Catholic University of America</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673536">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - William Jackson remembers his classmates at Catholic University of America</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673537">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - William Jackson talks about his Ph.D. work at the National Bureau of Standards, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673538">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - William Jackson talks about his Ph.D. work at the National Bureau of Standards, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673539">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - William Jackson talks about the instruments he used in his Ph.D. work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673540">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - William Jackson describes the history of instruments and processes in chemistry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673541">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - William Jackson describes his work at Martin Marietta Corporation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673542">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - William Jackson describes his reasons for leaving Martin Marietta Corporation, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673543">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - William Jackson describes his reasons for leaving Martin Marietta Corporation, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673544">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - William Jackson recalls his reasons for returning to the National Bureau of Standards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673545">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - William Jackson describes his research at the National Bureau of Standards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673546">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - William Jackson remembers his coworkers at the National Bureau of Standards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673547">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - William Jackson describes his experiences with racial discrimination at Martin Marietta Corporation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673548">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - William Jackson talks about the role of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673549">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - William Jackson talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673550">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - William Jackson recalls his reasons for leaving the Goddard Space Flight Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673551">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - William Jackson describes his role at the Goddard Space Flight Center, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673552">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - William Jackson describes his role at the Goddard Space Flight Center, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673553">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - William Jackson talks about his research on photodissociation at the Goddard Space Flight Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673554">Tape: 9 Story: 8 - William Jackson talks about his research of free radicals using tunable light sources</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673555">Tape: 9 Story: 9 - William Jackson talks about the applications of his work in free radicals</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673556">Tape: 9 Story: 10 - William Jackson remembers the formation of NOBCChE</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673557">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - William Jackson talks about the creation of NOBCChE, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673558">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - William Jackson talks about the creation of NOBCChE, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673559">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - William Jackson describes the NOBCChE's Minority Resource Centers for Science and Engineering, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673560">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - William Jackson describes the NOBCChE's Minority Resource Centers for Science and Engineering, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673561">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - William Jackson talks about the early years of the Minority Resource Centers for Science and Engineering</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673562">Tape: 10 Story: 6 - William Jackson talks about women in the sciences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673563">Tape: 10 Story: 7 - William Jackson remembers the faculty and staff of the Howard University Department of Chemistry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673564">Tape: 10 Story: 8 - William Jackson talks about the funding of the Howard University Department of Chemistry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673565">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - William Jackson remembers his professorship at Howard University in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673566">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - William Jackson describes his sabbatical at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Erlangen, Germany</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673567">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - William Jackson recalls his reasons for coming to the University of California, Davis, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673568">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - William Jackson recalls his reasons for coming to the University of California, Davis, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673569">Tape: 11 Story: 5 - William Jackson talks about his rank of professorship at the University of California, Davis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673570">Tape: 11 Story: 6 - William Jackson describes his positions at the University of California, Davis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673571">Tape: 11 Story: 7 - William Jackson talks about the lack of African American professors at the University of California, Davis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673572">Tape: 11 Story: 8 - William Jackson describes his role as chair of the chemistry department at the University of California, Davis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673573">Tape: 11 Story: 9 - William Jackson talks about his research at the University of California, Davis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673574">Tape: 12 Story: 1 - William Jackson describes his research in surface chemistry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673575">Tape: 12 Story: 2 - William Jackson talks about the implications of his research on climate change</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673576">Tape: 12 Story: 3 - William Jackson talks about the effect of politics on the STEM industries</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673577">Tape: 12 Story: 4 - William Jackson reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673578">Tape: 12 Story: 5 - William Jackson remembers the Ph.D. students he taught</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673579">Tape: 12 Story: 6 - William Jackson describes the role of a Ph.D. mentor and advisor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673580">Tape: 12 Story: 7 - William Jackson reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/673581">Tape: 12 Story: 8 - William Jackson shares his advice for aspiring chemists</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$3

DATitle
William Jackson describes his experience at Morehouse College
William Jackson describes his work at the Goddard Space Flight Center
Transcript
Okay, alright. So, okay, Morehouse. So, now was it much more challenging at Morehouse than it was in high school?$$I didn't get all A's, so yeah. Yeah, I mean, yeah, it was.$$Okay. Now, at Morehouse there was the great Dr. Henry McBay that everybody talks about.$$Right.$$We hear his name over and over again in these interviews.$$Right.$$What was your relationship like with Dr. McBay? What was he like?$$I did not take chemistry in high school, and I told you, my stepfather was a dentist. School started on a Monday, so the way I was going to get to Morehouse, he had to drive me up there. And so, he was going to drive me up there on, he wanted to leave on Saturday morning. And Mobile is about 250 miles from Atlanta, and then there were no interstate highways in those days, 1952. So, Harry Truman was president, and the interstate didn't come in until Eisenhower was elected. And he started it. So, he wanted to drive up that weekend. I think we started, and he had to come back so he wouldn't have to close his practice for the half a day on Saturday. So, we left, and I got there a couple days earlier than most of the freshmen, than all of the freshmen, in fact. It was early enough for me to talk to the upper classmen who were going to be assigned to work with the freshmen when they got there. In fact, when the other freshmen got there, they thought I was an upper classman. But in talking to the upper classmen, they said, "Well, what are you going to major in?" I said, "I'm going to major in math." They said, "Well, that's good. Don't take chemistry, because McBay is going to flunk you." At that point in my life, I didn't, you know, I was, I didn't believe that. And I didn't, I took it as a challenge, you know. I enrolled in general chemistry. Fortunately, I got a C the first semester and a B the second semester. But I got hooked. I liked the way, I mean, he made it interesting. He was a very good lecturer. He was very difficult, but I thought he was very fair. He didn't give you anything, but he didn't take anything away from you.$$So, you didn't start off setting the world on fire in chemistry. You got a C. Now, you're like fourteen years old, or fifteen?$$Fifteen.$$Fifteen, okay.$$My son did better in chemistry than I did.$$Okay.$$But, yeah, I got a C, but that's okay. I mean, you asked me my relationship with him. After I finished college, and got finished with graduate school, and started publishing papers, we had a very good relationship. When I finished Morehouse, he wanted me to stay at Atlanta University and get a master's degree. And I didn't see any reason why I should do that, even though my grades weren't that good. So, I had been accepted to Northwestern [Northwestern University] and Purdue [Purdue University], but couldn't go because I didn't have any money to go, and they didn't give me any assistantship. So, I moved up to Washington, D.C. [District of Columbia] because I had a cousin there, who said, "Well, with your degree in chemistry you can get a job in the federal government." So, I went around all that summer looking for jobs in the federal government. But in the process, I knew I wanted to go into physical chemistry. And I kept asking, well what's the best school for physical chemistry? And they kept saying Catholic University, which was about a mile from where I was staying with my cousin.$$I want to stop this right here and then go back. We skipped the whole Morehouse experience, which we need to get to before we get you to graduate school. And Morehouse, I mean, you were telling me when we were walking around the campus earlier with you, your roommate was Maynard Jackson, right?$$Yeah, my freshman roommate.$$Your freshman roommate. And there was another student there that people might know, another one was Charles Brown, right?$$Right.$$Who's a Reverend. You didn't have any idea that he was going to be a Reverend at the time?$$No. Let's see. There were a lot of people there. I mean there was Charles Brown, there was Maynard Jackson, there was Till, who only stayed two years. After the first two years he went back to Texas and got his undergraduate degree and became a neurosurgeon, and teaches at Howard University Medical School.$$What's his name?$$Till, T-I-L-L.$$Okay.$$Aaron Jackson was a chemistry major. He died recently, but was a urologist. He taught at Howard University. Major Owens, who was and still is a Congressman from New York. And that's only a small number of the ones that come to my mind right now.$$Now, you weren't the only early admitted student, right? So, there were other--$$One, everyone that I named was an early admitted student. There were about twenty five or thirty of us. Most of them were really smart. And a guy from Chicago by the name of Joe Carl, I remember him. I can't remember all the people in the class at this stage. But it was a pretty--in fact, there are people who say we were the most famous class at Morehouse. There were others who tried to rival us, but given the fact that out of seventy five students, the accomplishments of that class were outstanding.$$Okay. So, but there were about thirty early admitted students?$$Right. But the program continued after that. Walter Massey, who was president of Morehouse, was a couple years later. So, I mean, there were--so there were, it was a pretty distinguished class.$Now this is, you're at Goddard's Space Flight Center at the beginning of, and I guess the most publicized era for U.S. space flight?$$That's right. So I mean, it was, Goddard, NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] was getting money at that time. There were a couple of things that I did that you talked about. You asked me about astrochemistry. It was there that I started using my knowledge of chemistry and applying it to comets, which is what I was hired to do, and trying to understand the physical and chemical processes occurring in comets, and why they look the way the look, what they're made of. And so I started working on problems like that.$$How did you study the comet, I mean did you study the names of comets, or--$$Well, primarily, comets are studied by spectroscopic observation. You look at, use telescopes and measure the spectra. And spectra are the signatures for molecules in comets. And from the ground we can see signatures of free radicals like C-N, O-H, just barely. CN-OH, C-2, C-3 and N-H. That's the first clue. There's other things. You could just look at the orbits and see how the orbits change in periodic comets. And a famous scientist by the name of Fred Whipple figured out that when they evaporate material as they heat up going around the sun, that material, when you go to have a force go in one direction, it exerts in the equal and opposite direction, remembering the second law of motion. So, that slight motion changes the orbit, and if you measure it precisely, you can determine how much force was involved. And he wrote a really brilliant paper, where he used that information, and he came up with what we call the icy nucleus model. The comets are made up of frozen water with various materials inside, and when the water evaporates, it pushes back on the comet, and that's what causes this chain to orbit. And so, you look at that and you try to figure out well, then, how do free radicals come about? And we showed that they come about and that you can make sense out of it by photo association. That means light from the sun. Molecules absorb radiation from the sun and break apart. For example, water, H20, absorbs light and breaks apart H plus O-H, and we see the O-H. HCN breaks apart and gives you C-N plus H, and so forth and so on. So, I worked on those kinds of problems. I wrote a, NASA was setting up a telescope called the IUE telescope. They did ask for an ultraviolet exploratory telescope. And I used, I proposed that we could use their telescope to study the ultra violet emissions spectrum above the atmosphere of the earth, so that you could see things that you could not see from the earth.$$Now this is, correct me if I'm wrong. This is about 1974?$$The proposal was written to use a telescope, was written before that, because it takes five years to send up a satellite.$$Okay. You started, got it in '64' [1964].$$Right.$$That's ten ten years. That was in '74' [1974].$$'74' [1974]. We actually made the observations in '74' [1974], '75' [1975]. But I wrote, I was the principal investigator on the observations.$$And this is the first team to use the ultra violet explorer.$$Explorer, that's right. And the interesting thing, to me, was the astronomers who designed the telescope said we wouldn't get a big enough signal from a comet to be able to use it. But I showed that you, in fact, could do that. Because I showed them a piece of paper, and we actually made the first observations. The signal was about what I had predicted it was going to be. So, being a chemist, it felt good to prove the astronomers wrong.$$Okay. So--$$That telescope went on to make some of the most significant observations of comets.$$Okay.$$And the newer versions of the HST telescope and so forth is still making significant observations of comets.

Linneaus Dorman

Organic chemist and inventor Linneaus C. Dorman was born on June 28, 1935 in Orangeburg, South Carolina to schoolteachers John Albert Dorman, Sr. and Georgia Hammond. Raised in the Jim Crow South, Dorman’s parents sent him to the historically black South Carolina State College laboratory school. The state college afforded him a better education than he would have received otherwise and nurtured his nascent interest in science. As a child, Dorman became fascinated with his friend’s chemistry set and the idea of creating new things. When he entered Wilkinson High School in 1948, his teachers immediately recognized his natural talent in science and encouraged him to take more science courses. This led him to declare chemistry as his undergraduate major after he graduated from high school.

In the fall of 1952, Dorman enrolled at Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois. Because his father was a World War I veteran, having served in France, Dorman received a scholarship from the small, private institution and its scholarship program for the children of World War I veterans. After receiving his B.S. degree in chemistry in 1956, Dorman enrolled in the organic chemistry Ph.D. program at Indiana University. During the summers, he traveled back to Peoria, where he gained invaluable research experience as a chemist for the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory. In 1961, he earned his Ph.D. degree and took a position as a research chemist at the Dow Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan.

While Dorman has garnered a reputation for publishing many research articles in premier research journals, he has become most known for creating over twenty inventions and patents in organic chemistry and biomaterials. Many of his earliest patents involve synthesis methods in organic chemistry. In 1985, he invented a chemical compound that functioned as an absorbent that removed formaldehyde from the air. In 1992, Dorman invented a calcium phosphate biomaterial that was used in hard tissue prosthetics such as bone prosthetics in 1992. Between 1992 and 1993, he developed a new process for the controlled release of herbicides, this method became critical to crop rotation.

He joined the American Chemical Society (ACS) in 1957 and served in a number of administrative positions such as secretary, councilor, and director. Named Inventor of the Year by Dow Chemical Company in 1983, Dorman has been credited with over twenty inventions and patents in organic chemistry and biomaterials. He received the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers’ most prestigious award, the Percy C. Julian Award in 1992. Although he retired in 1994, Dorman continues to work in the scientific community as a mentor. He and his wife, Phae, live in Michigan and have two children, Evelyn and John.

Linneaus Dorman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 24, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.174

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/24/2012

Last Name

Dorman

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Occupation
Schools

Orangeburg-Wilkinson High School

Bradley University

Indiana University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Linneaus

Birth City, State, Country

Orangeburg

HM ID

DOR06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

South Carolina

Favorite Quote

I will study and prepare myself, then maybe, my chance will come.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/28/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Midland

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Watermelon

Short Description

Chemist Linneaus Dorman (1935 - ) has twenty-six inventions and patents in organic chemistry and biomaterials. He also served as a research chemist at the Dow Chemical Company.

Employment

Dow Chemical Company

Northern Regional Research Laboratory

Comerica Bank

Dow Corning

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22925">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Linneaus Dorman's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22926">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22927">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22928">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22929">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman talks about his father's education and career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22930">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman talks about his parents and his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22931">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman describes his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22932">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Linneaus Dorman describes the neighborhood where he grew up in Orangeburg, South Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22933">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Linneaus Dorman describes the sights and sounds and smells of growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22934">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman describes growing up in Orangeburg, South Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22935">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman describes his elementary school experience at Middle Branch School and Felton Training School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22936">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman shares his childhood memories of World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22937">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman describes his introduction to chemistry and his early interest in mathematics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22938">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman talks about the prominent speakers who visited South Carolina State College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22939">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman talks about the first African American chemists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22940">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman describes how his early thoughts about segregation served as a motivating force</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22941">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Linneaus Dorman describes his decision to attend Bradley University in 1952</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22942">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Linneaus Dorman describes his experience as a busboy at Carter Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22943">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman talks about the founder of Dow Chemical Company</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22944">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman describes the differences between the black communities in Orangeburg, South Carolina and in Peoria, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22945">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman describes how he met his wife, Thae</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22946">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman talks about Robert Lawrence, Jr. at Bradley University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22947">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman describes what influenced him to attend graduate school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22948">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman talks about Robert Lawrence, Jr.'s death and his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22949">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman describes his extracurricular activities at Bradley University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22950">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Linneaus Dorman describes his experience as a doctoral student in the chemistry department at Indiana University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22951">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Linneaus Dorman talks about getting married and starting a family while in graduate school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22952">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Linneaus Dorman describes his summer research experience at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22953">Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Linneaus Dorman describes his work for his Ph.D. dissertation on heterocyclic compounds</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22954">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman describes his decision to work at Dow Chemical in Midland, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22955">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman describes his experience in Midland, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22956">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman describes his early work on pharmaceutical compounds</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22957">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman describes his work on synthesizing artificial bone material</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22958">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman describes thermoplastic elastomers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22959">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman talks about Percy Julian, one of the first African American research chemists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22960">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman talks about his activities in the community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22961">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman talks about travel</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22962">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22963">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman talks about the importance of documentation and communication at the workplace</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22964">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22965">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman talks about his children</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22966">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman describes how he dealt with the frustrations of science</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22967">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22968">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman describes his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Linneaus Dorman describes his decision to work at Dow Chemical in Midland, Ohio
Linneaus Dorman describes his early work on pharmaceutical compounds
Transcript
All right, also in our outline, it mentions here that you considered at one time teaching for a historically black college?$$Yes. But I, something told me I didn't wanna teach because that's what so many of my friends and relatives had done, not because they wanted to, but that was the only job open to them. So I wanted to do something other than teach.$$Now, did you believe that Dow [Chemical Company] would hire you?$$At the time?$$Um-hum.$$I didn't think Dow would hire me because some of my friends in graduate school had told me that Dow would not hire me, because they, some of them who had gone, who worked at Dow, (unclear) come back to Indiana University [in Bloomington, Indiana] to do further study, they told me that Dow would not hire me. But I went up to, to the Dow interview because I had a Dow fellowship. And I felt out of respect for the department [of chemistry], I should at least go up for the interview. Well, it turns out that Dow was desperately trying to get a black person, preferably one who had a Ph.D. who could come to work and be standing on your foot, on your feet alone, somebody who was strong enough, educated enough to not just be a laboratory worker, but to be an independent laboratory worker. So I discovered the chairman who was eager to hire, to talk to me and try to get me interested in Dow, much to my surprise. And I still didn't think it would happen, and I also got an offer from Ex-, it wasn't Exxon. It was Esso at the time out in Linden, New Jersey. And I thought that was a real possibility because Dow wouldn't, you know, because of the fact that this was an all-white town, Dow wouldn't probably hire me. And I'll never forget, my wife said to me, "Ah, I'll bet you get the job at Dow and not at Exxon." And that, I went out to Exxon and I followed all the people who were, with their heads in the clouds, who were not very sympathetic to a graduating black person. And sure enough, they didn't offer me a job. But Dow, I came out to Dow, and they were all very nice to me, and encouraging to me and recognized that Dow was trying to get blacks to come to work there. And it was encouraging enough that we had to make up our minds whether we were gonna take a chance on living in an all-white community. And we took a chance, made up our minds to do that and not stay a while and go someplace else because I could have done that after staying around. My telephone rang for a period of time, almost every six months, some other company wanting me to come, stop Dow and come work for them. They were offering me all kind of incentives. So I got to a point, I asked them what can you do for my retirement? They could never do anything to--I would be giving up those years working for, towards retirement. So that was always a no-no, and I had a feeling that they were trying to hire people just like Dow was trying to hire people. So I said, no, no, no. So I stayed here, and that, we decided to retire and live here. And we're happy with that decision.$Okay, all right. Now, during the course of your career, your research changed focus at different times. In the '60s [1960s] and '70s [1970s], you were focused on, from what I understand, peptides, right?$$Pharmaceutical compounds.$$Okay, and--$$And later to, when I got here, one of the things that Dow [Chemical Company] did was to become involved in the pharma--in some pharmaceutical business, thought it was a good venture because the return on pharmaceuticals is like 20 percent, which chemicals are around 10 percent. So Dow was gonna, Dow was very, always into agricultural compounds, and its agricultural compounds were tested for medicinal chemistry by somebody else. We had something called a K-List which every compound we made, you sent a sample of it, and it got a number, a K-number. And those are, one of the things the K-List did was to check it for various, for biological activities. But that was all agricultural until we got into the chemistry, to the drug business. And I was, just so happened to be in position at that time to also become a part of the drug business by synthesizing compounds here in Midland [Ohio]. We had a pharmaceutical group here in Midland. And, well, they later asked me to get into peptide chemistry because that, that was--peptides are like small proteins, and they were becoming more, more prominent because there's a guy by the name of Muirfield who devised a way to make peptides using a solid phase that would cut out a lot of the steps involved in make a peptide. Peptides are made from about twenty-five amino acids in different combinations, but to make a simple peptide, di-peptide, it's many steps, [to] make a tri-peptide, many more steps. So I became involved in the solid phase peptides chemistry, which I made some contributions to the field when I was doing that. And later on, the pharmaceutical business, we had the group here in town which was a part of the pharmaceutical effort, moved down to Indianapolis [Indiana]. And I didn't move with them, so I started something else. And that was diagnostic, latex diagnostic gauges.$$About what year is this?$$How's that?$$About what year is this when you start with the latex diagnostic gauges?$$Oh, ghez, I don't, '74 [1974]--$$Is this in the '70s [1970s] or--$$It's in the '70s [1970s], yeah.$$Okay, that's good enough.$$And we worked on developing a pregnancy test, and I worked in, in that area for a while. And from there we went to control, control release technologies. And from that to plastics.

Wayne Bowen

Biology and Pharmacology Professor Wayne Darrell Bowen was born to (mother) and (father) in 1952. As a child, Bowen knew early on that he was interested in pursuing a career in science, and indeed, he went on to earn his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Morgan State College, in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1974. Bowen then pursued a graduate degree with a major in biochemistry and a minor in neuropharmacology, graduating from Cornell University with his Ph.D. degree after completing a thesis on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis.
Bowen went on to do his postdoctoral work from 1980 to 1983 at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), a research institute of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) located in Bethesda, Maryland, where his work centered on opiate receptor biochemistry. From 1983 to 1991 Bowen taught courses in endocrinology, introductory biology, and biochemistry at Brown University as an Assistant Professor of Biology. During his time at Brown, Bowen also founded the macromolecular biochemistry facility on campus, which provided campus and surrounding medical facilities with synthetic peptide compounds.
From 1991 until 2004, Bowen served as tenured chief of the Unit on Receptor Biochemistry and Pharmacology at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland, working in the Drug Design and Synthesis Section of the Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry. During his time as Chief, Bowen continued to lecture for undergraduate students at Brown University, serving as both Adjunct Professor of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry as well as Adjunct Professor of Neuroscience. During a corresponding period, from 1999 to 2004, Bowen also chaired the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences Graduate School.
In 2004, Bowen returned to the task of educating future scientists as a full-time Professor of Biology at Brown University, teaching in the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology. Bowen was then appointed Chair of his department in 2007. His research at Brown focuses on the potential for developing new treatments for disease through the understanding of sigma receptors, specifically treatment for neurological disorders and cancer.
Bowen has served as President of the Black Scientists Association at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 2001and is a member of the Society for Neuroscience, the American Association for Cancer Research, and the International Brain Research Organization/World Federation of Neuroscientists. He has also received a Certificate of Appreciation from the Student and Teacher Internship Program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and NIH as well as an Award of Appreciation from the Science and Engineering Fair at Morgan State University. In addition, he was also awarded a Certificate of Recognition from the NIH Speakers Bureau and a Special Recognition Award from the Undergraduate Scholarship Program at NIH, as well as numerous research grants.

Accession Number

A2012.216

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/9/2012

Last Name

Bowen

Maker Category
Middle Name

D.

Occupation
Schools

Morgan State University

Cornell University

Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson Elementary

Baltimore City College

William H. Lemmel Middle

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Wayne

HM ID

BOW07

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Rhode Island

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/11/1952

Speakers Bureau Region City

Providence

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Biologist Wayne Bowen (1952 - ) is a professor of biology and pharmacology and a biologist studying alternative treatments for disease at Brown University.

Employment

National Institute of Mental Health (NIH)

Brown University

Cornell University

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Smith, Kline and French

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24290">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wayne Bowen's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24291">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24292">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24293">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mother's education and career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24294">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24295">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his father's growing up and his career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24296">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about how his parents met, married, and later moved to Baltimore, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24297">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his parents' personalities and who he takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24298">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Wayne Bowen describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24299">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Wayne Bowen describes his childhood neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24300">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24301">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in music during his adolescence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24302">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in science and his experiments with his Gilbert chemistry set</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24303">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in science and his aspirations for a career as a scientist</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24304">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his family's involvement in both the Baptist and Methodist church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24305">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his elementary school, his early science education, his interest in chemistry, and his favorite high school science teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24306">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about his friend's death, his social life in junior high school and his junior high school science projects</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24307">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his high school extracurricular activities and his interest in photography</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24308">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his band, St. George's Gate</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24309">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his experience playing in a musical production</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24310">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his decision to attend Morgan State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24311">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his high school experience at Baltimore City College, including the demographics of the school and his job as a photographer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24312">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about missing Jimi Hendricks perform at the Baltimore Civic Center</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24313">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mentors, his jobs, and his experience in the chemistry department at Morgan State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24314">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about his extracurricular activities and his experience being a commuter student at Morgan State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24315">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his undergraduate research project on porphyrins</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24316">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Wayne Bowen talks about his emerging interest in biochemistry and his decision to attend Cornell University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24317">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Wayne Bowen talks about his first research publication and his introduction to the field of pharmacology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24318">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his Ph.D. advisor, James Gaylor, and his experience at Cornell University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24319">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his dissertation research on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24320">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his dissertation research on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24321">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about graduating from Cornell University and his interest in pharmacology at the National Institute of Mental Health</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24322">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen describes his postdoctoral research on the biochemistry of opioid receptors at the National Institute of Mental Health</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24323">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about establishing the Macromolecular Biochemistry Facility at Brown University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24324">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen describes the pharmacology of sigma receptors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24325">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research on opioid receptors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24326">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research on sigma receptors - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24327">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about the role of sigma receptors in cancer research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24328">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research with sigma receptors - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24329">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his professional activities and his research on sigma receptors and their implications for cancer research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24330">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research with sigma receptors - part three</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24331">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Black Scientists Association and its initiatives</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24332">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about becoming Chair of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology and Biotechnology at Brown University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24333">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his duties as Chair of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology at Brown University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24334">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about the potential uses of the sigma-1 receptor and emerging areas of research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24335">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about therapies that have been developed from the sigma 2 receptor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24336">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about the field of structural biology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24337">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about how street drugs can inform pharmacological research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24338">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about the physiology of drug addiction</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24339">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about the hallucinogen, ibogaine, its psychoactive effects, and its potential therapeutic uses</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24340">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen reflects upon his life choices</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24341">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24342">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen shares his advice for aspiring scientists and pharmacologists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24343">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24344">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in history and the Civil War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24345">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his hobbies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24346">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24347">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen describes his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Wayne Bowen talks about his professional activities and his research on sigma receptors and their implications for cancer research
Wayne Bowen talks about the potential uses of the sigma-1 receptor and emerging areas of research
Transcript
So, I went back to NIH [National Institutes of Health] in 1991.$$Okay, alright. The director of--$$And became director, a unit chief down there, and stayed down there until 2004.$$Okay.$$And during that whole time I was at NIH, we did, the work was completely focused on sigma receptors. And we published a number of papers showing that sigma receptors were present in an organ now called lipid rafts, and that that might influence their function. We discovered that the sigma receptors, when activated, produces a change of calcium levels in cells, which is a known second messenger that can change signaling and biochemistry in cells. We found that turning on the sigma receptor increases the levels of a lipid called ceramic, which is a toxic lipid that has a number of targets in cells, and can turn on the apoptotic process. And at the same time, we developed a whole series of compounds through our collaboration with a medicinal chemist. The main chemist that I collaborated with was Brian DeCosta, who was at the NIH then. There was another chemist called Craig, his name was Craig Bertha, who made some compounds that we, he made a compound that we're still using today, that's sort of a prototypic selective sigma 2 receptor agonist. We're always interested in--so, once we found that there were two sub-types of the receptor--so, we were first interested in designing compounds that were selected for the sigma receptor system. And we found a few of those. But now what we're trying to do is hone compounds to be selected for either the sigma 1 or the sigma 2 receptor. And we found a few of those, working with our medicinal chemist colleagues. So then in 2004 I moved back to Brown [University], and joined The Department of Molecular Pharmacology Physiology And Biotechnology, and continued to work on the sigma receptor system. And continuing now with more of a focus on what they're doing in tumor cells, how they are affecting cell growth and proliferation, with a main focus on the ability of the sigma 2 receptor to turn on the apoptosis. And the discovery there was that cells that are resistant--forms of cancer that are resistant to chemotherapy, like pancreatic cancer, is resistant to a number of chemotherapeutic approaches, are susceptible to the sigma receptor. So, we can kill--we looked at three different pancreatic cancer cell lines that are readily killed by activating the sigma 2 receptor when these cells are resistant to other types of chemotherapeutic agents. So, the signaling mechanisms that are turned on by the sigma 2 receptor apparently go in directions that bypass a number of the molecules that are mutated in cancer. Cancer is a problem of unrestricted cell growth, so proliferation. And the way cancer cells do that, is they, there are mutations and molecules that are normally designed to turn on the cell death process. So, cells have a, all the cells in your body, with the exception of your neurons, have a time clock in them, and they'll divide for a certain number of times. And then that cell will turn on an apoptotic program, and basically commit suicide.$$This is the process of replenishing--$$The process of replenishing cells. And in cancer cells, that process is sabotaged, it's hijacked, because the biochemistry that's used to turn on that cell death process is altered in tumor cells. So, these cells escape this apoptotic process. And what we're trying to do with these chemotherapeutic agents is turn that process back on. And apparently, what the sigma 2 receptor does is turn on the programs that sort of bypass these roadblocks in the apoptotic pathway, so that if you have a cell that is resistant to chemotherapy, turning on the sigma 2 receptor opens up another pathway, because there are multiple ways to kill a cell. And the tumor cells haven't figured out yet all of those ways. So we try, so the sigma 2 receptor finds a way to exploit a system that's not yet been altered, and that's a very, that will be a very valuable tool. Because if all tumor cell types, or most tumor cell types, express these receptors, then you have sort of a broad spectrum of tools to attack a number of different types of tumors. So, since coming back to Brown [University], we've focused on that. I've had a couple of post-docs that have worked on this project. Shee Wong worked on looking at the mechanism of how the cells are able to use the mitochondrial pathway to turn on cell deaths. This is a relatively novel discovery, that the mitochondria in cells can be involved in committing this type of cell suicide.$Now, where do you see the field of sigma receptors heading in the next decade?$$So, I think we're in a state, at a stage in the field now where we're just beginning to figure out what these receptors might be doing. There are people studying this system from a number of angles. So, most of the, if you were talking to me five years ago, I would say that most of the people in the field are coming into the field from neuroscience, because they were originally thought to be opioid receptors. And so, people of my age group, I guess, generation, started out studying opioid receptors, from a standpoint of the CNS [central nervous system]. But in recent years, the field has branched into other areas. So, one of the areas where the field is going is in the area of drug abuse. It turns out that the sigma 1 receptor is a target for, a potential target, for developing drugs to treat drug abuse. One of my colleagues I collaborated with is Ray Natsomoti, who's now at West Virginia University, and has pioneered this work in showing that the sigma receptor, that the sigma 1 receptor, when it's blocked, will ameliorate some of the toxic effects of cocaine, some of the local motor effects of cocaine. One of the things that, one of the toxicities of cocaine is that it causes convulsions at high dosages. And she found that if you block sigma 1 receptors with sigma 1 receptor antagonists, that you block the convulsive effects of cocaine. And so, and you can do this even after the animal has been given a dose of cocaine, a convulsive dose of cocaine. So, that's a potential therapeutic use of the sigma 1 receptor, targeting the sigma 1 receptor. Others have shown that blockade of the sigma 1 receptor has effects on drug self-administration. So, if you train animals to self-administer cocaine or-- there's a group at Boston [Massachusetts] that's doing alcohol, and give them sigma 1 antagonists, that you can block or inhibit drug self-administration in these animals. But more importantly, it's been shown that blockade of the sigma 1 receptor blocks the process that's called, the process where the animal begins to self-administer again after they've been off the drug for a while, so re-instatement, it's called. So, you if make an animal addicted to cocaine, and give him certain--and then take the animal off cocaine, and then give certain cues, the animal will go back to self-administering cocaine. And this is thought to be what happens in humans, where they go to rehab and they're off drugs for a while, and there are certain cues--stress, other cues, that get them self-administering drugs again. And it's been shown that blocking the sigma 1 receptor will block this re-instatement process. So, there are people who are interested in targeting the sigma 1 receptor for treatment of drug abuse, and I think that's a direction that the field is going to go. The other major direction, also involving a sigma 1 receptor, is learning and memory. The sigma 1 receptor is expressing a part of the brain called the hippocampus. And it's been shown by a group in France that blocking sigma 1 receptors in the hippocampus will induce memory loss in animal models of learning and memory. So, there are several animal models where you can train a rat to find a floating block in a pool. Or, you train a rat to do a certain task, you know, go through a maze to find food. If you give them blockers of sigma 1 receptors after they've been trained, they forget how to do it. If you put a rat in a pool that's been trained to find a block of wood, they can't. They swim around like it's, like they never had that experience. So, the corollary of that the activating sigma 1 receptors must play a role in acquisition of learning and reinstatement of memory. So, there are people who are interested in developing sigma 1 receptor agonists for treatment of memory deficits, like Alzheimer's disease, or just any sort of cognitive defect they have. So, cognitive enhancing agents is another sort of way that the sigma receptor field is going at the current.

Emmett Chappelle

Environmental scientist and biochemist[?] Emmett W. Chappelle was born on October 24, 1925 in Phoenix, Arizona to Viola White Chappelle and Isom Chappelle. His family grew cotton and tended cows on a small farm at the edge of town. Chappelle was drafted into the U.S. Army, right after graduating from the Phoenix Union Colored High School in 1942. He was assigned to the Army Specialized Training Program, where he was able to take some engineering courses. Chappelle was later reassigned to the all-Black 92nd Infantry Division and served in Italy. After returning to the U.S., Chappelle went on to earn his A.A. degree from Phoenix College. With the help provided by the GI Bill of Rights, Chappelle was able to receive his B.S. degree in biology from the University of California at Berkeley in 1950.

Chappelle went on to serve as an instructor at the Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee from 1950 to 1953, where he was also able to conduct his own research. Chappelle’s work was noticed by the scientific community, and he accepted an offer to study at the University of Washington, where he received his M.S. degree in biology in 1954. Chappelle continued his graduate studies at Stanford University, though he did not complete a Ph.D. degree. In 1958 Chappelle joined the Research Institute for Advanced Studies in Baltimore, where his research aided in the creation of a safe oxygen supply for astronauts. He went on to work for Hazelton Laboratories in 1963. In 1966, Chappelle joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a part of the Goddard Space Flight Center. Chappelle’s research has focused in the area of luminescence, which is light without heat. He has been involved in a number of projects, including the Viking space craft. Chappelle used chemicals from fireflies as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to develop a method of detecting life on Mars. He used this research in bioluminescence, light produced by living organisms, to detect bacteria in water, as well as in improving environmental management.

Chappelle retired from NASA in 2001. He received fourteen U.S. patents, produced more than thirty-five peer-reviewed scientific or technical publications, nearly fifty conference papers, and co-authored or edited numerous publications. Chappelle has been honored as one of the top 100 African American scientist and engineers of the 20th century. He received an Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal from NASA for his work. Chappelle was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2007. He lived with his daughter and son-in-law in Baltimore.

Chappelle passed away on October 14, 2019.

Emmett W. Chappelle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 30, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.234

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/30/2012

Last Name

Chappelle

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widowed

Middle Name

W.

Schools

Wilson Ward Elementary

George Washington Carver High School

University of California, Berkeley

University of Washington

Stanford University

Phoenix College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Emmett

Birth City, State, Country

Phoenix

HM ID

CHA10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Arizona

Favorite Vacation Destination

Assateague, Maryland

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/24/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

USA

Death Date

10/14/2019

Short Description

Environmental scientist and biochemist Emmett Chappelle (1925 - 2019) was honored as one of the top 100 African American scientist and engineers of the 20th century for the many impacts of his research in bioluminescence, light produced by living organisms.

Employment

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center

Hazelton Laboratories

RIAS Martin M.

Johns Hopkins University

United States Army

Meharry Medical College

Stanford University

Research Institute for Advanced Studies

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:10010,41:11000,53:12430,68:13310,77:14850,93:15400,99:16778,119:17090,124:25021,179:25930,190:45960,292:46680,303:51540,355:51896,360:52341,366:57290,424:58486,439:59590,454:60418,465:61890,482:63546,506:65018,523:68422,579:68790,584:72027,595:76185,659:102967,861:103849,879:110023,1044:110275,1049:112291,1080:112543,1089:112921,1096:121201,1154:121817,1164:127642,1234:128410,1245:129082,1256:147348,1414:148296,1440:149165,1453:153788,1525:154158,1531:156970,1569:167590,1628:170410,1634:170810,1639:204768,1772:209553,1833:210336,1842:210945,1897:217770,1929:218561,1938:234168,2090:243950,2122:244186,2127:274871,2323:276345,2353:279684,2375:280098,2382:280719,2392:281409,2406:290375,2489:292500,2511:295380,2545$0,0:2796,34:5798,45:6410,56:6682,61:7430,74:7838,81:14162,170:14866,178:18900,207:19140,212:20460,251:35100,393:38858,411:40198,423:51670,487:55782,529:57594,551:58039,557:59730,592:80950,763:82700,800:83260,806:83820,816:84590,829:85150,838:87950,909:88580,920:89350,934:89980,944:90400,952:90680,961:100939,1023:101596,1035:102253,1052:103202,1066:104151,1075:104735,1084:112889,1130:124037,1178:125109,1196:125377,1201:126382,1239:127454,1258:127722,1263:128258,1276:131062,1288:133171,1318:133726,1326:134281,1332:135864,1370:140838,1414:144374,1499:150344,1542:151658,1558:152388,1569:154943,1631:156038,1654:157279,1674:157571,1679:164214,1805:165309,1836:180840,1912:183348,1929:196804,1979:197260,1986:197640,1992:197944,1997:205885,2068:206145,2074:206860,2091:207120,2097:207640,2107:209655,2159:218270,2208:218598,2213:220715,2228:221395,2238:226300,2251:230980,2262:234700,2281:243761,2317:244585,2326:257370,2399:257955,2410:258475,2420:258800,2427:260230,2454:265994,2533:273390,2567:273690,2572:275746,2580:277042,2601:280606,2640:286070,2659:286961,2671:287852,2682:294878,2726:298126,2749:324286,2877:324958,2887:326218,2905:326890,2915:335762,3009:336234,3018:340244,3042:340564,3048:367710,3156:368190,3162:370626,3175:385593,3272:385949,3277:389082,3297:411940,3399:425789,3470:431626,3500:432282,3509:433266,3524:433676,3530:446286,3606:446801,3612:447522,3633:457460,3692
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24669">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle slates the interview and shares his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24670">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24671">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his mother's growing up in Montgomery, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24672">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24673">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle talks about how his father moved the family to Arizona</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24674">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his parents and the similarities between him and his parents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24675">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his siblings and shares his childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24676">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle remembers some of the sights, sounds, and smells from his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24677">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his childhood neighborhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24678">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his childhood schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24679">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his extracurricular activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24680">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle talks about how his interest in science developed</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24681">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle talks about living in the desert as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24682">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle talks about the radio and newspapers of his youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24683">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his high school experience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24684">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his high school teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24685">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his speech impediment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24686">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience in the U.S. Army during World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24687">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience in Italy during World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24688">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience at Phoenix College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24689">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his wife and why he changed his major to biochemistry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24690">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle talks about teaching at Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24691">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience at the University of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24692">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle discusses his research at Stanford University and the University of Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24693">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his research at the Research Institute for Advanced Studies in Baltimore, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24694">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience as an astrochemist at Hazelton Laboratories and his extraterrestrial research</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24695">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Emmett Chappelle discusses his discoveries in bioluminescence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24696">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his research at the Goddard Space Flight Center and Johns Hopkins University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24697">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle discusses his research in fluorescents as well as his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24698">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle discusses his hopes for the African American community and talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24699">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his students and his military awards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24700">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle tells the story of how he learned how to swim</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/24701">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Emmett Chappelle describes his photos</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

5$6

DATitle
Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience as an astrochemist at Hazelton Laboratories and his extraterrestrial research
Emmett Chappelle discusses his discoveries in bioluminescence
Transcript
Okay, now, from '63' [1963] to 1966, you worked as a biochemist for Hazelton Laboratories in Falls Church [Virginia]. What project were you working on there?$$I was developing a system for determining if there was life on other planets.$$Okay. Now, so you were there for a fairly long time working on this, right?$$Um-hum.$$Okay, from what I have here, they would call you an exobiologist, right?$$(No audible response).$$Someone who is engaged in the search for extraterrestrial life and the effects of extraterrestrial surroundings on living organisms.$$Um-hum.$$Okay, so at this point, you become an astrochemist, right. So how do--$$(Laughter).$$--you like that title (laughter)?$$I never considered myself as an astrochemist, even though that was the title they put on me. I was always, considered myself a biochemist.$$Okay, now, did you, if you told somebody you were looking for, you were trying to determine if there was extraterrestrial life, what kind of conversations would you have with people? I mean would they think it was like something that's impossible or what did people think then?$$Well, they wouldn't know what to think. I'm still not sure whether or not there's life on other planets.$$Do you think it's likely?$$I think it's likely. It's not life as we know it here on earth. But I think it's likely that there's, there are organisms up there that reproduce.$$And so you're saying that there are definitely organisms in space that we produce here?$$What?$$You're saying there're organisms in space right now that we produce here in, on earth?$$Well, I'm saying that there's most likely life out there that will reproduce in their own environment, which is (unclear) a criterion of life, the ability to reproduce.$$Okay, now, the target of your design, the instruments that you were designing was the Viking I Mission [the first successful NASA spacecraft to Mars] which occurred in 1975, right?$$That was supposed to be the vehicle on which my experiment would be flown, Viking.$$All right, so was it? I mean did you have experiments--$$It never flew.$$It never flew. Okay. All right. What happened? Why didn't it fly?$$That's a good question. They decided that the experiment which I designed was too specific, that it would call for life, to be too close to life here on earth, and that most likely, it wouldn't work.$$Or it wouldn't detect something that might be close to life on earth, but not quite--$$Um-hum.$$Okay. Okay, so, but Viking did, Viking flew, but your instrumentation didn't go?$$Right.$Okay, all right. All right, now, also, now, working on this project, you became interested in bioluminescence, right?$$(No audible response).$$And tell us how that took place. What is bioluminescence, and what happened during the project to get you interested in it?$$You've seen a fire fly, haven't you?$$Yes, sir.$$Well, that's bioluminescence. You can, you can take those fire flies and grind them up and extract the enzyme, mix it with Adenosine Triphosphate and get light.$$Now, this I kind of a code method of producing light, right? I mean using something that's not, you know, on fire or--$$Um-hum.$$--something without a spark?$$You could call it that.$$Yeah, so is there any heat produced from this light?$$No measurable heat.$$Okay, so are you the first then--I read that you were the first person to discover the chemical composition of bioluminescence, right?$$Yes.$$Okay, all right, so, and that's why you're in the Inventors Hall of Fame, is that true, because of this?$$Yes.$$Okay, and so, how was, how long did it take you to, you know, come up with the chemical composition of bioluminescence and--$$It took years.$$So, when, I mean how many years, I mean approximately how many years did it take to do that?$$What?$$Approximately, how many years did it take you to discover this?$$Approximately three.$$Three years, okay. All right, that's not a very long time. But, so did you--now, as a biochemist, I didn't ask you this before, but I guess this is a good time--now is as good a time as any. What's the day-to-day activities of a biochemist working on the projects that you were working on? I mean how soon do you get to the laboratory, and how many breaks do you get, and--$$(Laughter).$$(Laughter) Is it a short work week or do you have time to play cards or do you, I mean what is the--or do you have to work real hard or what? What is it like?$$Oh, a biochemist is a person who investigates the chemistry of living organisms.$$Okay, well, I was asking about your routine. What do you do?$$(Laughter) What do you mean by my routine?$$Well, what you do, you know, every day after you get up and get dressed and ready to go to work, what do you do at work?$$Well, you go into your laboratory and carry out experiments, hopefully, designed to answer questions as to, as to what are the chemical reactions involved in carrying out a certain biological reaction.$$Okay, typically, would you have a number of assistants or an assistant, or did you have to do everything by yourself or what?$$Usually, you have an assistant.$$Okay, so with this kind of investigation on the properties of bioluminescence, did you utilize electronic measurement devices as well as--$$Yes. You have to use electronic devices to measure the light.$$Okay, can you give us any more detail or--(laughter) are we out of luck (laughter)?$$(Laughter). (Unclear)$$Okay.$$You start out with the fire fly which you have to obtain by way. Either you catch it yourself or you pay the little kids to run around catching them for you. Then you bring them into the lab. You chop off their tails, grind them up and get a solution out of these ground-up tails which contains the enzyme sulforates (ph.) (unclear) and the cofactor Luciferin. You add Adenosine Triphosphate to that mixture and you get light. Adenosine Triphosphate is usually called ATP, which is found in all living organisms. And we were able to use that reaction to, to measure the bacteria in infected urine samples and some of the reaction mixture to the urine sample and measure the amount of light we get.$$Okay, so, well, we're gonna pause here, and then we'll pick up again.$$Okay.$$'Cause I understand like what, yeah.

George Langford

Biologist and academic administrator George M. Langford was born on August 26, 1944 in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina to Lillie and Maynard Langford. Langford excelled at math in high school and was fascinated by the shapes and structures found under the microscope. He studied biology at Fayetteville State University earning his B.S. degree in 1966. Despite the lack of laboratory facilities, Langford had good mentors who persuaded him to attend graduate school. He earned his M.S. degree in 1969 and his Ph.D. degree in 1971, both in cell biology from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). He finished his postdoctoral training in 1973 from the cell biology program at the University of Pennsylvania as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fellow.

In 1973, Langford joined the faculty of the University of Massachusetts as a professor of cell biology and conducted research at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts in 1976. He continued his career in academia, teaching at Howard University in 1977 and joining the faculty of University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in 1979. He was promoted to a full professor at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in 1988. Langford’s research focused on the nerves of invertebrates as well as cellular motility. He was honored with an appointment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) where he served as director of cell biology from 1988 to 1989. In 1991, Langford joined the faculty of Dartmouth College as the Ernest Everett Just Professor of Natural Sciences and a professor of biological sciences where he remained until 2005. Between 2005 and 2008, Langford was employed at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst as dean of the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and Distinguished Professor of Biology. In 2008, he was engaged by Syracuse University as dean of the College of Arts and Sciences.

Langford holds memberships in many nationally prominent professional societies including the American Society for Cell Biology, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Corporation of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA and the Society of Sigma Xi. He served on the National Science Board (NSB) from 1998 to 2004, where he served as chair of the Education and Human Resources Committee and the Vannevar Bush Award Committee. Langford has been recognized numerous times for his work including the Illinois Institute of Technology Professional Achievement Award and the American Society for Cell Biology Ernest Everett Just Lectureship Award. Langford received an honorary Doctorate from Beloit College in 2003. He is married to Sylvia Langford and they have three children.

George Langford was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 6, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.165

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/6/2012

Last Name

Langford

Middle Name

Malcolm

Schools

Potecasi Graded School

W.S. Creecy High School

Fayetteville State University

Illinois Institute of Technology

University of Pennsylvania

Beloit College

Woodland Elementary

First Name

George

Birth City, State, Country

Halifax

HM ID

LAN08

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Cod, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

C'est la vie.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/26/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Syracuse

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Apples

Short Description

Cell biologist and academic administrator George Langford (1944 - ) is an expert on cell motility and served as a dean at University of Massachusetts, Amherst and Syracuse University

Employment

Syracuse University

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Dartmouth College

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Howard University

University of Massachusetts, Boston

University of Pennsylvania

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Marine Biological Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:4398,170:4902,177:9774,263:13730,345:14080,352:15340,381:30191,619:33588,750:42854,873:43158,878:45240,888:46549,907:61474,1062:72800,1202:79510,1240:80118,1249:80878,1262:82018,1281:84526,1332:85666,1345:96070,1463:96446,1468:110150,1625:114232,1635:114889,1646:115838,1661:121751,1764:122043,1769:124598,1809:134750,1938:136622,1973:138638,2011:139214,2020:141158,2062:141950,2074:149397,2138:149752,2144:150036,2149:151527,2167:151953,2175:152947,2189:153444,2197:154580,2219:159390,2263:160370,2278:172172,2469:178024,2569:178556,2577:179696,2592:180152,2599:180456,2604:186400,2653:187440,2679:187760,2684:189040,2719:189680,2728:191520,2762:192000,2770:192320,2775:194160,2800:194640,2807:195600,2822:196400,2833:197280,2845:205538,2913:210960,2985$0,0:1020,21:1700,31:2040,36:2890,49:3570,58:6540,84:7140,93:8265,109:8865,118:9540,128:9840,133:12465,178:15921,198:16831,211:25256,273:25837,281:26169,286:30402,357:31149,368:31481,373:32311,386:33556,410:33888,415:35299,437:35797,445:37291,466:38121,477:38785,486:39200,492:39781,501:45050,534:45560,541:46495,553:49300,598:51938,606:52294,611:54163,633:55320,649:57189,673:58168,687:59058,698:62420,723:63410,740:64130,749:67010,791:70160,845:70880,855:71690,866:74300,906:74750,912:78268,925:78796,935:79456,949:79984,958:80512,972:81568,993:83340,1004:83852,1015:84300,1023:84876,1035:85324,1043:86412,1063:86924,1073:87884,1097:88140,1102:97512,1199:98546,1212:99486,1229:102306,1271:103058,1280:103716,1288:113948,1341:114524,1351:115244,1364:115820,1373:116324,1381:116828,1387:117692,1401:118052,1407:119276,1429:120284,1452:121148,1462:121652,1470:122228,1479:124028,1516:126692,1552:132620,1602:133324,1613:133676,1618:134908,1628:135964,1642:136316,1648:137020,1656:137724,1669:138516,1679:138868,1684:140188,1703:140804,1711:145438,1773:146508,1785:147899,1798:149932,1819:150788,1828:151216,1833:151644,1838:152714,1850:156594,1863:157476,1874:159338,1890:159926,1897:161886,1953:163552,1972:165120,1991:169977,2024:171083,2041:171715,2051:173532,2077:173927,2083:181626,2121:181934,2126:185168,2204:185707,2212:192082,2260:194960,2268:195671,2278:196224,2287:197567,2305:197883,2310:198199,2315:200253,2351:200727,2358:203475,2375:203995,2384:204450,2392:205490,2411:206010,2420:207310,2444:208675,2469:209845,2492:211015,2514:211600,2524:215990,2563
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22687">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of George Langford's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22688">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - George Langford lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22689">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22690">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - George Langford talks about his maternal grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22691">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - George Langford talks about his mother's growing up in Potecasi, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22692">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - George Langford describes his mother's remarkable skills as a farmer and a homemaker</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22693">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - George Langford describes his father's family background - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22694">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - George Langford describes his father's family background - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22695">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - George Langford talks about his father attending high school, and his paternal family's reputation as merchants and tradespeople</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22696">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - George Langford discusses the history and demographics of Potecasi, North Carolina, and talks about Nat Turner and the slave revolt of 1831</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22697">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - George Langford describes the segregated town of Potecasi, North Carolina, while he was growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22698">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about his father's family receiving an education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22699">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - George Langford talks about his parents getting married in the early 1920s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22700">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - George Langford talks about segregation in North Carolina, and his father's role in mediating peace during inter-racial conflicts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22701">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - George Langford describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22702">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - George Langford talks about his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22703">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - George Langford describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22704">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - George Langford describes his childhood memories on his family's farm in Potecasi, North Carolina, and talks about the home where he grew up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22705">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - George Langford describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Potecasi, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22706">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - George Langford describes his experience as the youngest of nine children</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22707">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - George Langford describes his interests while growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22708">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - George Langford talks about his father's physical strength and his long life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22709">Tape: 2 Story: 13 - George Langford talks about his access to African American magazines and newspapers while growing up in Potecasi, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22710">Tape: 2 Story: 14 - George Langford talks about all the schools that he attended, and describes his elementary school experience at Potecasi Graded School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22711">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - George Langford describes his experience in elementary school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22712">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about the high elementary school drop-out rate while he was in school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22713">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his involvement in Church as a child, and his recollections of the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22714">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - George Langford describes his experience during segregation in Potecasi, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22715">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - George Langford describes his experience at W.S. Creecy High School, his interest in science, and the mentorship that he received from his teachers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22716">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - George Langford talks about his interest in the physical sciences and his decision to major in biology in college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22717">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - George Langford talks about his academic performance and his involvement in extracurricular activities at W.S. Creecy High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22718">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - George Langford talks about his mentors at W.S. Creecy High School, and his decision to pursue a college education at Fayetteville State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22719">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - George Langford describes his experience at Fayetteville State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22720">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22721">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - George Langford describes how the student government at Fayetteville State University facilitated the integration of Fayetteville in the 1960s-part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22722">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - George Langford describes how the student government at Fayetteville State University facilitated the integration of Fayetteville in the 1960s-part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22723">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - George Langford talks about his mentors, Joseph Knuckles and F. Roy Hunter, at Fayetteville State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22724">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - George Langford describes the strong liberal arts and education programs at Fayetteville State University, and his involvement in music while there</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22725">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - George Langford describes his first winter in Chicago, and talks about the blizzard of 1967</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22726">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - George Langford talks about his experience in Chicago, and how he met his wife, Sylvia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22727">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - George Langford talks about his doctoral advisor, William Danforth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22728">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - George Langford talks about his interest in cell biology, and his mentors, Teru Hayashi and Jean Clark Dan, at the Illinois Institute of Technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22729">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - George Langford talks about the unrest in Chicago, following Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination in 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22730">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about other black students at the Illinois Institute of Technology while he was a student there in the late 1960s and early 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22731">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his Ph.D. dissertation on the growth of the unicellular protozoa of genus Euglena, in the absence of oxygen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22732">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - George Langford talks about the role of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) in shaping his research career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22733">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - George Langford describes his introduction to cell biology and live-cell imaging, and his experience at the University of Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22734">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - George Langford describes his postdoctoral studies on the mechanism of motility in Pyrsonympha, the native protozoa found in termite guts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22735">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - George Langford talks about his experience at the University of Massachusetts in Boston and his reasons for leaving there</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22736">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - George Langford describes his rich scientific experience at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), and its influence on his research career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22737">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - George Langford talks about the life of Ernest Everett Just, his pioneering science, and his tenure at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22738">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - George Langford talks about the similarities between his scientific career and that of Ernest Everett Just</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22739">Tape: 5 Story: 11 - George Langford describes being an African American researcher at the University of Pennsylvania in the 1970s, and current racial trends in science</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22740">Tape: 5 Story: 12 - George Langford talks about his appointment at Howard University and his subsequent transition to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22741">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - George Langford describes the racial challenges at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22742">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about segregation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the surrounding community in the 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22743">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his experience as the chairman of the Minority Affairs Committee of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22744">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - George Langford describes his experience as the director of the cell biology program at the National Science Foundation (NSF)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22745">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - George Langford talks about his appointment as the Ernest Everett Just Professor of Natural Sciences at Dartmouth College in 1991</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22746">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - George Langford describes the liberal arts style of education at Dartmouth College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22747">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - George Langford describes his efforts to increase the retention of African American students in science at Dartmouth College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22748">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - George Langford talks about the field of social science, and his efforts to educate his colleagues and students about the concept of "white privilege"</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22749">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - George Langford describes his groundbreaking discovery of actin-dependent organelle movement in squid axoplasm</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22750">Tape: 6 Story: 10 - George Langford talks about biologist, Robert D. Allen</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22751">Tape: 6 Story: 11 - George Langford describes the implications of his discovery of actin-dependent organelle movement in squid axoplasm</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22752">Tape: 6 Story: 12 - George Langford describes his service on the National Science Board, and talks about atmospheric scientist, Warren Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22753">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - George Langford talks about his service on the National Science Board's National Workforce Task Force Sub-Committee in 1999</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22754">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - George Langford describes his service as the dean of the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics at the University of Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22755">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - George Langford describes his service as the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22756">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - George Langford describes his current research on yeast toxins and the collaboration between science and humanities at Syracuse University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22757">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - George Langford shares his perspectives on how modern technology affects education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22758">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - George Langford describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22759">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - George Langford reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22760">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - George Langford reflects upon his choices and shares his advice to young students who want to pursue studies in the STEM fields</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22761">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - George Langford talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22762">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - George Langford talks about his exposure to the liberal arts and humanities at Dartmouth College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/22763">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - George Langford talks about how he would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$7

DAStory

8$1

DATitle
George Langford describes his rich scientific experience at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), and its influence on his research career
George Langford talks about his service on the National Science Board's National Workforce Task Force Sub-Committee in 1999
Transcript
So, it was while you were there [University of Massachusetts in Boston] that you took advantage of the Marine Biological Laboratory [MBL] at Woods Hole [Massachusetts].$$That's right, that's right. I began going to the Marine Biological Laboratory in '72 [1972] when I was at Penn [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]. And then I continued going for the time that I was at the University of Massachusetts in Boston.$$Okay. Well, tell us the significance of this place. And then there's another, there's a figure in the history of black science that spent a lot of time there, Dr. Ernest Everett Just [pioneering African American embryologist who studied the early development of marine invertebrates].$$Right.$$I think you've discussed him in lectures and that sort of thing, so--$$Right. Yes, so the Marine Biological Laboratory became one of the most important institutions in my development as a scientist. I went there while I was a post-doc at Penn because my, post-doc mentor Shinya Inoue always moved his laboratory there in the summers. And I went there to take the physiology course, and this was one of those amazing experiences. It's a total emersion course. It teaches you really the fine points of research science, and you're learning it from the best people in the discipline. So it's a great place, it's very student-oriented. Faculty members who come there do it because they love to do it. They are accessible in ways that they're not when they're at the home institution. And it creates this atmosphere of openness and really strong support. So, you develop, you know, an excellent network of individuals to work with as a result of being there. So, I went there in '72 [1972] for the physiology course, and I went back in '74 [1974] for the neurobiology course. And then I began to go as an independent scientist. I served as an MBL Steps [ph.] Fellow, a Macy--Josiah Macy Fellow, working in the laboratory of other scientists as I was developing my own research program, and then began to go there as an independent investigator. So, it's really, it's a unique place. If you've never been there it's really worth a visit because there's just none other place like it. So, for my own advisor, you know, because of the stress of all of the things he had to do when he was at the university, it was very hard to get in to talk to him. But in Woods Hole, it was easy, you know. You had, you could sit out on a bench by the water and talk at lunch. You could go--you know, you could spend time in the evenings working together. So, people were just accessible, and it was a wonderful learning experience. Because as I said before, you remember--I, you know, research science was all new to me, and it takes a long time to really develop a strong network and to understand just how to move a science project forward. So, I depended a great deal on the network of friends that I developed at the Marine Biological Laboratory.$[In] '99 [1999], you served as vice chair of the National Science--, I'm sorry, the National Science Board's National Workforce Task Force Sub-Committee.$$Right, right.$$What is that, now?$$So, the chair of the board at the time, Eamon (ph., unclear) [M. Kelly], wanted to address this issue of the lack of students going into the sciences. And so, he put together a task force of the board to really look at this issue. And so, for a year we actually studied the trends for students going into the sciences. And, you know, it was really frightening what we observed, you know. The data showed that we were still under-producing students in the sciences. We were doing better in the biological sciences but the numbers were very, very, small in physics and they were pretty miserable in chemistry and really bad in engineering. And so, the board put together a strong set of recommendations on how we could increase the number of students, the domestic students, who were majoring in the sciences. This is an ongoing problem, we haven't solved it. But the board was really on top of it way back there in '98 [1998], '99 [1999] to try to address that issue.$$Okay, okay. Now in 2000 you were nominated by President [Bill] Clinton for a second six-year term on the National Science Board, and you then subsequently served in 2002, you served as chair of the National Science Board Education and Human Resources Committee.$$Right, right. So, the board had several standing committees. And one of the standing committees was the Committee on the Education and Human Resources Directive. And so, this was a very important assignment as well, because this was the committee that oversaw all of the program activities at the NSF [National Science Foundation] that were designed to increase the pipeline. You know, programs that were designed to increase the quality of training in the public schools in K-12 [kindergarten through twelfth grade] as well as curriculum changes within the universities. And so, this, the committee was in charge of oversight of all of those grant programs.$$Okay. How closely did you work with Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson? You know, she was in charge of the science committee.$$That's right, yes. I got to attend several workshops that she organized to deal with this question. And she was a very, very strong supporter of the National Science Foundation and the programs that it had designed to increase students in the sciences. So, she was considered one of our strongest champions on the [Capitol] Hill.$$Okay.

Keith Jackson

Physicist Keith Hunter Jackson was born on September 24, 1953 in Columbus, Ohio to Gloria and Russell Jackson. He earned two B.S. degrees, one in physics from Morehouse College and one in electrical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Jackson then moved to California where he obtained his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University in 1979 and 1982, respectively.

After obtaining his graduate degrees, Jackson began working for Hewlett Packard Laboratories. He became a member of the Gate Dielectric group and developed techniques to create thin nitride films on silicon layers. In 1983, he served as a professor at Howard University, working in the Solid State Electronics group. Beginning in 1988, Jackson worked for Rockwell International (now Boeing) in the Rocketdyne division where under the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program he performed research on diamond thin films, high powered chemical and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and water-cooled optics. In 1992, Jackson began working for the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as associate director of the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO). His research interests were in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EVU) lithography, x-ray lithography, electroplating and injection molding. EUV lithography is the technology, which is used to build billions of nano-sized devices for use in computers and cell phones. X-ray lithography and molding is used to build micro-sized mechanical devices like micropumps, and tiny mirrors for large screen projection TV’s. In 2005, Jackson became Vice President of Research and Professor of Physics at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU). On January 4th 2010, Jackson moved to Baltimore, Maryland and joined the faculty of Morgan State University as Chair of the Department of Physics.

Jackson served as president of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) from 2001 to 2006. He is also a fellow of the National Society of Black Physicists and the African Scientific Institute. In 2004, Jackson was selected as one of the 50 Most Important African Americans in Technology by U.S. Black Engineer and Information Technology. In addition to his published papers, Jackson has written pieces on minority physicists including “Utilization of African American Physicists in the Science & Engineering Workforce” and “The Status of the African American Physicist in the Department of Energy National Laboratories.”

Accession Number

A2012.140

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/16/2012

9/10/2012

Last Name

Jackson

Middle Name

H.

Schools

Morehouse College

Georgia Institute of Technology

Stanford University

First Name

Keith

Birth City, State, Country

Columbus

HM ID

JAC29

Favorite Season

April

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

In Physics, We Don't Teach You What To Think. We Teach You How To Think.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/24/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Oranges

Short Description

Physicist and physics professor Keith Jackson (1953 - ) served as president of the National Society of Black Physicists, vice president of research at Florida A&M University and chair of the Department of Physics at Morgan State University.

Employment

Morgan State University

Florida A&M University

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO)

Rockwell International

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626363">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Keith Jackson's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626364">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626365">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626366">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his mother's experience growing up in Columbus, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626367">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about his mother attending Ohio State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626368">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626369">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Keith Jackson describes his father's service in the U.S. Air Force and his experience at Harvard Law School in the 1950s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626370">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his father's death in 1957</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626371">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes how his parents met and got married</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626372">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626373">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson recalls his memories of his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626374">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about his brother, and describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626375">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes the sights, smells and sounds of growing up in Columbus, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626376">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Keith Jackson describes segregation in Columbus, Ohio, in the 1950s and 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626377">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Keith Jackson describes his experience in school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626378">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Keith Jackson describes his interest in comic books and Estes model rockets</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626379">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his childhood perception of the space race</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626380">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson talks about his secular upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626381">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson talks about his brother, David Jackson, and his childhood interest in slot cars</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626382">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes how slot cars work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626383">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about his technical problem-solving skills as a teenager - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626384">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson talks about his technical problem-solving skills as a teenager - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626385">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Keith Jackson describes his experience attending Champion Junior High School and Bishop Hartley Catholic School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626386">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his mother's reasons for sending him to Bishop Hartley Catholic School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626387">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Bishop Hartley Catholic School in Columbus, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626388">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Eastmoor High School in Columbus, Ohio - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626389">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Eastmoor High School in Columbus, Ohio - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626390">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about the activism of Dr. Charles O. Ross at Ohio State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626391">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson talks about applying to colleges in the 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626392">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to attend Morehouse College to major in physics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626393">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626394">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson talks about Carl Spight's role in improving the physics department at Morehouse College - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626395">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson talks about Carl Spight's role in improving the physics department at Morehouse College - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626396">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Morehouse College - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626397">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Morehouse College - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626398">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson talks about the physics department at Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626399">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson talks about his foundational education in physics at Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626400">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson talks about black professional societies in the 1970s, and the trends regarding black scientists at the time</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626401">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson discusses science education at historically black colleges and universities - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626402">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson discusses science education at historically black colleges and universities - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626403">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson discusses the importance of a foundational education for physics and engineering students</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626404">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson discusses recent discoveries and trends in the physical sciences and technology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626405">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes the Higgs boson and the implications of its discovery - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626406">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes the Higgs boson and the implications of its discovery - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626407">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his experience as a graduate student at Stanford University - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626408">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his experience as a graduate student at Stanford University - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626409">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to work at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626410">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his doctoral research at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626411">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his doctoral research at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626412">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his doctoral research at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory - part three</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626413">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson talks about the dangers of working with lasers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626414">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to join the department of electrical engineering at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626415">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to leave Howard University and accept a position at Rocketdyne</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626416">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his work on the free electron laser at Rocketdyne</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626417">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his work on diamond thin films at Rocketdyne - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626418">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his work on diamond thin films at Rocketdyne - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626419">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his work on the application of Rocketdyne's water-cooler mirrors in the synchrotron radiation community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626420">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes the importance of finding the correct match in employment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626421">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to join Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1992 - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626422">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to join Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1992 - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626423">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes the concept of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626424">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his work on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626425">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson discusses the futuristic projects at Rockwell International's Advance Programs division</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626426">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement with the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626427">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement with the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626428">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson discusses the lack of African American professional physicists at laboratories funded by the Department of Energy - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626429">Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson discusses the lack of African American professional physicists at laboratories funded by the Department of Energy - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626430">Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson talks about what it takes to become a successful physicist</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626431">Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson talks about the shortage of African American scientists in management and research roles</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626432">Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson talks about the African American scientists employed at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626433">Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement with the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAEOHE) - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626434">Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement with the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAEOHE) - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626435">Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to become a professor of physics at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626436">Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his experience working at Florida A&M University, and the nature of the U.S. federal granting process</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626437">Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes the mismanagement of research funds at Florida A&M University in the early 2000s - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626438">Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes the mismanagement of research funds at Florida A&M University in the early 2000s - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626439">Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes the state of research funding at Florida A&M University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626440">Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement in securing research funding for Florida A&M University - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626441">Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement in securing research funding for Florida A&M University - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626442">Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson describes his involvement in securing research funding for Florida A&M University - part three</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626443">Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson describes his experience at Florida A&M University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626444">Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson describes his decision to leave Florida A&M University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626445">Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson describes the challenges to science education at HBCUs - part one</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626446">Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Keith Jackson describes the challenges to science education at HBCUs - part two</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626447">Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Keith Jackson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community today</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626448">Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Keith Jackson reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626449">Tape: 15 Story: 1 - Keith Jackson reflects upon his career choices</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626450">Tape: 15 Story: 2 - Keith Jackson talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/626451">Tape: 15 Story: 3 - Keith Jackson talks about how he would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

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Keith Jackson describes his work on the application of Rocketdyne's water-cooler mirrors in the synchrotron radiation community
Keith Jackson describes his doctoral research at Stanford University's Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory - part three
Transcript
About this time, there was, I made a reintroduction to the synchrotron light source community because we had, the company [Rocketdyne; rocket engine design and production company] had a contract or thought that they were competing for a contract to build a large free-electron laser. And this was a half billion dollar contract. A lot of effort went into it, and eventually, the [U.S.] Air Force decided that they weren't gonna go for it. They weren't gonna build this huge free electron laser to take out satellites because they didn't believe--I mean take out missiles because they didn't believe it would work, which left us with a number of technologies. One was the, one was, had to do with particle accelerators and magnetic structures called undulators that go around them. And it also left us with a division that built cooled mirrors, water-cooled mirrors, okay.$$What--okay.$$So you'd have a water-cooled mirror for the laser. That way you'd be able to keep the temperature rise at the surface, and the optics wouldn't distort and the laser would keep running. Now, the trouble is, when you looked at this, well, who else needed these kinds of technologies, you know? Who, who could, who had the pocketbook to pay for this and the technical need. And I argued within the company that the synchrotron radiations community needed these kinds of optics because the advance photon source at the Argonne National Lab [Illinois] was coming on line, and also the advance light source at Berkeley [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California] was coming on line. And when you looked--these were sources that were built for these small-cap, magnetic insertion devices called undulators. And when you put these undulators into being, they pulled out a tremendous amount of light at x-ray wavelength, at EUV [extreme ultra violet], and x-ray wavelengths. And they would, and when you had optics on there, they would build a tremendous amount, there would be a tremendous amount of thermo loading on the mirrors. And they had various schemes, technologies that they had developed that were, that relied on very exotic cooling techniques. One was a liquid gallium cooled mirrors. So gallium like mercury is a liquid, not quite at room temperature, but add a little bit above. And you have the, you can pump it as you would any liquid, and it has a tremendous thermo-conductivity. And so there was one scheme where you would use this to cool a mirror. Now, I never, the reason I smile is, I never believed that that would work. And the people at the Advanced Photon Source at the time said that something like 90 percent of their mirrors would be these gallium-based things. And this is, and plus, they did not have the technology--they would have to build the mirrors. That's how they, because that's why it was gonna be 90 percent of it so they would have a job for life. But, you know, we had a company, a little company that actually built these mirrors, these water-cooled mirrors. We had prototypes, we had some of the--Rocketdyne solved these technical problems like how you bond these mirrors together, how you actually, you had, we had different types of 'em, some of 'em which had, we called 'em pinFET. That means you stuck little pins in, and then you put it on top, and then you blow water through it. And you can change the size of this pin. You could change the concentration of the pins. So we needed something, one area cooler than the other. There were even schemes for being able to use the thermo differences to bend and focus mirrors, which was unheard of at these wavelengths.$But, so anyway, so we engineered an apparatus after we looked at the requirements, okay. So we have to have a window, something that shows us from the storage ring. And so we have to use a thin film metal window. Then the issue was, well, if you vent your chamber, you let it up to air, if there's atmospheric pressure there, it's gonna break through this window. I said, well, we're not, I'm naive and I say, well, we're not gonna let it vent. And they say, well, what we're gonna have is we're gonna have a fine. Anybody who vents their chambers, $10,000. And I said, well, maybe we'll get a thicker window. So I started to look into getting windows thick enough to take atmospheric pressure--and by the way, these foils are about a hundred times thinner than a sheet of aluminum foil. A sheet of aluminum foil is a hundred microns thick. These films, these foils were ten microns thick. Your hair is 125 microns thick. And it soon became clear, well, there's no foil on earth that's gonna be thin enough that I could put in there. So I, then I looked at supported films. And so there's a mesh there, and somehow, this guy miraculously gets aluminum foil on there that's three microns thick. And I say, well, that's still not gonna support this thing if I vent. And so the senior graduate student said--he wants to graduate. And so he's saying, well, we're gonna go back to the first suggestion of not venting the chamber and use the reputation of Dr. [Richard] Zare [Jackson's doctoral thesis advisor] and the desire that they had to get other people using this thing. And so we tried that, once. And this graduate student I was working for was from India. His name is Javed Hus--well, his ancestry is Indian. I don't think he was, I think he was born in the United States. And so we're running an experiment, and he's putting these things in, noxious gases. And I'm saying, well, Javed, you know, we don't really have the equipment to be handling this. And so we're doing that. We're getting some data, and the people come up there and inspect our apparatus. And we complete the experiment, and as I'm taking the thing down 'cause I was the only one authorized to use the crane, all right, the director of operations comes over to me. And I'll never forget, he says, well, Jackson, you're okay, but we don't want this Indian guy here anymore. And you need to go tell Zare. And in the meantime, 'cause I'm thinking, boy, you know, here I gotta go play, I gotta play rat. And in the meantime, he's getting impatient 'cause he wants to graduate. He's been there seven years, and he's not such a great experimentalist, all right. So he's starting an experiment in the lab using a laser and it's a gas laser, and he's got the gas plumb to it. And he got impatient and he didn't hook up the gas properly. So he took a big cylinder--and normally, you have a regulator that drops the pressure, he built an adapter where he was taking the straight pressure from the cylinder, with just some plastic tubing. And it's a low-pressure cylinder, but, no way. And the gas reacted with the plastic, burned away and the gas pours out into the room. The gas is poisonous. The other fifteen members of the group exit, you know, the lab, and they're out on the lawn. I came into the building from the back. I didn't see 'em. I come into the elevator. I go down into the lab. We're in the basement. And I opened the door and it was like a fist struck me from the gas that was in there. Happily, there was a graduate student, no, a post-doc that was there that was there with a gas mask or he made a gas mask. And he helped me back in the elevator, and we got up to the lawn where I was sitting up there coughing away. And after I regained my composure, I conveyed to Dr. Zare what the operations director said, and agreed with him (laughter). He's gotta go, you know. And then he got tremendous flack from the chemistry department and the university for the accident down there. And therefore, I, you know, that's where he worked out another experiment for the student to do, and I got to take over the experiment and, eventually got another assistant; engineered a system, a safety system that would shut two valves to protect the accelerator, sensor mat to go with it, utilized a new species of pump, turbo-molecular pump, to evacuate the chamber, all first for there, initiated collaborations with another scientist, David Shirley, director of Lawrence Berkeley [National] Laboratory [Berkeley, California], to get some experiments going, why this stuff was being built. And then got it, and did the experiment, did it on two gases, well, I did it on three gases, published the thesis on two, CO [carbon monoxide] and N2 [nitrogen] and was, you know, able to demonstrate for one of the first measurements, first that the alignment actually exist, what its value was, how to--the theory for coupling together the angular momentum so that it agrees with the experimental results and published that. That was my thesis. And then took a job in, at Hewett Packard [HP] in the semi-conductor device laboratory.