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Michelle Miller

News correspondent and anchor Michelle Miller Morial was born on December 8, 1967 in Los Angeles, California. She graduated from Howard University in 1989 with her B.A. degree in journalism. Morial went on to receive her M.A. degree in urban studies from the University of New Orleans in 1997.

In 1988, Morial interned for The Minneapolis Star-Tribune, and then “ABC News Nightline” in Washington, D.C. As a reporter for the Los Angeles Times from 1989 to 1990, she wrote articles that appeared in the “South Bay” and “Valley” sections. Following a two-and-a-half year stint as a general assignment editor, producer and news reporter for the Orange County Newschannel in Santa Ana, California, Morial moved to Columbia, South Carolina in 1993, where she continued working as a news reporter as well as being named anchor of the “Weekend Morning News” at WIS-TV.

In 1994, Morial moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, where she served as a news reporter and weekend anchor at WWL-TV, a CBS-News affiliate. She then moved again in 1997 to host “The Early Edition.” From 1998 to 2001, Morial served as an adjunct professor of journalism and mass communications at Dillard University. In addition, she has lectured at Drew University, Howard University, Wellesley College, Stony Brook University, Southern University at New Orleans, Loyola University, and Louisiana State University. Also, while in New Orleans, she married Marc H. Morial, who was then serving as the Mayor of the City of New Orleans and went on to become President and CEO of the National Urban League, in 1999.

In 2004, Morial moved to New York City and was hired as the national correspondent and substitute anchor for “B.E.T. Nightly News,” and also joined CBS News. In 2005, she became a northeast bureau correspondent for CBS News. In that position, she not only reported the news for all CBS News broadcasts and platforms, but her work regularly appeared on the “CBS Evening News with Bob Schieffer,” “The CBS Evening News with Katie Couric,” “The CBS Evening News with Scott Pelley,” “The Early Show,” “CBS This Morning” and “CBS Sunday Morning With Charles Osgood.”

Morial has served as a member of the board of advisors at both the Scripps Howard School of Journalism at Hampton University as well as the School of American Ballet. She has also served on the March of Dimes National Communications advisory council. Morial is a member of the Greater New York City Chapter of the Links, Inc and Jack and Jill of America. A founding member of the Women’s Leadership Initiative for the United Way of New Orleans, she also served as vice president of the YWCA of Greater New Orleans, and as the president of both the Black Journalists Association of Southern California and the New Orleans Association of Black Journalists.

Morial received the 2013 Dupont Award from Columbia University and the 1998 Edward R. Murrow Award from the Radio and Television News Directors Association. She also received the 1998 and 2013 Salute to Excellence Award from the National Association of Black Journalists, and was voted as the Woman of the Year by the National Sports Foundation.

Michelle Miller Morial was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 15, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.015

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/15/2014 |and| 1/16/2014

Last Name

Miller

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Mari

Schools

University of New Orleans

Dayson Center, Tulane University

Palisades Charter High School

Walter Reed Middle School

Saticoy Elementary School

School For International Training

Howard University

First Name

Michelle

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

MOR14

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Lamu, Kenya

Favorite Quote

A setback is nothing but a setup for a comeback.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

12/8/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Foods

Short Description

Television news correspondent Michelle Miller (1967 - ) News correspondent and anchor Michelle Miller Morial (1967- ) is an award-winning CBS News correspondent based in New York, reporting for all CBS News broadcasts and platforms.

Employment

CBS News

WWL TV

WIS TV

OCN

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Maxine Smith

Civil rights activist, executive secretary, and state government employee Maxine Smith was born on October 31, 1929, in Memphis, Tennessee. She graduated from Booker T. Washington High School and went on to receive her B.A. degree in biology from Spelman College and her M.S. degree in French from Middlebury College. In 1957, Smith applied to the University of Memphis and was rejected because of her race. This brought her to the attention of the local NAACP chapter, which she joined and became executive secretary of in 1962.

Having helped to organize the desegregation of Memphis public schools in 1960, Smith also escorted the first thirteen Memphis children to benefit from the Memphis school desegregation. Smith continued to fight for civil rights and school integration throughout her career, organizing lawsuits, sit-ins, and marches, including the “Black Monday” student boycotts that lasted from 1969 to 1972. Smith served on the coordinating committee for the 1968 Memphis sanitation workers’ strike that Martin Luther King Jr. travelled to Memphis to support before his assassination.

In 1971, Smith won election to the Memphis Board of Education, a position which she held until her retirement in 1995. In 1978, Smith was instrumental in ensuring W.W. Herenton’s election as the first African American school superintendant in Memphis, kicking off his political career. Smith was elected president of the Memphis Board of Education in 1991, the same year that her protégée Herenton became the first elected African American Mayor of Memphis.

Smith received more than 160 awards for her efforts on behalf of educational equality and civil rights, including the National NAACP Leadership Award, the Bill of Rights Award from the American Civil Liberties Union, and the Whitney H. Young Jr. Award from the National Education Association. She was a member of the board of directors for many charitable and civic organizations, including The National Civil Rights Museum, the NAACP, the Women’s Foundation for Greater Memphis, and the National Kidney Foundation. Smith has also been featured in several documentaries about the Civil Rights Movement, including Oscar-nominated Witness From the Balcony of Room 306 and Memphis: The Promised Land . She passed away on April 26, 2013.

Accession Number

A2010.094

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/30/2010

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

Spelman College

Middlebury College

Lincoln Elementary School

Porter Elementary School

First Name

Maxine

Birth City, State, Country

Memphis

HM ID

SMI23

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

I Gave It My Best Shot.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

10/31/1929

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Memphis

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pasta

Death Date

4/26/2013

Short Description

Executive secretary, foreign languages professor, civil rights activist, and state government employee Maxine Smith (1929 - 2013 ) was a leader of the Civil Rights Movement in Memphis, Tennessee, where she served on the school board for twenty-four years.

Employment

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Memphis City Government

LeMoyne-Owen College

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Maxine Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Maxine Smith lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Maxine Smith talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Maxine Smith describes her mother's teaching career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Maxine Smith remembers her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Maxine Smith describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Maxine Smith talks about her father's education and employment

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Maxine Smith lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Maxine Smith describes her community in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Maxine Smith remembers visiting her father at the Memphis Veterans Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Maxine Smith reflects upon her early family life, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Maxine Smith describes her early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Maxine Smith reflects upon her early family life, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Maxine Smith remembers her parents' finances

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Maxine Smith reflects upon her upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Maxine Smith describes her schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Maxine Smith remembers her father's burial

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Maxine Smith talks about being the youngest of her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Maxine Smith remembers the Tri-State Fair in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Maxine Smith recalls her family's periodical subscriptions

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Maxine Smith remembers Booker T. Washington High School in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Maxine Smith remembers enrolling at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Maxine Smith remembers joining the board of the NAACP

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Maxine Smith recalls the language program at Middlebury College in Middlebury, Vermont

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Maxine Smith describes her courtship with her husband, Vasco Smith, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Maxine Smith describes her courtship with her husband, Vasco Smith, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Maxine Smith talks about her husband's upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Maxine Smith remembers returning to Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Maxine Smith talks about her social circle in Memphis, Tennessee, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Maxine Smith remembers joining the Memphis branch of the NAACP

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Maxine Smith talks about her experiences at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Maxine Smith talks about her social circle in Memphis, Tennessee, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Maxine Smith talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Maxine Smith recalls the agenda of the NAACP Memphis Branch, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Maxine Smith recalls the agenda of the NAACP Memphis Branch, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Maxine Smith describes Memphis Mayor E.H. Crump's political machine

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Maxine Smith remembers her high school principal, Blair T. Hunt, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Maxine Smith describes the voter registration drives in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Maxine Smith talks about voter disenfranchisement in Shelby County, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Maxine Smith remembers the elections of Russell B. Sugarmon and A.W. Willis, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Maxine Smith remembers attending the March on Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Maxine Smith reflects upon the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Maxine Smith remembers the death of Medgar Evers

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Maxine Smith talks about the Tennessee General Assembly elections of 1964

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Maxine Smith remembers confronting the Board of Education of Memphis City Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Maxine Smith reflects upon her civic service

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Maxine Smith talks about the Black Monday boycotts in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Maxine Smith remembers the support for her school board candidacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Maxine Smith talks about the Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Maxine Smith recalls meeting W.W. Herenton

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Maxine Smith recalls W.W. Herenton's election as superintendent of the Memphis City Schools, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Maxine Smith recalls W.W. Herenton's election as superintendent of the Memphis City Schools, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Maxine Smith talks about Memphis Mayor W.W. Herenton's leadership

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Maxine Smith talks about her support for congressional candidate Steve Cohen

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Maxine Smith talks about the political climate in Memphis, Tennessee, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Maxine Smith talks about the political climate of Memphis, Tennessee, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Maxine Smith reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Maxine Smith reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Maxine Smith describes the founding of the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Maxine Smith talks about the National Civil Rights Museum

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Maxine Smith reflects upon the legacy of her husband, Vasco Smith, Jr.

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Maxine Smith describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$3

DATitle
Maxine Smith describes the voter registration drives in Memphis, Tennessee
Maxine Smith remembers confronting the Board of Education of Memphis City Schools
Transcript
But then you all were registering voters and, now--$$Oh yeah this is (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) getting more voters.$$This is--$$Okay. So you're getting into the voter registration?$$Uh-huh.$$Okay.$$Now this is in f- my first little task on the NAACP [NAACP Memphis Branch, Memphis, Tennessee].$$Okay.$$We went in, in two years we had over fifty thousand and all since the history of Memphis [Tennessee], we had less than ten thousand. We had ten thou- fifty thousand black registered voters.$$New, new voters?$$New voters.$$Okay.$$Registered there.$$Now how, how did you do it? Did you go door to door or?$$Door to door, yeah, that's what I tell these politicians now; they got my old self out here trying to help our politicians (laughter). I said I'm too old, but, so they put me on the billboard (laughter). But you know everything is so technical, so computer now, which is good. But I still, well that's my age and that's you know how I was raised. See the good in that personal contact.$$Okay.$$You know I'll, I mentioned the political club, the Democratic club [Shelby County Democratic Club], you said, how did we get--? We organized, we had eighty precincts all with a significant amount of black votes organized block by block. Each block worker was assigned or responsible for his block, if it was too short, two blocks maybe. And, and we'd ret- we'd go get them 'cause we didn't have postcard voting, registration then. Take them down to the, you know, voter registration office and then peo- people got killed, this what Chaney [James Chaney], Schwerner [Michael Schwerner] and Goodman [Andrew Goodman] got killed for in Mississippi, and they aren't the only ones. But what we were doing in many places before they went crazy, and Memphis never tried to block us because Crump [E.H. Crump] wanted these folks voting, so they couldn't stop that. But block by block we'd call by telephone, well we'd get them registered. We'd have to pick them up, find somebody with a car, buy a little gas to help him 'cause we couldn't even--some of us couldn't even afford gas. Then we had to go get them on voting day or Election Day and see that they voted and we had a little card file; we didn't have computers then. With every registered voter, we'd spend our money instead of paying folks, getting voter registration lists. We'd have card files, and as they voted, we'd put the voters in one box and about two o'clock in the evening if whatever's left we start sending troops out there to get them. "Go on out of this house and vote." We could get--'cause it wasn't as many voters then, it wasn't as many of us, we could get a 75 percent turnout. And 90 to 95 percent of us were voting together, you understand what I mean? Now NAACP could work up to the point of who you vote for 'cause our dri- drive, voter registration drives was to get 'em out, get 'em to vote, but we couldn't tell them who to vote for. So that's where the political club came in and we were so effective.$I wanted to ask you a question about Fannie Lou Hamer. Did, did, did she ever come to Memphis [Tennessee] to talk or anything that you remember?$$Yeah I saw her somewhere, oh gosh she was quite a figure. I remember her better at the Democratic National Convention in '72 [1972 Democratic National Convention] when that was my first national convention. That was in Miami [Florida], Vasco [Smith's husband, Vasco Smith, Jr.] didn't even know I was going. I had, and I was--my heart troubles were beginning to show I guess.$$Well maybe let's wait to the end then.$$Uh-huh.$$Just talk about, now, 'cause what you, we, you, we had started talking about the school crisis in Memphis [Tennessee] and the Black Mondays--$$Yeah.$$Tell us about what Black Monday was all about and what?$$Well we had a list, I have them somewhere here, I'm so disorganized, of fifteen demands that we took to the school board [Board of Education of Memphis City Schools; Shelby County Board of Education].$$And you took them as, as what? As, as the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] or as--$$Yeah, as NAACP. I was the spokesperson because I was executive secretary of the NAACP [NAACP Memphis Branch, Memphis, Tennessee]. For years, see, we always had kept a pretty even balance racially--numerically and racially. You know some years it may be a few more whites, some years it may be a few more black, but we never had a black school board member. We didn't have any black administrators, the only administrators we had was black principals who were principals over black schools. And, and whatever, they did it over black schools. And we were demanding more black representation that kind of imaged the s- school system. Every time a vacancy would occur on the school board, we'd go down--you know by death or resignation or something, we'd go down and ask for a representative, a black person to be appointed. 'Cause it filled themselves, I think the, the mayor of the city commission in those days I think it was called, had to okay whatever the school board ruled it was filled. You know not by vote, but, but they just turned their backs on us. I'll never forget the straw that really broke them down that began, I told, I'm so glad I didn't know this lady was about to die. There was a group of white women, mostly Jewish women who had, they called funds for--their, their primary interest was feeding the hungry children. I think they called themselves funds for needy children, fund for something; they had a name for that movement. And I went to the school board, Laurie Willis Sugarmon [HistoryMaker Miriam DeCosta-Willis], she was one, I don't think I got four in that car (laughter) looked like I had a vacant space, I was kind of late getting to the school board. 'Cause I was trying to get at least one car full (laughter). But we went in there and Bailey (unclear)--what is his name? Ed Bailey, Edward Bailey [sic. Edgar H. Bailey] was president, and I threw, told him--you know I served on the board twenty-four years after that. I didn't know what the procedure was then, but he was telling me I couldn't speak and I kept walking. "I, I, I have something I would like to present to the board." Now these women--I just knew it was full of people. I didn't look around--and it happened that I knew most of them, I wasn't looking around, but I was just, see the cameras had closed up. And I wasn't looking for a camera, I never have looked for a camera, that's never really excited me. And these, all these women and these are white women now, jumped up and started clapping. How them cameras--and they thought, everybody, they thought I was with them (laughter). I didn't know what was going on (laughter). So I got there and presented my fifteen demands from the NAACP, and we had some kind of exchange of words or, I don't know, I don't remember what. But the big thing I had a roomful of women they were mostly women it maybe a few men. White women mostly if any blacks, I don't know, and that was headlines (laughter) that was the beginning of Black Monday.

Geraldine Johnson

Geraldine Johnson is a distinguished retired educator, community activist, and volunteer. She was born on April 11, 1919, in Bridgeport Connecticut – the third in a family of seven children. She grew up in the East End of the city where she attended McKinley, Harding, and Bridgeport Normal Schools, which she later went on to lead as Superintendent of Schools. Johnson received her B.A. degree in teacher education at New Haven Teachers College (now SCSU) in 1940 and her M.A. degree at New York University in 1959. Following graduate school, she went on to earn her sixth-year professional certificate at the University of Bridgeport in 1969.

In 1961, Johnson became a principal after achieving the number one score on Bridgeport’s civil service examination. She served in many other educational capacities as well and taught first, seventh, and eighth grade, as well as a music class. She also worked as a Director of Title I Programs in Bridgeport, assisting disadvantaged pupils with achievement in school programs. In 1969, she served as the Assistant Superintendent of Bridgeport Public Schools, the second largest school system in Connecticut. She went on to become Superintendent of Schools in 1976, notably working through the 19-day teachers’ strike over salary contracts in 1978. She became Interim Superintendent of Schools in Fairfield, Connecticut in 1986, after her retirement in 1981.

Governor Ella Grasso listed Johnson as one of Connecticut’s 100 Most Distinguished Women in 1976. The Girl Scouts also named her a “Woman of Distinction.” She was bestowed Honorary Doctorate Degrees from Fairfield University, Sacred Heart University, and the University of Bridgeport. To honor her work as a superintendent and her commitment to education, in 2008 a new elementary school was dedicated to her and named the Geraldine W. Johnson School.

Geraldine Johnson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 29, 2010.

Johnson passed away on November 28, 2015.

Accession Number

A2010.004

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/29/2010

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Occupation
Schools

Harding High School

Southern Connecticut State University

New York University

University of Bridgeport

McKinley Elementary School

Sacred Heart University

Fairfield University

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Geraldine

Birth City, State, Country

Bridgeport

HM ID

JOH36

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Connecticut

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Hurry Up!

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Connecticut

Birth Date

4/11/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bridgeport

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak (Filet Mignon)

Death Date

11/28/2015

Short Description

Teacher Geraldine Johnson (1919 - 2015 ) was the first African American woman to serve as superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools.

Employment

Bridgeport Board of Education

Fairfield Board of Education

Greater Bridgeport Adolescent Pregnancy Program

Connecticut Symphony

Connecticut Parole Board

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Geraldine Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson remembers her mother's career as a beautician

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her mother's organizational activities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Geraldine Johnson remembers her father's storytelling

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Geraldine Johnson describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson describes the East End of Bridgeport, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson talks about the integration of the public school faculty in Bridgeport, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson describes her experiences in a majority-white school district

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson describes her childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson recalls a discriminatory teacher at Warren Harding High School in Bridgeport, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson remembers her social life

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Geraldine Johnson remembers her first cello recital

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her enrollment at the Bridgeport Normal School in Bridgeport, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her mentor at the Bridgeport Normal School in Bridgeport, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson remembers graduating from the New Haven State Teachers College in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson remembers joining the faculty of the Prospect School in Bridgeport, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson reflects upon the changing attitudes towards educators

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson describes her transition to school administration

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her start as a school principal

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson remembers developing programs for low-income students in the Bridgeport Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her nomination as superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Geraldine Johnson remembers meeting with the Bridgeport Board of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her marriages

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her challenges as the superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson remembers a teachers' strike in the Bridgeport Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her tenure as superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson recalls serving as the interim superintendent of the Fairfield Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her retirement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Geraldine Johnson describes her international travels

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Geraldine Johnson talks about the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her membership in The Links

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson describes her organization activities

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson describes her daughter

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson narrates her photographs

Dr. Shawna Nesbitt

Cardiovascular physician and medical scientist Dr. Shawna Nesbitt was born on November 10, 1963 in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania. Nesbitt attended Quigley Catholic High School in Baden, Pennsylvania where she graduated in 1981. She went on to be the first black student to complete the three year pre-med program at Gannon University and go to Hahnemann School of Medicine in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was the first black to enter the Hahnemann program, where she earned her M.D. degree in 1988. During Nesbitt's residency in internal medicine at Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh, Nesbitt was inspired by Dr. James Ferraro to follow her passion for research in the area of hypertension. In 1991, she became a fellow at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan and worked on several clinical trials with her colleague Dr. Kenneth Jamerson, notably the Tecumseh Blood Pressure Study, the "Losartan Interventions for Endpoints in Hypertension Study" ("LIFE" Study), and the "African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Study" ("ASKD" Study). She went to work as an investigator for various firms, performing research on African Americans with hypertension and renal disease. She met her husband, Thomas Nesbitt, in 1992 and they married in 1995.

Nesbitt moved to Dallas, Texas in 2001 after she completed her M.S. degree in clinical research design to work at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. As an associate professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, she worked on several projects such as the Reynolds Foundation's "Dallas Heart Study" on the "Trial of Preventing Hypertension" or " TROPHY" study funded by the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca . The TROPHY study successfully showed her team's hypothesis was correct and the results were published in the 'New England Journal.' She initiated the trial of preventing hypertension in patients with high blood pressure. In addition, she worked as a manuscript reviewer for the American Journal of Hypertension and the Journal of Ethnicity and Disease.

Nesbitt has received medical licensure in the states of Pennsylvania, Michigan and Texas. She has been honored by the American Heart Association for her work on cardiovascular epidemiology and high blood pressure. Nesbitt has served on several boards and panels including the American College of Physicians, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Hypertension, the Association of Black Cardiologists, the National Medical Association, the International Society of Hypertension in Blacks, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Dr. Shawna Nesbitt was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 13, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.047

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/13/2008

Last Name

Nesbitt

Maker Category
Schools

Quigley High School

Quigley Catholic High School

Gannon University

Hanhnemann University

University of Michigan

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Shawna

Birth City, State, Country

Aliquippa

HM ID

NES02

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Let the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be acceptable in thy sight, oh Lord, my strength and my Redeemer.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

11/10/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet Potatoes

Short Description

Cardiovascular physician and cardiovascular scientist Dr. Shawna Nesbitt (1963 - ) has done research on African Americans with hypertension and renal disease. She has worked as an instructor, lecturer and assistant professor at the the University of Michigan and the the University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center.

Employment

Allegheny General Hospital

University of Michigan

University of Texas Southwestern

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Red

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Shawna Nesbitt's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt shares her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about how her parents met and her early childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about the sights, smells, and sounds of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Shawna Nesbitt remembers the neighborhood where she grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her elementary and middle schools

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her joy for learning

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about growing up in the 1970s and wanting to pursue a medical career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about church and attending Catholic school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her first job and her time at Quigley Catholic High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Shawna Nesbitt continues talking about Quigley Catholic High School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about bridging the gap between her black and white friends

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about deciding on college and medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about attending Gannon University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about getting into medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about going to medical school at the Hahnemann School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her residency and Dr. James Ferraro

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her hypertension program and Dr. Stevo Julius

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about epidemiology projects like the Tecumseh blood pressure project

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about teaching, meeting her husband, Thomas Nesbitt, and their daughter, Joy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about clinical trials at University of Michigan and gaining the trust of the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about the ASKD study and the "On Job, On Campus" program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Shawna Nesbitt describes the Trial of Preventing Hypertension (TROPHY) Study

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about moving to Dallas, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about finishing the TROPHY study and lecturing around the country.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt shares her plans for the future and her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about slavery on her father's side of the family

Dr. Hollis Underwood

Internal medicine physician Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood was born on October 29, 1957 in Chicago, Illinois to Robert Arthur and Janetta Martha Crowe. Underwood graduated from Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan in 1975. She attended the University of Maryland as a zoology major. Underwood then completed her M.D. degree at Howard University School of Medicine and did her post graduate residency training at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota.

In 1987, Underwood worked in the National Health Service Corps at Frederiksted Health Center in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. While there, Underwood co-chaired the 1989 Peer Review Committee at the Virgin Islands Medical Institute in Christiansted, Virgin Islands. Underwood then began working as the Medical Director and Acting Project Director for Frederiksted Health Center and as the District Health Officer at the Charles Harwood Memorial Hospital in Christiansted until 1990.

In 1990, Underwood was hired as the Lead Internist and Director of Hypertension & Lipid Clinic at the Ohio Permanente Medical Group in Parma, Ohio, before working as an intermediate Lipid Specialist for the American Heart Association at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1994, Underwood became a consultant for the Department of Community Internal Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona, where she worked until 2000.

In 1997, Underwood acted as a consultant on a sixteen member multi-disciplinary medical team that traveled to Dakar, Senegal to provide cardiovascular medical care for the community. The venture, Project MEDHELP, led by Albert F. Olivier, consisted of cardiothoracic and general surgeons, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, internists, public health experts, dermatologists and gynecologists.

In February 2000, Underwood became President of Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc., working alongside her husband Dr. Paul L. Underwood, Jr., in Scottsdale, Arizona. Underwood served on several boards and organizations including the Center for Women’s Health, Vibetree Foundation and Planned Parenthood. She is also active in several organizations including the Links, Inc., the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood resides in Phoenix, Arizona with her family.

Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.208

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/14/2007

Last Name

Underwood

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Holly

Schools

Cass Technical High School

University of Maryland

Howard University College of Medicine

Ernie Pyle Elementary School

Mayo Medical School

Lutheran Parish School

First Name

Hollis

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

UND02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

If You Can't Be Who You Need To Be, By Remaining Who You Are.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arizona

Birth Date

10/29/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Phoenix

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Internal medicine physician Dr. Hollis Underwood (1957 - ) specialized in internal medicine and was president of Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc. in Arizona.

Employment

Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc.

Mayo Clinic

Ohio Permanete Medical Group

Charlest Harwood Memorial Hospital

Frederiksted Health Center

Favorite Color

Chartreuse

Timing Pairs
0,0:4757,167:5695,187:8844,288:9849,303:10318,312:10586,322:11122,337:15209,441:16683,467:16951,472:17554,483:18358,499:18626,504:19229,515:30944,671:32388,725:32768,732:34516,766:35580,782:39684,876:45840,1008:51134,1047:51926,1075:54230,1121:56534,1184:57182,1194:57470,1199:58190,1210:62366,1307:65246,1376:65678,1394:66110,1402:82676,1628:83084,1636:87912,1781:88456,1790:88728,1795:89136,1802:89408,1807:94000,1829:95470,1861:95750,1866:96520,1883:97010,1891:98620,2002:99390,2021:100580,2047:100860,2052:104080,2118:104990,2132:108280,2197:108910,2207:112480,2280:113110,2290:115210,2341:132256,2698:138557,2794:139040,2802:139316,2807:140627,2840:142007,2865:143456,2901:145181,2929:145457,2934:161758,3276:162646,3290:162942,3299:163978,3310:168190,3354$0,0:6834,173:7303,184:7571,189:7839,194:8375,203:10720,263:11926,289:12529,299:13467,317:14070,327:14405,333:14807,340:15410,351:15946,361:17487,401:18425,428:19095,442:19497,453:20301,468:20569,473:20971,539:28110,601:29070,614:29390,619:29790,625:35150,702:35630,710:36030,716:37070,740:38670,835:38990,841:39310,847:44490,896:51240,1118:72390,1612:72730,1618:73580,1631:74345,1637:78972,1774:97944,2172:103346,2278:103638,2283:103930,2288:105901,2342:123366,2701:128334,2838:128694,2844:130926,2898:134980,2936
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Hollis Underwood's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls living in Gary, Indiana and Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her neighbors in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the socioeconomic climate of Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes Ernie Pyle Elementary School in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls living on St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her community in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls moving to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her early aspirations to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her peers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers applying to college

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers the University of Maryland in College Park

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her professors at the University of Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls the summer program at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mentor, Dr. John Townsend

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers treating her first patient

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers her experiences at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers dating her husband, Dr. Paul Underwood

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her fellowship at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls working at the Frederiksted Health Clinic in St. Croix

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers becoming a mother

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood reflects upon her humanitarian medical work

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers moving to Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood talks about her community activism

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her peers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan
Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers treating her first patient
Transcript
So you go to Cass Tech [Cass Technical High School, Detroit, Michigan], now for the benefit of our viewers, Cass Tech is considered, was considered one of the elitist schools of Detroit, Michigan?$$Um-hm.$$So now you go to Cass Tech and what, what happens there for you?$$Well, you know, well the first thing is that, and this was a new concept for us, but, you're right, it was a magnet school, but you had to test to get in but there was, there were some of us who were invited to attend. And we were invited to attend and become a part of science and arts curriculum, which was an honors curriculum and, and not knowing Detroit, so we're relatively new there, but my mother's [Jonetta Everette Crowe] best friend who was like a second mother to me in many ways, just said, "Oh, absolutely, this is an opportunity you don't want, you know, not take advantage of," and, and that was it. You know, that was it and I, Cass was--it opened up even broader horizons, now you know we used to call it the pickle factory 'cause it looked like a pickle factory, you know, it was a pretty big old school, we had to all take the city bus to go to school. But I went to school with some kids that were just incredible people, some of whom are friends to this day, some of whom have done some amazing things in this world, made some tremendous footprints.$$Okay give us a few names of people that that, that we might want to know about.$$Oh wow. Well one is David Alan Grier, who is a very well-known actor, and he was a Cass Techite, you know, a Cass Techie, and Wanda [Wanda Whitten-Shurney], oh gosh, I'm blocking out her last name, she's a hematologist, her father [HistoryMaker Dr. Charles Whitten] was a, a very, very well-known hematologist in Detroit, did a lot of ground breaking research with sickle cell disease and she was a classmate, actually not only in high school, but also medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], Harriet Covington [Harriet Covington-Smith], also a friend from medical school as well as high school, oh my gosh. And then, then you had the musicians who are amazing, Geri Allen, one of my classmates who is a very well-known established recording artist, straight ahead jazz pianist, J. Jones [ph.], a very accomplished saxophone player, I mean, so we, you know, we had all of the curriculums, then you had the perfor- the performing arts crowd and you know, and nobody gave any credence to the computer science club, but they're probably all, they've--$$(Laughter).$$--probably all became millionaires, up to the '90s [1990s], and we just lost track, I don't know (laughter).$$So--so Cass, they had a very fertile environment for you to grow, would you say (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh amazing. So, so much, I mean, you know, friends were attorneys and, and you know, the whole, you know the, the legacy, the Patti Coutiver [ph.], a very good friend of mine in high school, an attorney, her fam- her father was an educator, a very well established and well known educator. The former superintendent of schools [Cornelius L. Golightly], his daughter, Linnie Golightly [Linnie M. Golightly], was a classmate at Cass, so it was incredible and many of my friends wer- are physicians and, and, and attorneys and other careers that are considered leadership type careers as a result of that.$(Simultaneous) Do you recall your first assignment?$$Uh-huh. I was in community internal medicine, oh my goodness, ha, ha, with a gentleman who sadly, y- what I've come to realize is that some people's mediocrity prevents them from seeing the greatness in other people and they make it a conscious effort to put the squash on other people because of their own internal insecurity, and I saw a lot of that, I saw a lot of that, people hiding behind the shields of the Mayo Clinic [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota] and with their own mediocrity. And I saw some things that really exposed what that whole experience was, was all about but, but I, I remember being nervous, a, a new intern, first rotation out of medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] and a patient came in, he was very, very, very critically ill, we worked on him, you know, along with the, you know, the E- you know he came in through the ER [emergency room], I worked on him, did, you know, some things; read, worked, read, worked, you know, you had to really kind of move fast, got him kind of stabilized but you know, the, the attendings, consultants would always say, you know, call us, keep us posted, let us know what's going on. So maybe I called them at four o'clock and when I said, "I just wanted to let you know about the person came in and this is what happened and, you know, he's, he's doing better now." He said, "Well if he's still alive, call me in the morning," bam! Or, "We'll deal with it in the morning," and he hung up the phone on me, and I thought, okay so that, that, that was the first baptism by fire, and I realized, okay, so now I understand.$$So, so, so what did you do at that point when he did that to you?$$Oh, I--$$Were angered, or, or do you say, or what did you do?$$Oh, yeah (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) 'Cause you--$$--it angers you.$$--had a patient.$$But it makes you strong. Let me tell you something, and, and this is what the old folks say, if it doesn't kill you, it'll make you strong. It made you strong. Every little hurt, every little slight, every little obstacle, every little pin that was pushed in my side intentionally, and mes- mostly intentionally, it just made me stronger. I'm, I, I'm, I made sure that there wasn't anything in medicine that I had not seen or knew about and I've, I've made that my philosophy. And I read, I read the PDR ['Physicians' Desk Reference'] and never forgetting once, I went to see somebody at his office, one of the consultants and I had the PDR and I was reading about something, he said, "What are you doing? Reading the PDR?" You know, he was kind of snickering, kind of in a very snide, and I said, you know, and I just laughed and said oh no. Yeah, I was reading the PDR, as a matter of fact, I was gonna read every aspect of that drug, at least what we knew about so I would be that much better informed so.

Dr. Bette Catoe

Pediatrician Dr. Bette Lorrina Catoe-Strudwick was born on April 7, 1926 in Washington, D.C. Her mother was a White House pastry chef and government worker and her father was a taxicab owner and driver. Catoe’s parents divorced when she was a young child at which point her mother gained custody and raised her in Washington, D.C. She was educated in Washington, D.C. public schools and received her high school diploma from Dunbar High School in 1944.

Catoe received a full academic scholarship from Howard University, where she earned her B.S. degree in chemistry and physics in 1948. Her career ambition was to become a nurse or lab technician until she received a scholarship to Howard University’s Medical School. While a medical school student, she pledged Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority and married her husband, Warren Strudwick. She was only one of seven women in her graduating class when she received her M.D. degree in 1951. In 1956, she began practicing pediatrics in the basement of her home, allowing her to work full time and raise her three children. In 1958, she helped to integrate Washington, D.C. hospitals. She moved her home-based medical practice into a downtown Washington office. By 1971, she had seen thousands of children and continued to provide medical assistance until she retired in 2003. In 1966, Catoe was elected as an at-large member of the Board of Trustees of the Medical Society of the District of Columbia, a post she served in for over thirty years. Ten years later, she was elected as a delegate to the 1976 National Democratic Convention in New York.

Her involvement in a number of civic organizations including the AKA Sorority, Jack and Jill of America, the NAACP, the Urban League and the Links. Catoe and her husband, Dr. Warren Strudwick, have three grown children; two are physicians and the other is an attorney.

Dr. Bette Catoe was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 17, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.083

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

6/17/2004

Last Name

Catoe

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Occupation
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Thomas P. Morgan Elementary School

Howard University College of Medicine

Howard University

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Bette

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

CAT01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

What does that have to do with the price of rice in China?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/7/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Pediatrician Dr. Bette Catoe (1926 - ) helped integrate Washington D.C. area hospitals, including Providence Hospital, Columbia Hospital and Washington Hospital Center.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2991,125:3810,136:11694,164:20585,258:23286,271:23734,276:27766,321:28998,336:35152,379:48659,521:49408,529:50157,538:50906,546:51548,553:59687,587:65592,669:86146,909:86804,950:87838,965:88590,974:95650,997:97610,1011:97866,1016:99447,1026:100926,1104:107190,1191:108756,1214:109104,1219:109713,1230:120066,1382:132542,1479:134244,1508:134910,1539:137574,1584:140998,1596:141390,1601:143154,1628:145150,1657$0,0:5806,157:6352,166:22882,310:23362,316:29602,416:30754,432:31138,437:35017,446:35452,452:40237,530:40846,541:41977,563:42760,575:43456,585:74495,955:76025,976:84702,1064:85566,1074:90942,1148:91326,1153:94290,1162:94860,1176:95259,1184:97195,1196:98470,1221:107367,1340:108537,1352:110994,1378:119862,1410:122130,1433:122634,1440:124873,1450:125157,1455:125441,1460:125725,1488:126009,1500:135456,1582:139082,1638:140454,1658:140944,1664:147913,1707:149120,1728:149830,1741:150469,1761:155368,1856:156575,1880:157072,1889:157427,1895:157995,1904:163660,1943:164420,1953:164990,1960:165370,1965:165845,1974:169480,1990:169800,1995:170440,2004:170760,2009:171960,2025:172280,2030:173320,2048:179880,2200:180440,2209:198594,2377:201856,2423:212020,2538:212910,2550:214067,2569:214601,2576:215402,2587:217538,2616:221632,2680:221988,2685:222611,2694:223590,2709:224035,2715:224836,2725:234354,2811:234702,2817:241836,2947:242445,2956:242793,2961:248200,2999
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Bette Catoe's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Bette Catoe lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about her father's childhood and her parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks briefly about her maternal family ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Bette Catoe remembers her maternal grandmother and great-grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about her relationship with her paternal great aunt and uncle

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about attending Thomas P. Morgan Elementary School in Washington, D.C., pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her earliest childhood memories in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Bette Catoe narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about attending Thomas P. Morgan Elementary School in Washington, D.C., pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her childhood personality and interests

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes developing an interest in medicine and dropping out of high school for one year

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes attending Garnet-Patterson Junior High School and Banneker Junior High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes herself and social interests as an adolescent

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks briefly about her childhood experience in the church

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her childhood aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes the influence of her mother and junior high school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks briefly about her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about her paternal uncle's murder conviction and describes how it affected her experience at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes graduating from Paul Laurence Dunbar High School and explains what factors influenced her to attend college

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about her admission to Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her experience as an undergraduate student at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes pledging the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority in her first year of medical school in the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about her favorite subjects in medical school and meeting her husband, HistoryMaker Dr. Warren Strudwick, Sr.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her mother's response to her admission into Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her experience being a woman in medical school in the late-1940s and early-1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her children's occupations

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about graduating from the Howard University College of Medicine in 1951

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes opening a pediatric private practice in her home in 1956, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Bette Catoe explains why she decided to retire

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes opening a pediatric private practice in her home in 1956, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her early patients and talks about the emergence of malpractice insurance

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes integrating Washington, D.C. hospitals with her husband, HistoryMaker Dr. Warren Strudwick, Sr.

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Dr. Bette Catoe remembers her former resident HistoryMaker Dr. Lillian M. Beard, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Bette Catoe remembers her former resident, HistoryMaker Dr. Lillian M. Beard, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes the changes she observed in her patients from 1956 to 2003

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes changes she's observed in pediatric care and patient illness

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about how an increase in youth violence has affected pediatric care

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about contemporary teenage pregnancy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes attending the National Democratic Convention in Madison Square Garden as a delegate in 1976

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about the closing of District of Columbia General Hospital in 2001

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Bette Catoe reflects over her life and career

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Bette Catoe shares her advice to young women interested in a career in medicine and considers what she may have done differently in her life

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Bette Catoe talks about health disparities between African American and white communities

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Dr. Bette Catoe describes the significance of the preservation of African American history

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Dr. Bette Catoe reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - Dr. Bette Catoe narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Dr. Bette Catoe describes developing an interest in medicine and dropping out of high school for one year
Dr. Bette Catoe describes her experience being a woman in medical school in the late-1940s and early-1950s
Transcript
And at this time in your life, during elementary school [Thomas P. Morgan Elementary School, Washington, D.C.], did you have dreams and aspirations?$$Yes. I think that living in the block with the doctors that I decided at a very early age I wanted to be a doctor. But then reality set in and I decided that I couldn't afford to be a doctor so I wanted to be a nurse, and then reality set in again and then I said, well I wanted to be a lab technician (laughter). And the influences that I had were responsible for me finally going to medical school because at--during that time, you were told--you were not told you couldn't, you were not told that you couldn't do something because you were poor like you--you were not told you could not learn because you were poor, and this was under a segregated system. My elementary school teachers encouraged me. Apparently--I was a strange child, but apparently they say had a high IQ so--that I didn't always use for positive things (laughter), and when I was in high school, I stopped high school [Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, Washington, D.C.]for a year and went to work in the government because I got a little peeved with the dean of women and--because she said that I cut school and I didn't; I was sick so I couldn't find her and went home, so by--and that time I had made 99.9 on the Civil Service Exam, and teachers were making $1,240.00 a year, and I went and made $1,440.00 a year, and I didn't find out until later everybody was very upset; my mother [Laura Beola Adams] was upset and everything. But I did go to night school, and went back and graduated with my class from, from high school.$And so how--while you were in medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], how were you determining which field of medicine you would go into?$$Well, I think the cultural--academic cultural system determined it for me. Thing number one, when we went to medical school, there were seven women in our class, and some of the professors and some of my classmates wanted to die; their whole attitude was we were taking a space from men--from the veterans, and the--one professor told me one day, one, one time, "You should not be in this school, you should be somewhere married." I said, "I am married," (laughter). And he said, "When did you get married?" You know. But, but we--what was the question? I'm, I'm, I'm--$$Well, let's talk a little bit about that. What was it like for you, as a woman, in medical school in the late '40s [1940s]?$$It was, it was--our--most of our classmates were very supportive; we had a few that harassed us and said, you know, "You shouldn't be here and why are you here?" I had one classmate--one classmate from New York; I got a Jewish classmate who asked me, "Bette, why would a girl like you want to go to medical school?" I said, "Well, you know, I want to be a doctor, and the only way I can be a doctor is to go to medical school." And he says, "Oh--oh." So that, that, that, that sums--that generally sums it up. We--you--I went in when the veterans were coming back, and they knew what they wanted to do, and they didn't want any mess about it, so therefore, the pace was swift (laughter), and the, the academics were grinding because the--every--it was very competitive. So, I think that I got a magnificent medical education because of my--I had people in my class that had been class presidents--I mean college presidents, I had people in my class who've had Ph.D.s, I had people in the class who this was their third or fourth degree and then, as I said, the young men coming back from the service who had lost time and were older, and they just moved, so we--the seven of us just moved along with them,$$(simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--The question I had asked you before, Dr. Catoe, was how did you decide which field of medicine you would choose to practice in?$$Oh, okay--okay, yeah. Well, my original choice--my first choice was obstetrics and gynecology, but in the history of Howard University [Washington, D.C.], there had been only one woman resident in obstetrics and gynecology, so--and the, the head of the department at that time was not inclined to take any more. My second choice was pediatrics, so I ended up at pediatrics and I have loved it; I have--I have loved it. But I also love now when I see the young ladies in surgery, or obstetrics and gynecology--all of the fields, I think now, and when I see that, that 50 percent of the classes are women in medical school, so it's--there's been, been, been a big change, been a big change. I guess we were pioneers (laughter), we were pioneers.

Reverend Dr. Angelique Walker-Smith

The Reverend Dr. Angelique Walker-Smith was born on August 18, 1958, in Cleveland, Ohio, to Reverend Roosevelt and Geneva Walker. As a child, she spent summers and holidays in the rural south in Alabama with her family and still maintains a kindred rapport there.

After attending both public and private schools, she went to Kent State University, graduating with a degree in arts in telecommunications (broadcast journalism). She decided to follow in her father's footsteps and entered Yale University Divinity School. Completing her Masters Degree in 1983, Walker-Smith became the first African American woman to graduate from the Doctor of Ministry Program at Princeton Theological Seminary.

Currently, Walker-Smith serves as the Executive Director of the Church Federation of Greater Indianapolis. She is the first African American and first woman to do so. Walker-Smith has lived in three African countries and has traveled extensively throughout Africa and the world. Her journalism background is serving her well as the host of Faces of Faith on PAX Television Network, a co-host on the Odyssey Hallmark Cable Network and a columnist for the Indianapolis Star-News newspaper.

As the Executive Director of the Church Federation of Greater Indianapolis, Walker-Smith works to stop violence in the inner city. Walker-Smith organizes prayer vigils around this issues, but believes that racial and economic issues are at the heart of violence. She has also spoken at the Indiana Women's Prison since 1991.

Accession Number

A2000.040

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/11/2000

Last Name

Walker-Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Highlands Elementary School

Ridgewood School

Springfield North High School

Kent State University

Yale Divinity School

Princeton Theological Seminary

Hayward Middle School

Springfield High School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

First Name

Angelique

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

WAL02

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Alabama

Favorite Quote

And the good news is...

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/18/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pie (Apple)

Short Description

Minister Reverend Dr. Angelique Walker-Smith (1958 - ) was the first African American and first woman to serve as executive director of the Church Federation of Greater Indianapolis, Indiana. Walker-Smith also does extensive media work as the host of, "Faces of Faith" on PAX Television Network, a co-host on the Odyssey Hallmark Cable Network and a columnist for the Indianapolis Star-News newspaper.

Employment

Urban League

Trenton Ecumenical Area Ministry

Indianapolis Women's Prison

Church Federation of Greater Indianapolis

Favorite Color

Purple

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Angelique Walker-Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Angelique Walker-Smith lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about her father, Reverend Roosevelt Walker

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about her mother, Geneva Walker

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Angelique Walker-Smith describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Angelique Walker-Smith shares her childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about growing up as the preacher's kid

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Angelique Walker-Smith describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Angelique Walker-Smith describes influential grade school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about her grade school years

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Angelique Walker-Smith describes her teenaged years

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about her decision to attend Kent State University in Kent, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Angelique Walker-Smith describes her experience at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about her husband, R. Drew Smith

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Angelique Walker-Smith her classmates at Yale Divinity School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about changing perspectives on women in ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about her mentor, Dr. Mannie L. Wilson

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about the beginning of her career in the Baptist church

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about her congregation at Central Baptist Church in Hartford, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Angelique Walker-Smith describes lessons in ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Angelique Walker-Smith describes her transition to Indianapolis, Indiana

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about her work on Death Row

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about the significance of the African American church

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about what she hopes to accomplish

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about the Church Federation of Greater Indianapolis

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Angelique Walker-Smith shares her favorite bible verse

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Angelique Walker-Smith reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Angelique Walker-Smith describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about racial discrimination in Christianity

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Angelique Walker-Smith talks about importance of recording African American history