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Dr. James Hill

Orthopaedic surgeon and professor Dr. James A. Hill graduated from Lane Technical High School in 1967. He went on to receive his B.A. degree in biology from Northwestern University in 1971 and his M.D. degree from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in 1974. After completing an internship at Evanston Hospital in 1975 and his residency training in orthopaedic surgery at McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University in 1979, Hill served a one-year fellowship in sports medicine with the National Athletic Institute of Health.

In 1980, Hill was recruited as an instructor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Between 1982 and 1994, he was promoted through the faculty ranks at the Feinberg School of Medicine. He was later appointed as a full professor of orthopaedic surgery in 1994. During his tenure at Northwestern University, Hill served on several university committees, including as a member of the Admissions Committee from 1982 to 1989; chair of the Motion Analysis Laboratory Implementation Committee from 1982 to 1984; co-director of the Center for Sports Medicine in 1982; and a member of the Minority Affairs Advisory Committee in 1989. Hill also served as a Major in the U.S. Army Reserves in 1985. He has provided medical care for both amateur and professional athletes and was the physician for the United States Olympic Team in Seoul, Korea in 1988. Later, Hill served as an attending physician at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, at Cook County Hospital, Children’s Memorial Hospital and the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. During his tenure at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Hill served on the Nominating Committee; as chair of the Medical Executive Committee in 2006; and as the hospital’s chief of staff from 2006 to 2008.

Hill has made hundreds of professional presentations and published papers in more than fifty-five medical journals, including Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation and Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. He has received numerous awards, including being honored in 2006 by Health for Humanity for leadership in improving cultural competency within the medical profession and global health. Hill was inducted in the inaugural class of the Northwestern University Black Alumni Association Hall of Fame (2007). He also received the Icon Award from the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Boys and Girls Club of Chicago (2008), and was honored by The Monarch Awards Foundation of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.’s Xi Nu Omega Chapter (2009).

Hill and his wife, Sandra Hill, have three children and one grandchild.

Dr. James A. Hill was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 20, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.236

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/19/2013

Last Name

Hill

Maker Category
Middle Name

Allen

Occupation
Schools

Lane Technical College Prep High School

Northwestern University

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

HIL16

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

Be Still And Know That I Am God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

9/14/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Catfish, Chicken

Short Description

Orthopedic surgeon Dr. James Hill (1949 - ) served as a professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and as the chief of staff for Northwestern Memorial Hospital from 2006 to 2008.

Employment

Evanston Hospital

McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Northwestern Medical Alumni Association

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Cook County Hospital

Jesse Brown V.A. Westside Medial Center

V.A. Lakeside Medical Center

Children's Memorial Hospital

Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

Provident Hospital

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Hill's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about his paternal family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill recalls his paternal family lineage

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill describes the house his grandfather built on land he purchased in the 1930s in Bolton, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls an early childhood memory and his decision to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood visits to the South

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes his parents' migration to and marriage in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill talks about growing up on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill describes the difference between the South Side and West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill talks briefly about his elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about his childhood neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood friends and reflects on white flight from Chicago, Illinois' West Side

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls keeping a gang member's son out of trouble and receiving protection in return

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill recalls his elementary school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about his difficulty learning to read phonetically

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill recalls the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood family traditions

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill recalls a story about getting his brothers into trouble, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill recalls a story about getting his brothers into trouble, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill talks about the cancellation of his elementary school reunion

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about testing for admission to Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls his father's opposition to his marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls his experience attending Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes his high school teachers at Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about black physicians who inspired him in his adolescence

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill reflects on the Civil Rights Movement and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s effect on racial disparities in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about his attitude toward racism

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill reflects on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill recalls deciding to attend college despite the lack of counseling at Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill describes his acceptance to Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and his experience in the biology department

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill describes his interest in science

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill describes meeting and marrying his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about working at the post office and renting an apartment in Juneway Terrace in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about avoiding the Vietnam War draft by enrolling in medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill talks about challenges in medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill describes his medical school classmates and handling discrimination in his classes

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill recalls taking his family to the anatomy lab during medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about the significance of taking organic chemistry before medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about finishing medical school and deciding against specializing in neurosurgery

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill describes his residency in orthopaedics

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill remembers being racially profiled and arrested by the police

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about his medical residencies

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about his interest in post-graduate training after completing his orthopaedics residency

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about deciding to return to Chicago, Illinois to practice orthopaedics in 1980

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes returning to Chicago, Illinois to practice orthopaedics

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill describes his positions at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill explains his role on the Minority Affairs Advisory Committee at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill explains the origins and mission of the J. Robert Gladden Society

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his participation in the credentials committee and the oversight committee at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Feinberg School of Medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill describes the Northwestern Health Care Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill talks about his duties as attending physician in orthopaedic surgery and about papers he has published

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill lists the states in which he is licensed to practice medicine

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill recalls going to Ethiopia in the late 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill describes an article he wrote about healthcare in warzones while living in Ethiopia in the 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about advancements in orthopaedic surgery

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes the racial disparity amongst patients who receive joint replacements

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about how long knee replacement surgeries last

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill shares his personal philosophy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about his wife and oldest daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his mentor's family and his own family-planning

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill talks about his children and lessons he learned from his family

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill talks about HistoryMaker Dr. Augustus A. White and culturally competent care

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Dr. James Hill talks about HistoryMaker Dr. Carlton West

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - Dr. James Hill talks about the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

Tape: 7 Story: 14 - Dr. James Hill reflects upon his life and future plans

Tape: 7 Story: 15 - Dr. James Hill considers his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 16 - Dr. James Hill offers a message to future generations

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

3$3

DATitle
Dr. James Hill recalls an early childhood memory and his decision to become a doctor
Dr. James Hill talks about his interest in post-graduate training after completing his orthopaedics residency
Transcript
So, now let's talk about you at an early age. And, we just talked about one of your earliest childhood memories, about going south each year. But, do you have another childhood memory that you can think of? Your earliest childhood memory.$$Earliest childhood memory. Oh, I got a lot of 'em. But, one that still 'til this day is relevant, is the fact that here in Chicago [Illinois] they had a big fire around Christmas time at a Catholic school [Our Lady of the Angels School, December 1, 1958], there was really in a Polish neighborhood. As you know, the demographics of Chicago, Chicago is probably the historically been the most segregated housing city in the United States. So, they had a Catholic school that was in a predominately Polish area. And, I think, it was week or so before Christmas, they had a horrific fire where--and, we had shortly before then got the old black and white TV. And, you could--they started running it on the news and you could see the house--the thing burning down. And, you could see the kids jumping out of the window. You could see them bringing out bodies on TV and, I think, at that point I was eight or nine years old. And, I sat there and watched it on TV and I said right then that I wanted to be a physician. 'Cause they showed all these kids at a morgue and they showed Cook County Hospital [later, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois], 'cause at that time that's where they took a lot of 'em. And, I was so impacted by the visual picture of that that I internally, and externally, I think, I told my parents [Doretha Lowe Hill and James Hill, Sr.] then. And, they kinda thought I was just having a childhood moment like being a cowboy or a fireman kinda moment. But, I said, I was gonna be a physician. And, lo and behold as the twist and turns that life goes, I've been fortunate. I'm one of the few people that I can honestly say have lived their dream from being a little kid. So, that's one thing I remember is, 'cause that was impactful enough that even though I twist and turns of life and you don't really know where your roads gonna lend--end. Really my vision at that point of where it was gonna go to, actually came true.$Let's go on to what happens after your residency [at Cook County Hospital, later John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois].$$What happened, at that time, most people completed a residency and went into practice. I really felt, once again my idea of; one, trying to control my own destiny to--with what God let me control. 'Cause our God controls everything, but I wanna give him at least a few ideas that he (laughter) might wanna consider before he direct me in one way or another. So, I figured out that if I wanted to live up to my potential, I would be much better getting some, what you would consider an academia, some post-graduate training. And, in my group, Northwestern [University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois] had a fairly large residency. And, so, there were ten people in my year. And, I was the only one that elected to do a post-graduate training. Meaning, to spend time in another area where you--a concentrated area of orthopaedics, whether than just going into practice after a residency. So, that was an interesting story too. So, I went to the chairman, who was like I said from day one, you know, I was kind of his favorite. Actually, the other residents would even say it, even though they were all white, they said, "You the favorite. You can get away with anything, where he gives us a hard time." So, I went to the chairman, I said, you know, "I wanna do some extra training." And, then he looked at me. 'Cause he actually got a Ph.D. So, besides being an orthopaedic surgeon, he had actually spent time getting a Ph.D. So, to have a resident come to him that wanna actually do extra training, he was ecstatic. So, he said, "Well, what do you wanna do it in?" And, this was when sports medicine was just emerging, when people started doing knee sculpts and everything else. So, when my residency, everybody used to have the big incisions on the knee. And, so, we--they just had started, just had come from Japan where you can start doing microscopic surgery on knees. So, I said, you know, once again, me not liking sick people, "This guy taking care of athletes, during microscopic surgery, that's sounds like what I wanna do." So, I--he said, "Okay." Then the next thought is, "Then where do you wanna do it?" I said, of course, "The places that are the best." And, the place that are the best is, at California, the Kerlan-Jobe [Orthopaedic Clinic, Los Angeles, California], like the guy that operated on Tommy John's elbow, was one place. And, then the other place was Columbus, Georgia, the guy that operated on Archie [sic, Robert] Griffin, III. What's his name? But, anyway, Columbus, Georgia--Andrews, Jim [James] Andrews, were the two prominent places for sports medicine. So, of course, I said, "I wanna go there." It's interesting, the guy that was prominent--so he contacted them both, based on my desires.$$And, this Dr. who?$$Dr. [William J.] Kane.$$Kane. Okay.$$Dr. Kane, who was chairman. He contacted them both, 'cause like I said, it was unusual to do extra training. The guy down at the Hughston Clinic [Columbus, Georgia], I had met him at a meeting. And, he was the typically southerner was--you know, Columbus, Georgia is in the middle of nowhere, as you know. And, so, he was, you know, he was a typical southerner, next generation from plantation owners mentality. On the other hand, once again, and I've gone through life with this all the time, that after people get to know me then they don't--stop seeing color again. And, just like I don't see color. It's real interesting if you approach 'em that way so you don't see color to make your decision, they after a while forget that you're black (laughter). And, so, he even though he's a hardcore southerner, I had interact--'cause I had written papers as a resident. You know, I had done research and things in ra--so, he knew of me. And, so, the chairman at some meeting or something, he brought me to introduce me to 'em. Actually, I think it was in Atlanta [Georgia]. Where I was at a meeting in Atlanta, he was there, and he said, "Why don't you go ahead a meet Jack Hughston," which was a senior guy then. And, and, I have talked to him about you wanting to come down here and doing a residency. So, this is like '78 [1978]. And, so, I--he meets me, and say, "I have read some of the things you're written, I think you would be a great addition, but we're not ready to have someone black"--and he was, he was not saying it in a malignant way. He was truthfully honest. He said, "We're just not ready for a black to come down here examining patients. And, so, I want you to come, but I know we're not ready." And, so, I thanked him. And, he actually, to this day, he invited me back to lecture when I got done. I mean, but he was--I respect the fact that he was just blatantly honest and he didn't, he didn't sidestep the issue. So, then, I ended up of course, out in California. So, I ended up doing my extra training out there. They wanted me to stay. I actually, during my training, I got to go see Magic Johnson. I was, I actually went back with Kareem [Abdul Jabbar] 'cause he hurt his ankle. But, I got to see the [Los Angeles] Lakers win the World Championship. I was on the field at the, at Pasadena [California] when Lynn Swann made the catch in the Super Bowl [XIV, 1980]. I got to see the [Los Angeles] Dodgers work the World Series. I mean, they took care of all the teams in L.A. [Los Angeles, California]. They wanted me to stay.

Dr. Vivian Pinn

Medical director Vivian W. Pinn was born in 1941 in Halifax, Virginia. She grew up in Lynchburg, Virginia. Pinn received her B.A. degree from Wellesley College in 1963. She earned her M.D. degree from the University of Virginia School of Medicine in 1967 where she was the only woman and only minority in her class. Pinn completed her residency in pathology at the Massachusetts General Hospital in 1970 while also serving as a teaching fellow at the Harvard Medical School

In 1970, Pinn joined Tufts University as assistant professor of pathology in the School of Medicine and the Tufts New England Medical Center Hospital, with a concurrent appointment as the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs. In 1982, she moved to Washington, D.C. where she served as a professor as well as the third woman and first African American woman appointed to chair a department of pathology in the U.S. while at Howard University College of Medicine. Pinn became the first director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) in the Office of the Director at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991. In February of 1994, she was named associate director for Research on Women’s Health at NIH. While there, Pinn completed a national initiative to reexamine priorities for the women’s health research agenda, as well as areas in need of research. This new strategic plan for the coming decade, Moving into the Future with New Dimensions and Strategies: a Vision for 2020 for Women’s Health Research, was presented publicly at the 2010 NIH Scientific Symposium and the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the ORWH. She also served as co-chair of the NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers.

In 1989, Pinn was elected as president of the National Medical Association after serving in many other capacities including as Speaker of the House of Delegates and Trustee. The UVA School of Medicine established the Vivian W. Pinn Distinguished Lecture in Health Disparities, and further honored her in 2010 by naming one of its advisory colleges for medical students in her name, the Vivian Pinn College of UVA. In 2011, she received the Tufts University School of Medicine Dean’s Medal. Pinn was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Institute of Medicine. Pinn has also been elected as an Honorary Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, and received the Academy Medal for Distinguished Contributions in Health Policy.

Dr. Vivian W. Pinn was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 22, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.197

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/22/2013

Last Name

Pinn

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

W.

Occupation
Schools

Robert S. Payne Elementary School

Dunbar High School

Wellesley College

University of Virginia School of Medicine

First Name

Vivian

Birth City, State, Country

Halifax

HM ID

PIN06

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Martin

Favorite Quote

I appreciate and encourage self confidence, but I despise arrogance.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/21/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster, Fried Clams, Chocolate

Short Description

Medical director Dr. Vivian Pinn (1941 - ) the third woman and first African American woman appointed to chair a department of pathology in the U.S. while at Howard University College of Medicine, served as founding director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health in the Office of the Director at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and as associate director for Research on Women’s Health at NIH.

Employment

Tufts University New England Medical Hospitral

Howard University Hospital and Howard University College of Medicine

Chlease Soldier's Home

Boston Veterans' Administration Hospital

Hadley Memorial Hospital

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. James Rosser, Jr.

Hospital chief executive and medical professor James C. Rosser, Jr. was born on September 14, 1954 in Rome, Mississippi. He attended James C. Rosser Elementary school and graduated from Gentry High School in 1971. After briefly attending the University of Florida, Rosser enrolled in the University of Mississippi and graduated from there with his B.A. degree in chemistry and biology in 1974. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Mississippi School of Medicine in 1980. Rosser then completed his surgical residency at Akron General Medical Center where he served as chief resident from 1984 to 1985.

Upon completion of his residency, Rosser began an academic/private surgical practice at Akron General Medical Center and accepted a position as assistant professor of surgery at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. In addition, Rosser was appointed as assistant professor of surgery at the Yale University School of Medicine, and as professor of surgery at the Albert Einstein School of Medicine. His hospital appointments include Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, Netherlands and St. Francis Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. From 1994 to 2002, Rosser served as chief of videoendoscopic surgery at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Then, in 2002, he was named chief of minimally invasive surgery and director of the Advanced Medical technology Institute at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Rosser has given more than 350 invited lectures around the world on topics ranging from education to remote control surgery. He has written over fifty peer-reviewed articles, sixteen chapters in books currently in print, and eleven digital books. He holds two patents and he has been credited with the development of several products and appliances. For his efforts, Dr. Rosser has received numerous recognitions and awards, including the NAACP Living Legend Award in Medicine, the National Role Model Award from Minority Access, Inc., the SAGES Gerald Marks Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Society of Laparoscopic Surgeons’ EXCEL award.

Rosser is married to Dana Mitchell Rosser. They have five children: Kevin S. Rosser, Duane C. Rosser, Angela N. Rosser, Taylor E. Rosser, and Tianna M. Rosser.

James C. Rosser, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 4, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.177

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/4/2013

Last Name

Rosser

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Gentry High School

University of Mississippi

University of Mississippi School of Medicine

James C. Rosser Elementary School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Rome

HM ID

ROS05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

You Don't Know What You Don't Know.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

9/14/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Catfish

Short Description

Hospital chief executive and medical professor Dr. James Rosser, Jr. (1954 - ) served as the chief of minimally invasive surgery and director of the Advanced Medical Technology Institute at the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Employment

Akron General Medical Center

Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine

Yale University School of Medicine

Albert Einstein Medical Center

Children's Hospital Medical Center

Union Hospital

Bellevue Hospital

Washington General Hospital

Riverview Hospital

Providence Hospital

Middlesex Hospital

Best Israel Medical Center

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:8584,180:10332,213:11068,223:13092,263:22079,413:22614,424:27964,500:28499,506:29783,524:33310,535:37776,681:38161,687:43541,768:44109,777:54360,942:58652,1032:69346,1125:69898,1132:76431,1183:76886,1189:80587,1224:80922,1230:84272,1339:86220,1352:86590,1358:86960,1437:87848,1451:94078,1542:106075,1682:106633,1689:115840,1825:116584,1834:117979,1856:122973,1907:136025,2112:137225,2137:137975,2148:140335,2163:143380,2214:155870,2347:157371,2375:157845,2382:158240,2388:158635,2395:159583,2418:167287,2530:167672,2536:168365,2547:172677,2631:179172,2705:182268,2780:182628,2787:183132,2795:183852,2814:185148,2838:186588,2868:190280,2883:192910,2905:193358,2916:193614,2921:193870,2927:194190,2933:194958,2949:196942,3010:197326,3017:198414,3046:199950,3081:201934,3156:205960,3176:206300,3181:210125,3243:211740,3272:212675,3285:213100,3291:213440,3296:213780,3301:232416,3536:236310,3569:241768,3641:242314,3650:242782,3657:253187,3873:274820,4086:275756,4100:276146,4113:282620,4260:286030,4279:288184,4300:288925,4316:289495,4327:291740,4400:292690,4412:293165,4418:293545,4423:299080,4478:306330,4526:308420,4577:313992,4658:314296,4663:315436,4682:316500,4700:317032,4710:325006,4853:333520,4989:342290,5085$0,0:7076,146:11258,201:11610,206:13370,236:15590,246:20302,300:25076,364:28052,405:30284,446:37500,525:37835,531:38438,543:38773,549:39108,555:52870,833:55120,869:56095,884:65241,958:65636,966:66742,1020:70455,1091:74660,1122:75308,1137:75632,1142:76280,1156:91190,1366:93510,1372:94182,1392:106161,1625:123800,1992:129294,2054:129861,2065:131481,2087:132210,2103:138290,2205:141146,2252:141734,2265:142070,2270:142406,2275:148034,2439:155230,2504:155830,2513:162730,2719:163430,2727:168978,2800:169566,2808:173598,2879:174102,2886:174942,2899:180286,2980:185850,3042:195984,3160:196600,3169:197601,3185:199911,3232:200373,3239:200835,3246:202529,3269:203222,3279:204069,3305:204762,3323:208150,3387:208612,3399:208920,3404:209690,3419:210075,3425:212847,3476:213155,3481:232204,3688:238870,3779:242910,3851:245738,3911:247657,3943:248061,3948:252506,4037:252836,4044:253430,4057:253892,4070:260224,4141:261126,4153:262520,4171:266374,4276:268588,4316:269326,4327:269900,4335:281278,4421:283104,4465:285345,4509:287337,4559:287918,4568:288250,4573:294060,4739:294392,4746:308810,4957
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Rosser, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the origin of his nickname

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about growing up in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his father's service in the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his father's experiences during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the influence of his maternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about the music scene in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the black community in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the influence of comic books and television

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers black representation in the media

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his family's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the East Moorhead School in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his parents' role in the voter registration movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his early adolescence

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers visiting Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the white resistance to desegregation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the resources at black public schools in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his influential teachers

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about school desegregation in Indianola, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his dream of becoming a doctor

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his aspiration to play college football

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the obstacles to his enrollment at the University of Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his experiences of discrimination at Gentry High School in Indianola, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers matriculating at the University of Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his experiences of discrimination at the University of Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his transition to medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers meeting and marrying his wife, Dana Rosser

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his near expulsion from medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers graduating from the University of Mississippi School of Medicine in Oxford, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his decision to enroll at the Brompton Cardiothoracic Institute in London, England

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the mentorship of Dr. James D. Hardy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his influential medical professors

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls moving to Akron, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about the invention of laparoscopic surgery

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his contributions to laparoscopic surgery

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

9$9

DATitle
Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about growing up in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement
Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his experiences of discrimination at the University of Mississippi
Transcript
There's a theory that Mississippi was the toughest place to be raised for black folks in this country. I mean, or, to live.$$Oh, absolutely, it's tough because the oppression was everywhere and you being in your place was everywhere. And see, my, my [maternal] grandparents [Pearl Mitchell and Ludie Mitchell] didn't, didn't vote. But, but my dad [James Rosser, Sr.] and my mom [Marjorie Mitchell Rosser] they were, I'll never forget going to the courthouse in, in '64 [1964], with shotguns, with white people lacing the courthouse when they repealed that you had to go through these tests and everything, the Voting Rights Act [Voting Rights Act of 1965], they were one of the first people to go there and vote. And then subsequently my dad and mom served on the election board. But, they had to go vote under the threat of their lives. I don't think people understand that now. You talk to a youngster now and they can't even fathom that. But here I am, a little kid, my parents gave me front row seats, we, we faced that danger as a family. And, my, my dad and my mom, they were absolute leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. But, a leader of a different kind. The black people called them Uncle Toms, the white people called them agitators, so they were right in the middle. And like my dad said, that's about where we need to be. Where black people didn't, didn't necessarily agree with everything they did. White people didn't necessarily agree with everything they did, now I'll giv- they did. Now, I'll give you an example, this is a burning memory. In Moorhead, Mississippi, where I grew up is in the Delta in Mississippi [Mississippi Delta], the Civil Rights Movement was in full swing, it was probably '64 [1964] or '65 [1965]. Freedom Riders were big. And, they boycotted the town, the, the business district of Moorhead, because we had to go into a drugstore, we couldn't have a malt, a milkshake, we had to get it in the back, this sort of thing. So, they locked down the town, boycotted the whole town. Well, one of the people in one of the stores they boycotted was a Mr. Harry Diamond, Diamond's Department Store. At the time Mr. Diamond was just, you know, as far as I'm concerned, white. But, he was really Jewish, all right. So, they boycotted Mr. Diamond's store, well my dad took offense to that. Because, he just said, "Two wrongs don't make a right." Harry Diamond really all his life had, you know, embraced black people. So, I'll never forget at the height of this boycott, where people are down there with pitchforks and everything like that, signs, my daddy came home on a Saturday. My dad never gets home on a Saturday, because he, my dad was a school principal. But, that was his part-time job. He was, he was, doing crops, selling produce, he was an entrepreneur really. I think that's where I get that from, being an entrepreneur. And he said, "You know what? We're going in town." That was rare. And he did something else rare, he gave us a dollar apiece. My dad doesn't give money for you to go into town like that, that's just, he's an ex-Marine [U.S. Marine Corps] and that was just frivolous. But, on this occasion he said, "I'm giving you a dollar and we're gonna go downtown and we're gonna buy something we don't even need from Harry Diamond." I'll never forget us, get, forget what we did, forget what we did. We all got in our Sunday best. My dad went in and I saw his Marine uniform and his .45, he put the holster on. And we get in the car we all go down. I'll never forget how the people parted as my dad's car came up. And the people, there was a big crowd of people blocking all the, the, the highway, the, the, the street. And so, it parted and we came in and parked. And then my dad got out and it was the first time I ever seen him open the door for my mama (laughter). He was that kind of guy. And we got out and he, he started walking and people just naturally parted, not a word being said. Then all of sudden he stopped right at the back of the car. And I'm saying, "Why is my daddy stopping with these people crazy out here, right now. Let's keep moving." That's me saying as a little child. And he stopped and turned around to address the crowd. And he said, "I'm getting ready to go into Mr. Harry Diamond's department store, and I'm gonna buy something I don't even need. And I'm gonna buy something I don't even need because, let me tell you, two wrongs don't make a right." And he then pointed out, "The shoes on your baby's feet, where'd you get 'em from?" "Mr. Diamond." "Did you pay for it in cash or credit?" "He gave me credit." And he went around and pointed people out in the crowd and basically reviewed everything this man had done. And he said, "Look, I want you to know two wrongs don't make a right. And I'm gonna tell ya right now and I'm going over here and I'm gonna buy this and nobody's gonna stop me." Everybody opened up, my dad walked in, we bought something, came back. And then next day, every merchant was boycotted except Mr. Harry Diamond.$Were you prepared, I mean, you know?$$Was we, were--no I wasn't prepared.$$Okay.$$I had to work a lot harder 'cause I didn't have all the courses that these kids had. I had to come in there and, man, work hard. I'm from a handicapped situation that wasn't my own making. But, we never complained, complained, we just adapted. I'll never forget, the, the black people there it was just amazing because nobody had gotten anything more than a C from English lit before, or English comp, as, as a black person. 'Cause every black person knew every black person on the campus of University of Mississippi [Oxford, Mississippi]. And what your grades were. So, the thing that when I came out and I had got a B in English comp it was like it went through wildfire. And was (unclear) 'cause nobody had done well. Had all these great black kids who came from unprepared situations who always wound up dropping out. And I'll never forget that was a source of pride. Because they would say we weren't gonna be able to do with this sort of thing and we would do it. And I came there, I was a youngster, I mean 'cause I was always ahead. They couldn't even figure out how the heck did you get here this young, and how you staying here and doing well. So, we were able, I was able to establish my reputation there as being a, of being a, a, a great student. And the first black fraternity on campus was Omega Psi Phi [Omega Psi Phi Fraternity], and I was one of the founding members of that. Eta Zeta Chapter in, in '73 [1973], they had not had a black Greek society on campus.$$Now, composition I, I was just thinking that composition that is one thing that University of Mississippi is known for. It's known for its English department?$$Yeah.$$And its writing courses if nothing else 'cause (unclear)--$$And it's tough.$$--all the writers in Mississippi that have, have come out of--$$It's tough.$$--(unclear) have taught there like Faulkner [William Faulkner], so?$$Oh yeah! Yeah so, so that was a, but, but, people weren't doing well. You have to realize at that time three black people couldn't meet for more than fifteen minutes in one spot on our campus. That was in the rule book (laughter). That was in the rule book. But, you know what there was so many good people. Friends today, Mikey Brunt [L. Michael Brunt], who's at Wash U [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri] who's an unbelievable world class surgeon. He was a guy that befriended me. And to this day, you know, we have just such good feelings about, about each other. You know, and he didn't go to University of Mississippi medical school [University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Oxford, Mississippi]; he went to another place. But, but it's just a beautiful thing to talk about those days in organic chemistry. And all, we always were in those courses together. And he always spoke to me, always befriended me. I mean a lot good people were there. And really, for the most part, I, I think I got through there without a, a lot of problems.$$Okay, how did, I mean did the black students study together, did you have a, were they organized?$$No, no, socially everybody was a crab in the barrel thing. Uh, you know, I mean really wasn't that tight camaraderie everybody wanted to think they were special, and, and individual and, and they didn't do that much. And, and in fact most of the time people weren't doing well as they had done before and they kind of kept that inside. I saw we had a lot of people that would drop out.$$No, Black Student Union?$$(Unclear) yes, they did but it wasn't strong, you know what I mean. As strong as (unclear) we had little simple things, some little organization things. But, I wasn't, I wasn't really a part of that, as much. Because I was trying to get out of there, I think. Well, 'cause I, you know, I wanted to move on. I wanted to move on. The whole point why I accelerated through high school [Gentry High School, Indianola, Mississippi] and through college was to get to do what I wanted to do quicker, you know. I was pushing for that.$$Okay, okay so was there any particular teachers or administrators or students at the University of Mississippi that stand out in terms of their association with you or?$$Not really, because you know that was a big situation, sterile environment. Not really had anybody that was forceful, you were, it was, you were on your own (laughter). You know, you were on your own. And so, no, nobody there. I was just, I didn't want to fail. I didn't want to go home and have people point at me, "Hey there goes Butch Rosser [HistoryMaker Dr. James Rosser, Jr.], he could of done this. He could of done that." I heard that all my life, you know. Somebody went somewhere and could of done this, could of done that. They're still living on what they could of done. I, I didn't wanna do that, I had a fear of failure, I really did.$$Okay.$$A fear of failure.

Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr.

Physician Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr. was born on February 24, 1922, in Wake County, Raleigh, North Carolina. He was the eldest of four children and the only son of parents who worked as domestics. After graduating from Washington High School in Raleigh, Blount enrolled at North Carolina A & T University in 1939 where he served as the student body president and as chairman of the campus newspaper before graduating in 1943 with his B.A. degree in chemistry (magna cum laude). After graduating, Blount was accepted into a government funded program that enabled him to enroll in Howard University Medical School where he studied under Dr. Charles Drew and received his M.D. degree in 1947. Blount spent three years on active duty in the U.S. Army during medical school. He completed a general surgery residency at Kate Bittings Reynolds Memorial Hospital in Winston-Salem.

In 1952, Blount was mobilized with the 8225th Infantry Division from Fort Bragg as a member of the U.S. Army Medical Corps’ 2nd Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) Unit that was sent to Korea. Blount, whose team performed ninety surgeries a week, went on to become a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Corps. He served as acting Chief of Surgery for the 8225th MASH Unit in Korea from 1951 until 1952, and was appointed Chief of Surgery for the 47th U.S. Army Combat Surgical Hospital in Southeast Asia. He returned to the United States in 1954.

In 1957, Blount became the first African American in North Carolina be certified by the American College of Abdominal Surgeons in 1957 and practiced at Kindred Hospital (formerly L. Richardson Hospital). He was a litigant of the suit Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Hospital (1963), the landmark Supreme Court decision that desegregated hospitals throughout the South. Blount became the first black surgeon admitted to the medical staff of Cone Hospital in 1964. He served as Chief of Surgery for L. Richardson Hospital and as Medical Director for the Guilford Health Care Center.

Blount was affiliated with numerous organizations including Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Association of Guardsmen. He was a member of the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity since 1970; and, in 1979, he established the Beta Epsilon Boule of the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity in Greensboro. Blount, a 33rd degree Mason, was an honorary past Grand Master and Medical Director of the Prince Hall Masons of North Carolina. He received countless awards including the Order of the Long Leaf Pine, the highest honor that can be granted to a civilian in the state of North Carolina. In 1983, North Carolina A & T University awarded Blount an Honorary Doctorate of Humanities

Blount passed away on January 6, 2017 at age 94.

Accession Number

A2013.157

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/5/2013

Last Name

Blount

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

V.

Occupation
Schools

Washington High School

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Howard University College of Medicine

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alvin

Birth City, State, Country

Raleigh

HM ID

BLO02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

If you think you are right, have the courage to do it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

2/24/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Greensboro

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

1/6/2017

Short Description

Physician Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr. (1922 - 2017 ) , the first African American in North Carolina to be certified by the American College of Abdominal Surgeons, was a litigant in the hospital desegregation suit Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Hospital, which allowed him to become first black surgeon admitted to the medical staff of Cone Hospital. He served as acting Chief of Surgery for the 8225th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) Unit in Korea from 1951 until 1952, and was appointed Chief of Surgery for the 47th U.S. Army Combat Surgical Hospital in Southeast Asia.

Employment

Delete

Kindred Hospital

Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital

L. Richardson Hospital

Womack Army Hospital

8225th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital

United States Army Medical Services

Katie B. Reynolds Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Light Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alvin Blount's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about his mother's education and aspirations and his parents working in New York during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about land ownership in North Carolina after the American Civil War

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about his father's education and his job in North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his parents getting married in 1920 and lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alvin Blount talks about his parents' loving marriage, their emphasis on education, and their having to work in New York during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alvin Blount discusses his father's employment as a chauffeur for Eddie Rickenbacker, the Rickenbacker family, and General John "Black Jack" Pershing

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Alvin Blount talks about the mentorship that he received from his father's employer, Reed Chambers

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about Reed Cambers, his mother's death, and his father's remarriage

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount describes his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about his childhood observations of his life as an African American

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about his religious faith

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about attending elementary school in New Rochelle, New York and Franklinton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount talks about the difference between his elementary schools in New Rochelle, New York and Franklinton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the teachers who influenced him, his math classes and why he decided to major in chemistry in college

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about his academics and leadership in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about being exposed to black doctors in the neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about attending North Carolina A and T State University in 1939 on a National Youth Administration (NYA) scholarship

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Alvin Blount talks about his professors in at North Carolina A and T State University and his involvement in campus politics

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about his nickname in college, and running for student body elections

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount recalls the United States' entry into World War II in 1941 and why he decided to pursue medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about the importance of a background in the humanities, and how he ensured that he received a well-rounded education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about the joining the U.S. Army and his experience there

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about attending Howard University's medical college, his residency in North Carolina, and the challenges of being a black physician

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount talks about the Flexner Report

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the challenges that were faced by black medical students and residents while receiving his medical training

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about the limited opportunity for black medical residents and the discrimination against them

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about his professors and colleagues at Howard University's College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his career as a physician and surgeon

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about his residency at Kate B. Reynolds Hospital in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about rejoining the military in 1950, and his assignments to the MASH units in Fort Bragg and in Korea

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount describes his experience in the Korean War, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about his marriages

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience in Korea during the Korean War and the plight of the civilians, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience in Korea during the Korean War and the plight of the civilians, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the book and television series, MASH

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount describes his experience the Korean War, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about returning from the Korean War and his acquaintance with Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black doctor to practice at Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon Jack Greenberg being the only white legal counselor for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF)

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience with demonstrations at North Carolina A and T State University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about Reverend Jesse Jackson

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about black doctors who were involved in civil rights and the history of African Americans in medicine in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black physician to perform surgery at Moses Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about the Ku Klux Klansmen who built his home in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about facing discrimination as a physician in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about serving on the Greensboro jury commission

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon the changes in the relationship between African American and white doctors in North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his career

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount reflects upon the election of President Barack Obama as the first black president in the United States

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount discusses health concerns and healthcare for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount discusses health concerns and healthcare for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about medical malpractice

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount describes his photographs

DASession

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DATitle
Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 1
Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black physician to perform surgery at Moses Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina
Transcript
There's a story to that. I was chairman in Greensboro [North Carolina] of the liaison committee between the Greensboro Medical Society--black, and the white medical society, Gilford County. They had a group of doctors, members from each of them. And I served as chairman. I was secretary of the Greensboro Medical Society. And although they had other people qualified, I had an application in. And I was appointed the first black doctor to the Gilford County Medical Society and the Greensboro Academy of Medicine. Now, there's another--added to it. They offered us, before this, what is called a scientific membership--which you go to the meetings, but the social events, you were excluded.$$Scientific membership?$$Yeah. And we wrote them back and told them this is the most insulting thing you can do, and did not accept it.$$Yeah, isn't a goal of the American Medical Association to form a collegial bond between physicians?$$Well, that's what they said. But you see, they didn't have a--. Here's the question. When you read this book, you'll understand the black doctor was never intended by the American Medical Association to be as full fledged as the white physician. I don't care how much training, what and what--if you're black, then you lost your qualification then. That went for [Dr. Charles] Drew, that went for all of us at Howard [University, Washington, District of Columbia], and everybody, until they got them to--and so forth. So, there we had that right that we had in the South. And in--a lot of northern states were doing the same thing. It excludes, at that time it didn't exclude Connecticut nor Massachusetts at first. So, this is it, the thing that we were fighting about. It all eventually led, as you know, in a suit.$$Right, right.$$In 1962.$$A friend of yours who's a dentist, right, filed?$$There were ten of us.$$Well, can you remember all ten?$$Yeah. I got them around here somewhere. Okay, let me see if I can give you--There was Dr. [Walter] Hughes, Dr. Blount, Dr. Jones and Dr. Alexander, Dr. F. E. Davis and E.C. Noel. And the dentists were Dr. [George] Simkins, Dr. Milton Barnes and Dr. W. T. L. Miller. And there were two civilians, one of which was named Lyons.$$Okay.$$That's it.$$Okay, okay.$Okay. Now, in 1964--this is the same year as the Civil Rights Act was passed, you became the first black physician to perform an operation at Moses Cone [Memorial Hospital, Greensboro, North Carolina], right?$$Yes I did, a cholecystectomy (unclear).$$How did that take place? I mean, was there, you know--because you being the first, there had to be some--was there any ceremony involved in this, or any--$$It is said that the white surgeons took a holiday that day. That's so far back I can't think whether it was true or not. More than likely, it was. But it was said that for two or three days, the white physicians would boycott this. I don't know whether they did or not, but that is said, and it probably is true. But I had been operating with them over at the black hospital. So, that wasn't anything new. I'd been at the [U.S.] Army hospital and I operated, so--. And my assistant was in surgery and gynecology, but he was also certified. So, we went in and did our, you know, before we do our operations, the first thing we do is we ligate the cystic duct and cystic artery. And then before we cut, we take a picture of the common [bile] duct to see if there are any stones in there. If not, you cut them and (unclear) come on out. And I guess we were there about an hour and ten minutes doing that. And they were amazed, because some of their doctors took two hours and a half or something. But that goes under the particular art of dexterity. And some people are fairly good technicians and others aren't, and no matter how much theory they know, they just can't do the small things, because we don't--yeah--$$We were talking about Jack White earlier--$$Yeah, that's right.$$--about how dexterious he was.$$And me doing them now, I'd be doing laproscopic. I'd just make two little holes and look down there and clip, clip, clip, clip, and in thirty minutes, I'm out. But (unclear), and then of course, the next day I have to (unclear) with an abdominal hysterectomy and, you know, the vaginal. I did, and I think the next day I had a cholecystectomy the day before, and lesions were left in the colon and enter into what we call entero-proctostomy, the thing what I've been doing all the time. And then they started drifting back and shaking my hands and saying, "It certainly went right, I'm sorry y'all had to go through this stuff." You know, I just took that pressure off them. "Yeah, man. But you see what you were doing, you were messing with my welfare because the patient wanted to come here, and I couldn't come here. So they had to get somebody here to do the operation. You're taking my money. (laughter). And so, that's the only thing we're interested in. You don't have to love me, or like me, or not. But you don't have the right to keep me out of this facility, because you don't want it. The people know it."$$This is true.$$Yeah. So there again goes-they of us (unclear) how to approach things and how to get things over to people definitely without having to put your fist on them. Don't get mad about it, just lay the facts out. Smarter thinker. That's what I, all my life--if you live in the South, and they do anything for you, you had to spend some nights thinking how you're going to get this done.

Dr. Patricia Bath

Medical scientist Patricia E. Bath was born on November 4, 1942 in Harlem, New York. Bath’s father, Rupert, was a Trinidadian immigrant and the first black motorman in the New York City subway system; her mother, Gladys, was a descendant of African slaves and Cherokee Native Americans and worked as a housewife and domestic. Bath attended Julia Ward Howe Junior High School and Charles Evans Hughes High School. In 1959, Bath received a grant from the National Science Foundation to attend the Summer Institute in Biomedical Science at Yeshiva University in New York, where she worked on a project studying the relationship between caner, nutrition, and stress. Bath went on to graduate from Hunter College in New York City with her B.S. degree in chemistry in 1964. She then attended Howard University Medical School. Bath graduated with honors in 1968 with her M.D. degree and also won the Edwin J. Watson Prize for Outstanding Student in Ophthalmology.

From 1970 until 1973, Bath was the first African American resident in ophthalmology at new York University’s School of Medicine. During this time, she married and gave birth to a daughter, Eraka, in 1972. In 1973, Bath worked as an assistant surgeon at Sydenham Hospital, Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospital, and Metropolitan Surgical Hospital, all in New York City. In 1974, she completed a fellowship in corneal and keratoprosthesis surgery. Then, Bath moved to Los Angeles, California where she became the first African American woman surgeon at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center. She was also appointed assistant professor at the Charles R. Drew University. In 1975, Bath became the first woman faculty member of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute.

In 1981, Bath conceived of her invention, the Laserphaco Probe. She traveled to Berlin University in Germany to learn more about laser technology, and over the course of the next five years, she developed and tested a model for a laser instrument that could be tested to remove cataracts. Bath received a patent for her invention on May 17, 1988, and became the first African American female doctor to receive a patent for a medical invention. She continued to work at UCLA and Drew University during the development of her laser cataract removal instrument, and, in 1983, she developed and chaired an ophthalmology residency training program. From 1983 to 1986, Bath was the first woman chair and first female program director of a postgraduate training program in the United States. In 1993, Bath retired from the UCLA Medical Center. Bath was inducted into the International Women in Medicine Hall of Fame in 2001.

Patricia E. Bath was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 29, 2012.

Bath passed away on May 30, 2019.

Accession Number

A2012.243

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/29/2012

Last Name

Bath

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Charles Evans Hughes High School

Hunter College

Howard University College of Medicine

Julia Ward Howe Junior High School 81

P.S. 68

First Name

Patricia

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

BAT10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Yes.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/4/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fruit

Death Date

5/30/2019

Short Description

Physician Dr. Patricia Bath (1942 - ) was a professor of ophthalmology at Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and the UCLA School of Medicine in Los Angeles, California. She invented the laserphaco probe, a device used in cataract surgery.

Employment

Yeshiva University

Harlem Hospital

Columbia University

New York University

University of California, Los Angeles

Charles R. Drew University

American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Patricia Bath's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her mother's move to New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her paternal great-great-grandfather, Jonas Mohammed Bath

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her father's experiences as a merchant seaman

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her home life

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the Harlem community in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early education, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her aspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early education, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers Dr. Albert Schweitzer

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls the era of school desegregation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her high school science fair experiment

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers Charles Evans Hughes High School in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her early scientific achievements

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her scholarship to Hunter College in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her activities at Hunter College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the social organizations at Hunter College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her admission to the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her mentors at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early interest in ophthalmology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the medical licensing process

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her internship at New York City's Harlem Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her role in the Poor People's Campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the birth of her daughter

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her decision to become a single parent

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls joining the faculty of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her fellowship in keratoprosthesis

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the founding of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls the start of her medical career in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the development of community ophthalmology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her study of blindness in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers inventing the laserphaco probe, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers inventing the laserphaco probe, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about the advancements in ophthalmological laser surgery

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls becoming the chief of ophthalmology at the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the procedure for cataract surgery

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her decision to retire

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her artistic interests

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her involvement in the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her involvement in the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the support of her parents

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

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DATitle
Dr. Patricia Bath describes her role in the Poor People's Campaign
Dr. Patricia Bath describes the founding of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School
Transcript
I neglected to ask you about 1968 at, at Howard [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.]. Now were you on, you were, I guess, on the verge of graduation when Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was killed, right?$$Yes, yes, yeah, that, that, you know, I wanted to mention about Dr. King earlier, and somehow it escaped me, but when I pledged AKA [Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority] as an undergraduate at Hunter College [New York, New York], my chapter [Lambda Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.] nominated me for a national office which I did win, and I became the highest ranking undergraduate officer on the board of directors, second (unclear) basileus is what they called it and in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], when King, Martin Luther King, Jr. was speaking at the boule, I had the honor of introducing him to the boule. And so I met Dr. King and it was a brief interaction, you know, moments, minutes, but he was the type of charismatic person that could change (laughter) your whole perspective and so it had a great effect on me. And when I later went to medical school, and when he was killed, it, it did have a big effect on me and I participated in Resurrection City. I organized the medical students so we could provide healthcare, to some extent, during the Poor People's Campaign. You know, we had, that was really, it turned out to be a linchpin in the success of Resurrection City because they were trying to close it down for whatever reason and they didn't want to close it down because they didn't want poor people at the mall that would have not been an American way of closing it down, but, so they thought they could close it down based on health reasons, you know, overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and that's where the medical students came in and my role, with the role of some others, but we established the medical coordinating committee for the Resurrection City. Dr. Mazique, Ed Mazique [Edward C. Mazique], I recall, and Reverend Fauntroy [HistoryMaker Reverend Walter Fauntroy], they were the ones--and Joseph Rines [ph.] from Seventh-day Adventist, they were the ones who came up with this concept and, you know, the medical students supported it and so every time the Department of Health [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services] would come up with an excuse to close it, you know, we'd put our heads together and find a way to mitigate, you know, whether it was clean water testing, food preparation, number of infections, kids who needed shots, you know, it was my first field, battlefield experience.$$Okay, now this happened, I guess the march, the Poor People's Campaign was a dream of Dr. King's and took place after his--$$Death.$$--assassination, and--$$Yes, yes, '68 [1968].$$--after the riots and all those--$$Yeah.$$--were over, basically--$$Sixty-eight [1968].$$Yeah, '68 [1968]--$$Um-hm, the year I graduated [from Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.].$$Yeah, so was that in, did that take place in June, May or June of that year?$$Well, the Poor People's Campaign was for several months--$$Yeah.$$--but, you know, and, of course, when I graduated in May, I stayed, I stayed there until July, had to start my internship [at Harlem Hospital; Harlem Medical Center, New York, New York].$$Okay.$$So I left.$$So, yeah, my recollection is that it, yeah, it started maybe a month or two after Dr. King was assassinated then, with the march, then occupation of the Mall [National Mall, Washington, D.C.]--$$Yes.$$--you know, so, okay so you there until Ju--$$It was great to be a part of that.$$Okay.$$And I have an article on that too. That's, that was published in the Journal of the National Medical Association, there's a shot of myself and Dr. Mazique and the coordinating committee there and our story, what we were doing.$$Okay.$Now, once again, Charles R. Drew [Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School; Charles R. Drew University of Science and Medicine, Los Angeles, California], now, was Charles Drew conceived of as a hospital to give opportunities for African American and maybe even minority medical students?$$Now keep in mind, I'm in New York [New York] and they, they founded this institution before I arrived. My understanding is that Charles Drew medical school was founded as a result of the McCone Commission. There were riots after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] and--there were riots in Los Angeles [California] and a commission was set up. One of the findings of the commission was that the area of Watts [Los Angeles, California] and South Central [Los Angeles, California] was not only impoverished, but the people lacked access to medical care. So, the McCone Commission determined that one of the positive things that they could do was to promote the establishment of healthcare. So two things happened. One, they built Martin Luther King Hospital [Martin Luther King Jr./Drew Medical Center; Martin Luther King Jr. Outpatient Center, Los Angeles, California], which was the county; and secondly, the Drew medical school was created to nurture the hospital, in the same way that Columbia [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York] would nurture Harlem Hospital [Harlem Medical Center, New York, New York]. The problem though was that Drew had not existed as an established medical school. It's not as if it was a transplant of Howard [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], which couldn't be done. So in order to empower the newly established Drew medical school, the leadership at Drew decided that they would affiliate half of their departments with UCLA [University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine; David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California] and half of the departments with USC [University of Southern California School of Medicine; Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California]. They felt that that way Drew could maintain autonomy. Had they only affiliated with UCLA, then they would, they felt they would lose autonomy or the same would happen if they had only affiliated with USC. But they felt that by having two major strong institutions that they could maintain autonomy and grow and then eventually, if decided, cut ties with both. So, it was mainly established to provide service to the underserved community of Watts and South Central.

Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.

Surgeon, professor, medical director, and contributor to community service, Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. was born to Daisy L. Sherard Yancey and Arthur H. Yancey on August 19, 1916 in Atlanta, Georgia. Daisy was a housewife, and Arthur worked as a U.S. Post Office mail carrier. Mr. Arthur H. Yancey wrote an autobiographical book in 1959 entitled Interpositionulification: What the Negro May Expect. In 1933, Asa G. Yancey graduated as valedictorian from Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta. He earned his B.S. degree with honors four years later from Morehouse College. Yancey was one of four African American students in his class at the University of Michigan Medical School where his elder brother, Bernise, graduated from medical school in 1930.

Upon receiving his M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1941, Yancey first completed a general rotating internship from 1941 to 1942 at what is now Metropolitan General Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. It was from this experience that he decided to pursue general surgery training. He served as First Lieutenant in The United States Army Medical Corp. before he returned to complete his residency in surgery at Freedmen’s Hospital, Howard University, where he trained under the guidance of Dr. Charles R. Drew. In 1945, he was a surgical fellow at the U.S. Marine Hospital in Boston and then became an instructor of surgery at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. Also about this time, Yancey started his involvement with the National Medical Association (NMA), the largest and oldest national organization for African American physicians.

Following his time in Boston and Nashville, he served as the Chief of Surgery at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama and then the Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory Univerisity where he established the first accredited general surgery training program for black surgeons. With his return to Atlanta in 1958, Yancey was invited to join the faculty at Emory University School of Medicine where he became an Instructor of Surgery in 1964. In 1972, Yancey was appointed medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and associate dean at Emory University Medical School. He was appointed full Professor of Surgery at Emory University Medical School in 1975. He continued to work at the Emory University Clinic and Grady Memorial Hospital until his retirement in 1989.

Yancey has contributed numerous articles to the academic surgical community, and he has been recognized with many awards His article, “A Modification of the Swenson Operation for Congenital Megacolon," published in a 1952 issue of The Journal of the National Medical Association, describes a surgical procedure that preceded Soave’s publication by ten years. Yancey has also written articles exploring issues of medical care, health care, and poverty including "Medical Education in Atlanta and Health Care of Black Minority and Low Income People," and "The Challenge of Providing Health Care for the Poor: Public Hospital Perspective". His book Portrayal of a Lifespan describes life as it was for him in the 21st Century. Yancey received the Bennie Service Award, in 1990 and he receivedan Honorary Doctor of Science from Morehouse College and Howard University. . The Society of Black Academic Surgeons established a lectureship in the name of Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. The Emory University Health System recognized his professional contributions over the years by naming a healthcare facility, The Asa G. Yancey Health Clinic, in northwest Atlanta.

Yancey was married to the late Carolyn “Marge” E. Dunbar and they have four children: Arthur H. Yancey II, M.D, Carolyn L. Yancey, M.D., Caren L Yancey-Covington (deceased), and Asa G. Yancey, Jr., M.D.

Dr. Asa G. Yancey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 19, 2012.

Dr. Asa Yancey passed away on March 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2012.056

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/19/2012

Last Name

Yancey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Edmund Asa Ware School

Booker T. Washington High School

Morehouse College

Michigan Medicine

First Name

Asa

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

YAN04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sea Coasts of Alabama, the Gulf of Mexico

Favorite Quote

Let's Get On With It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/19/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

3/9/2013

Short Description

Surgeon, medical professor, and medical director Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. (1916 - 2013 ) served as the medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and dean at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. He also created the first accredited surgical training program for black doctors in Georgia.

Employment

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

United States Marine Hospital

Meharry Medical College

Tuskegee Veteran's Administration Hospital

Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital

Emory University

Grady Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:192,5:448,10:960,19:1344,28:1920,38:36183,256:36801,282:56328,440:61034,500:65130,529:65530,535:85077,741:86073,864:120544,1143:123662,1196:128954,1260:129626,1265:132398,1327:135674,1389:142086,1464:173124,1800:189730,1978:200483,2240:225028,2558:225398,2565:229838,2667:230282,2674:256470,2949$0,0:12464,144:20920,171:21640,179:22240,185:25372,194:26488,201:27852,217:28596,224:31696,260:32316,266:33060,274:33760,282:34080,287:39362,333:39946,342:46138,394:49490,415:66710,539:69135,551:71516,577:81731,675:94077,744:94698,755:96290,761:96990,773:97550,783:98320,796:98670,802:98950,807:99370,814:101641,827:103678,856:104842,871:107073,906:108237,923:108722,929:109110,934:128793,1299:129339,1306:131341,1339:132615,1356:139294,1399:148315,1468:149125,1475:154530,1513:161667,1588:166612,1718:166904,1723:169210,1742:170925,1753:172795,1781:175622,1807:176154,1812:188080,1872:191692,1908:194140,1939:205110,2045:211944,2099:238760,2275:239508,2291:244396,2354:246252,2399:246542,2405:249964,2422:250516,2431:254382,2513:264485,2644:274645,2713:275690,2724
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his father's personality and book

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his early schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his personality as a young child

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his family's home

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his relationship with his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his childhood friends

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the race relations in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his residency at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his salary as a medical intern

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls working as a surgeon in Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his role at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the Tuskegee syphilis experiment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes Dr. William Montague Cobb

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls the history of Grady Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls becoming the chief of surgery at the Hughes Spalding Pavilion in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the conditions at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls serving on the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the achievements of the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls joining the staff of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the closure of black hospitals

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. shares his views on public healthcare

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

9$8

DATitle
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi
Transcript
Now, what happened when you graduated from Morehouse [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia]?$$Well (pause), I caught the train (laughter) I caught the train and went to Detroit [Michigan] and I had a cousin there, a Mr. A.W. Prince [ph.] and I was just, my father [Arthur H. Yancey] wrote Mr. Prince and asked if I could live with him and Mr. Prince said, "Yes, I'd be glad to have him." So I was a roomer in Mr. Prince's home and I walked around Detroit and walked the streets looking for a job and that was in the days of, the Great Depression was still going on and a job was mighty hard to find, but I finally found a little job in a furniture store and my job was to keep the stock room straight with the furniture and keep it ready to place in the showroom to see. And, of course, while I was doing that I decided to go out to Ann Arbor [Michigan] and look around a little bit. My brother [Bernise A. Yancey] had finished medical school out there at the University of Michigan and, so I took the train or bus or whatever was moving at the time, and went out there and decided I'd go by the dean's office and tell him I wanted to go to medical school (laughter). He said, "You what?" He said, "You haven't even applied." I'm sure I realized that but that didn't make any difference. I'm here now and I want to go to medical school. He said, "When?" I said, "This September." That was maybe in July or August. He said, "No way. Just forget it." He said, "We took this class and decided who was going to be a member of this class last March and here you come in here in July and talk about you want to go to medical school. Just forget it." (Laughter) So I said, "Thank you very much," and left. And I knew I had a pretty good transcript at Morehouse and probably better than a lot that he had (laughter) so I went on home and wrote Morehouse and asked them to send my transcript to the dean there at, A.C. Furstenberg, at the University of Michigan school of medicine [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan], which they did, of course, and when I figured my letter had time to get to Morehouse and Morehouse had time to send in a transcript, I went back out there to see the dean and he said, "Well, you're here again," and I said, "That's right, here I am." He said, "What do you want?" I said, "I want to go to medical school," (laughter). "When do you want to go?" "I want to go this July. I want to go this September," and here it is July. He said, "Forget it," (laughter). We took this class--I said, "Now wait a minute." I said, "I have my transcripts and you can see it." But when he got it, he realized it was better than a whole lot that he had and I knew it would be so he says, "Just wait a minute." He sat there a minute or two and I sat there a minute or two and he said, he reached into the drawer and pulled out a blank form, he said, "Fill this out and come on to school" (laughter).$Tell us about Mound Bayou [Mississippi].$$Mound Bayou--$$Yeah.$$--was an all colored town. The word colored was popular at the time. It was a small town and they had a, back in those days our people always joined a burial society and they'd pay twenty-five, fifty cents a week so that when they passed away, they would have enough money in that pool to get a decent looking casket and have a decent service. So, that was, and Mound Bayou was an all Negro town and that was a popular word at the time, and it had a Negro mail and it was just a, the people in the surrounding community and it was just houses here and there and farms and so forth, and the Mississippi Delta country, the land was just as flat as the top of that table, and the people put their nickels and dimes and quarters and fifty cent pieces together and built, and they had a burial organization. That was what it's for, it's a big house there, but after many years had passed, they found they had a lot of money, so they decided to build a hospital and they built the Taborian Hospital [Mound Bayou Community Hospital, Mound Bayou, Mississippi] and the idea was that the people who were members of the Knights and Daughters of Tabor [International Order of Twelve Knights and Daughters of Tabor] would continue to pay their yearly policy, but they could go to the hospital and get treatment free at the time of service, and they did that, but the chief surgeon that they hired to take care of people began to try to collect fees from the patients. Some of them would pay, some of them got mad and objected. So, they came to a parting of the ways and that's how they invited us from Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] to come down and help out, because he wouldn't treat the ones who wouldn't pay him. So, we went down and became chief in the hospital, so I was running the hospital and he built a little tent across the street and took his friends over there. We just ignored him and paid no attention. We just kept running the hospital.$$Sir, what was this doctor's name? What was his name?$$Dr. Howard [T.R.M. Howard]. He finally moved to Memphis [Tennessee] and practiced there for a while until he retired, I guess, I don't know.$$Okay. Is he any relation to the Dr. Howard that was involved in civil rights down there? Is he related to the Dr. Howard from Mississippi that was involved in civil rights?$$I don't remember anything about that.$$Yeah, there was a Dr. Howard from Mississippi that moved to Chicago [Illinois] who was involved in the Civil Rights Movement down there. Famous Dr. Howard.$$He did go to Memphis and then to Chicago, and I can't tell you about the other--I don't know anything about that.

Dr. Hollis Underwood

Internal medicine physician Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood was born on October 29, 1957 in Chicago, Illinois to Robert Arthur and Janetta Martha Crowe. Underwood graduated from Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan in 1975. She attended the University of Maryland as a zoology major. Underwood then completed her M.D. degree at Howard University School of Medicine and did her post graduate residency training at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota.

In 1987, Underwood worked in the National Health Service Corps at Frederiksted Health Center in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. While there, Underwood co-chaired the 1989 Peer Review Committee at the Virgin Islands Medical Institute in Christiansted, Virgin Islands. Underwood then began working as the Medical Director and Acting Project Director for Frederiksted Health Center and as the District Health Officer at the Charles Harwood Memorial Hospital in Christiansted until 1990.

In 1990, Underwood was hired as the Lead Internist and Director of Hypertension & Lipid Clinic at the Ohio Permanente Medical Group in Parma, Ohio, before working as an intermediate Lipid Specialist for the American Heart Association at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1994, Underwood became a consultant for the Department of Community Internal Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona, where she worked until 2000.

In 1997, Underwood acted as a consultant on a sixteen member multi-disciplinary medical team that traveled to Dakar, Senegal to provide cardiovascular medical care for the community. The venture, Project MEDHELP, led by Albert F. Olivier, consisted of cardiothoracic and general surgeons, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, internists, public health experts, dermatologists and gynecologists.

In February 2000, Underwood became President of Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc., working alongside her husband Dr. Paul L. Underwood, Jr., in Scottsdale, Arizona. Underwood served on several boards and organizations including the Center for Women’s Health, Vibetree Foundation and Planned Parenthood. She is also active in several organizations including the Links, Inc., the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood resides in Phoenix, Arizona with her family.

Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.208

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/14/2007

Last Name

Underwood

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Holly

Schools

Cass Technical High School

University of Maryland

Howard University College of Medicine

Ernie Pyle Elementary School

Mayo Medical School

Lutheran Parish School

First Name

Hollis

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

UND02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

If You Can't Be Who You Need To Be, By Remaining Who You Are.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arizona

Birth Date

10/29/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Phoenix

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Internal medicine physician Dr. Hollis Underwood (1957 - ) specialized in internal medicine and was president of Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc. in Arizona.

Employment

Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc.

Mayo Clinic

Ohio Permanete Medical Group

Charlest Harwood Memorial Hospital

Frederiksted Health Center

Favorite Color

Chartreuse

Timing Pairs
0,0:4757,167:5695,187:8844,288:9849,303:10318,312:10586,322:11122,337:15209,441:16683,467:16951,472:17554,483:18358,499:18626,504:19229,515:30944,671:32388,725:32768,732:34516,766:35580,782:39684,876:45840,1008:51134,1047:51926,1075:54230,1121:56534,1184:57182,1194:57470,1199:58190,1210:62366,1307:65246,1376:65678,1394:66110,1402:82676,1628:83084,1636:87912,1781:88456,1790:88728,1795:89136,1802:89408,1807:94000,1829:95470,1861:95750,1866:96520,1883:97010,1891:98620,2002:99390,2021:100580,2047:100860,2052:104080,2118:104990,2132:108280,2197:108910,2207:112480,2280:113110,2290:115210,2341:132256,2698:138557,2794:139040,2802:139316,2807:140627,2840:142007,2865:143456,2901:145181,2929:145457,2934:161758,3276:162646,3290:162942,3299:163978,3310:168190,3354$0,0:6834,173:7303,184:7571,189:7839,194:8375,203:10720,263:11926,289:12529,299:13467,317:14070,327:14405,333:14807,340:15410,351:15946,361:17487,401:18425,428:19095,442:19497,453:20301,468:20569,473:20971,539:28110,601:29070,614:29390,619:29790,625:35150,702:35630,710:36030,716:37070,740:38670,835:38990,841:39310,847:44490,896:51240,1118:72390,1612:72730,1618:73580,1631:74345,1637:78972,1774:97944,2172:103346,2278:103638,2283:103930,2288:105901,2342:123366,2701:128334,2838:128694,2844:130926,2898:134980,2936
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Hollis Underwood's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls living in Gary, Indiana and Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her neighbors in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the socioeconomic climate of Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes Ernie Pyle Elementary School in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls living on St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her community in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls moving to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her early aspirations to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her peers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers applying to college

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers the University of Maryland in College Park

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her professors at the University of Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls the summer program at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mentor, Dr. John Townsend

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers treating her first patient

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers her experiences at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers dating her husband, Dr. Paul Underwood

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her fellowship at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls working at the Frederiksted Health Clinic in St. Croix

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers becoming a mother

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood reflects upon her humanitarian medical work

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers moving to Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood talks about her community activism

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her peers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan
Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers treating her first patient
Transcript
So you go to Cass Tech [Cass Technical High School, Detroit, Michigan], now for the benefit of our viewers, Cass Tech is considered, was considered one of the elitist schools of Detroit, Michigan?$$Um-hm.$$So now you go to Cass Tech and what, what happens there for you?$$Well, you know, well the first thing is that, and this was a new concept for us, but, you're right, it was a magnet school, but you had to test to get in but there was, there were some of us who were invited to attend. And we were invited to attend and become a part of science and arts curriculum, which was an honors curriculum and, and not knowing Detroit, so we're relatively new there, but my mother's [Jonetta Everette Crowe] best friend who was like a second mother to me in many ways, just said, "Oh, absolutely, this is an opportunity you don't want, you know, not take advantage of," and, and that was it. You know, that was it and I, Cass was--it opened up even broader horizons, now you know we used to call it the pickle factory 'cause it looked like a pickle factory, you know, it was a pretty big old school, we had to all take the city bus to go to school. But I went to school with some kids that were just incredible people, some of whom are friends to this day, some of whom have done some amazing things in this world, made some tremendous footprints.$$Okay give us a few names of people that that, that we might want to know about.$$Oh wow. Well one is David Alan Grier, who is a very well-known actor, and he was a Cass Techite, you know, a Cass Techie, and Wanda [Wanda Whitten-Shurney], oh gosh, I'm blocking out her last name, she's a hematologist, her father [HistoryMaker Dr. Charles Whitten] was a, a very, very well-known hematologist in Detroit, did a lot of ground breaking research with sickle cell disease and she was a classmate, actually not only in high school, but also medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], Harriet Covington [Harriet Covington-Smith], also a friend from medical school as well as high school, oh my gosh. And then, then you had the musicians who are amazing, Geri Allen, one of my classmates who is a very well-known established recording artist, straight ahead jazz pianist, J. Jones [ph.], a very accomplished saxophone player, I mean, so we, you know, we had all of the curriculums, then you had the perfor- the performing arts crowd and you know, and nobody gave any credence to the computer science club, but they're probably all, they've--$$(Laughter).$$--probably all became millionaires, up to the '90s [1990s], and we just lost track, I don't know (laughter).$$So--so Cass, they had a very fertile environment for you to grow, would you say (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh amazing. So, so much, I mean, you know, friends were attorneys and, and you know, the whole, you know the, the legacy, the Patti Coutiver [ph.], a very good friend of mine in high school, an attorney, her fam- her father was an educator, a very well established and well known educator. The former superintendent of schools [Cornelius L. Golightly], his daughter, Linnie Golightly [Linnie M. Golightly], was a classmate at Cass, so it was incredible and many of my friends wer- are physicians and, and, and attorneys and other careers that are considered leadership type careers as a result of that.$(Simultaneous) Do you recall your first assignment?$$Uh-huh. I was in community internal medicine, oh my goodness, ha, ha, with a gentleman who sadly, y- what I've come to realize is that some people's mediocrity prevents them from seeing the greatness in other people and they make it a conscious effort to put the squash on other people because of their own internal insecurity, and I saw a lot of that, I saw a lot of that, people hiding behind the shields of the Mayo Clinic [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota] and with their own mediocrity. And I saw some things that really exposed what that whole experience was, was all about but, but I, I remember being nervous, a, a new intern, first rotation out of medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] and a patient came in, he was very, very, very critically ill, we worked on him, you know, along with the, you know, the E- you know he came in through the ER [emergency room], I worked on him, did, you know, some things; read, worked, read, worked, you know, you had to really kind of move fast, got him kind of stabilized but you know, the, the attendings, consultants would always say, you know, call us, keep us posted, let us know what's going on. So maybe I called them at four o'clock and when I said, "I just wanted to let you know about the person came in and this is what happened and, you know, he's, he's doing better now." He said, "Well if he's still alive, call me in the morning," bam! Or, "We'll deal with it in the morning," and he hung up the phone on me, and I thought, okay so that, that, that was the first baptism by fire, and I realized, okay, so now I understand.$$So, so, so what did you do at that point when he did that to you?$$Oh, I--$$Were angered, or, or do you say, or what did you do?$$Oh, yeah (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) 'Cause you--$$--it angers you.$$--had a patient.$$But it makes you strong. Let me tell you something, and, and this is what the old folks say, if it doesn't kill you, it'll make you strong. It made you strong. Every little hurt, every little slight, every little obstacle, every little pin that was pushed in my side intentionally, and mes- mostly intentionally, it just made me stronger. I'm, I, I'm, I made sure that there wasn't anything in medicine that I had not seen or knew about and I've, I've made that my philosophy. And I read, I read the PDR ['Physicians' Desk Reference'] and never forgetting once, I went to see somebody at his office, one of the consultants and I had the PDR and I was reading about something, he said, "What are you doing? Reading the PDR?" You know, he was kind of snickering, kind of in a very snide, and I said, you know, and I just laughed and said oh no. Yeah, I was reading the PDR, as a matter of fact, I was gonna read every aspect of that drug, at least what we knew about so I would be that much better informed so.

Dr. Fred Parrott

Foundation executive and gynecologist Dr. Fred D. Parrott was born in Houston, Texas on December 22, 1934. After graduating from Jack Yates High School in 1944, Parrott enrolled at Howard University where he earned his B.S. degree in psychology in 1947. Following the completion of his undergraduate study, Parrott earned his M.S. degree in microbiology at the University of California, Los Angeles. During the early 1950s and during the Korean War, Parrott entered the Medical Service Corps of the United States Army , where he was stationed in Tokyo, Japan for two years while he worked as a bacteriologist. He also opened a tailor shop in Tokyo, fitting servicemen with Hong Kong made shirts. Parrott’s first employment in the medical field was working as the territory manager for Wyeth Pharmaceutical. In 1958, Parrott graduated from Meharry Medical College and became a fellow of the University of Minnesota Medical Center Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Parrott moved to Los Angeles, California upon graduating and did an internship at the Los Angeles County Hospital before becoming a fellow at the University of Minnesota. After completing his fellowship, Parrott returned to Los Angles and began private practice.

In 1986, Parrott founded the "Real Men Cook" Foundation, whose mission was to increase the number of minority health care providers by awarding scholarships to students attending Historically Black College and University medical schools in the United States. In 1994, after being diagnosed with prostate cancer, Parrott founded the Real Men Cook Foundation Center for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer. The Foundation’s goals expanded to increasing awareness and education of prostate cancer and prevention in inner city communities.

Parrott is a member of the American Medical Association, the National Medical Association, the Los Angeles Country Medical Association and the Charles R. Drew Medical Society. He is also a board member of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and a founding member of the National Prostate Cancer Coalition. Parrott is the recipient of the Back Heritage Award and President Medal of Honor from Howard University, and was awarded an honorary doctorate from Meharry Medical College.

Dr. Fred D. Parrott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 7, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.196

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/7/2007

Last Name

Parrott

Maker Category
Middle Name

D

Schools

Jack Yates High School

Meharry Medical College

University of California, Los Angeles

Howard University

First Name

Fred

Birth City, State, Country

Houston

HM ID

PAR06

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Education, Education And More Education Is The Best Way To Rescue Men From Prostate Cancer.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

12/22/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Health Food

Short Description

Foundation executive and gynecologist Dr. Fred Parrott (1934 - ) founded the Real Men Cook Foundation.

Employment

Wyeth Pharmaceuticals

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:456,16:12412,297:13444,315:16110,359:17056,379:18948,401:19550,410:22302,442:22990,452:24624,466:31296,538:36330,587:40968,602:44535,631:51495,686:65086,893:77870,1005:79086,1014:86920,1074:91764,1109:92516,1118:98903,1191:99407,1200:99785,1211:100289,1220:100667,1227:112492,1373:113257,1379:126636,1573:132484,1683:144845,1876:175300,2187:185563,2282:195864,2420:196300,2425:197063,2433:200682,2484:212354,2589:245110,2914:245838,2923:247230,2940$0,0:5025,133:11025,224:11475,251:28728,508:29196,515:36996,709:37464,716:40038,785:64210,1040:69225,1127:74155,1211:82938,1314:259329,3650:259993,3659:260491,3666:261487,3676:284891,4045:299130,4246:302580,4262
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Fred Parrott's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Fred Parrott lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Fred Parrott lists his parents' names

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his mother's relatives

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers his mother's death

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about the role of women in the family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his decision to attend medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his role as a student representative for Wyeth Pharmaceuticals

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his father's dental practice

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Fred Parrott recalls his fellowship at the University of Minnesota Medical Center

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his relationship with his father

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his sister

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his experiences at Jack Yates Senior High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Fred Parrott recalls his U.S. military service in the Korean War

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his medical practice

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes the Real Men Cook Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Fred Parrott recalls his and his father's prostate cancer diagnoses

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes the mission of the Real Men Cook Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his collaboration with The Links, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his plans for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers his religious upbringing

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his organizational involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Fred Parrott reflects upon his life

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Dr. Fred Parrott describes the Real Men Cook Foundation
Dr. Fred Parrott recalls his and his father's prostate cancer diagnoses
Transcript
But, one of the greatest, one of the greatest activities that we did, a community activity we did, we started the Real Men Cook Foundation for Education [Real Men Cook Foundation for Education Center for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer], and we did that in the '80s [1980s] and we did that for about ten years.$$This is the Real Men Cook--$$Foundation for Education, it was a culinary extravaganza where we would, where we'd get a hundred black men from various, various professions--like Chief Parks [HistoryMaker Bernard Parks], and Chief Williams [Willie L. Williams], actors, and writers, to be chefs. We get no less than a hundred men, and we did that for ten years. And we did that for the, for the, to raise money for the four historically minority medical schools [HBCUs] and that's where we raised over $500,000 for them. And, that's how we established our academic scholarship of excellence and that was a very fun, fun type of event. We did that for ten years. In 1993, I was diagnosed with prostate cancer. And our board of directors changed our mission from education to bringing education on erectile dysfunction, on men's issues, on nutrition, on prevention of obesity, on prostate cancer and prostate cancer screening. And, there we, we--that was founded on February 2, 1994 in the chamber of Cecil Murray [HistoryMaker Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray]. Cecil Murray was the faith leader for, for FAME A.M.E. Church [First African Methodist Episcopal Church (FAME), Los Angeles, California]. He was our first honorary, honorary chairperson. The founding members of the Real Men Cook Foundation were Dr. Eila Skinner [Eila C. Skinner] who is associate professor of urology at USC Norris Cancer Center [USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California], Dr. Donald Skinner [Donald G. Skinner] who is the chairman for professor of department of urology, USC Norris Cancer Center, and Fred D. Parrott, M.D. [HistoryMaker Dr. Fred Parrott], prostate cancer survivor. We started that over twelve years ago. I was diagnosed in 1993, and by May was cured of prostate cancer and I've been free ever since. And they have been with us ever since. Dr. Skinner, she still does the, the regions--the letters out to, to men who have been screened. And since that time, I imagine, I've screened over fifty thousand men, we've touched over a million families, we have, we have personally talked to over five hundred ministers, we've sent out millions and millions of flyers and posters and information on prostate cancer. We have a, we have a outreach office in the inner city. We have a one-on-one consultation model on prostate cancer education--director, Juan Burnson [ph.] is director of that. We have a Latino outreach director, Victor Grimaldo, who speaks and talks and educates the Spanish speaking men on erectile dysfunction, on men's issues of prevention of obesity, prostate cancer and prostate cancer screening.$Okay Dr. Parrott [HistoryMaker Dr. Fred Parrott], 1993 you were diagnosed with prostate cancer, but there was something in your life that was very personal to you in regards to prostate cancer, what was that, sir?$$Well, my father [Fred Parrott, Sr.] died of prostate cancer; he died a horrible death of prostate cancer. He, it's really interesting. He, he came up one Christmas, and then I sent him over to a urologist, Dr. Bledsoe [ph.]. And Dr. Bledsoe called me up that he had did, at that time they did needle biopsies, called me up and said everything was fine. Then he called me back later on, my father was (unclear) to go, my father was so happy, it was clear. He called me up, and he had just got a report back, and he said, "We got bad report, I was given the wrong report. Your father does have prostate cancer." And my father was happy, leaving that day, I said, "Well, Doc, I can't tell him, you gonna have to tell him." So he said, "Okay." So he, he--when he got back home to Houston [Texas], he arranged for a bed at Baylor University [Baylor College of Medicine], a great cancer center in Houston. And, he was diagnosed with prostate cancer, and it metastasized, and there was no, there was no treatment; you'd give him the estrogen--no treatment as of the date. And, he, he died of--he was in so much pain, I used to hear him moan out. He was a deacon, a very spiritual man, he used to moan out, "Oh God, what have I done, what have I done for me to have this much pain?" A tremendous amount of pain. But I had forgotten that he had prostate cancer. I never got tested until about ten, fifteen years later. So went over with a friend of mine who was having, who was having, having his prostate removed; not because of prostate cancer, but because of hyperplasia. And I sat with him on the operating, with him in the operating room, and I realized that I need to go get tested. When I went to get tested my PSA [prostate specific antigen] was four. At that time, there was a zero to four in milligrams, and the next year, I had four, I said, "I better go get a biopsy." And, I called on my own, "Oh, we have a doctor in the office," the new biopsy had just came about. So he did a biopsy on me in his office. It came back negative, and I said, "I still need to go." So, I called Dr. Donald Skinner [Donald G. Skinner], 'cause I looked around to see who, who the specialist who was doing--the most promising specialist who was doing, doing work in prostate cancer. And, talked to Skinner, one of the people that I was referred to and I called him up, and he referred me to Dr. Eila Skinner [Eila C. Skinner], his associate; no relationship, just had the same name. So, that's how I became--and, she did a biopsy on me and it came back positive, had a--made a score of six, and my PSA rate, and then my PS--. I had a, I had a Real Men Cook--it was in 1996, I had a Real Men Cook for Education [Real Men Cook Foundation for Education Center for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer], coming up and I wanted to do that, do that one before I went in for surgery. By the time I was ready for surgery, my PSA had risen up to about eight or nine, but it was, it was localized, and we did a very radical; it was what they call a nerve-sparing procedure. So, I've been free ever since.$$So you were diagnosed in 1993?$$Um-hm.$$But it wasn't until 1996 that you actually had the actual--?$$No, 1990--1994, we, we founded it. Nineteen ninety-four [1994] we did our--we founded in the office of Cecil Murray [HistoryMaker Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray]. But we never made any, asked for any donations until two or three years later. We did do a prostate cancer education extravaganza with Norris [USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California] one year. That was in 1996, I think.$$But you get diagnosed in 1993, and you had the surgery in 1993?$$I had surgery in 1994.$$Ninety-four [1994]. Okay, had surgery, okay, you had a radical, you had a radical. Dr. Parrott, in your, now that, here you now--okay, in this part of your life now, you're now a prostate cancer survivor?$$I'm cured of prostate--yes.$$And I know people argue about that term cured and in remission (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Okay. I'm a prostate cancer survivor.

Dr. Henry L. Cook

Highly regarded as a businessman and community leader, dentist Dr. Henry Lee Cook, Sr. was born on September 7, 1939 in Macon, Georgia. He earned a B. S. degree in Biology from Tuskegee University in 1962.

Cook served in the United States Air Force as a First Lieutenant from 1962 to 1965. He was married, in 1964, to the former Mamie Richmond and they have been married for the past 38 years. In 1965, Cook traveled to Nashville, Tennessee and earned a D. D. S. from Meharry Medical College in 1969. Setting up private practice as a dentist in Columbus, Georgia, Cook practiced dentistry successfully for 32 years. In 1976, he built the Martin Luther King, Jr. Shopping Center in Columbus' black community, which included an ultra-modern dental office.

Throughout his career, Cook has been involved in a variety of professional and civic organizations. His affiliations include: the American College of Dentistry, the Pierre Fauchard Academy, the National Dental Association, the Georgia Dental Association, the Western District Dental Society, and the State Health Strategies Council. He is the former chairman of the board of the Columbus Technical Foundation, the Columbus Technical Institute and the A. J. McClung Y. M. C. A. Cook is currently chairman of the Minority Assistance Corporation, the Columbus Business Development Center and the Supervisory Board of Personal Review. Among his many awards, Cook is the recipient of the Georgia Dental Society's highest honor, the Dr. J. E. Carter Award and the Civil Rights Award from the National Dental Association. Both of his children, Henry and Cathy are dentists.

Accession Number

A2002.015

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/16/2002

Last Name

Cook

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Schools

Hazel Street Elementary School

Byron Elementary School

Fort Valley High School

Tuskegee University

Meharry Medical College

First Name

Henry

Birth City, State, Country

Macon

HM ID

COO02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

To whom much is given, much is required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/7/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Yams (Candied)

Short Description

Civil rights activist and dentist Dr. Henry L. Cook (1939 - ) was the former President of Georgia Dental Association and the recipient of the Georgia Dental Society's highest honor, the Dr. J. E. Carter Award. Dr. Cook was also awarded the Civil Rights Award from the National Dental Association.

Employment

United States Air Force

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:30110,538:30990,557:43488,742:43983,748:55168,1036:55666,1107:58322,1168:71136,1322:93206,1559:94022,1568:125480,2029:127892,2081:137406,2373:139483,2443:154390,2629$0,0:4042,90:9044,159:13390,229:22466,500:31292,721:32634,753:42096,840:87218,1318:96484,1447:105930,1634:109570,1743:113210,1840:128426,1994:146700,2206:151050,2275:153573,2316:157662,2463:191496,2784:208612,3257:221030,3386
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Henry Cook's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Henry Cook lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Henry Cook talks about his family's history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Henry Cook shares memories of his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Henry Cook describes in his grandparents' home

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Henry Cook describes the teacher, Elizabeth Richmond, who became his adopted mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Henry Cook describes his childhood personality and activities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Henry Cook talks about moving away from home in order to attend high school in Fort Valley, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Henry Cook talks about his high school experiences and his siblings' lack of educational opportunity

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Henry Cook describes the support he received to attend Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Henry Cook describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Henry Cook describes his love of reading as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Henry Cook talks about his decision to major in engineering at Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Henry Cook talks about HistoryMaker Robert Church, a father figure in his life

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Henry Cook describes his desire to please authority figures and an unforgettable lesson about lying

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Henry Cook reflects upon his high school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Henry Cook talks about his decision to major in biology at Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Henry Cook describes his experience at Tuskegee Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Henry Cook talks about the gerrymandering in Tuskegee, Alabama, and his experience of racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Henry Cook describes how the ROTC inspired him to join the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Henry Cook talks about his service in the U.S. Air Force and why he left the military

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Henry Cook describes his grandparents' deaths

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Henry Cook talks about his decision to attend Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Henry Cook talks about his first year at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Henry Cook talks about his choice of dentistry and his involvement in professional dental organizations

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Henry Cook describes how he got his start practicing dentistry in Columbus, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Henry Cook talks about setting up his dental practice and building his own office

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Henry Cook explains why medicine and law are intimidating fields for African American youth

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Henry Cook talks about the importance of mentorship to academic success

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Henry Cook talks about his children and how he made sure they saw examples of successful black and female professionals

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Henry Cook describes changes in healthcare access for African Americans and his work with indigent patients

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Henry Cook talks about his wife's role in building his dental office

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Henry Cook talks about impact of managed care on physicians and dentists

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Henry Cook talks about Meharry Medical College, Howard University, and Morehouse School of Medicine, important educators of African American medical providers

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Henry Cook talks about Meharry Medical College's contributions to dentistry

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Henry Cook describes how he gives back to his family and his community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Henry Cook talks about his grandmother, Dora Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Henry Cook reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Henry Cook narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

3$4

DATitle
Henry Cook describes how he got his start practicing dentistry in Columbus, Georgia
Henry Cook talks about setting up his dental practice and building his own office
Transcript
So how does the practice bring you back to Columbus, Georgia?$$I was--had graduated, doing my internship with a desire to move to Atlanta [Georgia], which was my lifelong goal, just live in Atlanta, the big city, bright lights. You know everything happens in Atlanta. The girls are prettier in Atlanta they told me (laughter). Went to Atlanta to make an assessment to find out, you know, my--if the, the building that I was gonna lease would kind of blew me out in terms of what it would cost me. I made an assessment of my equipment that I needed. It just blew my mind again. I needed a house. The smallest house possible was a hundred--I mean we're talking about just a four box--four-room box--broke, no money. I said let me think about this. At the same time, there was a dentist in Columbus who passed. His name was Dr. Clifton Williams. And it just so happened that his wife was living with my adopted mom [Elizabeth Richmond] in Fort Valley [Georgia] working on her master's degree at Fort Valley State College. They called me and apprised me of the fact that Dr. Williams had passed and asked me would I be interested in seeing the practice before they mentioned it to anybody else. I wasn't excited about that, because I wanted to go to Atlanta. But my mom and my, my wife [Mamie Cook nee Richmond] said I think you ought to go down and take a look at it, which I did. And I came down here at a, a heapings of records--patient records, which was the biggest thing in a practice. He was well liked, had good people skill. He was in a building that had a history of healthcare. And on the corner of--"healthcare corner" we called it (laughter), which is not far from here, by the way; it's just a few blocks from here. After giving a lot of thought and then after reflecting on what it would cost me to get started in Atlanta, in a city would--that would take me years to even be known because of the numbers alone, I decided Columbus is not a bad idea. And I can always move to Atlanta if I want to. That was thirty-two years ago. And the, the fun of that is many times I called a colleague in Atlanta and said let's have a cocktail together at the bar in Atlanta. He said where are you, Henry? I said in ca--I'm in Columbus. He said well, well, when you get to Atlanta, call--I said no, no, you start now, and I'll start now. And I would always beat him to the bar, because the traffic's so bad in Atlanta. That was my private joke with him. And they never believed--you were not in Columbus. Yes, I was--hour 20 minutes I'm in Atlanta; hour and a half they were stuck in traffic (laughter).$So what did you go about to make the practice even grow more from the one you inherited? What--$$The first thing I did I assumed a--upstairs over a drugstore that was something like five or six rooms. There were three separate businesses up there, believe it or not. At one time a physician was upstairs, a, a CPA bookkeeper was upstairs, and a dentist was upstairs. And that was nothing, not enough space for me. I couldn't do anything with, with two-room dental practice. So I got the entire upstairs renovated, made it look, you know, appealing for what I thought, and I started there; did my own marketing. There was no, no mass media, just got out and just met folk; went to the churches. After work I would just go in the neighborhood and just meet people. And I just liked doing that anyway. That was just natural for me. That was a natural--and over a short period of time, I guess half of Columbus [Georgia] knew I was in town. The, the--a, a little boy is here (laughter). And of course the best one they said: "He's little and young, but he's good." And that one I could relate to. So it started there. And I always had business cards wherever I went. I thought about it like this, I can buy a thousand business cards for ten dollars. And if one patient come in I've paid for that and the next six orders, so I gave business cards everywhere.$$So how did the black community receive you--(simultaneous)--$$Quite well, quite well. I think they were impressed the way I came and took the entire upstairs and just renovated the entire thing, (unclear) in business, which has never happened before. And the word come out--he had the whole upstairs, which it was not really much. But given, you know, the history of three and sometimes four businesses, one in each room, you know, up there prior to that, I guess that kind of like got people attention.$$And the white community?$$Didn't make any impact on them at the time. But what I did, I went out to meet all of that, white guys, went to meet all of 'em. On my--on Thursday was my day off. I was in, in the dental office every Thursday, sometimes three and four. And it was, it was--I had motives, find out how do you do this, or what do you use for that, which piece of equipment is good, which is bad, you know. And I gleaned a whole lot of information from my colleagues, particularly the white ones who were buying new stuff. And, and my intentions after I was here for a short period was to build a building in five years. Nobody knew that but me and my, my family, but everything I did as of, I guess, a few months after I was--I, I--after I was here was to get around that. So I started gathering information on the how-to's, and what cost this, and what waste--don't waste your money on that. And I got good response, basically because I like people. And by and large, I think don't have a problem getting along with people at all, because I don't wait for them, you know, to come to me. I just get up and go.$$And your building?$$Five years I, I went into the new building, almost to the day. Built a building out on--it was Brookhaven [Georgia] at the time. We got the name changed to Martin Luther King Boulevard right in front of the WMCA, which is a black branch, very well located, very well traveled street; pulled some strings got a bus stop right outside the door (laughter).