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Linneaus Dorman

Organic chemist and inventor Linneaus C. Dorman was born on June 28, 1935 in Orangeburg, South Carolina to schoolteachers John Albert Dorman, Sr. and Georgia Hammond. Raised in the Jim Crow South, Dorman’s parents sent him to the historically black South Carolina State College laboratory school. The state college afforded him a better education than he would have received otherwise and nurtured his nascent interest in science. As a child, Dorman became fascinated with his friend’s chemistry set and the idea of creating new things. When he entered Wilkinson High School in 1948, his teachers immediately recognized his natural talent in science and encouraged him to take more science courses. This led him to declare chemistry as his undergraduate major after he graduated from high school.

In the fall of 1952, Dorman enrolled at Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois. Because his father was a World War I veteran, having served in France, Dorman received a scholarship from the small, private institution and its scholarship program for the children of World War I veterans. After receiving his B.S. degree in chemistry in 1956, Dorman enrolled in the organic chemistry Ph.D. program at Indiana University. During the summers, he traveled back to Peoria, where he gained invaluable research experience as a chemist for the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory. In 1961, he earned his Ph.D. degree and took a position as a research chemist at the Dow Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan.

While Dorman has garnered a reputation for publishing many research articles in premier research journals, he has become most known for creating over twenty inventions and patents in organic chemistry and biomaterials. Many of his earliest patents involve synthesis methods in organic chemistry. In 1985, he invented a chemical compound that functioned as an absorbent that removed formaldehyde from the air. In 1992, Dorman invented a calcium phosphate biomaterial that was used in hard tissue prosthetics such as bone prosthetics in 1992. Between 1992 and 1993, he developed a new process for the controlled release of herbicides, this method became critical to crop rotation.

He joined the American Chemical Society (ACS) in 1957 and served in a number of administrative positions such as secretary, councilor, and director. Named Inventor of the Year by Dow Chemical Company in 1983, Dorman has been credited with over twenty inventions and patents in organic chemistry and biomaterials. He received the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers’ most prestigious award, the Percy C. Julian Award in 1992. Although he retired in 1994, Dorman continues to work in the scientific community as a mentor. He and his wife, Phae, live in Michigan and have two children, Evelyn and John.

Linneaus Dorman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 24, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.174

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/24/2012

Last Name

Dorman

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Occupation
Schools

Orangeburg-Wilkinson High School

Bradley University

Indiana University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Linneaus

Birth City, State, Country

Orangeburg

HM ID

DOR06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I will study and prepare myself, then maybe, my chance will come.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

6/28/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Midland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Watermelon

Short Description

Chemist Linneaus Dorman (1935 - ) has twenty-six inventions and patents in organic chemistry and biomaterials. He also served as a research chemist at the Dow Chemical Company.

Employment

Dow Chemical Company

Northern Regional Research Laboratory

Comerica Bank

Dow Corning

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:4379,58:7709,96:9041,109:15670,177:21026,200:21650,211:22430,223:26341,275:30550,330:31315,340:31740,346:32080,351:32505,380:32845,408:42507,511:43203,520:45523,531:49438,581:50461,612:51949,637:52786,658:54646,709:67571,848:68572,864:75458,967:77240,995:77645,1001:92409,1154:93476,1168:94155,1178:113996,1386:114620,1395:129002,1504:136188,1519:136734,1527:140470,1567:141190,1581:141550,1587:142360,1602:164810,1808:168830,1825:169496,1836:171710,1866:173577,1878:174200,1887:174556,1892:180112,1926:180888,1939:196600,2094:208596,2224:208941,2231:209493,2241:215190,2290:217290,2322:220446,2335:223480,2355:224200,2365:225690,2380:229320,2427:230031,2437:232448,2458:232964,2464:233480,2471:234168,2481:234684,2489:235028,2494:239380,2522:239842,2528:240612,2546:241151,2555:244693,2643:246002,2666:249156,2684:249904,2699:253846,2733:254306,2739:254766,2745:264523,2819:265244,2827:265862,2832:266274,2837:266686,2842:267510,2852:267922,2857:268540,2864:268952,2869:277630,2942:279810,2952:281384,2961:285930,3030$0,0:3737,34:4721,44:5213,49:7796,79:16148,153:25620,251:32672,296:36160,335:37888,369:38176,374:40048,416:40840,429:43496,441:50984,517:55433,559:59998,616:62654,652:63567,665:64231,674:76310,807:83985,884:84815,895:85645,912:88965,951:92285,1005:92783,1013:94858,1043:95190,1048:96186,1061:96767,1070:101590,1087:104470,1177:111700,1233:112036,1238:113464,1256:114892,1270:115732,1293:116320,1298:116740,1304:122710,1343:123102,1348:123984,1358:129664,1409:130730,1426:131796,1440:137526,1460:137918,1465:141642,1517:150116,1583:150728,1593:153760,1614:159144,1654:159568,1659:175404,1808:180375,1831:185017,1871:186784,1906:187156,1911:199755,2139:206804,2185:258448,2463:259190,2472:259932,2480:269547,2507:270023,2512:277950,2529
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Linneaus Dorman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman talks about his father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman talks about his parents and his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Linneaus Dorman describes the neighborhood where he grew up in Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Linneaus Dorman describes the sights and sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman describes growing up in Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman describes his elementary school experience at Middle Branch School and Felton Training School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman shares his childhood memories of World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman describes his introduction to chemistry and his early interest in mathematics

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman talks about the prominent speakers who visited South Carolina State College

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman talks about the first African American chemists

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman describes how his early thoughts about segregation served as a motivating force

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Linneaus Dorman describes his decision to attend Bradley University in 1952

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Linneaus Dorman describes his experience as a busboy at Carter Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman talks about the founder of Dow Chemical Company

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman describes the differences between the black communities in Orangeburg, South Carolina and in Peoria, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman describes how he met his wife, Thae

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman talks about Robert Lawrence, Jr. at Bradley University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman describes what influenced him to attend graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman talks about Robert Lawrence, Jr.'s death and his legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman describes his extracurricular activities at Bradley University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Linneaus Dorman describes his experience as a doctoral student in the chemistry department at Indiana University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Linneaus Dorman talks about getting married and starting a family while in graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Linneaus Dorman describes his summer research experience at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Linneaus Dorman describes his work for his Ph.D. dissertation on heterocyclic compounds

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman describes his decision to work at Dow Chemical in Midland, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman describes his experience in Midland, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman describes his early work on pharmaceutical compounds

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman describes his work on synthesizing artificial bone material

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman describes thermoplastic elastomers

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman talks about Percy Julian, one of the first African American research chemists

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman talks about his activities in the community

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman talks about travel

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Linneaus Dorman describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Linneaus Dorman talks about the importance of documentation and communication at the workplace

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Linneaus Dorman reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Linneaus Dorman talks about his children

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Linneaus Dorman describes how he dealt with the frustrations of science

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Linneaus Dorman describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Linneaus Dorman describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Linneaus Dorman describes his decision to work at Dow Chemical in Midland, Ohio
Linneaus Dorman describes his early work on pharmaceutical compounds
Transcript
All right, also in our outline, it mentions here that you considered at one time teaching for a historically black college?$$Yes. But I, something told me I didn't wanna teach because that's what so many of my friends and relatives had done, not because they wanted to, but that was the only job open to them. So I wanted to do something other than teach.$$Now, did you believe that Dow [Chemical Company] would hire you?$$At the time?$$Um-hum.$$I didn't think Dow would hire me because some of my friends in graduate school had told me that Dow would not hire me, because they, some of them who had gone, who worked at Dow, (unclear) come back to Indiana University [in Bloomington, Indiana] to do further study, they told me that Dow would not hire me. But I went up to, to the Dow interview because I had a Dow fellowship. And I felt out of respect for the department [of chemistry], I should at least go up for the interview. Well, it turns out that Dow was desperately trying to get a black person, preferably one who had a Ph.D. who could come to work and be standing on your foot, on your feet alone, somebody who was strong enough, educated enough to not just be a laboratory worker, but to be an independent laboratory worker. So I discovered the chairman who was eager to hire, to talk to me and try to get me interested in Dow, much to my surprise. And I still didn't think it would happen, and I also got an offer from Ex-, it wasn't Exxon. It was Esso at the time out in Linden, New Jersey. And I thought that was a real possibility because Dow wouldn't, you know, because of the fact that this was an all-white town, Dow wouldn't probably hire me. And I'll never forget, my wife said to me, "Ah, I'll bet you get the job at Dow and not at Exxon." And that, I went out to Exxon and I followed all the people who were, with their heads in the clouds, who were not very sympathetic to a graduating black person. And sure enough, they didn't offer me a job. But Dow, I came out to Dow, and they were all very nice to me, and encouraging to me and recognized that Dow was trying to get blacks to come to work there. And it was encouraging enough that we had to make up our minds whether we were gonna take a chance on living in an all-white community. And we took a chance, made up our minds to do that and not stay a while and go someplace else because I could have done that after staying around. My telephone rang for a period of time, almost every six months, some other company wanting me to come, stop Dow and come work for them. They were offering me all kind of incentives. So I got to a point, I asked them what can you do for my retirement? They could never do anything to--I would be giving up those years working for, towards retirement. So that was always a no-no, and I had a feeling that they were trying to hire people just like Dow was trying to hire people. So I said, no, no, no. So I stayed here, and that, we decided to retire and live here. And we're happy with that decision.$Okay, all right. Now, during the course of your career, your research changed focus at different times. In the '60s [1960s] and '70s [1970s], you were focused on, from what I understand, peptides, right?$$Pharmaceutical compounds.$$Okay, and--$$And later to, when I got here, one of the things that Dow [Chemical Company] did was to become involved in the pharma--in some pharmaceutical business, thought it was a good venture because the return on pharmaceuticals is like 20 percent, which chemicals are around 10 percent. So Dow was gonna, Dow was very, always into agricultural compounds, and its agricultural compounds were tested for medicinal chemistry by somebody else. We had something called a K-List which every compound we made, you sent a sample of it, and it got a number, a K-number. And those are, one of the things the K-List did was to check it for various, for biological activities. But that was all agricultural until we got into the chemistry, to the drug business. And I was, just so happened to be in position at that time to also become a part of the drug business by synthesizing compounds here in Midland [Ohio]. We had a pharmaceutical group here in Midland. And, well, they later asked me to get into peptide chemistry because that, that was--peptides are like small proteins, and they were becoming more, more prominent because there's a guy by the name of Muirfield who devised a way to make peptides using a solid phase that would cut out a lot of the steps involved in make a peptide. Peptides are made from about twenty-five amino acids in different combinations, but to make a simple peptide, di-peptide, it's many steps, [to] make a tri-peptide, many more steps. So I became involved in the solid phase peptides chemistry, which I made some contributions to the field when I was doing that. And later on, the pharmaceutical business, we had the group here in town which was a part of the pharmaceutical effort, moved down to Indianapolis [Indiana]. And I didn't move with them, so I started something else. And that was diagnostic, latex diagnostic gauges.$$About what year is this?$$How's that?$$About what year is this when you start with the latex diagnostic gauges?$$Oh, ghez, I don't, '74 [1974]--$$Is this in the '70s [1970s] or--$$It's in the '70s [1970s], yeah.$$Okay, that's good enough.$$And we worked on developing a pregnancy test, and I worked in, in that area for a while. And from there we went to control, control release technologies. And from that to plastics.

Billy Joe Evans

Chemist and chemistry professor Billy Joe Evans was born on August 18, 1942 in Macon, Georgia. Evans grew up amidst the racism and segregation policies of the south during the 1950s. Evans’ father, Will Evans, worked part-time as a coordinator for the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and went to Washington, D.C. to confer and strategize with founder and President A. Philip Randolph about how labor issues facing African American in Macon. In 1959, he graduated from Ballard High School, the largest high school in Macon, Georgia. Following graduation, Evans entered Morehouse College and he received his B.S. degree in chemistry in 1963. Evans went on to pursue graduate studies at the University of Chicago. The State of Georgia paid the tuition difference between the University of Georgia and the University of Chicago, and in 1968 Evans earned his Ph.D. degree in chemistry. His Ph.D. thesis was entitled: “Order-disorder phenomena and hyperfine interactions in Spinel ferrites.”.

Evans accepted a position on the faculty of the University of Michigan in 1970 after performing some post-doctoral work at the University of Manitoba and teaching at Howard University. He has held research positions at the University of Marburg, the Naval Research Institute, and the Ford Motor Company. Evans initially started his work at the University of Michigan as an assistant professor of geology and mineralogy, but he joined the chemistry department as an associate professor in 1974. Evans has continued to pursue his research in solid state chemistry. His primary interests include the synthesis and characterization of crystal/chemical structures properties that directly affect the quality of human environments. His contributions to the firld were recognized by the University of Michigan who promoted him to full professor in 1986. Evans is the principal or co-author of more than 90 scientific publications. Evans is the principal or co-author of more than 90 scientific publications. He has been invited to give lectures at the National Conferences on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, the International Conference on Magnetism, Gordon Conferences and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Advanced Study Institute. Evans was named professor emeritus of the University of Michigan in 2007.

Evans has been the recipient of many honors and prizes for his dedication to the improvement of the quality and accessibility of higher education for all students and for his work in the sciences. In 1991, he was honored with the Statewide Distinguished Faculty Award. He received the 1997 American Chemical Society Camille and Henry Dreyfus Award for Encouraging Disadvantaged Students in Careers in the Chemical Sciences. Evans’ professional awards include the 1995 Manufacturing Chemists Association Catalysts Award, the 1997 American Chemical Society Camille and Henry Dreyfus Award for Encouraging Disadvantaged Students in Careers in the Chemical Sciences. The following year Evans was named the winner of the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering by the National Science Foundation.

Billy Joe Evans was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on 10/22/2012.

Accession Number

A2012.177

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/22/2012

Last Name

Evans

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Joe

Schools

George Washington Carver Elementary

Ballard Hudson High School

Morehouse College

University of California, Berkeley

Macalester College

University of Chicago

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Billy

Birth City, State, Country

Macon

HM ID

EVA06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Europe, Austria, Germany

Favorite Quote

Who Told You That?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

8/18/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Ann Arbor

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Banana Pudding

Short Description

Chemist and chemistry professor Billy Joe Evans (1942 - ) was the former director and professor in the Materials Science Department at Howard University and a professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Michigan.

Employment

University of Michigan

Atlanta University

Howard University

University of Chicago

University of Manitoba

National Bureau of Standards (NBS)

Morehouse College

Favorite Color

Light Blue, Gray

Timing Pairs
0,0:5429,115:6497,129:9879,189:10769,214:17114,287:17549,293:18245,303:19289,312:33620,472:34228,481:35140,494:38028,545:38332,550:43342,596:44044,608:46072,649:46384,654:48178,686:53950,762:54496,770:54808,775:55120,780:59402,788:60158,800:62762,844:63350,853:64022,864:65282,879:67802,915:68642,924:79370,1008:83020,1019:84730,1043:87070,1067:89860,1104:98158,1167:99194,1184:102224,1199:109136,1336:117378,1429:121666,1532:122537,1548:136040,1690:137960,1739:141834,1771:148969,1833:155688,1921:158542,1932:161090,1960:167940,2025:169340,2054:169620,2059:172385,2098:175374,2130:175913,2138:184374,2255:185060,2264:192468,2325:193980,2344:199188,2414:199524,2468:201288,2484:214951,2695:217822,2741:236828,2953:237172,2958:250134,3125:253599,3190:257064,3246:264325,3313:264871,3321:265508,3392:279330,3482:280140,3493:290128,3587:290740,3606:291352,3661:293324,3703:299920,3826:300464,3835:325696,4127:335829,4256:336267,4325:339780,4394$0,0:2070,31:2622,47:3243,58:3864,68:5313,96:5589,101:8763,186:9039,191:10488,218:11247,231:11523,236:22995,374:23675,387:27452,397:31736,473:32156,479:32828,490:38174,502:38566,507:41583,535:45718,589:46038,595:47254,620:47510,625:47958,634:48342,641:48790,650:49942,681:50646,698:52310,734:52630,740:53206,750:53462,755:65986,924:67390,951:74950,998:79460,1029:79900,1034:82618,1075:82874,1080:84218,1120:84794,1130:85050,1135:86074,1154:86330,1159:86970,1173:88826,1218:91642,1289:92154,1298:97744,1349:98136,1358:98360,1363:104515,1431:106385,1461:108255,1486:108765,1494:109190,1499:109870,1508:116354,1564:117124,1577:118510,1599:125209,1707:125825,1716:126364,1725:133674,1792:134410,1801:138206,1836:138498,1841:139228,1854:139666,1861:142148,1926:143462,1953:160595,2154:163443,2199:170834,2256:174389,2307:177238,2375:177931,2385:184245,2497:213384,2792:213688,2797:214220,2805:216196,2834:217564,2860:219312,2891:228510,2977:245032,3138:246306,3155:248763,3188:249400,3196:254338,3223:254806,3228:259081,3267:259376,3275:260261,3302:260733,3311:261146,3319:269290,3373:269790,3388:270090,3396:272626,3422:273748,3441:275068,3466:275398,3471:276190,3484:277048,3499:277444,3506:277708,3511:278368,3524:290745,3702:291110,3708:293738,3755:294103,3761:297607,3829:297972,3837:298337,3842:300308,3874:306140,3906:306590,3912:307040,3917:309470,3961:310730,3978:326340,4183:328856,4237:338625,4325:339300,4337:339600,4342:339900,4347:340575,4372:367148,4645:367715,4653:372089,4722:376860,4761:377740,4773:379420,4796:387220,4876:395443,4953:400872,5024:402474,5048:406816,5054:407584,5063:412780,5129:414380,5141:429500,5345:429756,5350:430332,5360:430652,5366:430908,5371:432508,5402:436084,5423:439400,5463
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Billy Joe Evans' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Billy Joe Evans describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Billy Joe Evans talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Billy Joe Evans describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his siblings (part 1)

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his mother's influence

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his siblings (part 2)

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Billy Joe Evans describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Billy Joe Evans describes his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Billy Joe Evans describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his involvement in the church growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his elementary school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his elementary school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans talks about George Washington Carver

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his teachers at Ballard Hudson High School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Billy Joe Evans talks about how he got into Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Billy Joe Evans talks about Morehouse College and Emmitt Till

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his math and science preparation for college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his interests in the aeronautics field

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his role models and favorite teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Billy Joe Evans talks about perceptions of African Americans in the medical field

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans talks about Hamilton Holmes

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his peers at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans talks about the distinction between scientists and doctors

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Billy Joe Evans talks about Dr. Henry McBay

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Billy Joe Evans talks about the differences between Southerners and Northerners

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Billy Joe Evans talks about Dr. Henry McBay's teaching philosophy

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his experience in Chicago

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans talks about meeting his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans talks about the State of Georgia's subsidization of black's education

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his research experience at the University of Chicago

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his near death experience in Chicago

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Billy Joe Evans talks about receiving his post-doctoral appointment at the University of Manitoba

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Billy Joe Evans describes his dissertation, "Order, Disorder and Hyperfine Interactions in Spinel Ferrites"

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his research on order/disorder in magnetic materials

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his experience at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans talks about how he came to the University of Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Billy Joe Evans talks about Warren Henry

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his experience at the University of Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his grants and professional activities

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his career prospects after completing his graduate studies

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his experience at the Danforth Foundation

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his professional activities in Germany

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Billy Joe Evans talks about the Program of Scholarly Research for Urban/Minority High School Students

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Billy Joe Evans talks about the Comprehensive Studies Program and the Research Club at the University of Michigan

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his professional appointments with the AAAS and Atlanta University

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his work at the University of Michigan

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his consultancy appointments with the Dynamic Testing Division, DuPont Merck, and the Louisiana State Board of Regents

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his consultancy appointment with the Inkster Michigan Public School System

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his awards

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Billy Joe Evans and Larry Crowe talk about Lloyd Ferguson

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Billy Joe Evans talks about Dr. Henry McBay

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his awards and professional activities

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Billy Joe Evans reflects on his career

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Billy Joe Evans reflects on his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans talks about his family

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Billy Joe Evans reflects on how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Billy Joe Evans describes his photos

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Billy Joe Evans describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$7

DAStory

1$4

DATitle
Billy Joe Evans talks about his research on order/disorder in magnetic materials
Billy Joe Evans talks about the Program of Scholarly Research for Urban/Minority High School Students
Transcript
All right, University of Manitoba [Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada].$$Right.$$So your fellowship was carried out in the Department of Physics.$$Right.$$Okay, so yeah.$$But my, see when I was in Chicago [Illinois] I had already worked with physicists and I was in a low temperature laboratory which really is physics, almost totally physics. And my research was relevant to physics, not really to chemistry. So, and this fellow, his name was Morris, he had written one of the standard textbooks in magnetism and being a physicist he did not know as much chemistry as he knew he needed to know so the best way to solve that problem was to have a chemist come into the lab who also knew some physics. So I went into the lab specifically to help them solve a chemical problem they were having, which I was able to do. But in the meantime, we all, I also was able to do some of my own physics, again in order/disorder in magnetic materials.$$Well I was asked to ask you about what is meant by a permanent magnet?$$Right. We have different kinds of magnetism, all--there's something on this diamagnetism. Any material that contains electrons will have diamagnetism as one component of its properties. A material, doesn't matter what it is, gas, solid, liquid, if it has unpaired electrons, one, let's say a single electron, it will exhibit something known as paramagnetism. If you take a material that is paramagnetic that just has some electrons that are unpaired, you put it in a magnet, it will be attracted by the magnet, not very strongly but it will be attracted. Once you move the magnet away it remembers none of the magnetism. So with a paramagnet you can only tell what's going on with it when you put a mag, in the presence of a magnetic field. Then there are materials where you can have unpaired electron spans but they will be ordered so they all point up, they all point down or maybe one is up and one is down. And those configurations can be stable over long periods of time. But if they're all pointed up with moments, with electrons like that, they have a moment. They have a magnetic moment and that moment doesn't change. That's a permanent magnet. So there are some--and a permanent magnet can either be a metal or it can be an oxide so something known as alnico, aluminum nickel cobalt, that's an alloy that it's a, it's metal and most of the little dogs that you buy, the trick shops, they have Alnico magnets.$$(Unclear) of those, I mean they used to be popular in the 50s [1950s] these little Scotty dogs, I was hypnotized.$$That's exactly, that's right.$$I used to play with right with (unclear).$$One would--that's, I did the same thing. That's probably Alnico magnets. Then there are the class of magnets that are oxides and the most common one is something called a hexaferrite which occurs in nature. You can find them in Sweden, very complicated chemical compositions and complicated arrangements of atoms and so that would be a permanent magnet. So the refrigerator magnets, permanent magnets and they are made out of oxide materials that have been embedded in a plastic or a rubber material. And there's been virtually a revolution, no one knows about it but the starter motors on cars used to be very large and they had copper wiring on them. And the copper wire was used to create a magnetic field and then you could make the motor turn in that magnetic field. Well for about twenty years, they've been using permanent magnets, oxide magnets to create the magnetic field that you need in a starter motor. So now the starter motor is only about that big and that's because they're using these permanent magnets. They used to make them here in Michigan. Hitachi is a big manufacturer. General Electric used to make them but Hitachi bought the General Electric factory up near Michigan State and now Hitachi tends to dominate the market in these permanent magnets. But the door closers, the windshield wipers, they're all operated by these permanent magnet oxides so they're quite common in the environment. People are unaware of them but they are there.$$Okay, so instead of using the old magnets that we used to create in grade school with the dry cells when you wrap the--$$Yeah, right, right.$$--wire around (unclear).$$Right, right, right.$$They're using the permanent magnets now?$$You can now just use a permanent magnet for that, yeah.$Now in 1980 you were appointed director of the program of Scholarly Research for urban minority high school students.$$Right, right, right.$$And a lot of the people we've interviewed at some point get involved in STEM programs for high school students for youth.$$Right right.$$So how did this come about?$$Well actually I was the, I don't like this term but I'll use it, I started that program. What I noticed in my work here at [the University of] Michigan was that the black kids would come in and they would quickly degenerate to mediocrity in their work. And my assumption was that maybe they were not seeing the best kinds of things that one does here at the University of Michigan. So at that point I went over and we had a black associate vice president for academic affairs. His name was Richard English, was a social worker but he was one, a person that one could talk to. So I told English about my idea and that I wanted to try to do something. He supported me and the university allocated $15,000 for me to do this program. And initially we worked at one high school in Detroit [Michigan]. It was a selective high school but a small high school called Renaissance High. And so the first year the program was called the Renaissance High Project. We couldn't think of anything else and that really was what it was, a project at this one high school. And so the idea was to involve high school students in real research at the University of Michigan in the same way that we have graduate students. So I selected a group of faculty members who agreed to do this and the idea was that the students would come up in the summer but they would come every vacation that they had during their academic year, on weekends to continue their research. So instead of trying to do a research project in three summer months, we knew that was not enough time. You don't do research in that short a period of time. We would work over the entire academic year and so that's what we did. And there was a gifted administrator in Detroit, Beverly Thomas who was a music person but she understood what we were trying to do. She suggested as we were coming to the end of the summer phase of the program that we should have a symposium and the students would present their work. So I said okay we'll do that. And so the students worked all during the fall, during their Christmas vacation and oh, about the middle of January we would have a symposium. So the students gave ten-minute talks, they could only talk as long as we would talk in our professional meetings. And we worked with them all of the time for a month getting their talks together. And so the symposium came, we had it at Detroit at the Engineering Society a very scholarly technical setting. And without warning we knew nothing about it, Shapiro was in the back of the room. He was president of the university at that time. So he came in to see what we had done with his money and the students did fantastic. And when it was over Shapiro had allocated for the next year $150,000 for the program. So we went up by a factor of ten in funding and we continued that program for about fifteen years, fourteen or fifteen years and it was funded at that level for that period of time. We had about a three year period when the National Science Foundation funded us but we didn't like their money. They wanted to tell us what to do and we did not agree with them on that. They wanted us to have recreational activities and things like that for the students. We said no, our students will find out how to recreate themselves. The university is rich in those kinds of facilities and we're not going to spend our time worrying about that. But we did accept funding from them for three years and we didn't do it anymore. And I think we must have gotten about a half million dollars in funding from them. But the remarkable thing about that program was that during that period of time Detroit had more Westinghouse winners than they had had--the Westinghouse Science Talent Search had been going on for about since the 40s [1940s] I believe and in just this ten year period, Detroit had more winners in the Westinghouse than they had had for the previous forty years. And most of these kids, not all of them, most of these kids were black kids and most of the kids came from ordinary families. Their families were not professionals. One of the characteristics of the Westinghouse winners during that time was that the parents tended to be professionals, Ph.D.s, scientists themselves. But these were just ordinary kids. And so it showed what one could do with the general population just by doing those kinds of things at the university was already very good at doing. What's so distressing about that activity is that we--our last year of doing that program was 1994 and Detroit has not had a Westinghouse winner since. It's now called the Intel--Intel now does it but Intel and Westinghouse, that's the same project, same program. So, in what '94 [1994], that's about eighteen years so in eighteen years there has not been a single kid of any description from Detroit to be a Westinghouse winner, very distressing. And it says a little bit--and we still have the STEM programs. We probably have more STEM programs today than we had in 1981 or 1994. But it says something about what people are doing in these STEM programs.$$Okay.$$We should have more winners than we've had.

Esther A.H. Hopkins

Chemist, city council member, and patent attorney Esther Arvilla Harrison Hopkins was born in 1926 in Stamford, Connecticut. Working as household servants, Hopkins’s parents encouraged her and her siblings to pursue their education. In 1947, Hopkins graduated from Boston University with her B.A. degree in chemistry. Just two years later, she obtained her M.S. degree in chemistry from Howard University.

Hopkins taught chemistry at Virginia State College for a short period of time before she decided to pursue research. Hopkins worked with companies such as the New England Institute for Medical Research as an assistant researcher in biophysics and the American Cyanamid’s Stamford Research Laboratory as a research chemist. Hopkins studied at Yale University, where she received her second M.S. degree in chemistry and her Ph.D. degree in chemistry in 1962 and 1967, respectively. She continued her work at the American Cyanamid’s Stamford Research Laboratory while she earned these degrees.

Following the completion of her Ph.D. program, Hopkins was hired as a supervisory research chemist with the Polaroid Corporation, where she led the Emulsion Coating and Analysis Laboratory, checking the chemical composition of the film coating for uniformity. During this time, Hopkins also developed an interest in the work of the patent department and returned to school. She received her J.D. degree from Suffolk University Law School. Hopkins retired from Polaroid Corporation in 1989 and began work as the deputy general counsel at the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. In 1999, Hopkins became the first African American selectman of Framingham, Massachusetts. She stepped down from this post in 2005, but has remained active in the community. Hopkins is married to Ewell Hopkins, a social worker and minister. They have one son, Ewell Hopkins, Jr.

Accession Number

A2012.222

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/13/2012

Last Name

Hopkins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

A.H.

Occupation
Schools

Boston University

Yale University

Suffolk University Law School

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Esther

Birth City, State, Country

Stanford

HM ID

HOP03

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Connecticut

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

9/18/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Martha's Vineyard

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Peanuts

Short Description

Chemist and lawyer Esther A.H. Hopkins (1926 - ) is known for her continued dedication to environmental protection and for her work in scientific research at such business organizations as the Polaroid Corporation.

Employment

Virginia State University

New England Institute for Medical Research

American Cyanamid's Stamford Research Laboratory

Polaroid Corporation

Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection

Framingham, Massachusetts

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Esther Hopkins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Esther Hopkins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Esther Hopkins describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Esther Hopkins talks about her mother's growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Esther Hopkins talks about her mother's career as a domestic

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Esther Hopkins talks about her mother's educational aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Esther Hopkins describes her father's growing up and career

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Esther Hopkins talks about access

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Esther Hopkins talks about her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Esther Hopkins talks about her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Esther Hopkins talks about her childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Esther Hopkins talks about her childhood and her parents' work, part 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Esther Hopkins talks about her childhood and her parents' work, part 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Esther Hopkins talks about her childhood neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Esther Hopkins talks about her elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Esther Hopkins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Esther Hopkins talks about her interest in math

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Esther Hopkins talks about her middle school experience, part 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Esther Hopkins talks about her involvement in the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA)

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Esther Hopkins talks about her middle school experience, part 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Esther Hopkins talks about her interest in reading, television and radio

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Esther Hopkins talks about her high school experience

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Esther Hopkins reflects on the effects of World War 2 during her high school years

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Esther Hopkins talks about her decision to attend Boston University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Esther Hopkins talks about her initial career aspirations at Boston University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Esther Hopkins talks about her experience at Howard University, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Esther Hopkins talks about her experience at Howard University, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Esther Hopkins talks about her decision to teach at Virginia State College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Esther Hopkins talks about her experience teaching at Virginia State College

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Esther Hopkins talks about her decision to attend Yale University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Esther Hopkins talks about meeting her husband and her involvement with music

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Esther Hopkins talks about graduating from Yale University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Esther Hopkins describes her dissertation research

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Esther Hopkins talks about her decision to join the Polaroid Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Esther Hopkins describes the chemistry behind a Polaroid picture

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Esther Hopkins talks about her interest in patent law and her decision to attend law school

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Esther Hopkins talks about her experience at Polaroid Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Esther Hopkins talks about the Double Bind Symposium

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Esther Hopkins talks about her article, "A Certain Restlessness"

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Esther Hopkins talks about her experience at the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Esther Hopkins talks about her political career

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Esther Hopkins talks about her involvement with professional organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Esther Hopkins talks about her professional activities, part 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Esther Hopkins talks about her professional activities, part 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Esther Hopkins talks about her professional affiliations

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Esther Hopkins talks about Della Hartman

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Esther Hopkins talks about her family and her favorite things to do

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Esther Hopkins talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Esther Hopkins reflects on her life and career

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Esther Hopkins reflects on her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Esther Hopkins talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Esther Hopkins describes her photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$7

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Esther Hopkins talks about her experience at the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
Esther Hopkins talks about her professional activities, part 1
Transcript
So, you retired from Polaroid in '89' [1989], and you start a new career with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, EPA, the Massachusetts EPA?$$DEP.$$Oh,--$$Department of Environmental Protection.$$DEP, okay, right.$$But it's comparable to the, to the federal EPA. It's the Massachusetts State Department of Environmental Protection.$$Well, tell us about the transition to that job. What happened?$$Polaroid had a big offer of people, they were allowing them to retire early. And they were offering ten years additional onto your age or your, or your, the numbers of years you had worked there and everything and numbers of people were leaving at that time. And I took advantage of that one because at the time, if I worked, if I continued to work until I was old enough to retire at the regular age, I would really earn no more pension than I had at that point because of this additional one that they were giving out. So I retired. And I'm not one to sort of sit still and do nothing. I had the, the work that I had done in terms of getting a law degree, and I had passed the bar, I was a member of the bar. And a woman representative, my, from my hometown, from Framingham, indicated that there were some jobs available in various sorts of things. And she said, went over, and I applied there. I went over to interview them. It was different, it was law, but it, and it was not patent law obviously, but it was environmental law, and I did mainly administrative law with the department, with the general counsel's office. So I learned a lot about how laws are made, about regulations, about what goes on in the Commonwealth by way of pollution and about clean air and clean water and the things that are going on. And I found it very helpful to have learned that part of what goes on in terms of, of the Commonwealth. And I stayed there a little over eight, some years, and had an accident. My heel was broken and my jaw and my back and I was out for a long period of time, and it was very difficult to sort of get back. And then I was gonna be going out to Worchester to work rather than in Boston. Boston was very difficult to manage if you're, if you have problems getting around with the cobblestones and the traffic--$$Well, what happened to you?$$Huh?$$What happened to you?$$The automobile, I was in an automobile accident.$$Okay.$$Yeah, and so I decided that I was not going to go through another winter of hobbling around, trying to get out to work there on my feet. If I'm not gonna work in the winter, I don't want to work over the summer 'cause the summer is pleasant. So I quit.$$Okay, was it helpful to be a chemist and have, you know, a PhD in chemistry--$$Oh, yes. I have found that my scientific training has been very helpful in almost everything I've done. And I found that numbers of, of these things, you know, where I dip into this, and I do that, so many of those things come together in terms of being able to do things. And so, yeah, I found, I find my scientific work has, has been important in all of that. And my scientific work was important in terms of my getting to be a fellow in the American Chemical Society to have it down there. That, because that happened relatively recently.$$Now, this is, that's almost like the, if I'm not mistaken, it's almost like a Hall of Fame where they--$$They decided that those persons who have made significant contributions to the profession and to the society over years would be named as fellows. And they named a class of fellows in, I guess, 2010 and then 2011 and this year, they named another group. And--$$So you were made a fellow--$$A fellow of the--$$--in what year?$$Last year.$$Last year, okay, 2011?$$Eleven [2011], uh-huh.$Well, give us, you know, kind of a run-down on things you're proudest of, that you've been involved in?$$You know, people ask me about that, and I have on these things here, I have fried marble. My son made me that fried marble when he was in nursery school. And I put it on with my keys. And he, he often, he--whenever I get a chance to wear it, he sort of looks around and wants to know if I still have it because he brought it home to me wrapped in a little piece of green tissue paper for Mother's Day that year when I was at, at Yale, and he was going to the nursery school there. And I said, yes, I'll wear it son, and I'll put it on there. I have always been interested in a wide range of things. I've been interested in things that have to do with education, with religious and moral life. I've been interested in things that have to do with music. I have, of course, been interested in science and what that does for all of us. I've been interested in the arts, and how they, how the arts speak for that part of us. And from the time that I was, well, from high school on, when I first went to college, my, my father told me not to join everything that I was invited to join. And every year, my father would say, I had to get out of everything except three organizations. And by Thanksgiving, I was, so I ended up with Scarlet Key at Boston University which is the, the student, the student leaders organization there. I believe that if you're part of a profession, you should work with the profession. And so I joined the Chemical Society as soon as, when I finished Howard [University] because Howard--remember I told you that Howard was certified by the Chemical Society as, for giving degrees. And so I, I joined the professional society, and I'm still a member of their professional society, although I'm emeritus at this point. But I worked, I was thirty three with the council. I worked on most of the committees there, the, the committee on committees, which my husband thought was funny. They got so many committees they have to have a committee on them, with women chemists. I worked with the nominating committee. I worked in our local section here in Massachusetts. And I've been, I've chaired that, which was another thing I needed to thank Polaroid for because in terms of being chairman of the section, it takes a lot of time and doing. And my boss at Polaroid was kind enough to say, yes, he thought it was a good thing that I could do that. And so they allowed me enough time to, to be chair of the section for doing that. And I've gotten awards for some of those things. And I, and I actually chaired one of the ACS National Committees. I chaired the Committee on Professional Relations when, when Mary Good was president of the Chemical Society. She named me as a chair of one of the committees. And this is an organization. Earlier, the women who were chemists sort of went to the meetings, and they used to have breakfast and fashion shows. And we were part of the women chemists committee. We figured we really needed to do more than that, and we were gonna--they changed the name to the Women Chemists Association. We worked diligently at getting the society to recognize women chemists as full-fledged chemists.

Paula Hammond

Chemical engineer and engineering professor Paula Therese Hammond was born in 1963 in Detroit, Michigan. Although she grew up wanting to become a writer, Hammond changed her mind after taking a junior high school chemistry class. She was hooked by the idea of using two materials to create a something completely different. After graduating from high school, Hammond attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where she obtained her B.S. degree in chemical engineering in 1984. She was then hired by Motorola in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, where she worked for two years. In 1988, Hammond earned her M.S. degree from Georgia Institute of Technology and then returned to MIT to earn her Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering in 1993.

Following a postdoctoral research fellowship in chemistry at Harvard University, where she became interested in surface chemistry, Hammond went on to become a faculty member of MIT. In 2003, she worked as a Radcliffe Institute Fellow, focusing on a project that allowed for the creation of polymers that form micelles in water. These isolated packages could be used to assist in drug delivery. Hammond is the Bayer Chair Professor of Chemical Engineering, and serves as its Executive Officer. Additionally, she has participated in the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She also helped found the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN), whose mission is to help design more functional technology for the nation’s soldiers. Hammond’s research interests include the nanoscale design of biomaterials, macromolecular design and synthesis, and directed assembly using surface templates. In 2010, Hammond made a research agreement with Ferrosan A/S, a pharmaceutical company, to develop a bandage that would use Hammond’s technological innovations in Ferrosan’s collagen bandages. Throughout her career, Hammond has served as a mentor to many graduate and undergraduate students and has published nearly 150 scholarly articles pertaining to her research in chemical engineering. She has also encouraged an increase in the presence of minority scientists and engineers at MIT by chairing the Initiative on Faculty, Race and Diversity.

Hammond has won numerous awards for her work as a scientist and as a professor. She was named the Bayer Distinguished Lecturer in 2004 and the Mark Hyman, Jr. Career Development Chair in 2003. In 2010, the Harvard Foundation awarded her the Scientist of the Year Award at the annual Albert Einstein Science Conference. Hammond has also been named one of the “Top 100 Science Stories of 2008,” by Discover Magazine. Hammond is married to Carmon Cunningham, and they have one son, James.

Accession Number

A2012.218

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/9/2012

Last Name

Hammond

Middle Name

T

Schools

Georgia Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Harvard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Paula

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

HAM04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Aruba, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Science informs....

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

9/3/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Chemical engineer and engineering professor Paula Hammond (1963 - )

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Georgia Technical Research Institute

Motorola, Inc.

Dow Chemical Company

Favorite Color

Intense Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:2231,41:9312,172:15229,307:15617,312:16490,322:16878,327:25112,387:26176,422:27544,451:28000,459:29596,482:31040,505:31420,512:31876,522:33472,560:34460,574:38560,594:41409,644:42025,654:44181,685:44643,693:55376,827:62862,987:65766,1040:74444,1108:76390,1134:78390,1183:84870,1300:85510,1309:86550,1323:87750,1339:92710,1437:93430,1447:94550,1483:102423,1578:112387,1728:112752,1734:117132,1838:135196,2004:135572,2031:136418,2044:144972,2173:152235,2217:154746,2253:155556,2266:155961,2272:157419,2286:159930,2324:164142,2395:164466,2400:170624,2456:171464,2467:176084,2535:176588,2543:178352,2578:180032,2597:181292,2616:181796,2624:189294,2689:189689,2695:190084,2701:193495,2737:193933,2745:194444,2754:196415,2801:197437,2819:197875,2827:198386,2836:200138,2868:203642,2921:204153,2930:204737,2939:212127,3002:213666,3034:214638,3048:215367,3059:228557,3219:238609,3383:239399,3396:244455,3509:249646,3542:250238,3551:250534,3556:252014,3581:252606,3591:254456,3628:254752,3633:256602,3670:256898,3675:260154,3725:260820,3736:271271,3842:271656,3848:272195,3857:280130,3977:285350,4028$0,0:4925,42:5249,47:8246,126:9623,150:10109,157:11405,189:11891,196:12701,207:14402,232:14888,239:15455,245:31750,435:32170,441:33850,467:39814,546:45568,578:46974,600:47270,605:48750,631:49046,636:52376,707:59166,773:59628,781:60288,792:61212,809:64380,868:64908,876:66030,895:66624,905:67218,921:67812,931:71244,1002:71772,1012:72036,1017:72300,1022:81869,1142:82247,1149:84326,1187:90340,1264:91188,1273:102114,1426:105002,1469:105762,1479:110702,1573:111462,1586:113210,1610:117629,1636:118577,1651:127578,1754:128766,1772:131934,1834:140550,1886
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Paula Hammond's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother studying nursing at Howard University and Wayne State University

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's community involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her brothers, Gordon Francis Goodwin and Tyehimba Jess

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond recalls her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about growing up in northwest Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond remembers the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about Motown and the music of her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks about her early school days

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her most memorable teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond discusses her early aspirations to become a writer

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond describes the cultural changes in Detroit, Michigan and increasing gang activity

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her decision to attend Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond talks about studying at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about the professors that mentored and inspired her

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond talks about meeting her husband, John Hammond

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks describes the discrimination she faced while working at Motorola in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about working at Georgia Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her doctoral studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond talks about her post-doctoral research at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her return to Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond describes her current research concerning the directed assembly of nanomaterials

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond discusses the practical application of her research

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond talks about liquid crystalline and block polymers

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Paula Hammond talks about dendritic block copolymers and tissue engineering

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Paula Hammond talks about the use of biomaterials in the human body

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond discusses nanoparticle drug delivery and other discoveries

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her honors and awards

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond gives advice to young minority students of science

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond reflects on her career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond shares her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond tells how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$1

DATitle
Paula Hammond describes her current research concerning the directed assembly of nanomaterials
Paula Hammond discusses nanoparticle drug delivery and other discoveries
Transcript
All right. Now, since you've been here, professionally you've been involved with--and I'm going to ask you to explain some of these things.$$Yes. Sure.$$It seems that we have a menu of your--of the areas you concentrate in.$$Oh, sure. And I can help you narrow them too, if some of them are--some may be more important than others, you know.$$$$Okay. Well, what about macromolecular design and synthesis?$$All right. That just refers to the fact that we make new polymers. We actually, in my group, have a couple of different skill sets. One of them is what you just described. We can, understanding the function that we want a polymer system to have, design the polymer to do what we anticipate it needs to do. So, we actually use synthetic chemistry as a tool in that case to make a new material system that will do what, you know, the desired function.$$Okay. Now, I don't know if it's time to talk about this or not, but this is--I guess this what you--this is the core of what you're doing now. I guess, it's you're using-- you're doing nanomaterials--$$That's right.$$--where you're able to layer different compounds together and make new materials.$$That's right. Exactly. And, in fact, that's the other skill set that we use. We put that all in the category of self-assembly or directed assembly. We take a material that has a certain interaction with another material, and in a controlled fashion, assemble a new structure from those two systems, two or more systems. Sometimes even one singular system can undergo soft assembly. In this case it's two systems. We're taking a positively and negatively-charged material and alternating them. And, in doing so, we create nanoscale layers, and we build these materials nano layers at a time, and we can put different material systems into different layers. With that level of control, we can design a material system from the bottom up, and determine what function exists, and how it will function based on what we incorporate into the film.$$Okay. And this is--the final product is a thin film, right?$$The final product is a very thin film, sometimes as thin as a few (tenths?) of nanometers; sometimes as thick as microns. And, we can actually coat a very broad range of things, very large structures as large as--well, there's no limit. It essentially can be--very large structures can be coated or very, fine, tiny structures and features can be coated. So, we can coat everything from a nano particle that's used for drug delivery, to an electrode that is used in electrical chemical energy applications, to a very large surface that is used as an optical reflector for an antireflective surface for a large glass structure, for example.$$Okay. So, this is what you mean by self-organized polymer systems?$$Yes. That's one of the ways in which we generate self-organized polymer systems. The other is to use that synthetic tool to create a molecule that assembles with itself in water, and we make some of those systems as well. They assemble into micellar particles, small nanoparticles when they're in water, based on hydrophobic or water hating and hydrophilic or water-loving segments.$$Okay. Okay. What about alternating electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly?$$Yes.$$That's what you just described.$$That's what I just described.$$Okay.$$Layer-by-layer assembly. The automated pieces that we--the process I was describing originally was done by dipping and allowing time for the material to absorb it to go on time. We developed an automated approach that sprays these systems one after the other, and we can generate the films much faster. One of my students invented this approach. We patented it, and we actually have a company he founded called, Svaya Nanotechnologies in Sunnyvale, California. It was founded in 2009, and it's in its third round of funding right now. And he's the one who's coating things that are as large as this table or long, rolled, reel-to-reel pieces of film, using the layer-by-layer technique.$All right. Now, what have been, I guess, your career research highlights? I know--now, you teach and do research, right?$$I teach and do research. That's right. I would say some of the career highlights include some of our more recent work, including nanoparticle drug delivery work that we've been doing. We've been able to find, very recently in our lab, a way to generate RNA, which is the mechanism we can use to turn off bad genes that can cause disease or promote disease in a way that is very unique. It allows us to deliver a large amount of RNA in a nanoparticle without causing toxic side effects, which are common with other methods of RNA encapsulation. So, that's something I think is a highlight, and we just published the work last year. Some of the earlier highlights include the work that we've done in designing these layer-by-layer films to release different drugs at different times, and it's something that we've been able to demonstrate with simple systems, but we're now trying to make more advanced films so that you can, for the implant example, release antibiotics, get rid of any infection, and release the growth factors to bring in these new healthy cells to the body.$$Okay. Now, we were reading about a partnership--well, a research agreement that you all made with--that MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology] made with Farrosan.$$Oh, yes. That's right. This is with the sponge that stops bleeding, essentially. And we, actually, from that work developed a coating that can be released or deployed very rapidly. And that's another very recent highlight in our work, which we hope will, ultimately, be licensed, and used--deployed to the Army.$$Okay. That's exciting stuff. Now, you're written over 150 articles or maybe more by now. I know this is an old project.$$Oh, yes. Yes. It's a little over 200 now, but it's close (laughs).

Wayne Bowen

Biology and Pharmacology Professor Wayne Darrell Bowen was born to (mother) and (father) in 1952. As a child, Bowen knew early on that he was interested in pursuing a career in science, and indeed, he went on to earn his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Morgan State College, in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1974. Bowen then pursued a graduate degree with a major in biochemistry and a minor in neuropharmacology, graduating from Cornell University with his Ph.D. degree after completing a thesis on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis.
Bowen went on to do his postdoctoral work from 1980 to 1983 at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), a research institute of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) located in Bethesda, Maryland, where his work centered on opiate receptor biochemistry. From 1983 to 1991 Bowen taught courses in endocrinology, introductory biology, and biochemistry at Brown University as an Assistant Professor of Biology. During his time at Brown, Bowen also founded the macromolecular biochemistry facility on campus, which provided campus and surrounding medical facilities with synthetic peptide compounds.
From 1991 until 2004, Bowen served as tenured chief of the Unit on Receptor Biochemistry and Pharmacology at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland, working in the Drug Design and Synthesis Section of the Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry. During his time as Chief, Bowen continued to lecture for undergraduate students at Brown University, serving as both Adjunct Professor of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry as well as Adjunct Professor of Neuroscience. During a corresponding period, from 1999 to 2004, Bowen also chaired the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences Graduate School.
In 2004, Bowen returned to the task of educating future scientists as a full-time Professor of Biology at Brown University, teaching in the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology. Bowen was then appointed Chair of his department in 2007. His research at Brown focuses on the potential for developing new treatments for disease through the understanding of sigma receptors, specifically treatment for neurological disorders and cancer.
Bowen has served as President of the Black Scientists Association at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 2001and is a member of the Society for Neuroscience, the American Association for Cancer Research, and the International Brain Research Organization/World Federation of Neuroscientists. He has also received a Certificate of Appreciation from the Student and Teacher Internship Program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and NIH as well as an Award of Appreciation from the Science and Engineering Fair at Morgan State University. In addition, he was also awarded a Certificate of Recognition from the NIH Speakers Bureau and a Special Recognition Award from the Undergraduate Scholarship Program at NIH, as well as numerous research grants.

Accession Number

A2012.216

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/9/2012

Last Name

Bowen

Maker Category
Middle Name

D.

Occupation
Schools

Morgan State University

Cornell University

Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson Elementary

Baltimore City College

William H. Lemmel Middle

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Wayne

HM ID

BOW07

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Rhode Island

Birth Date

11/11/1952

Speakers Bureau Region City

Providence

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Biologist Wayne Bowen (1952 - ) is a professor of biology and pharmacology and a biologist studying alternative treatments for disease at Brown University.

Employment

National Institute of Mental Health (NIH)

Brown University

Cornell University

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Smith, Kline and French

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:10058,167:16246,240:16630,249:17270,260:19254,307:27975,416:29700,438:31200,462:33525,504:34200,515:34875,525:35400,533:36000,543:45155,640:45530,646:46880,672:47480,681:50330,740:51005,752:51755,763:55130,821:61470,841:61750,846:64060,883:64760,893:65460,905:67770,949:79367,1112:80984,1134:81369,1141:82062,1161:84988,1208:86297,1226:90618,1250:91020,1257:97251,1399:98256,1422:98792,1431:109060,1603:110035,1610:121458,1724:125280,1776:127100,1808:131085,1835:132153,1847:133310,1862:133666,1867:139629,1949:151716,2066:154620,2076:155850,2086:158286,2091:167097,2211:169055,2238:173132,2254:178300,2325:179516,2346:179972,2353:180276,2358:182690,2364:204030,2611:207350,2655:208678,2675:211500,2715:216320,2742:216830,2749:217425,2758:218785,2773:219465,2783:221505,2807:222100,2816:225370,2825:226220,2837:227495,2860:230555,2909:232170,2951:234890,2982:236505,3021:242340,3073:245500,3156:247712,3194:248186,3201:248581,3208:251820,3250:254664,3290:255138,3298:261174,3336:261559,3342:265486,3400:265794,3405:266795,3424:267103,3429:267488,3435:268720,3452:269875,3472:270414,3480:276032,3551:278481,3586:281562,3650:282036,3658:282905,3671:286600,3685:288290,3717:289395,3743:291670,3785:292450,3799:292775,3805:297000,3904:300890,3914:308328,4004:310272,4040:316032,4158:316680,4168:321560,4195:322070,4202:323090,4236:330544,4304:330880,4309:351070,4571$0,0:6694,86:7804,103:10986,150:11282,155:12540,168:13206,179:13502,184:13872,190:14538,200:15056,209:19360,216:19785,226:20295,233:22080,254:22505,261:29702,322:29974,327:30994,350:31266,355:31878,367:32626,381:33170,391:33578,398:34054,407:34666,413:36366,432:40530,440:40754,445:40978,450:41538,461:42490,482:43386,501:46243,534:47112,546:48613,574:50114,585:50509,592:52326,647:52800,654:53590,665:54617,675:56118,684:56434,689:56829,695:57777,717:58172,723:58804,733:59436,742:64441,758:64915,766:65231,771:65626,781:66574,791:67838,808:68944,822:69734,836:70445,846:71156,858:71946,869:75450,878:75850,884:76170,889:77850,906:81770,968:82810,982:84810,1012:85130,1017:85610,1025:89250,1033:93130,1058:96269,1104:96561,1109:97291,1120:97948,1132:98313,1138:98970,1149:99481,1158:103277,1213:103715,1220:104226,1237:105102,1251:110366,1277:111920,1292:114354,1314:122514,1464:122786,1469:123058,1474:123602,1484:124214,1495:124486,1500:124894,1508:125302,1516:130874,1559:131252,1568:131738,1578:135194,1651:135518,1658:135734,1663:136004,1669:137910,1674:139310,1698:143300,1759:143650,1765:146870,1815:147850,1860:151096,1873:151372,1878:154201,1917:158065,1999:158341,2004:158617,2009:159100,2015:159583,2020:161101,2044:164910,2053:165702,2064:166318,2072:166846,2079:168870,2091:169486,2099:172742,2148:173182,2154:173798,2162:174678,2175:175294,2186:181684,2236:183422,2263:185160,2298:185476,2303:186029,2312:192746,2406:193506,2419:193962,2427:194798,2441:195102,2446:195786,2457:196242,2465:198218,2504:202322,2604:207359,2642:208419,2663:208843,2672:209055,2677:209320,2683:210221,2703:211122,2726:211440,2741:214567,2803:214779,2808:215733,2836:220417,2881:220752,2887:221489,2904:223834,2942:224571,2955:226514,2987:229864,3067:230333,3076:234930,3083:235497,3088:236955,3105:239061,3134:240762,3146:241248,3153:241815,3161:242301,3168:242949,3178:243840,3191:245298,3203:245946,3213:249300,3221:249780,3228:252260,3271:252900,3280:258660,3375:262323,3388:262591,3393:262859,3398:264132,3418:268621,3504:268889,3509:269291,3516:270095,3532:271703,3571:271971,3576:272373,3583:272641,3588:273914,3604:274450,3614:274718,3619:279960,3639:281010,3652:282970,3690:283250,3695:283600,3702:284020,3710:284930,3725:286680,3755:288920,3792:292880,3806:294988,3847:295804,3860:296212,3867:297164,3882:297912,3894:299808,3906:301188,3923:301809,3933:306777,4005:308847,4038:309675,4051:312610,4059
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wayne Bowen's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his father's growing up and his career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about how his parents met, married, and later moved to Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Wayne Bowen describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Wayne Bowen describes his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in music during his adolescence

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in science and his experiments with his Gilbert chemistry set

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in science and his aspirations for a career as a scientist

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his family's involvement in both the Baptist and Methodist church

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his elementary school, his early science education, his interest in chemistry, and his favorite high school science teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about his friend's death, his social life in junior high school and his junior high school science projects

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his high school extracurricular activities and his interest in photography

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his band, St. George's Gate

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his experience playing in a musical production

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his decision to attend Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his high school experience at Baltimore City College, including the demographics of the school and his job as a photographer

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about missing Jimi Hendricks perform at the Baltimore Civic Center

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mentors, his jobs, and his experience in the chemistry department at Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about his extracurricular activities and his experience being a commuter student at Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his undergraduate research project on porphyrins

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Wayne Bowen talks about his emerging interest in biochemistry and his decision to attend Cornell University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Wayne Bowen talks about his first research publication and his introduction to the field of pharmacology

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his Ph.D. advisor, James Gaylor, and his experience at Cornell University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his dissertation research on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his dissertation research on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about graduating from Cornell University and his interest in pharmacology at the National Institute of Mental Health

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen describes his postdoctoral research on the biochemistry of opioid receptors at the National Institute of Mental Health

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about establishing the Macromolecular Biochemistry Facility at Brown University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen describes the pharmacology of sigma receptors

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research on opioid receptors

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research on sigma receptors - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about the role of sigma receptors in cancer research

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research with sigma receptors - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his professional activities and his research on sigma receptors and their implications for cancer research

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research with sigma receptors - part three

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Black Scientists Association and its initiatives

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about becoming Chair of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology and Biotechnology at Brown University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his duties as Chair of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology at Brown University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about the potential uses of the sigma-1 receptor and emerging areas of research

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about therapies that have been developed from the sigma 2 receptor

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about the field of structural biology

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about how street drugs can inform pharmacological research

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about the physiology of drug addiction

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about the hallucinogen, ibogaine, its psychoactive effects, and its potential therapeutic uses

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen reflects upon his life choices

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen shares his advice for aspiring scientists and pharmacologists

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in history and the Civil War

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his hobbies

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Wayne Bowen talks about his professional activities and his research on sigma receptors and their implications for cancer research
Wayne Bowen talks about the potential uses of the sigma-1 receptor and emerging areas of research
Transcript
So, I went back to NIH [National Institutes of Health] in 1991.$$Okay, alright. The director of--$$And became director, a unit chief down there, and stayed down there until 2004.$$Okay.$$And during that whole time I was at NIH, we did, the work was completely focused on sigma receptors. And we published a number of papers showing that sigma receptors were present in an organ now called lipid rafts, and that that might influence their function. We discovered that the sigma receptors, when activated, produces a change of calcium levels in cells, which is a known second messenger that can change signaling and biochemistry in cells. We found that turning on the sigma receptor increases the levels of a lipid called ceramic, which is a toxic lipid that has a number of targets in cells, and can turn on the apoptotic process. And at the same time, we developed a whole series of compounds through our collaboration with a medicinal chemist. The main chemist that I collaborated with was Brian DeCosta, who was at the NIH then. There was another chemist called Craig, his name was Craig Bertha, who made some compounds that we, he made a compound that we're still using today, that's sort of a prototypic selective sigma 2 receptor agonist. We're always interested in--so, once we found that there were two sub-types of the receptor--so, we were first interested in designing compounds that were selected for the sigma receptor system. And we found a few of those. But now what we're trying to do is hone compounds to be selected for either the sigma 1 or the sigma 2 receptor. And we found a few of those, working with our medicinal chemist colleagues. So then in 2004 I moved back to Brown [University], and joined The Department of Molecular Pharmacology Physiology And Biotechnology, and continued to work on the sigma receptor system. And continuing now with more of a focus on what they're doing in tumor cells, how they are affecting cell growth and proliferation, with a main focus on the ability of the sigma 2 receptor to turn on the apoptosis. And the discovery there was that cells that are resistant--forms of cancer that are resistant to chemotherapy, like pancreatic cancer, is resistant to a number of chemotherapeutic approaches, are susceptible to the sigma receptor. So, we can kill--we looked at three different pancreatic cancer cell lines that are readily killed by activating the sigma 2 receptor when these cells are resistant to other types of chemotherapeutic agents. So, the signaling mechanisms that are turned on by the sigma 2 receptor apparently go in directions that bypass a number of the molecules that are mutated in cancer. Cancer is a problem of unrestricted cell growth, so proliferation. And the way cancer cells do that, is they, there are mutations and molecules that are normally designed to turn on the cell death process. So, cells have a, all the cells in your body, with the exception of your neurons, have a time clock in them, and they'll divide for a certain number of times. And then that cell will turn on an apoptotic program, and basically commit suicide.$$This is the process of replenishing--$$The process of replenishing cells. And in cancer cells, that process is sabotaged, it's hijacked, because the biochemistry that's used to turn on that cell death process is altered in tumor cells. So, these cells escape this apoptotic process. And what we're trying to do with these chemotherapeutic agents is turn that process back on. And apparently, what the sigma 2 receptor does is turn on the programs that sort of bypass these roadblocks in the apoptotic pathway, so that if you have a cell that is resistant to chemotherapy, turning on the sigma 2 receptor opens up another pathway, because there are multiple ways to kill a cell. And the tumor cells haven't figured out yet all of those ways. So we try, so the sigma 2 receptor finds a way to exploit a system that's not yet been altered, and that's a very, that will be a very valuable tool. Because if all tumor cell types, or most tumor cell types, express these receptors, then you have sort of a broad spectrum of tools to attack a number of different types of tumors. So, since coming back to Brown [University], we've focused on that. I've had a couple of post-docs that have worked on this project. Shee Wong worked on looking at the mechanism of how the cells are able to use the mitochondrial pathway to turn on cell deaths. This is a relatively novel discovery, that the mitochondria in cells can be involved in committing this type of cell suicide.$Now, where do you see the field of sigma receptors heading in the next decade?$$So, I think we're in a state, at a stage in the field now where we're just beginning to figure out what these receptors might be doing. There are people studying this system from a number of angles. So, most of the, if you were talking to me five years ago, I would say that most of the people in the field are coming into the field from neuroscience, because they were originally thought to be opioid receptors. And so, people of my age group, I guess, generation, started out studying opioid receptors, from a standpoint of the CNS [central nervous system]. But in recent years, the field has branched into other areas. So, one of the areas where the field is going is in the area of drug abuse. It turns out that the sigma 1 receptor is a target for, a potential target, for developing drugs to treat drug abuse. One of my colleagues I collaborated with is Ray Natsomoti, who's now at West Virginia University, and has pioneered this work in showing that the sigma receptor, that the sigma 1 receptor, when it's blocked, will ameliorate some of the toxic effects of cocaine, some of the local motor effects of cocaine. One of the things that, one of the toxicities of cocaine is that it causes convulsions at high dosages. And she found that if you block sigma 1 receptors with sigma 1 receptor antagonists, that you block the convulsive effects of cocaine. And so, and you can do this even after the animal has been given a dose of cocaine, a convulsive dose of cocaine. So, that's a potential therapeutic use of the sigma 1 receptor, targeting the sigma 1 receptor. Others have shown that blockade of the sigma 1 receptor has effects on drug self-administration. So, if you train animals to self-administer cocaine or-- there's a group at Boston [Massachusetts] that's doing alcohol, and give them sigma 1 antagonists, that you can block or inhibit drug self-administration in these animals. But more importantly, it's been shown that blockade of the sigma 1 receptor blocks the process that's called, the process where the animal begins to self-administer again after they've been off the drug for a while, so re-instatement, it's called. So, you if make an animal addicted to cocaine, and give him certain--and then take the animal off cocaine, and then give certain cues, the animal will go back to self-administering cocaine. And this is thought to be what happens in humans, where they go to rehab and they're off drugs for a while, and there are certain cues--stress, other cues, that get them self-administering drugs again. And it's been shown that blocking the sigma 1 receptor will block this re-instatement process. So, there are people who are interested in targeting the sigma 1 receptor for treatment of drug abuse, and I think that's a direction that the field is going to go. The other major direction, also involving a sigma 1 receptor, is learning and memory. The sigma 1 receptor is expressing a part of the brain called the hippocampus. And it's been shown by a group in France that blocking sigma 1 receptors in the hippocampus will induce memory loss in animal models of learning and memory. So, there are several animal models where you can train a rat to find a floating block in a pool. Or, you train a rat to do a certain task, you know, go through a maze to find food. If you give them blockers of sigma 1 receptors after they've been trained, they forget how to do it. If you put a rat in a pool that's been trained to find a block of wood, they can't. They swim around like it's, like they never had that experience. So, the corollary of that the activating sigma 1 receptors must play a role in acquisition of learning and reinstatement of memory. So, there are people who are interested in developing sigma 1 receptor agonists for treatment of memory deficits, like Alzheimer's disease, or just any sort of cognitive defect they have. So, cognitive enhancing agents is another sort of way that the sigma receptor field is going at the current.

James Mitchell

Research chemist James W. Mitchell was born on November 16, 1943 in Durham, North Carolina as the eldest and only son of tobacco factory workers. Mitchell’s interest in chemistry stemmed from the disciplines logical principles and their reliability. Mitchell received his B.S. degree in chemistry from North Carolina A & T State University in 1965, and his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from Iowa State University in 1970. His doctoral thesis focused on analytical chemistry, a branch of chemistry concerned with analyzing the characteristics and composition of matter.

Mitchell first joined AT & T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey after receiving his doctorate. He chaired the Lab’s Affirmative Action Committee and was one of the founders of the Association of Black Laboratory Employees. In 1982, Mitchell was promoted to supervisor of the Inorganic Analytical Chemistry Research Group. Mitchell became head of the Analytical Chemistry Research Department in 1975. Under his leadership the department was transformed into an internationally renowned research organization. In 1985, Mitchell was named an AT & T Bell Laboratories Fellow, and, in 1989 he was extended membership into the National Academy of Engineering. He has written nearly 100 publications with as many citations attached to his work. He earned the 1999 Lifetime Achievement in Industry Award by the National Society of Black Engineers.

In 2002, Mitchell began his tenure at Howard University. He served as the David and Lucille Packard Professor of Materials Science, Director of the CREST Nanoscale Analytical Sciences Research and Education Center, Professor of Chemical Engineering, and Dean of the College of Engineering. Mitchell has also lectured internationally. In addition, he co-authored a book, Contamination Control in Trace Analysis, published more than seventy-five scientific papers, and invented instruments and processes. He also served as a member of the editorial advisory boards of Analytical Chemistry and Mikrochimica Acta. Mitchell and his wife Jean live in Washington, D.C. They have three children.

James W. Mitchell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 11, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.236

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/11/2012

Last Name

Mitchell

Maker Category
Middle Name

W

Occupation
Schools

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Iowa State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Durham

HM ID

MIT13

Favorite Season

Holiday Season

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Alaskan Cruises

Favorite Quote

When times get tough, the tough get going.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/16/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Turkey, Greens (Collard), Fish, Barbecue

Short Description

Chemist James Mitchell (1943 - ) was the first African American honored as an AT&T Bell Laboratories Fellow, and is the Dean of the College of Engineering at Howard University.

Employment

Bell Laboratories

Lucent Technologies

Howard University College of Engineering

CREST Nanoscale Analytical Sciences Research and Education center

Favorite Color

Gold, Purple, Red, White

Timing Pairs
310,0:4470,95:5350,111:6310,131:6630,136:7270,150:9110,189:10310,208:15672,263:22832,332:23781,347:24365,356:25241,370:25679,377:32120,416:34760,468:35880,487:36600,502:36920,507:37240,512:38200,525:38840,534:39480,543:40200,554:42200,587:47750,630:49270,656:50150,672:53670,726:55910,761:58230,784:59270,799:60310,813:61270,827:61590,832:66579,850:67492,863:68239,872:68571,877:69733,894:70231,901:71900,928:72593,940:73097,950:73601,959:74042,967:75428,992:75995,1002:76562,1014:78011,1043:78641,1104:84833,1129:89948,1225:98063,1312:103076,1342:105169,1372:111930,1410:112262,1415:112677,1421:116635,1444:117145,1451:121410,1486:121766,1491:126928,1562:127284,1567:127818,1572:128708,1584:129153,1590:135470,1647:135926,1654:136458,1663:138054,1689:139422,1712:141980,1719:142360,1724:143025,1733:151406,1803:153494,1830:155495,1857:160280,1915:161498,1930:166066,1956:173326,2113:173590,2118:180270,2203:181020,2215:181545,2224:182070,2236:185032,2252:185402,2258:185846,2265:187178,2286:188140,2300:189028,2313:189694,2323:192358,2364:192654,2369:193024,2375:193690,2385:197728,2406:200968,2470:201256,2475:201688,2482:202912,2503:203488,2513:204496,2528:205504,2553:209827,2577:211681,2593:212196,2599:221466,2679:222048,2686:222436,2691:223212,2700:224182,2713:225928,2737:227770,2742$0,0:8907,32:10041,51:18951,164:23498,179:26427,214:29815,246:33222,274:34671,303:34923,308:37210,323:44237,393:45013,403:47147,424:50932,444:54663,484:56895,512:57546,521:59499,540:59964,546:61917,573:67638,614:70992,654:71850,667:78222,723:80242,751:83582,779:87023,803:87451,808:88414,818:89591,835:93110,861:95407,879:96208,890:96742,897:99224,927:99763,935:103151,979:105230,1015:105846,1024:106924,1045:108310,1072:108926,1082:109927,1098:110389,1106:118830,1184:119570,1195:124422,1230:131730,1262:132094,1267:133277,1283:136752,1310:138026,1325:139104,1337:140084,1348:140476,1353:140868,1358:143612,1388:155430,1457:156022,1462:157370,1469
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Mitchell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Mitchell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Mitchell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Mitchell describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Mitchell describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Mitchell describes his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Mitchell talks about his family

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Mitchell talks about his parents' separation and reconciliation

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - James Mitchell describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - James Mitchell describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - James Mitchell talks about his elementary schools

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about his elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his natural ability of taking things apart and reassembling them

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about what influenced him while growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about his involvement in church

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Mitchell talks about growing up in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his childhood jobs

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Mitchell talks about the importance of education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about the book rent policy in North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his father's return after a long absence

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about his relationship with his mother

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about his experience at the summer science program at North Carolina Central University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Mitchell talks about his decision to attend North Carolina A&T University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement (part one)

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - James Mitchell talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement (part two)

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about the segregation at North Carolina A&T State University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his mentors at North Carolina A&T State University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about his college experience

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about his summer employment during college

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his decision to attend Iowa State University for his Ph.D. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Mitchell talks about his friend, Dr. Reginald Mitchner

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his experience at Iowa State University and his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - James Mitchell talks about his experience at Iowa State University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - James Mitchell describes his dissertation on the separation of rare earth elements

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about the practical applications of his research on the separation of rare earth elements

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his employment prospects after graduating from Iowa State University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about the assassinations of prominent figures during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about the work environment at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his work at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Mitchell talks about his patents

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his professional activities and awards

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about AT&T Bell Laboratories' merger with Lucent Technologies

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his mentorship activities at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about his colleagues at Bell Laboratories/Lucent Technologies

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about his career at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his goals for the college of engineering at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Mitchell describes the challenges he faces as dean of the college of engineering

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - James Mitchell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - James Mitchell reflects on his life choices

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - James Mitchell talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about his parents' reaction to his success

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - James Mitchell shares his advice for young people

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

4$5

DATitle
James Mitchell talks about the work environment at Bell Laboratories
James Mitchell talks about his goals for the college of engineering at Howard University
Transcript
Okay, so, and so, after graduating in 1970, so you joined Bell Labs [Bell Laboratories]. Now, this is, as you said, Bell Labs has been touted by the people we've interviewed as one of the greatest places to work. Of course, the culture is destroyed now, but at that time, it was a scientist's dream.$$It absolutely was one of the best corporate research facilities on Planet Earth. It was run by managers who had first been accomplished scientists themselves. You didn't get to be a manager at the AT&T Bell Laboratories Research Facility unless you were an extraordinary researcher first. And so the people in charge of the place understood what was necessary in an environment in order for it to be essentially perfect from the standpoint of supporting, fostering and allowing scientific and technological excellence to take place. I had the blessings of enjoying Bell Laboratories for thirty years. It was the type of environment where you couldn't believe that you were paid to do something that was so enjoyable and to do it under conditions that were so excellent.$$Yeah, it's hardly anyone that says something like that, but that's, those who talk about Bell Labs do speak that highly of it. So, for instance, what made it such an enjoyable place to work?$$Well, it was such an enjoyable place to work because money was not an obstacle to accomplishing the impossible. If a young person had an idea about something and it had a finite probability of being feasible, the only thing you had to do was convince the manager of your organization that this idea concept was worth pursuing and that if brought to fruition, its scientific impact would be extraordinary, and it was possible for you to do that. That could be done in a conversation and on one page. It didn't require a 300-page research proposal. So you could pursue extraordinary research ideas and so forth without exhaustive inputs and justifications before the fact. You had colleagues on your hallway who were experts in virtually all aspects of science and technology. You could learn in a thirty-minute conversation with one of your colleagues what would require you three months of digging through the literature and research in order to acquire the knowledge. You could almost instantly generate a collaboration with anyone, excellent people will collaborate at a finger snap with other excellent people. And you had access. If you indicated that you worked at Bell Laboratories, that almost immediately gave you access to collaborations with anybody else in the country. And so it was just an amazing place where the money, the infrastructure, the intellect, the vision and all of those things came together that allowed important science to be done.$Okay, so that's 2009. Now, so, just tell us about what you're doing as dean here and what your prospects are as well as for the college?$$As a dean, I believe the most important responsibility I have is to put in place the underpinnings and the structure of the College of Engineering such that in the next century we are able to implement, establish and grow entrepreneurships, intellectual property, technology parks and businesses. Howard University is not going to be a greater university than it has been until we have done what the other universities do, establish technology parks, establish intellectual property and have a gigantic foundation with funding sufficient for us to accomplish anything on our own, if necessary. And so I see my greatest goal is to lay the foundation for pursuing that long-term goal. And so we have, are in the midst of restructuring the college to pursue that. We are in the midst of working with the faculty to recruit entrepreneurial professors, individuals who see the business aspect of science as important as the knowledge aspect of science and who want to operate in both arenas. And my job is to hopefully work with the upper-level management here and transform the environment from one of teaching excellence with science done in addition to it, but one of scientific and engineering excellence that even surpasses by far the teaching legacy of excellence that we have. And so that's the unfinished job that exists.

Emmett Chappelle

Environmental scientist and biochemist[?] Emmett W. Chappelle was born on October 24, 1925 in Phoenix, Arizona to Viola White Chappelle and Isom Chappelle. His family grew cotton and tended cows on a small farm at the edge of town. Chappelle was drafted into the U.S. Army, right after graduating from the Phoenix Union Colored High School in 1942. He was assigned to the Army Specialized Training Program, where he was able to take some engineering courses. Chappelle was later reassigned to the all-Black 92nd Infantry Division and served in Italy. After returning to the U.S., Chappelle went on to earn his A.A. degree from Phoenix College. With the help provided by the GI Bill of Rights, Chappelle was able to receive his B.S. degree in biology from the University of California at Berkeley in 1950.

Chappelle went on to serve as an instructor at the Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee from 1950 to 1953, where he was also able to conduct his own research. Chappelle’s work was noticed by the scientific community, and he accepted an offer to study at the University of Washington, where he received his M.S. degree in biology in 1954. Chappelle continued his graduate studies at Stanford University, though he did not complete a Ph.D. degree. In 1958 Chappelle joined the Research Institute for Advanced Studies in Baltimore, where his research aided in the creation of a safe oxygen supply for astronauts. He went on to work for Hazelton Laboratories in 1963. In 1966, Chappelle joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a part of the Goddard Space Flight Center. Chappelle’s research has focused in the area of luminescence, which is light without heat. He has been involved in a number of projects, including the Viking space craft. Chappelle used chemicals from fireflies as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to develop a method of detecting life on Mars. He used this research in bioluminescence, light produced by living organisms, to detect bacteria in water, as well as in improving environmental management.

Chappelle retired from NASA in 2001. He received fourteen U.S. patents, produced more than thirty-five peer-reviewed scientific or technical publications, nearly fifty conference papers, and co-authored or edited numerous publications. Chappelle has been honored as one of the top 100 African American scientist and engineers of the 20th century. He received an Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal from NASA for his work. Chappelle was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2007. He lived with his daughter and son-in-law in Baltimore.

Chappelle passed away on October 14, 2019.

Emmett W. Chappelle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 30, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.234

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/30/2012

Last Name

Chappelle

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widowed

Middle Name

W.

Schools

Wilson Ward Elementary

George Washington Carver High School

University of California, Berkeley

University of Washington

Stanford University

Phoenix College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Emmett

Birth City, State, Country

Phoenix

HM ID

CHA10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Arizona

Favorite Vacation Destination

Assateague, Maryland

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

10/24/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

10/14/2019

Short Description

Environmental scientist and biochemist Emmett Chappelle (1925 - 2019) was honored as one of the top 100 African American scientist and engineers of the 20th century for the many impacts of his research in bioluminescence, light produced by living organisms.

Employment

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center

Hazelton Laboratories

RIAS Martin M.

Johns Hopkins University

United States Army

Meharry Medical College

Stanford University

Research Institute for Advanced Studies

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:10010,41:11000,53:12430,68:13310,77:14850,93:15400,99:16778,119:17090,124:25021,179:25930,190:45960,292:46680,303:51540,355:51896,360:52341,366:57290,424:58486,439:59590,454:60418,465:61890,482:63546,506:65018,523:68422,579:68790,584:72027,595:76185,659:102967,861:103849,879:110023,1044:110275,1049:112291,1080:112543,1089:112921,1096:121201,1154:121817,1164:127642,1234:128410,1245:129082,1256:147348,1414:148296,1440:149165,1453:153788,1525:154158,1531:156970,1569:167590,1628:170410,1634:170810,1639:204768,1772:209553,1833:210336,1842:210945,1897:217770,1929:218561,1938:234168,2090:243950,2122:244186,2127:274871,2323:276345,2353:279684,2375:280098,2382:280719,2392:281409,2406:290375,2489:292500,2511:295380,2545$0,0:2796,34:5798,45:6410,56:6682,61:7430,74:7838,81:14162,170:14866,178:18900,207:19140,212:20460,251:35100,393:38858,411:40198,423:51670,487:55782,529:57594,551:58039,557:59730,592:80950,763:82700,800:83260,806:83820,816:84590,829:85150,838:87950,909:88580,920:89350,934:89980,944:90400,952:90680,961:100939,1023:101596,1035:102253,1052:103202,1066:104151,1075:104735,1084:112889,1130:124037,1178:125109,1196:125377,1201:126382,1239:127454,1258:127722,1263:128258,1276:131062,1288:133171,1318:133726,1326:134281,1332:135864,1370:140838,1414:144374,1499:150344,1542:151658,1558:152388,1569:154943,1631:156038,1654:157279,1674:157571,1679:164214,1805:165309,1836:180840,1912:183348,1929:196804,1979:197260,1986:197640,1992:197944,1997:205885,2068:206145,2074:206860,2091:207120,2097:207640,2107:209655,2159:218270,2208:218598,2213:220715,2228:221395,2238:226300,2251:230980,2262:234700,2281:243761,2317:244585,2326:257370,2399:257955,2410:258475,2420:258800,2427:260230,2454:265994,2533:273390,2567:273690,2572:275746,2580:277042,2601:280606,2640:286070,2659:286961,2671:287852,2682:294878,2726:298126,2749:324286,2877:324958,2887:326218,2905:326890,2915:335762,3009:336234,3018:340244,3042:340564,3048:367710,3156:368190,3162:370626,3175:385593,3272:385949,3277:389082,3297:411940,3399:425789,3470:431626,3500:432282,3509:433266,3524:433676,3530:446286,3606:446801,3612:447522,3633:457460,3692
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle slates the interview and shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his mother's growing up in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle talks about how his father moved the family to Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his parents and the similarities between him and his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his siblings and shares his childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle remembers some of the sights, sounds, and smells from his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his childhood schools

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle talks about how his interest in science developed

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle talks about living in the desert as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle talks about the radio and newspapers of his youth

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his speech impediment

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience in the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience in Italy during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience at Phoenix College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his wife and why he changed his major to biochemistry

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle talks about teaching at Meharry Medical College

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience at the University of Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle discusses his research at Stanford University and the University of Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his research at the Research Institute for Advanced Studies in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience as an astrochemist at Hazelton Laboratories and his extraterrestrial research

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Emmett Chappelle discusses his discoveries in bioluminescence

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his research at the Goddard Space Flight Center and Johns Hopkins University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Emmett Chappelle discusses his research in fluorescents as well as his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Emmett Chappelle discusses his hopes for the African American community and talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Emmett Chappelle talks about his students and his military awards

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Emmett Chappelle tells the story of how he learned how to swim

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Emmett Chappelle describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

5$6

DATitle
Emmett Chappelle talks about his experience as an astrochemist at Hazelton Laboratories and his extraterrestrial research
Emmett Chappelle discusses his discoveries in bioluminescence
Transcript
Okay, now, from '63' [1963] to 1966, you worked as a biochemist for Hazelton Laboratories in Falls Church [Virginia]. What project were you working on there?$$I was developing a system for determining if there was life on other planets.$$Okay. Now, so you were there for a fairly long time working on this, right?$$Um-hum.$$Okay, from what I have here, they would call you an exobiologist, right?$$(No audible response).$$Someone who is engaged in the search for extraterrestrial life and the effects of extraterrestrial surroundings on living organisms.$$Um-hum.$$Okay, so at this point, you become an astrochemist, right. So how do--$$(Laughter).$$--you like that title (laughter)?$$I never considered myself as an astrochemist, even though that was the title they put on me. I was always, considered myself a biochemist.$$Okay, now, did you, if you told somebody you were looking for, you were trying to determine if there was extraterrestrial life, what kind of conversations would you have with people? I mean would they think it was like something that's impossible or what did people think then?$$Well, they wouldn't know what to think. I'm still not sure whether or not there's life on other planets.$$Do you think it's likely?$$I think it's likely. It's not life as we know it here on earth. But I think it's likely that there's, there are organisms up there that reproduce.$$And so you're saying that there are definitely organisms in space that we produce here?$$What?$$You're saying there're organisms in space right now that we produce here in, on earth?$$Well, I'm saying that there's most likely life out there that will reproduce in their own environment, which is (unclear) a criterion of life, the ability to reproduce.$$Okay, now, the target of your design, the instruments that you were designing was the Viking I Mission [the first successful NASA spacecraft to Mars] which occurred in 1975, right?$$That was supposed to be the vehicle on which my experiment would be flown, Viking.$$All right, so was it? I mean did you have experiments--$$It never flew.$$It never flew. Okay. All right. What happened? Why didn't it fly?$$That's a good question. They decided that the experiment which I designed was too specific, that it would call for life, to be too close to life here on earth, and that most likely, it wouldn't work.$$Or it wouldn't detect something that might be close to life on earth, but not quite--$$Um-hum.$$Okay. Okay, so, but Viking did, Viking flew, but your instrumentation didn't go?$$Right.$Okay, all right. All right, now, also, now, working on this project, you became interested in bioluminescence, right?$$(No audible response).$$And tell us how that took place. What is bioluminescence, and what happened during the project to get you interested in it?$$You've seen a fire fly, haven't you?$$Yes, sir.$$Well, that's bioluminescence. You can, you can take those fire flies and grind them up and extract the enzyme, mix it with Adenosine Triphosphate and get light.$$Now, this I kind of a code method of producing light, right? I mean using something that's not, you know, on fire or--$$Um-hum.$$--something without a spark?$$You could call it that.$$Yeah, so is there any heat produced from this light?$$No measurable heat.$$Okay, so are you the first then--I read that you were the first person to discover the chemical composition of bioluminescence, right?$$Yes.$$Okay, all right, so, and that's why you're in the Inventors Hall of Fame, is that true, because of this?$$Yes.$$Okay, and so, how was, how long did it take you to, you know, come up with the chemical composition of bioluminescence and--$$It took years.$$So, when, I mean how many years, I mean approximately how many years did it take to do that?$$What?$$Approximately, how many years did it take you to discover this?$$Approximately three.$$Three years, okay. All right, that's not a very long time. But, so did you--now, as a biochemist, I didn't ask you this before, but I guess this is a good time--now is as good a time as any. What's the day-to-day activities of a biochemist working on the projects that you were working on? I mean how soon do you get to the laboratory, and how many breaks do you get, and--$$(Laughter).$$(Laughter) Is it a short work week or do you have time to play cards or do you, I mean what is the--or do you have to work real hard or what? What is it like?$$Oh, a biochemist is a person who investigates the chemistry of living organisms.$$Okay, well, I was asking about your routine. What do you do?$$(Laughter) What do you mean by my routine?$$Well, what you do, you know, every day after you get up and get dressed and ready to go to work, what do you do at work?$$Well, you go into your laboratory and carry out experiments, hopefully, designed to answer questions as to, as to what are the chemical reactions involved in carrying out a certain biological reaction.$$Okay, typically, would you have a number of assistants or an assistant, or did you have to do everything by yourself or what?$$Usually, you have an assistant.$$Okay, so with this kind of investigation on the properties of bioluminescence, did you utilize electronic measurement devices as well as--$$Yes. You have to use electronic devices to measure the light.$$Okay, can you give us any more detail or--(laughter) are we out of luck (laughter)?$$(Laughter). (Unclear)$$Okay.$$You start out with the fire fly which you have to obtain by way. Either you catch it yourself or you pay the little kids to run around catching them for you. Then you bring them into the lab. You chop off their tails, grind them up and get a solution out of these ground-up tails which contains the enzyme sulforates (ph.) (unclear) and the cofactor Luciferin. You add Adenosine Triphosphate to that mixture and you get light. Adenosine Triphosphate is usually called ATP, which is found in all living organisms. And we were able to use that reaction to, to measure the bacteria in infected urine samples and some of the reaction mixture to the urine sample and measure the amount of light we get.$$Okay, so, well, we're gonna pause here, and then we'll pick up again.$$Okay.$$'Cause I understand like what, yeah.

Steven Richardson

Physicist and engineering professor Steven L. Richardson was born on July 22, 1953 in Brooklyn, New York. His father, Edward Alfred Richardson, was a subway conductor and his mother, Juanita Pearl Richardson, was a nurse. Richardson excelled in academics and pursued his interests in literature, science and mathematics at Brooklyn Preparatory High School. He attended Columbia University where he studied chemistry on a National Achievement Scholarship. He received advanced degrees from The Ohio State University: his M.S. degree in physics in 1981 and his Ph.D. degree in theoretical condensed matter physics in 1983. During his graduate studies, he was an International Business Machines (IBM) Minority Graduate Fellow and a Xerox Graduate Fellow. At Xerox, he discovered a new semiconductor surface for Gallium arsenide (GaAs), which he included in his Ph.D. dissertation.

Following graduation, Richardson was a Chancellor's Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley and in 1985, he was a Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In 1986, Richardson was hired to work at Eastman Kodak Company as a senior research scientist in the Solid State Science Laboratories. From 1987 to 1988, he took a temporary leave from Kodak to serve as program director for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Condensed Matter Theory Program. In 1989, he joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Howard University as an associate professor and associate director of the Materials Science Research Center of Excellence. In 1995, Richardson was promoted to full professor. From 1997 to 2011, he served as a summer faculty fellow with the United States Navy-American Society for Engineering Education’s Summer Faculty Program at the Naval Research Laboratory. Richardson's research utilized supercomputers to calculate the structural, electronic and vibrational properties of molecules. His research has been supported by many public institutions including, the Office of Naval Research, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation.

Richardson is a member of the American Physical Society, American Chemical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has received the National Science Foundation Career Advancement Award and served as a Distinguished Sigma Xi National Lecturer. Richardson works in Washington, D.C.

Steven Richardson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.151

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/14/2012

Last Name

Richardson

Schools

The Ohio State University

Brooklyn Preparatory High School

Columbia University

First Name

Steven

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

RIC17

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Nassau, Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Do only what you can do.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/22/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Paella

Short Description

Physicist and engineering professor Steven Richardson (1953 - ) is an expert on the subject of condensed matter physics and serves as a professor at Howard University’s Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

Employment

Howard University

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Eastman Kodak Company

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Steven Richardson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his maternal family's migration to Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about his mother's decision to move to New York to study nursing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about his father's growing up in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about living in the projects during his early childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about the stigma associated with the projects, and reflects upon his experience growing up in the Breevort Projects in New York

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about his mother's education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about his parents' decision to enroll him in Catholic school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about the disciplinary tactics of the nuns at Catholic schools

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about his experience and his favorite teachers at Holy Rosary Grammar School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his decision to attend Brooklyn Preparatory High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about the absence of black role models in the STEM fields, during his growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his decision to apply to Columbia University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson reflects upon his experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about his academic struggles at Columbia University, the cultural scene in New York, and his interest in music

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about his study regimen at Columbia University, and his disinterest in pursuing a career in medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about his interest in chemistry and his professors at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about his preparation in chemistry

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his transition into physics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about Shirley Ann Jackson's role in his decision to focus on condensed matter physics

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his decision to transfer to Ohio State University, and his research there

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about Gallium arsenide and his work with semiconductors

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about IBM computers and the role of semi-conductors in the development of more efficient machines

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about the contrasting business strategies of Xerox and Apple, and the influence of semiconductors on cloud storage technology

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about his contributions to research on Gallium arsenide

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about his advisor, Bruce Patton, and his advising philosophy

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his experience as a post-doctoral researcher at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about his mentors and funding sources at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about the utilization of pseudo-potentials in his post-doctoral research

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about his career at Eastman Kodak, and his decision to take a sabbatical to work at the National Science Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about his decision to join the faculty at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about the funding agencies in Washington, D.C., and his decision to join Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his visiting lectureship at Bradley University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about his interest in traveling, and how he received a visiting lectureship in Portugal

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his work at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about his lectureships at Emory University and the Scientific Research Honor Society

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about the funding agencies in Washington, D.C. and Howard University's funding prospects

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about the progress of graduate programs at Howard University

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about some of his students at Howard University

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson reflects upon his life choices

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his parents' parenting abilities and reflects upon his upbringing

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about his teaching methods and his concerns about young people

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson reflects upon his career, and talks about the importance of education

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

2$3

DATitle
Steven Richardson talks about his transition into physics
Steven Richardson talks about his interest in traveling, and how he received a visiting lectureship in Portugal
Transcript
So there's no question that taking Honor Organic Chemistry with Nick Turro who's a world's famous organic photo chemist and Gilbert Stork, who's a world famous synthetic organic chemist, these guys were not just great researchers, they were outstanding teachers. And the, the problem was that I became, I actually did very well in organic chemistry, and I loved organic chemistry. So I, so I have a new dilemma. The typical chemistry major, there are two types of chemistry majors. There are those who like to study how to make molecules. Those are organic chemists or inorganic chemists. And then there are those who like to study math and physics to under--to use math and physics to study what the properties of atoms and molecules are. Those are called physical chemists. And you very rarely have a person who wants to do both. So I took, I ended up taking Turro and Stork in my senior year, and I took their graduate courses. My senior year I took the graduate Organic Chemistry course in organic reaction mechanisms with Nick Turro. I took the graduate synthetic organic chemistry course with Gil Stork as a senior. And in retrospect, my grades in organic chemistry were far better than my grades in physical chemistry. So life, life has its way of presenting challenges. You know, I was faced with the question, well, what are you gonna do when you grow up? What's gonna be your profession? What kind of chemist are you going to be? Are you gonna be somebody who's gonna try to figure how to make molecules or are you gonna learn how to make more, learn more mathematics and physics to understand how molecules work. And that was a battle that I had to fight. It turns out, I had to go out and learn more physics and math because I had more experience in organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry than math and physics. And eventually, the math--the physics and the math side won out. I took some courses, I went to Wayne State University, started out being an organic chemist for graduate school. But I discovered--$$So this is in, now, now--$$This was after Columbia.$$So this is 1974, I guess?$$This is 1975.$$Seventy-five [1975], okay.$$So I ended up taking--$$So you graduated in '75' [1975]?$$So I took organic chemistry, I took, I finished my undergraduate work at Columbia in '75' [1975]. I went to Wayne State [University], started taking courses in chemistry and the advanced courses in chemistry and then discovered that I really wanted to be a physicist. So I started taking courses in the physics department at Wayne State, physics and math and came to the realization that, well, if I really wanna learn how to do physics and math, I need to go to, probably a stronger program than Wayne State. And I was fortunate enough to get accepted in the graduate program at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology], in the physics department. That was 1977.$Okay, now, you received a Career Advancement Award from the National Science Foundation in '92' [1992] and in '94' [1994]--now, tell if I'm, if we need to stop over something. But in '94' [1994], you were selected for a visiting professorship in Portugal.$$Yes.$$And how did that take place?$$That, again, goes back to Marvin Cohen. So at the time two of his post-docs, I was one. And we had a post-doc from Portugal. And we shared the same office, and we got along together marvelously, professionally and personally. And one year, after his post-doc, he spent some time at the University of Minnesota, and ultimately, he went back home to become a professor in Lisbon. And so I visited him at least two or three times. I, I should say that going back to being a college student, one of the things that I was always impressed with, professors got, it seemed like they got an opportunity to travel a lot. And they got an opportunity to travel to lots of exotic places. The first time I was ever on an airplane was probably my senior year in high--in college. And today, you know, I travel, not a lot, but I travel somewhat, and you see all sorts of folks on planes. I, I wasn't on my first plane till I was 21. So I must confess that one of the things that got me interested in a career as being a university professor is that in addition to teaching and in addition to doing research, you got an opportunity to go travel and talk and visit different folks in different places and interesting places. So I've been able to travel extensively throughout the continental United States, the Caribbean, Europe, Canada and Asia to basically talk about my own research, to meet other scientists. Science is a global community. It's not an enterprise that knows geographical boundaries. So this visiting lectureship in Portugal was something that primarily, A. Luis Martins helped set up for me just as James Garner, my colleague at Ohio State, he was the one that put my name in for the Bradley lectureship. And I should say in 2001, Ohio State [University] actually put a plaque at the front entrance of the chemistry department in honor of Major Robert Lawrence and his contributions. And we need to do more things like that. People need to know that the African American community is a distinct vibrant, non-homogenous community. We do lots of things and have done lots of things, and will continue to do lots of things. It goes back to this issue of making young people aware of the fact that there are lots of resources and options available out to them. And somebody has to basically take the time to point these things out to them.

Daniel Akins

Physical chemist and chemistry professor Daniel Akins was born on July 8, 1941, in Miami, Florida, and graduated from Booker T. Washington High School in 1960. Akins earned his B.S. degree in chemistry from Howard University in 1963 where he was inducted into Sigma Xi honor society. He received his Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1968 under the mentorship of Professor C. Bradley Moore.

After finishing his graduate education, Akins worked at Florida State University as both a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute for Molecular Biophysics and visiting assistant chemistry professor. In 1970, he became an assistant professor in the chemistry department at the University of South Florida and was promoted to associate professor in 1975. Between 1977 and 1979, Akins served as a visiting program director of the physical chemistry subsection of the dynamics program at the National Science Foundation (NSF). After a brief period as a senior scientist with the Polaroid Corporation, he began his career at The City College of New York as a professor of chemistry in 1981. In 1988, Akins founded and served as director of what would become in 2000 the CUNY Center for Analysis of Structures and Interfaces (CASI), which has the goal of training minority scientists in high-level scientific research. Eleven years after establishment of CASI, he was awarded an NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) grant. In 2008, Akins became the principal investigator for a $5 million NSF grant to establish a center for nanostructure applications known as CENSES (Center for Exploitation of Nanostructures in Sensors and Energy Systems). Throughout his career, he has published more than 130 research papers in leading scientific journals. His principal research focuses on the development of new nanomaterials for use in molecular photonic devices (MPDs), chemical sensors and fuel cells.

Akins is a member of several professional organizations, including the American Chemical Society, the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, and NOBCChE (National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers). Throughout his career, Akins has shown a continued commitment to increasing diversity in the sciences and has mentored many doctoral students. For his work, Daniel has been recognized many times, including being named a Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer and receiving the CCNY Faculty Service Award. In 2000, Akins received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring (PAESMEM) from President Bill Clinton. Daniel Akins lives in Teaneck, New Jersey with his wife Sondra Akins. They have two children, Dana, a mechanical engineer, and Meredith, an actress and dancer.

Daniel Akins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.109

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/15/2012

Last Name

Akins

Marital Status

Married

Schools

Douglass Primary School

Phillis Wheatley Elementary School

Booker T. Washington High School

University of California, Berkeley

Florida State University

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Daniel

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

AKI03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Miami, Florida

Favorite Quote

Never give up.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/8/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Chemist and chemistry professor Daniel Akins (1941 - ) , an expert on nanomaterial, is the director of the CUNY Center for Analysis of Structures and Interfaces.

Employment

City College of CUNY

Polaroid Corporation

National Science Foundation (NSF)

University of South Florida

Florida State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1452,35:7195,95:11700,882:15865,968:19350,1034:19775,1040:22495,1095:29338,1126:30374,1141:32520,1230:34000,1263:37404,1343:45014,1413:45758,1424:55841,1531:59564,1713:61827,1749:72990,1880:76188,1952:76516,1957:78238,2022:81764,2106:88919,2191:92584,2248:95840,2303:98128,2338:98480,2343:107741,2467:108434,2475:109358,2487:112669,2556:113131,2563:113824,2573:116672,2607:119432,2631:137560,2824:138757,2876:139270,2886:148800,2995:150120,3015:162052,3229:164161,3293:164389,3312:166470,3326$0,0:9494,131:10440,146:13106,193:16675,225:19570,230:20615,245:29819,340:30284,351:36904,412:37348,420:40826,498:41418,507:41788,525:44425,530:47760,579:51580,596:52705,610:64780,889:65380,898:71529,949:72026,958:72452,980:76925,1062:79698,1078:80210,1083:83986,1159:84242,1164:85202,1196:88382,1234:89566,1283:93044,1331:100783,1442:101784,1480:103940,1515:116574,1683:119566,1808:138096,1930:139360,1959:141493,2040:141967,2047:147610,2117:150165,2168:150457,2173:155172,2261:159216,2350:169240,2422:174627,2506:176571,2546:179001,2620:179325,2625:184900,2677:193790,2809:200835,2895:201660,2908:204135,2960:204885,2975:206385,3003:206760,3009:217760,3177:219720,3227:221050,3257:222870,3300:223640,3340:229830,3380:232600,3397
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins slates the interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins talks about his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins talks about his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about the church founded by his grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Daniel Akins talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Daniel Akins talks about his father's military experience

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Daniel Akins talks about his grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Daniel Akins describes the similarities between him and his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Daniel Akins describes his neighborhood growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Daniel Akins talks about his brother and the church he grew up in

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Daniel Akins talks about the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins talks about growing up in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about his hobbies

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about what he learned about being an artist

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins talks about grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins discusses the connection between art and mathematics

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins describes his personality

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about race relations in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about high school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Daniel Akins talks about his extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Daniel Akins talks about his heroes

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Daniel Akins describes his first interest in science

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins talks about why he chose to attend Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about his high school science projects

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about his transition to Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins talks about his studies at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins talks about changing his major

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins talks about how he met his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about early computers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about black astronauts

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Daniel Akins talks about his mentors

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins describes his professors at the University of California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about graduate school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about his post-doctoral studies

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins describes the Free Speech Movement and race relations

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins describes his experience at the University of South Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins talks about his experience working for the Polaroid Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about working at CUNY

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about his research at CUNY

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins talks about the challenges minorities face in academia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about one of his publications

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about the number of minorities that pursuing doctorate degrees

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins talks about the program IGERT and its mentorship philosophy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Daniel Akins talks about the practical uses of infinitesimal sensors

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Daniel Akins describes an average work day

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Daniel Akins talks about his work in research and science

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Daniel Akins talks about what he would do differently

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Daniel Akins talks about his goals for CUNY

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Daniel Akins talks about his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Daniel Akins talks about his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Daniel Akins talks about his love for tennis

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Daniel Akins talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Daniel Akins talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Daniel Akins describes his family photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Daniel Akins describes the Free Speech Movement and race relations
Daniel Akins talks about his experience working for the Polaroid Corporation
Transcript
You know. I mean, I don't know if people--. Well, tell me this now; we didn't discuss any of this, but in Berkeley when you were there, it was like the height of the political (unclear)--$$Yes.$$--free speech movement [The Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a student protest which took place during the 1964-1965 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio, Brian Turner, Bettina Aptheker, Steve Weissman, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg, and others. In protests unprecedented in this scope at the time, students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom.]--$$Oh, yeah. Yeah.$$--Black Panthers [the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, active from 1966-1982] were on the rise. All that was going on when you were there. Did you have a chance to pay any attention to that, because I know you--$$Oh, I [belonged to?] I was there when Mario Savio and Bettina Aptheker and Jerry Rubin, and all of those, you know, took over the administration building and Sproul Hall Plaza [University of California, Berkeley]. I was there during that, then they jumped up on the police car and, you know, and it was--I was there when police would come to the campus. The California's high patrol, you know, their badges covered with black tape and they would take the students and sometimes throw them down a two-story flight, and the only thing that would save them would be other students who would grab them before they would hit the concrete, you know. All of these were white students, I mean. And so, I remember one day that some pregnant students decided they would block the police who had arrested all of these students and then would take them in a bus, and these were pregnant with babies. And the cops got off the bus, off of their buses and beat them with clubs. And I said, "Wait a minute, now. If they're going to do that to them, what are they going to do to me." So I sort of--I, basically, but I wasn't at the center of, you know, of their focus, you know. But it was--that was a daily thing. It was hard to avoid it. I mean, it was a very exciting time to be there. So, when I (unclear), just being on campus, you couldn't miss that.$$Now, did you encounter the Black Panthers at all?$$Oh, yeah. Yeah, I mean, they were people I knew, you now, around campus; then on the avenue, I mean, the coffee houses, I mean, you know. And, there was always something like a stomp speaker--not a stomp speaker, but a box, you know, soapbox speaker. The funny part--it wasn't funny, but the John Birch Society was big too, you know. So every day there was a debate in the Sproul Hall Plaza. And I can remember--there were even people who were trying to recruit you for different things, you know, for whatever. I don't know if it's Secret Services [United States] or what, but they were always around; even Soviets [referring to the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, 1922-1991]. (laughs).$$So, okay.$$But it was a lot of activity going on at Berkeley. But I avoided any real, you know, getting involved with student groups and things of that sort. But I was in graduate school. That wouldn't have worked anyway.$Okay.$$Then I went to Polaroid [Corporation] for a couple years. That was my private industry experience. And I did that for two years. Then I ended up here.$$Now, what is--what was it like working at Polaroid?$$I was the only black chemist, physical chemist in the whole facility. And it was--I had no one working for me, but I had the title of a senior scientist, and which is unprecedented. I had all the stuff I wanted; they bought me lasers, and I set up the laboratory, but, normally the position would have--you'd have technicians, but I didn't. I did everything for myself. And the reason behind that, I found out later, but there was, as you can imagine, there was some politics going on. I had written--they asked me to write up something. They had a consultant who said there was good work, so they offered me the job. They maybe want to make me the director. But the physical chemistry division, which would have been new, but once the people there got wind that they were bringing someone else new in to run this, there was some friction, resistance. So they decided to ask me to come anyway, you know, come in. But I didn't have the same title, but they gave me for the same money, which was--. So I did it that way. But once I got there, I realized that that was untenable, you know, because you don't report to anyone; you just sort of at the good graces of whomever your sponsor is, who you don't even know who that is. That's one thing I learned, that you got always find out who's backing you. You know, I didn't even know that was of an issue. But once I got there and I find out what was going on, I decided I'd get out as soon as I could. And that took a couple of years. I was fortunate because as soon as I left, Polaroid fell, collapsed. But it was--it was clear that was going to happen because electronic photography was going to clearly take over.$$Yeah. It's--. Oh, so, you were thinking of forming your own business at that time you were saying, before--?$$Yeah, because I was doing some things that I thought were very exciting, and they were a spin-off, maybe of what Polaroid was doing. I really didn't know too much about their field and their science. I was learning, but I thought I had something new that I could do. But as I got experienced in the company doing the research, I realized that you really couldn't compete. I mean, I wouldn't have been able to compete against them, because this is a multi-billion dollar company and, you know, with all the--a lot of people--a lot of buildings and everything going for them. So, that wouldn't have worked. That would have been the wrong area because it's clearly electronic photography was on its way in.$$Now this is 1979, though?$$Yeah.$$And, electronic photography hadn't really--$$It hadn't quite kicked in, but it was on the horizon. You know, I mean, in retrospect, I mean, everyone was saying in the company what was going to happen, but they wanted to diversify. So they started going into equestrian photography at racetracks and using a Polaroid film to get quick pictures of horse ligaments--you know, legs and things. But, you know, it's a sort of small business-kind of thing. They also got into batteries. Those cameras had batteries, so they wanted to spin off into that. But I think the general view was that photography wasn't going to be the future, you know.

Sondra Akins

Education professor and chemist Sondra Akins was born on March 16, 1944 in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She became interested in chemistry by the time she graduated from Atkins High School in 1962. Akins earned her B.S. degree in chemistry in 1967 from the University of California, Berkeley where she also worked as a laboratory technician. She received her M.S. degree in chemistry with a minor in higher education from Florida State University in 1970.

After earning her master's degree, Akins taught physical science at Greco Junior High School in Tampa, Florida. Between 1971 and 1974, she served as instructor of chemistry at St. Petersburg Junior College which is currently known as St. Petersburg College. She left St. Petersburg in 1974 to teach at Hillsborough Community College where she rose to the rank of associate professor. In 1978, she taught at Northern Virginia Community College, and in 1980, Akins worked as an honors physics teacher in Lexington Massachusetts Public Schools. She also spent two years as an industrial hygienist at Hewlett Packard, Co. from 1981 to 1983. Akins began her long career with the Englewood Public School District in Englewood, New Jersey in 1983 where she started as a science and mathematics teacher. In 1988, she became the director of mathematics, science, and technology. In 1993, she received her Ed.D. degree in science education from Columbia University. She returned to teaching at Englewood Public Schools between 1995 and 1997 and served as a high school principal for one year in 1997. From 1998 to 2001, Akins was a staff developer for Englewood Public Schools where she served as a mentor, giving advice to teachers. Since 2001, Akins has worked as a professor in the Department of Secondary and Middle School Education at William Paterson University. She has written numerous essays on science education including a chapter in the National Science Teachers Association book, Exemplary Science: Best Practices in Professional Development.

Over her long career in science education, Akins has been recognized many times by her community including the Award for Dedication to Science Teaching from Sigma Xi of Ramapo College. She has been a member of the American Chemical Society, the National Science Teachers Association and the Association of Science Teacher Educators. Sondra Akins lives with her husband Daniel Akins, a chemist, in Teaneck, New Jersey.

Sondra Akins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 15, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.108

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/15/2012

Last Name

Akins

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Barber

Schools

University of California, Berkeley

Brandeis University

Teachers College, Columbia University

Florida State University

Atkins High School

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sondra

Birth City, State, Country

Winston-Salem

HM ID

AKI02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Favorite Quote

Keep an open mind.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

3/16/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Englewood

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cake (Strawberry Shortcake)

Short Description

Education professor and chemist Sondra Akins (1944 - ) was an authority in the field of science education with over thirty-nine years of professional teaching and consulting experience.

Employment

William Paterson University

Englewood Public Schools

Hewlett Packard Co.

Northern Virginia Community College

Hillsborough Community College

St. Petersburg Jr. College

Greco Jr. High School

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:4148,62:4552,67:9501,189:12430,222:16240,228:16640,233:17140,239:19300,250:21540,289:21860,294:22420,303:40930,558:41330,564:42610,587:43010,593:54540,739:55395,750:58055,802:59195,818:61592,840:62554,856:62850,861:63960,885:66180,926:72075,1076:77260,1160:84315,1305:90322,1324:91258,1340:91882,1350:92896,1368:96406,1431:96718,1436:97888,1457:105415,1556:105985,1567:111840,1671:133660,1877:137347,1934:147176,2169:149464,2203:163028,2323:164018,2336:164711,2344:168581,2374:174434,2449:176296,2481:177276,2495:178648,2517:181940,2529:182550,2536:187556,2597:188060,2605:188732,2614:194292,2656:194740,2661:199003,2691:199667,2700:201244,2722:202821,2739:204481,2758:204896,2764:208714,2820:217802,2884:218594,2897:228600,2990:228975,2996:231825,3043:232125,3048:233025,3064:233400,3070:235875,3107:236400,3113:240428,3130:245444,3211:246128,3221:246432,3226:247040,3237:255850,3283:256705,3296:257275,3303:260553,3337:261009,3346:261237,3351:261921,3373:262434,3386:270715,3465:277227,3608:277642,3614:284296,3733:284716,3739:285136,3745:288916,3803:289252,3808:289672,3815:291016,3846:291352,3851:291940,3861:292276,3867:305518,3971:308206,4029:312863,4078:313430,4088:313682,4095:315635,4142:315887,4149:316517,4162:316832,4170:317147,4177:317399,4182:318155,4193:319037,4204:319478,4212:320738,4242:327910,4317:328182,4322:329240,4337$0,0:425,68:4760,109:6970,133:7310,138:8330,153:9605,177:12325,218:13260,236:18490,261:19015,269:19465,276:20065,286:20740,297:21040,302:22090,315:25165,366:27190,403:27790,412:29290,432:29890,441:31615,464:47047,672:48461,686:48865,691:49471,698:55560,760:56058,768:57220,784:57718,791:76488,1045:76900,1050:78548,1062:79166,1072:79887,1081:80814,1093:85120,1117:86560,1144:87220,1156:94440,1238:96002,1257:104049,1405:104939,1416:106185,1435:106808,1446:107609,1457:117006,1540:123638,1590:123974,1595:126195,1610:126535,1615:127045,1622:127725,1632:128745,1646:130445,1671:131210,1683:133080,1701:138126,1728:138600,1736:139548,1756:141444,1784:142076,1794:142550,1802:142866,1807:145236,1847:149897,1927:153980,1939:157646,1985:158398,1997:159244,2007:163446,2043:163999,2053:165342,2068:166053,2079:166764,2089:167396,2099:168660,2118:171267,2167:173163,2193:173558,2199:178002,2218:178650,2229:179217,2237:181971,2282:182700,2292:184158,2318:190010,2351:195097,2439:196098,2455:199871,2527:200179,2532:202643,2650:203182,2659:209762,2729:213096,2761:213420,2766:213987,2776:215040,2796:218199,2850:219495,2875:224355,2949:224760,2955:226056,2974:226461,2980:230950,2987:232438,3011:233554,3027:235660,3036:236452,3049:237178,3061:252030,3232:253475,3377:253985,3384:260960,3453:277910,3691:284454,3743:284916,3751:287534,3795:294490,3847:295050,3855:296170,3872:297290,3898:298170,3912:299610,3936:300090,3943:300410,3950:301210,3961:302090,3978:306835,4008:309959,4059:311947,4092:312373,4108:317630,4138
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sondra Akins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins describes her mother's growing up in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about the Mary Potter School in Oxford, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins talks about her mother's desire to have a long-lasting marriage and family-life

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins talks about how her parents met, and describes their long marriage and employment at Winston-Salem Teachers College

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sondra Akins lists her siblings, and talks about her name

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sondra Akins describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after, and talks about them being her role models

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Sondra Akins describes her childhood home and her close-knit family

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Sondra Akins talks about her childhood neighborhood in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Sondra Akins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Winston-Salem, North Carolina - part one

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Winston-Salem, North Carolina - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins describes her childhood experience on the Winston-Salem Teachers College campus

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins talks about the towns of Winston and Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about segregation in Winston-Salem, North Carolina in the mid-1900s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about segregation in the public school system in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and describes her experience in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins talks about the influence of Zion Memorial Church on her awareness of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about her introduction to television in the 1950s, and her interest in science programs and talent shows

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes her experience with science experiments in the eighth grade

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins talks about her family's travels when she was growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins talks about the demographics of Winston-Salem Teachers College, and the schools for African American students in Winston-Salem

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins describes her academic excellence, her extracurricular involvement, and her interest in science at Atkins High School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about her role model, Togo West, Jr. and her scientific mentor, Togo West, Sr., at Atkins High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her experience with the integration of her high school advanced placement chemistry class in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to pursue chemistry as her major in college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins describes her decision to attend Howard University for her undergraduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Sondra Akins recalls the Civil Rights sit-ins at the Woolworth's store in Greensboro, North Carolina, which led to its desegregation in 1960

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes her early experience studying chemistry at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins describes her experience studying science at Howard University, and her love for science

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins describes the 'black is beautiful' cultural movement in the United States in the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about the advent of the space age in the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about her exposure to black history and culture at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to pursue research, and not go to medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about getting married to HistoryMaker Daniel Akins, withdrawing from Howard University, and moving to Berkeley, California

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins describes her experience at the University of California, Berkeley in the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Sondra Akins talks about becoming a parent while pursuing her undergraduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes her and her husband's relationship with their advisor, C. Bradley Moore, at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins talks about her employment as a lab technician at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins talks about the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Black Panther Party's presence in the San Francisco Bay area in the late 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about her family's move to Florida State University in 1968 and their experience there

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about her interest in physical chemistry, and the growing interdisciplinary nature of science

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her different experiences as an undergraduate at UC Berkeley and as a graduate student at Florida State University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about her role model, Lidia Vallerino, and other women who are scientists

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to become a physical science teacher at Greco Junior High School in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Sondra Akins describes her experience as a physical science teacher at Greco Junior High School in Tampa, Florida

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins reflects upon the diverse styles of learning and teaching in the classroom

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to move from St. Petersburg Junior College to Hillsborough Community College

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins talks about balancing her family life and her career

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about her experience as a science teacher at Northern Virginia Community College and at Lexington High School

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about her decision to discontinue her graduate studies and become an industrial hygienist at Hewlett-Packard Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her experience as an industrial hygienist at Hewlett-Packard Corporation in Waltham, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins describes her experience as a teacher at Dwight Morrow High School and her decision to pursue a degree in science education

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins describes her doctoral dissertation on restructuring the math and science curriculum, with a focus on elementary school - part one

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins describes the importance of teaching students to think scientifically in their early childhood education

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins describes her doctoral dissertation on restructuring the math and science curriculum, with a focus on elementary school - part two

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins describes the findings of her doctoral dissertation on restructuring the math and science curriculum in elementary school education

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about her involvement in professional development programs for the teachers in the Englewood School District

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins talks about the African American Educational Center of Northern New Jersey

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her professional activities in the Englewood School District

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins reflects upon the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins describes her experience as a professor of science education at The William Patterson University of New Jersey

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins talks about her article entitled 'Exemplary Science: Best Practices in Professional Development'

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins discusses the balance between inquiry and discipline as part of the process of learning

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins describes her involvement with the New York African Burial Ground Project General Audience Report at Howard University

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins describes the history of the New York African Burial Ground Project and her involvement with the General Audience Report

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community today - part one

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Sondra Akins describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community today - part two

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Sondra Akins talks about her plans to write a book about her experience with learning and teaching science

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Sondra Akins reflects upon her life

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Sondra Akins reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Sondra Akins talks about her family

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Sondra Akins reflects upon the significance of teaching and science

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Sondra Akins talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Sondra Akins describes her photographs

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Sondra Akins describes her experience with the integration of her high school advanced placement chemistry class in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Sondra Akins describes the history of the New York African Burial Ground Project and her involvement with the General Audience Report
Transcript
Now, how did that work? Did they segregate you after you got over there [white high school in Winston-Salem, North Carolina]?$$No, no, no, no. All of a sudden, twelfth grade, I had to be ready to go and hold my own in a class with white students. That was an experience. There was one girl from the school who took biology, advanced biology, while I took chemistry. So we practically went hand-in-hand because, you know, actually, our fathers [Akins' father, Alexander Eugene Barber] drove us there, kind of--it gave us moral support. And then the bus would bring us back. And we would stay, I guess maybe an hour and a half, then come back to our own high school [Atkins High School, Winston-Salem].$$So, but you weren't, you were allowed to participate? There's no--$$In twelfth grade.$$--no problems at the school?$$Nothing like what I had, had been afraid of because, as I mentioned before, I had seen actually on television the little, Little Rock [Arkansas] Nine [a group of African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957]. And I knew it was coming, as I said, from the time I was in maybe sixth or seventh grade, that I was gonna have to go to school (laughter) with white kids, you know. So I was anticipating, I didn't know what to anticipate, but it was very civil. As it turned out, the class had only six or seven students in it, and they came from the other high--, the white high schools. And it was held at Reynolds [High School]. So they must have had one or two kids who went to Reynolds, and a couple who went to Gray [High School]. And then there was Sondra Barber who came over from Atkins (laughter) High School and very cordial. Nevertheless, it was not easy.$$Okay, so this is Reynolds High School, named after R.J. Reynolds [tobacco industrialist]--$$After R.J. Reynolds.$$--Tobacco thing. Okay. So, now, this is interesting because, you know, there are so many stories that are still to unfold in the South where there's like big conflict when a black student comes to the door, and then later on, even in the North, the bussing--$$Oh, yes. Well, I--$$--crisis in the '70s [1970s] where even--$$Right.$$--the breaking of defacto segregation caused violence.$$Um-hum, now, it turns out there had been a black girl at Reynolds, and she was there. We knew she was there. That was like the token. I'm sure it was, it couldn't have been easy for her, but we didn't hear horror stories. We didn't hear horror stories. I'm sure she went through something. When I went, it was a, it was not so publicized. After all, it was just an advanced placement [AP] class. It wasn't all day, real desegregation. So, but I can remember walking in there, and students staring just like a sea of white children or students, and they were staring, but nobody said anything out of, out of the way. Nobody said anything. I remember the teachers' names, Dr. Hounshell (ph.) and Mr. Gerald (ph.). There were two teachers. And we would have our class and our lab all together in the same place, and they would have coffee at the--you know, it was quite interesting, but nevertheless, it was not easy because I felt different. I mean I was in a place different from what I was used to, and I felt self-conscious. But, no, there was, I cannot speak of any negative comments or anything like that. We worked with partners. I remember the girl I worked with. She was very nice, very quiet (laughter). I remember we went on a field trip. We must have gone to Raleigh [North Carolina]. I don't believe it was Chapel Hill [North Carolina], to the state university [North Carolina State University]. And then we kind of hung together because we were these little, we were these young kids with, in the midst of these college students. And I felt like I belonged to them (laughter) at that time, you know, because we were on that field trip.$$Okay, so, but you did all right?$$Yeah.$$Did you? Okay.$$Yes.$$All right.$$I did all right, and I did all--and the reason is because of, well, it's just the nurturing of the community that I came up in. You know, everybody was concerned that I would do all right. When I came back to my school, my physics teacher asked, "Well, how are things going? How's Dr. Hounshell?" Somehow he knew of him. He must have been talking to him.$It [New York African Burial Ground Project General Audience Report] tells how when they were digging for the building, how the bones were discovered and what had to happen as a result of that and how the community got involved, how the community wanted to know certain things about the people who were buried and a researcher listened to them. And then, of course, there are different parts. Now, the original research covers the skeletal biology. So they were looking at the diseases that they obviously had based on what they learned about the--$$I think the first thing they'd probably wanna know is how do we know they're Africans, right?$$Well, there is, there is history about that burial ground and when it, when it first--I can't, I don't wanna say when it first. But the report tells, it puts it all in a historical perspective of the company, the, what do you wanna, is it the Manhattan? No, they don't call it Manhattan. I'm trying to think of the Dutch, the Dutch settled the--$$Right, the Dutch West India Company.$$Yes, yes, they settled the area, and what was going on in history. And there are some records they found of this burial ground. So--$$And then what you were saying, you were just saying the, you know, conditions, I mean under which the people died--$$Exactly.$$--what their physical condition was.$$Right, and then there was some study, and I don't wanna try to quote everything because there's so much. The people who came over after--how do I wanna put it? For those who were born and brought over, that they have some of the same kinds of diseases that people who had been living under the conditions of slavery and were already here. They somehow looked at that as well, but I--and I will do this. I'm gonna go back and re-read everything because I plan to make that a unit (laughter). We do a lot of unit, unit work in my methods class, one of my methods classes, where I get the students to develop a unit and develop lessons where they embed these standards that we want in those lessons. And what I do with my middle school and secondary students, different from the elementary where they only do lessons, I get the students to develop their units collaboratively so that it is ensured that it is interdisciplinary and that it has different perspectives, and they're working together, like teachers, like the teachers that I worked with in the [Englewood] school district [New Jersey] in restructuring. That's the way they worked. They worked collaboratively. So I brought that into my courses at William Patterson [University, The William Patterson University of New Jersey, Wayne, New Jersey], that the science methods students, some of them, would work collaboratively on curriculum and bounce ideas off each other and ensure that they're looking at, you know, chemistry and biology and earth science, all in the same unit. And some are pathology majors, some are chemistry majors, some are earth science majors, it works nicely that way. So those are some of the new ideas in professional development that I've been pushing since I've been at William Patterson.$$Okay, now, just on the African Burial Project, I think it was Dr. Rick Kittles [geneticist] was important in that. He was a scientist at Howard [University, Washington, District of Columbia]. Did you have a chance to meet him?$$No, no. Now, the thing that's probably, I don't wanna say disappointing. I didn't get a chance to work with, and I don't wanna say I didn't get a chance, they didn't give me a chance. It's just the way when I got involved and how much time there was before this general report had to be done, I was, I talked with a writer, the Howard writer who really didn't write the book either, but she's a writer. And Dean [James] Donaldson, who is also a HistoryMaker, and Oscar Cole (ph.) who was a special assistant to the president, and who was in charge of the project, those were the people that I interacted with and gave my recommendations to. And as I said, when the drafts came back, I read and I made recommendations along with other people who were also reading the draft.$$Okay.