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James M. Harkless

Labor lawyer James M. Harkless was born on April 19, 1931 in Detroit, Michigan. He attended Harvard University, where he received his A.B. degree in history in 1952. While there, he was the first African American to be elected president of the Harvard Glee Club. Harkless went on to attend Harvard Law School and earned his J.D. degree in 1955.

Upon graduation, Harkless clerked for a justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and was appointed chief clerk in 1956. From 1957 to 1960, he worked as an associate in a Boston area law firm, where he represented unions in labor relations. In 1961, Harkless served as general counsel for a sub-committee of the U.S. House Education and Labor Committee. Then, from 1962 to 1964, he became the first African American appellate court attorney in the Office of the National Labor Relations Board General Counsel. Harkless went on to work as confidential assistant to the Commissioner of Customs, as executive secretary of the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, and as senior associate and vice president of a Washington, D.C. consulting firm. In 1970, Harkless was hired as an arbitrator and associate umpire for Bethlehem Steel Company and United Steelworkers of America. He then received arbitration cases through the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, the American Arbitration Association, and the National Mediation Board, as well as selections as permanent arbitrator for private companies, federal agencies, and their unions. Harkless has issued more than 3,000 decisions covering most labor-management issues.

Harkless has served in many other organizations, often as a board member. In 1972, the United States President appointed Harkless to serve on the Special Railroad Emergency Boards. He then worked as part-time chairman of the Washington, D.C. Board of Labor Relations from 1974 until 1978. Harkless also served as a member of the Prince George's County, Maryland Public Employee Relations Board from 1975 to 1978 and as a member of the Employee Relations Council of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority from 1993 to 1995. From 1985 to 2006, he was chairman of the IUE-GM (Delphi) Legal Services Plan. Harkless was appointed a member of the Foreign Service Grievance Board in 1990, served as a consultant on arbitration to a South African government commission in 1998, and was elected the first African American President of the National Academy of Arbitrators in 1998. In 2005, the College of Labor and Employment Lawyers made him an honorary fellow.

Harkless lives in Washington, D.C.

James M. Harkless was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 29, 2014 and January 30, 2017.

Accession Number

A2014.007

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/29/2014 |and| 3/17/2014 |and| 01/30/2017

Last Name

Harkless

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

McConnell

Occupation
Schools

Alger Elementary School

Harry B. Hutchins Intermediate School

Northern High School

Harvard University

Harvard Law School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

HAR45

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Capalua, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Just do it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/19/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Foods

Short Description

Labor lawyer James M. Harkless (1931 - ) has been a labor lawyer and arbitrator for over fifty years. He was the first African American President of the National Academy of Arbitrators.

Employment

Delete

Bethlehem Steel & United Steel Workers

Leo Kramer, Inc.

Office of Economic Opportunity

Favorite Color

Red

Andrea Roane

Broadcast journalist Andrea Roane was born on October 5, 1949 in New Orleans, Louisiana to Frederic and Ethel Roane. She attended the Holy Ghost Elementary School, and graduated from the Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans. Roane went on to receive her B.A. degree in secondary education in 1971, and her M.A. degree in drama and communications in 1973, both from LSU - New Orleans, now the University of New Orleans.

From 1971 to 1974, Roane worked as a middle school and high school English teacher. She was also coordinator of cultural services for the New Orleans Parish Public Schools, and served as an administrator and principal of the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts. In 1975, Roane was hired as an education reporter for the New Orleans public television station WYES, where she also hosted a weekly magazine show and was the station's project director of a federally funded education show. Roane then worked for WWL-TV, a CBS affiliate, as an education reporter from 1976 until 1978. She returned to WYES for one year, and, in 1979, was hired as a host and correspondent for WETA public broadcasting station. Then, in 1981, Roane was hired as the Sunday evening and weekday morning anchor for WUSA Channel 9 in Washington, D.C., where she went on to serve in a number of news anchor roles. In 1993, she initiated an innovative Washington, D.C. breast cancer awareness program called Buddy Check 9.

Roane has served as co-chair of the Kennedy Center Community and Friends Board; as a member of the Capital Breast Care Center Community Advisory Council; and as a trustee of the National Museum of Women In The Arts. She is also a sustaining director of the Prevent Cancer Foundation. She served on the Georgetown Lombardi Cancer Center Health Disparities Initiative Community Advisory Board; the National Catholic Education Association Board; and served as a trustee of the Catholic University of America. Roane is also a Dame of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta; and a member of the Women's Forum of Washington. She is a lifetime member of both the NAACP and the National Council of Negro Women, and a member of the LINKS, Inc, Metropolitan D.C. Chapter.

Roane has received many awards and honors for her work. She has won multiple Emmy and Gracie Awards. She was also named one of Washingtonian Magazine's "Washingtonians of the Year" in 2006, and was honored by the Sibley Memorial Hospital Foundation with its Community Service Award. In addition to being named the 2010 Rebecca Lipkin Honoree for Media Distinction by Susan G. Komen For the Cure, she received the 2012 Faith Does Justice Award from Catholic Charities.

Roane and her husband, Michael Skehan, live in Washington, D.C. They have two children: Alicia and Andrew.

Andrea Roane was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 27, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.039

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/27/2014

Last Name

Roane

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Holy Ghost School

St. Katharine Drexel Preparatory Academy

University of New Orleans

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Andrea

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

ROA02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Tuscany, France

Favorite Quote

Try It You May Like It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

10/5/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soft Shell Crab

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Andrea Roane (1949 - ) served as a news anchor on WUSA-TV Channel 9 in Washington, D.C. from 1981.

Employment

WUSA-9 / Gannett

WETA / PBS

WYES / PBS

WWL / CBS

New Orleans Public Schools

Favorite Color

Egg Yolk Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Andrea Roane's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane talks about her Creole heritage

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane describes her maternal family's emphasis on education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane talks about her mother's community in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane describes her father's military service

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane talks about how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane talks about her brother

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane describes her neighborhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane describes her family's food traditions, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane describes her family's food traditions, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane remembers the music of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane remembers celebrating Mardi Gras

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane talks about the Mardi Gras krewes in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane recalls traveling with her paternal grandmother

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane remembers the Holy Ghost Catholic School in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane recalls her early interests and activities

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane remembers the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane recalls the exclusion of women of color from television news

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane remembers the Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane remembers the Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane recalls her decision to attend Louisiana State University in New Orleans

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane remembers her influential professors

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane talks about her teaching experiences in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane talks about her teaching experiences in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane describes her transition from teaching to education reporting

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane remembers her work at WYES-TV in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane talks about her programming for WYES-TV

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane remembers her time at WWL-TV in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane remembers moving to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane remembers reporting on Hurricane David in Mobile, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane recalls joining WETA-TV in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane describes her transition to WDVM-TV in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane remembers the notable journalists on WDVM-TV

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane describes her experiences as a news anchor on WDVM-TV

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane remembers her co-anchor, Mike Buchanan

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane remembers the changes in the community of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane talks about the importance of balanced news coverage

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane remembers being removed from her news anchor position

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane recalls returning to the morning news at WUSA-TV in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane remembers the attacks of September 11, 2001

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane talks about her colleagues at WUSA-TV

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane talks about the Buddy Check 9 program, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane remembers her awards and honors

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane talks about the Buddy Check 9 program, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane reflects upon the highlights of her career

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane describes her production work on WUSA-TV

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane talks about the representation of minorities in the news

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Andrea Roane talks about the changes in the media industry

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Andrea Roane talks about her J.C. Hayward's experience of breast cancer

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane talks about the criminal charges against her son

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Andrea Roane reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Andrea Roane describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Andrea Roane reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Andrea Roane talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Andrea Roane remembers her international travels

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Andrea Roane talks about President Barack Obama

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Andrea Roane describes her plans for the future

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Andrea Roane describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Andrea Roane narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Andrea Roane narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

8$5

DATitle
Andrea Roane remembers her time at WWL-TV in New Orleans, Louisiana
Andrea Roane describes her experiences as a news anchor on WDVM-TV
Transcript
So I wasn't sure I wanted to leave a place like that, but what did my father [Frederick Roane, Sr.] say? "Try it, you might like it." So I met with Mickey [Mickey Wellman], took me out to a fabulous lunch at Galatoire's in the French Quarter [New Orleans, Louisiana], one of the finest restaurants we have there, and offered me a job in the documentary unit, and I said, "Yes." And I, I wasn't really happy there. They were all very nice and my husband worked in the same--at the same studio, this is WWL-TV, the CBS affiliate. It was owned by Loyola University [Loyola University New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana] at the time, and--but I never got to see him 'cause he was in the news department and I was in doc, and--you know, it, it, it was okay. Everyone was nice, but I didn't really feel great about that assignment and when the opportunity came to go back to YES [WYES-TV, New Orleans, Louisiana], I jumped at it, and when I went back, I was given the opportunity of working on some MacNeil Lehrer shows which is now the news hour that you see with Judy Woodruff and [HistoryMaker] Gwen Ifill. It was the Robert MacNeil, Jim Lehrer 'NewsHour' ['The MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour'; 'PBS NewsHour'], and I co-anchored from New Orleans [Louisiana], with Robert MacNeil, a show on the emerging black Republican Party in the South, had never done a network anything, and this was network when you think about the PBS [Public Broadcasting Service] network. And their people (background noise) (pause)--I was asked to do a 'MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour,' and it was on the black Republican Party--the emerging black Republican Party in the South--had never done anything with any kind of network operation; this was network for PBS, and I was waiting to communicate with Robert MacNeil and the producers came in early in the morning and, "Oh, we're great--how do you say your name? Is it (pronunciation) Andrea, Andrea?" I said, "It's Andrea [HistoryMaker Andrea Roane]," and, "Oh, this is great. Where can we have lunch? Where do you recommend for lunch?" So went out to lunch with the producers and the director still had not talked with my co-anchor, Robert MacNeil, and when we got back, it's like maybe 3:30, 4:00, the phone call from--, "How do you say your name?" "Andrea." "Call me Robin, (pronunciation) Andrea, Andrea, Andrea, looking forward to talking with you on the air." That was it. And then we did the show, and it was a pretty good show, if I must say so myself, it was a really good show, and then they were gone. And didn't think any more about it, but then the phone started to ring and people had inquiries about me but I wasn't interested in leaving New Orleans [Louisiana] at all. And then had the opportunity to do another 'MacNeil/Lehrer,' this time Jim was the co-anchor and the subject was the wetlands in Louisiana. And who knew how important a subject matter that would be in the 1970s when we go forward to Katrina [Hurricane Katrina] and not having the wetlands and what that did as far as destruction. And we talked about that and after that, the phones really started ringing. So this is like '77 [1977], '78 [1978]. And opportunities came to go to Chicago [Illinois] with the NBC affiliate [WMAQ-TV]. Cleveland [Ohio] called and, and at this point, I was engaged to be married to my husband to be, Michael Skehan, and I wasn't interested in leaving my home town and besides, he was a news cameraman so I wasn't going to go anywhere where he couldn't go, and little did I know that there were friends at the station who knew people, and the woman who is my associate producer, she had been the secretary at one time for the guy who was the talent scout for NBC Chicago, and another friend, Dinney Bott [ph.], her cousin was vice president of radio for NBC, so all of these people were getting together and we ended up having an interview--my husband and I both had an interview. I said, "I'm not interested in leaving, plus I'm getting ready to be married; my husband's a cameraman, so--gotta find something for the two of us." "Where would you like to go?" I, you know, I said, "Washington, D.C.," that was his home town, "and New York [New York]." This is the number one market 'cause I knew it would never happen (laughter).$You went to the noon time show (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Went to the noon time show with Bob Dalton.$$This is in '83 [1983] then, right? Not sure?$$Eighty-two [1982], '83 [1983]? And got pregnant again during the ratings book (laughter), and this time our son Andrew [Andrew Skehan] was born on the first day of the book, May 1st, 1983, and I was out for the entire ratings period. My news director said, "Never do that again." I said, "I promise I won't do it ever again." And came back doing the noon show, doing reporting, covering the arts, what to do on the weekend kind of things, those segments--substituting on the five P.M. show which we had now expanded the five from a half hour to an hour, substituting for J.C. Hayward on that show at six o'clock, substituting at times for [HistoryMaker] Maureen Bunyan and then the, the news wanted to do a four P.M. newscast, and--wow, how about that? I mean we had, we had done some things, I think I had proved myself, and I remember when the Challenger [Space Shuttle Challenger] exploded, I was getting ready to do the noon show, and my news director, Dave Pearce, came out and said, on camera, "Do this." And it was literally a sheet of paper (unclear), the Challenger has exploded, and I think it was--what was it, seventy-three or eighty-three seconds after takeoff. And to the camera--we were on even before CBS came on with their breaking news about this story. And--keep going, keep going, still didn't have a whole lot of wire copy, but luckily I had interviewed Christa McAuliffe and her backup Elizabeth Morgan [sic. Barbara Morgan], as the teachers in space--before, so I was able to, you know, just kind of stretch and stretch. So I, I thought I could do this job and I went into the news director's office and I said, "I'd like to be considered for the position of an anchor on that four o'clock newscast." And he said, "Thank you for letting me know."$$I'm interested in the time management aspect of this, 'cause these times mean that you're sleep- I mean the morning show for instance, what was your routine (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The morning show wasn't as hard as it is now (laughter). That morning show--literally when we first started in, in '81 [1981], it was a cut in, so it was 6:25, 7:25. I was here like five o'clock in the morning, and then--I've never really been a nine to fiver. I may have always been a little bit earlier or just a little bit later, but then it became a little bit more of a normal hour when our second child was born, so from '83 [1983] to about I guess, until about 1995, it was pretty much a, a normal, middle of the day kind of thing, which worked well with the family. When my children were young, I was home early. When they were older, I was either working a shift where I could do mommy stuff for one school, my husband [Michael Skehan] would pick up the other school. He was home doing homework when I, you know--it kind of worked out. But the schedule has been all over the place, but mainly I've been a morning person and in 2000, when I went back to mornings, it just started to get earlier and earlier, and earlier. But let's not jump around too much.

Charles Warfield, Jr.

Broadcasting executive Charles M. Warfield, Jr. was born in in Washington, D.C. in 1949. Warfield attended Hampton University and graduated from there with his B.S. degree in accounting in 1971.

Upon graduating, Warfield began his career as a staff auditor at Ernst & Young, and then joined RCA Corporation as supervising senior auditor in 1974. Warfield’s broadcasting career includes managing some of New York City’s top radio stations including twelve years at Inner City Broadcasting Corporation (ICBC). He joined ICBC as a corporate controller and was promoted to vice president and general manager of WBLS-FM and WLIB-AM Radio. Warfield was later hired at Summit Broadcasting Corporation, where he served as vice president and general manager of WRKS-FM Radio in New York City.

In July of 1997, Warfield was appointed as the vice president and general manager of heritage stations at WDAS-AM/FM in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He later became the senior vice president of urban regional operations for Chancellor Media Corporation in March of 1998, with oversight of KKBT-FM in Los Angeles, California; WJLB-FM and WMXD-FM in Detroit, Michigan; WGCI-AM/FM and WVAZ-FM in Chicago, Illinois; WUSL-FM and WDAS-FM in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and WEDR-FM in Miami, Florida. Warfield was promoted to senior vice president of regional operations in October of 1998, and assumed responsibility for Chancellor Media Corporation’s thirty stations in Chicago, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Miami and Puerto Rico. From 1997 to 2003, Warfield served as senior vice president of regional operations for AMFM, Inc.; and, from 2000 to 2012, he served as vice president and chief operating officer of Inner City Broadcasting Holdings, Inc. In October of 2012, Warfield was named president and chief operating officer of YMF Media, LLC.

In 2009, Warfield was elected president of the Metropolitan Kalamazoo Branch of the NAACP. The following year, he was appointed as the chairman for the National Association of Broadcasters board of directors. He also served on the Radio Advertising Bureau Executive Committee. Warfield’s community involvement includes organizations such as the American Red Cross, the National Urban League, the Salvation Army, the United Negro College Fund, the Partnership for a Drug Free Greater New York and the Harlem Young Men’s Christian Association. In 2010, Warfield received the National Radio Award from the National Association of Broadcasters.

Charles M. Warfield Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.281

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/9/2013

Last Name

Warfield

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Morris

Occupation
Schools

Hampton University

James G. Birney Elementary School

Kramer Middle School

Thurgood Marshall Academy

Anacostia High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

WAR17

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Saint Martin

Favorite Quote

Straight Talk Makes For $Straight Understanding

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/10/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Broadcast executive Charles Warfield, Jr. (1949 - ) served as president and chief operating officer of ICBC Broadcast Holdings, Inc., and as vice president and general manager of WBLS-FM and WLIB-AM Radio.

Employment

Ernst & Young

RCA Corporation

Inner City Broadcasting Corporation, Inc.

WBLS Radio

WLIB Radio

Summit Broadcasting Corporation/WRKS-FM

WDAS Radio

Chancellor Media Corporation

AMFM, Inc.

YMF Media, LLC

Medger Evers College

Uptown Records

Favorite Color

Black, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Warfield, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his father's death

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls spending the summers in Rappahannock County, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his early responsibilities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his brother with Down syndrome

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his relationship with his twin brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers lessons from his father

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his family's holiday traditions

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his childhood hobbies

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his experiences at Kramer Junior High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers Anacostia High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his early academic interests

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his start at the Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his decision to major in accounting

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers the student protests at the Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the closure of the Hampton Institute in 1971

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. reflects upon his time at the Hampton Institute

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his decision not to live in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about his work at S.D. Leidesdorf and Company

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his work at the RCA Corporation

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers joining the staff of Medgar Evers College in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his career advice to African American youth

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his transition to the broadcast industry

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his interview at the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his duties at the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his coworkers at the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the influence of radio deejays

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers Frankie Crocker

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his role in station acquisitions at the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about his contributions to the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his promotion to vice president and general manager of the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers developing the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation's human resources system

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the process of acquiring a radio station

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes the challenges of managing a nationwide media company

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes the impact of recessions on the black radio industry

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the Quiet Storm radio format

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers the competitors to the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his decision to leave the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his decision to leave the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Charles Warfield, Jr. reflects upon his decision to join WRKS Radio

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remember Barry A. Mayo

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers developing the audience of WRKS Radio

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his changes at WRKS Radio

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about his career at WRKS Radio

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his departure from WRKS Radio

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his attempts to invest in a radio station

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers working for Uptown Records

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about Uptown Records

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls joining the Chancellor Media Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls managing the Chancellor Media Corporation's urban radio stations

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the longevity of WVON Radio

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the role of syndication in the radio business

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the importance of community relationships in the radio business

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his experiences as senior vice president of the Chancellor Media Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his return to the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers the financial crisis of 2008

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about changes in the radio market

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers the introduction of the portable people meter

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about competition from satellite radio

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls serving on the executive committee of the National Association of Broadcasters

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers the conflict between Cathy Hughes and Dionne Warwick

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the bankruptcy of the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers the divestiture of the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation's assets

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes the underrepresentation of African American radio executives

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the dissolution of the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the future of black broadcasting

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Charles Warfield, Jr. remembers his contributions to the broadcasting industry

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Charles Warfield, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for African Americans in the radio industry

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Charles Warfield, Jr. talks about the future of the radio industry

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Charles Warfield, Jr. reflects upon his career

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Charles Warfield, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Charles Warfield, Jr. reflects upon his success

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Charles Warfield, Jr. narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Charles Warfield, Jr. narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

2$10

DATitle
Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls his duties at the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation
Charles Warfield, Jr. recalls managing the Chancellor Media Corporation's urban radio stations
Transcript
Can you describe the organization you're coming into; and who, who some of the key players are, and, and what--because at this point--let's see--Inner City [Inner City Broadcasting Corporation] began--I thought it began in (simultaneous)--$$ (Simultaneous) Began in '72 [1972] with--$$It's--$$ --the AM--'74 [1974] with the FM [WBLS Radio, New York, New York], and by '75 [1975], '76 [1976], going into '77 [1977], FM had overtaken AM as the primary band for entertainment on the radio. And I was a bit star struck when I--when I first went into the company. I had--you're listening to the radio in New York City [New York, New York], and I listened to a lot of radio. And I'm, I'm here with the home of Frankie Crocker and Ken Webb and [HistoryMaker] Vy Higginsen on the air. It's--this is Percy Sutton's company. This is a high profile job opportunity in New York City. So you're, you're struck with that. You have the artists that come through the radio station that you would see from time to time coming to pay homage quite honestly to the man, Frankie Crocker. There was also [HistoryMaker] Hal Jackson, who was there as a vice chairman of the country--company. And Pepe--Pierre--Percy Sutton, who was running for mayor of New York City against Ed Koch, was in and out. And Charles Rangel [HistoryMaker Charles B. Rangel] was in and out; and [HistoryMaker] Basil Paterson was in and out. And, and these kinds of people were in the environment all the time. David Lampel, who was the news director--people that you would hear on the radio, and now I'm here in this company, and it--yeah, it made--it made me feel very good. It was an important job, but then the reality of the work that you're facing, you know, sort of hits you in the face and says you got a real job here. All this was before computers. Records were maintained on handwritten cards, receivable cards. Human error was involved. They had a manual system for putting commercials on the air. And once the commercial ran--getting the commercial on an invoice and being billed, and how they handled the collection of money and offsets against accounts receivable, and, and the, the manual--our means of processing checks. There was a real need for the job at that point, and I embraced that, and I--and I worked hard as I was taught to always do--gained the confidence of, of people. One thing I learned at this point--and I, I guess I was learning it along the way is that I'm very good at the numbers; I understand the numbers; I can explain the numbers, but I wanted more in my life. I also had an interest in engaging with people. I wanted to learn the business, but I wanted to do more than be in the--the bean counter that's upstairs or downstairs or around the corner in accounting. And prep--Percy Sutton, when he lost the race for mayor and came into the company as chairman of the company, began to give me more and more responsibility and respect and, and counted on me. In the first year I was there I spent working with a consultant to the company, had engaged to raise money to buy radio stations in other cities, which was a very difficult thing to do in 1977 because African Americans--one you're in radio; you--it's a business you don't know because the entrepreneurs in radio at that point were successful business people in either arenas who are now investing in radio were not seasoned broadcasters, and they were surrounded by seasoned broadcasters. So we didn't have a lot of confidence in financial institutions to lend us money. But the first year I was there working with a consultant we were able to convince Citibank [Citibank, N.A.] to lend the company $15 million, which in 1978 allowed the company to buy an FM station in Detroit [Michigan], an AM/FM station in San Francisco [California], and an AM/FM station in Los Angeles [California] and get change back. Now today, you can't buy WLIB [WLIB Radio] in New York today for anything approaching--uh, maybe $15 million today you possibly could, but there's a valuation today that's totally different from what it was in, in those days. But I gained the confidence of, of Dorothy Brunson and, and Percy Sutton at that point, and he allowed me to learn more about the business and become more involved in, in other aspects and ultimately appointed me as the vice president and general manager of Inner City Broadcasting [Inner City Broadcasting Corporation] in 1981, replacing his son [HistoryMaker Pierre Sutton], who was de facto in that position and had been in that position when Dorothy Brunson left to run her own company. I will always be thankful to Inner City Broadcasting, to Percy Sutton. I don't believe that had I been a controller working for CBS or NBC or, or the other broadcast companies I would have ever been given an opportunity. And I've never taken that for granted, giving me the opportunity to learn the business. As I say, I learned the business from the bottom up. I learned the business from a P and L [profit and loss] perspective: here's how much money we're gonna make but understanding well, how do we get there? And it's because of the trust that he in- that he showed in me during my tenure there with Inner City Broadcasting.$One of the challenges--and, and I--and I take this seriously, with being one of the few African Americans given the opportunities that I've been given in this industry, I have to speak on behalf of those that did not get the opportunity that I have. I have to speak on behalf of the communities that we serve. And when I started with this company, I mentioned that it grew from roughly twenty-five stations to ninety-six. And they had a staff meeting in Phoenix, Arizona, where they brought in the managers of all of all ninety-six of their radio operations. Six of us were African American out of these ninety-six managers. And I'm--and I'm in the room, and there's six people whose careers I followed-- Verna Greene in Detroit [Michigan]; [HistoryMaker] Jerry Rushin in Miami [Florida]. There was not an African American in, in Phila- in Los Angeles [California]. I'm running DAS [WDAS Radio, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] AM and FM. Chester Schofield was running Power [WUSL Radio] in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania]. [HistoryMaker] Marv Dyson was running GCI [WGCI Radio] in, in MXD [WMXD Radio, Detroit, Michigan]--I mean, GCI in--$$In Chicago [Illinois].$$ --in Chicago. Legendary individuals in this business, very successful in their own right, and they're all under this umbrella of Chancellor Media [Chancellor Media Corporation] at this point. In '98 [1998], I was approached by Jimmy deCastro as to whether I would be interested in overseeing the urban properties. Because I'm challenging them every opportunity I get, why aren't there more qualified African Americans that you can hire to run some of these radio properties, not just urban. I can run more than urban. That's what I run; that's what I'm comfortable with; that's what I been challenged to do and I've been successful at, but there need--there's the need for more diversity here. And you, you--if you're in the room where you can have the conversation, you have a responsibility to have the conversation. They gave me an opportunity for about six months to oversee the urban operations, so I was not only running DAS AM and FM in Philly, I was also over Power in Philadelphia. I was overseeing EDR [WEDR Radio, Miami, Florida] in Miami [Florida], Marv's stations in Chicago, ZAK [WZAK Radio] in, in Cleveland [Ohio]--there are two stations in Cleveland--the Beat [KKBT Radio; KRRL Radio] in L.A. [Los Angeles, California]. I had--we had ten of the top urban radio stations in America under Chancellor Media that I had an opportunity to be involved with. In my, my under--what I do, I don't tell them how to run their radio stations. I can't tell Marv Dyson how to run a radio station. He's been doing that successfully for more years than I have. It's how do we help bring resources to help these stations continue to grow under the banner of Chancellor Media? And from there a few months later with some corporate changes, I was given an opportunity to, to drop the urban operations title, and I took on a cluster of thirty radio stations for Chancellor Media, AMFM [AMFM, Inc.], which concluded all of their stations in Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Atlanta [Georgia], Miami, and Puerto Rico. So I had a thirty station region that I was responsible for which was all different types of formats--$$That's--$$ -- (Unclear) (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous)huge then. So what--how long did you do that?$$ I did that for about a year and a half, until the announced merger with, with Clear Channel [Clear Channel Communications, Inc.]. And I had an opportunity to stay with the company or to leave; and I exercised an option to leave (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) To leave (audio disturbance).

Harold Lewis

Resturant owner and operator Harold Lewis and his wife, Tina Lewis, have managed twenty McDonald’s resaturant franchises since 1987. Lewis’s father was the sole-proprietor of one of the largest African American-owned contracting firms in Los Angeles, California. Following the death of his father at age seven, Lewis’ and his mother kept the business going along with an uncle.

In 1972, Lewis met his wife, Tina Lewis, while working in the airline industry. Lewis was employed with United Airlines in management positions in sales and human resources; Tina worked as a flight attendant and an in-flight services instructor with United Airlines and Continental Airlines, respectively. In 1982, Lewis and his wife embarked on their first business venture when they purchased a Sir Speedy Printing franchise in Los Angeles. Lewis co-managed the business for four years and assisted in winning a printing contract with the U.S. Olympics Committee. He and his wife sold the Sir Speedy Printing franchise in 1986 and began the process of becoming McDonald’s restaurant franchise owners and operators. In 1987, Lewis and his wife established HRL Group, LLC and opened their first McDonald’s restaurant franchise in Sand Diego, California. From 1987 to 2011, HRL Group, LLC operated twenty McDonald’s restaurants.

Lewis has been a leader in the San Diego County McDonald’s Operators Association. As a community leader, he has contributed numerous hours and resources to a variety of community organizations and causes. In 1993, Lewis and his wife founded The African American Visionary and Inspirational Leaders (AVAIL) Scholarship Program, which has awarded more than $550,000 to graduating high school seniors in the San Diego County. In addition, Lewis and his wife have provided scholarships through the Trumpet Foundation in Atlanta, Georgia.

The McDonald’s Corporation has recognized Lewis’ contributions by bestowing upon him the distinguished “Ronald Award” which honors operators for outstanding service to the community. Lewis is also a recipient of the McDonald’s “Outstanding Store Award,” one of the companies highest regarded achievements.

Lewis lives in Las Vegas, Nevada with his wife, Tina Lewis. They have three children: Jeremy Lewis (a second generation McDonald’s restaurant franchise owner and operator), and twins, Jonathan Lewis and Jennifer Lewis.

Harold Lewis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 23, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.324

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/23/2013

Last Name

Lewis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Roscoe

Schools

Sixth Avenue Elementary School

Los Angeles High School

Admiral Arthur W Radford High School

Los Angeles City College

California State University, Los Angeles

First Name

Harold

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

LEW17

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Acapulco, Mexico

Favorite Quote

To whom

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nevada

Birth Date

10/8/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Las Vegas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Liver, Onions

Short Description

Restaurant owner and operator Harold Lewis (1947 - )

Employment

HRL Group, LLC

Sir Speedy Printing

United Airlines

Favorite Color

Blue

William Lee

Newspaper publisher William H. Lee was born on May 29, 1936 in Austin, Texas. Williams attended Sacramento State College from 1953 to 1955, and went on to earn his A.B. degree in journalism from the University of California in 1957.

From 1959 to 1965, Lee served in the U.S. Air Force. Lee, along with radioman Glino Gladden and businessman John W. Cole, founded the Sacramento Observer on November 22, 1962. Despite early challenges, Lee became president and sole publisher of the paper in 1965. At that time, he also founded Lee Publishing, Col. Five years later, under his leadership, the Sacramento Observer was named the number one African American newspaper in the United States. Throughout the years, the Sacramento Observer has been a strong community leader and was the catalyst for organizing the local chapter of the National Urban League. In the past TheSacramento Observer has sponsored numerous community events including organizing the annual Sacramento Black Expo to celebrate African American history featuring seminars, workshops, concerts and a marketplace.

In 2001, a year after Lee appointed his late wife Kathryn Lee, as co-publisher, the newspaper launched an online news site, SacOberver.com. Its first inception featured select articles from The Sacramento Observer newspaper. Lee’s youngest son, Lawrence Charles Lee, served as the president and CEO of SacObserver.com. Then, in 2005, executive and publishing control of the Sacramento Observer passed from Lee and his wife to his son Lawrence Charles Lee, who now is the sole publisher, president, general manager of the Sacramento Observer and Lee Publishing, Co.

From 1970 to 1973, Lee served as secretary and as a member of the board of directors of the National Newspaper Publishers Association. He was elected as president of the West Coast Black Publishers Association 1974. He is founder and past president of the Men’s Civic League of Sacramento, co-founder of the Sacramento Area Black Caucus, and is a lifetime member of the N.A.A.C.P.

Lee received Sacramento’s Outstanding Young Man of the Year Award (1965), the Carly Murphy Plaque for community service (1994), the. The Sacramento Observer was a recipient of the Media Award from the Western Regional Conference of Elected Black Officials in (1973) and the John B. Russwurm Trophy – which is considered to be the Pulitzer Prize in African American newspaper publishing – from the National Newspaper Publishers Association (1973, 1975).

Lee and his late wife Kathryn Lee, have three sons: Lawrence Charles, William Hanford, Jr., and Roderick Joseph (deceased).

William H. Lee was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 5, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.293

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/5/2013

Last Name

Lee

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Middle Name

Hanford

Schools

University of California, Berkeley

California State University, Sacramento

Roosevelt Middle School

Grant Union High School

Raphael Weill Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Austin

HM ID

LEE07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

I Can Do All Things Through Christ Who Strengthens Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

5/29/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sacramento

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive William Lee (1936 - ) co-founded the Sacramento Observer where he served as president and publisher for over fifty years.

Employment

The Sacramento Observer

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Lee's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Lee lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Lee describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Lee talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Lee describes his parents' education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Lee describes his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Lee talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Lee remembers his family's move to San Francisco, California

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - William Lee talks about his brother and sister-in-law

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - William Lee describes his likeness to his father

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - William Lee remembers his father's strokes

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - William Lee describes his upbringing in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Lee describes the children's book based upon his family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Lee remembers playing basketball in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Lee remembers moving to Del Paso Heights in Sacramento, California

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Lee describes his experiences at Grant Union High School in Sacramento, California

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Lee remembers his arrival at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Lee talks about his time at Sacramento State College in Sacramento, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Lee remembers his accounting professor at Sacramento State College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Lee describes the student organizations at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - William Lee remembers the student activism at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Lee recalls the lack of support for black students at University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Lee remembers being hired at Aerojet Rocketdyne in Sacramento, California

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Lee remembers his courtship with his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Lee describes the African American community in Sacramento, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Lee recalls the founding of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Lee talks about the Men's Civic League of Sacramento, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Lee talks about the cofounders of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William Lee remembers the restrictive housing covenants in Sacramento, California

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Lee talks about the professional legacy of William Byron Rumford

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Lee describes the political climate in California during the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Lee describes the black leadership of Sacramento, California

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Lee talks about the growth of the black community in Sacramento, California

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Lee remembers becoming the sole owner of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Lee talks about success of The Sacramento Observer, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Lee talks about the success of The Sacramento Observer, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Lee describes the operations of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Lee talks about the advertisements in The Sacramento Observer, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Lee talks about the advertisements in The Sacramento Observer, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Lee describes the readership of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Lee talks about The Sacramento Observer's outreach programs

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Lee talks about the impact of technology on the newspaper industry

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William Lee describes the editorial goals of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - William Lee talks about Mayor Kevin Johnson of Sacramento, California

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - William Lee talks about the stories covered in The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - William Lee describes the staff of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - William Lee describes The Sacramento Observer's sports coverage

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - William Lee talks about his sons

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - William Lee reflects upon his career at The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - William Lee describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - William Lee reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - William Lee talks about his wife

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - William Lee describes his youth outreach programs

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - William Lee describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

2$7

DATitle
William Lee remembers being hired at Aerojet Rocketdyne in Sacramento, California
William Lee talks about the success of The Sacramento Observer, pt. 2
Transcript
But you graduated you know in '57 [1957]--$$Yes.$$--with a degree in accounting?$$Yes.$$And you're a good student from what I've read--$$Yes.$$--and you, and you were good at what you did?$$That was an experience in itself. It's interesting I--so when I graduated [from the University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California], I and two of my fellow classmates who were both whites, went to apply for an accounting opportunity that was being offered by an accounting firm, and they were looking for graduates in accounting to go work for them. And when we went in, we went in individually, and I went in initially and they did not hire me. The firm--I tried to reassure the firm that I was a good student and I brought my transcripts and everything else. And the other two students, when they went in, they hired both of them. Now, when I--when I was being interviewed, I asked the interviewer why I was not being hired, they said, "Well, I don't think my staff, my organization is ready to accept an African American--," at that time "a Negro to join our organization." So I was being denied. I was introduced to racism in a real absolute way in that experience; and it really hit me in the gut, because I'd never had it so vividly shown and experienced to me. When I got back to the car and my buddies got back, they had been accepted, and they got so upset and both of these friends of mine and these fellow students--and I was a better student than they were, both of them, and they knew it. But it was all about--I told them the fact that they just did not hire me, and they wanted to go in and turn in and resign just from being accepted or take that--refuse the job to be accepted. That too was an experience for me as well. So again, I called Mom [Carrie Woods Lee] and Dad [Charles R. Lee] and I said I wanted to come home. And I moved in--I came to Sacramento [California]. I was thinking about then joining with the [U.S.] Air Force, going to the effort that was going on; and I called a friend of mine who was working at the time at Aerojet [Aerojet Rocketdyne] here as a space industry--the aerospace industry was booming, and Aerojet was flourishing and growing and hiring people. And it was through that friend's effort, and I asked him very vividly, I said, "Now look, I don't want to go out there and experience what I just experienced in the Bay Area [San Francisco Bay Area, California], Sacramento." He said, "No, you need to see this person," and he gave me a name of a person that I interviewed with. He hired me on the spot. And I went to work at Aerojet as a statistician right out--shortly after that. But that experience was something I'll never forget, because it was--it was a--it was the true racism that reflected even when you're qualified, even when you're knowledgeable about your skill and your art and your profession. So I was very, very let down from going--trying for other employment in the Bay Area. I think that my warmth and growth at Aerojet gave me the reassurance that I needed to eventually to move forward, and to set my sights on what I felt were some earlier and eas- and dreams and plans and hopes that I had for my career and my life and all.$Did you model, in terms of managing the paper [The Sacramento Observer], did you--was there any other publication, African American or, or white that you modeled after?$$After?$$Yeah in terms of presentation and content and that sort of thing?$$No, we didn't. We really didn't. We've had our own sense of mission, our sense of purpose and the sense of direction in terms of what we wanted to do in publishing our newspaper. We minimized, not to the extent that it became faulty information, but we minimized all the negativity that existed in our community [in Sacramento, California], which we felt was marginal compared to the outstanding achievements and the accomplishments of the community.$$Now, I've heard that before. I know the--I know one of the papers that's--was accused of egregiously using, you know, murders and that sort of thing I think was the St. Louis American. At one time they were considered a murder sheet. A lot of black papers, the Courier [Pittsburgh Courier; New Pittsburgh Courier], the Defender [Chicago Defender] opened with a violent scene.$$Yes.$$And was this the history of the old--well not the reverend's [J.T. Muse] paper [Sacramento Outlook], right, he didn't do that?$$No. There were some and many of those cases that built their reputation or their formats based upon the crime, as you say crime sheets of the negative cri- negative things that are going on in the community. But again, we felt realistically that that was not truly a description of our community. We wanted to be representative of the community. And if there's only 2 percent crime, we wanted 2 percent news that reflected that, not 98 percent and the other way around, so that's--that is always--. So we sort of focused on the issues, on the needs that existed, education, employment opportunities, the whole desire to own property, the building of wealth; a variety of different positive motives and missions that are so important to our community. And we built our paper on that format, and we continue to have it even today as we move through the wavelength. And I think it's been very successful, very helpful to us. We see, you know, there's movement going on and--in the newspaper industry and all that tells you that, you know, even with print in mainstream is somewhat dying, it's losing much revenue and that type of thing, but if you can focus on satisfying our community or satisfying a community need building value within those communities, which is what our motto was. So we went on to win from those days, we went on to win the Russwurm [John B. Russwurm Trophy], this top trophy awards, six times, and we--it became almost like our pri- our awards. So we stopped entering the contest, because we were just winning too many awards in that sense. We didn't want it seemed like it was being set or anything else. And then we stayed away a few years and went back and we won that year that we went back to in the '90s [1990s]. So a number of times that we just have backed away, and we have not re-entered in several years. But I think, you know, that even today, as I said, you see many of the products suffering, but there's a resurgence, I sense, that's going to go on and will be going on for the press. I see print becoming again an element that we'll have to deal with, and I think the ones that will be successful in that effort, will be the ones who have that, that concentration of community building, support of communities, recognition that their communities have values and building on that.

Amelia Ashley-Ward

Newspaper publisher, editor and journalist Amelia Ashley-Ward was born on September 17, 1957 in Magnolia, Mississippi to Amile Ashley and Louise James Ashley. While still a child, Ashley-Ward’s family moved to San Francisco, where she attended junior high and high school. Ashley-Ward went on to receive her B.A. degree in journalism and photojournalism in 1979 from San Jose State University.

During her final year at San Jose State University, Ashley-Ward interned at the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company in San Francisco, where she was hired as a reporter and photojournalist for the Sun-Reporter newspaper in 1979. Then, in 1984, Ashley-Ward was promoted to managing editor of the Sun-Reporter. When the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company’s publisher Carlton Goodlett resigned in 1994, Ashley-Ward was promoted to publisher. While working at the Sun-Reporter, she also published photographs in People magazine and Jet magazine, and wrote a feature story for the African American magazine Sepia. Following Goodlett’s death in 1997, she bought the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company from Goodlett’s son, acquiring all three of the company’s newspapers: the California Voice, the Metro and the Sun-Reporter. Ashley-Ward also created the nonprofit Sun-Reporter Foundation in 2004, and was the founding president of the Young Adult Christian Movement.

Ashley-Ward has received many honors and awards while working at the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company. In 1980, she won the Photojournalism Award from the National Newspaper Publishers Association, and, in 1981, she received the Feature Writing Award from the same organization. The National Newspaper Publishers Association granted Ashley-Ward one more honor when, in 1998, she was elected Publisher of the Year. In 1997, she received the Woman of the Year award from the San Francisco Black Chamber of Commerce. In 2004, Ashley-Ward received the Alumnus of the Year award from San Jose State University, and was the commencement speaker for the university's Journalism department that same year. She was also honored in 2005, when she was selected as Woman of the Year by California State Senator Carole Migden. In 2008, Ashley-Ward was named one of the forty nine Most Influential People in San Francisco by 7x7 Magazine. She also served on the boards of the National Newspaper Publishers Association and the San Francisco branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

Ashley-Ward has one son, Evan Carlton Ward, an electronic media major at Middle Tennessee State University.

Amelia Ashley-Ward was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 4, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.251

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/4/2013

Last Name

Ashley-Ward

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

San Jose State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Amelia

Birth City, State, Country

Magnolia

HM ID

ASH03

Favorite Season

Fall, Winter

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

It Must Be Borne In Mind That The Tragedy Of Life Doesn't Lie In Not Reaching Your Goal. The Tragedy Lies In Having No Goal To Reach.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

9/17/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Fish

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Amelia Ashley-Ward (1957 - ) has worked at the Sun-Reporter for over thirty years. She now owns the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company.

Employment

Sun-Reporter

Favorite Color

Black

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Amelia Ashley-Ward's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes how racial tensions in Mississippi forced her relatives to leave the state

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes the living conditions in San Francisco when her family first moved to California

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Amelia Ashley-Ward reflects upon her parents' marriage and how they first met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her two sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Amelia Ashley-Ward explains why her father left Mississippi for California

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Amelia Ashley-Ward explains the role of the church in her life and activism

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recounts living in Hunter's Point, the Fillmore, and Ingleside in San Francisco, California

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes the impact of Martin Luther King Jr.'s death on the black community in San Francisco, California

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls a personal experience with racial hatred from her youth, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls a personal experience with racial hatred from her youth, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about creative writing as a favorite childhood pastime

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls her early writing influences in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward remembers living in poverty after her father left the family

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about helping her mother financially in high school and the type of student she became in college

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her awareness of black consciousness and sub-culture in San Francisco, California in the 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her experiences in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her experiences at San Jose State University in the late 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about famous individuals and entertainment venues that were well known in the black community in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes the racial makeup at San Jose State University and the prevalent party culture of the late 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her experiences with racism and sexism at San Jose State University

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls an experience with the People's Temple cult and Jim Jones in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes Jim Jones' impact on the black community in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward compares San Francisco Reverend Thomas McCall to Jim Jones

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about Dr. Carlton's Goodlett's connection to Jim Jones

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls being hired at the Sun-Reporter

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward gives a history of the Sun-Reporter's founders Tom Fleming (also a HistoryMaker) and Dr. Carlton Goodlett

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her close personal relationship with Dr. Carlton Goodlett

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Amelia Ashley-Ward remembers tension with fellow staff during her early days at the Sun-Reporter, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Amelia Ashley-Ward remembers tension during her early days at the Sun-Reporter, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the sensationalist tactics previously used by the Sun-Reporter

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about Dr. Carlton Goodlett's influence in the San Francisco black community

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Amelia Ashley-Ward remembers some of her favorite stories she has written over the years

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes two different photo-essays from her career in Mississippi and California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the death of Chauncey Bailey, a journalist in Oakland, California

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her rise in the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company and how she acquired the company and its associated newspapers

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the implications of digital media for the newspaper industry

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the purpose of the National Newspaper Publishers Association and its history

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward explains the differences between the National Newspapers Association and the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the status of black newspapers in America and the Sun-Reporter's advertising revenue

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the journalistic philosophy of the Sun-Reporter Publishing Group

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Amelia Ashley-Ward reflects on her career and assisting in the 2013 election London Breed, San Francisco District Supervisor

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Amelia Ashley-Ward states that her mother Louise James Ashley encouraged her to fight against injustice

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about choosing to stay with black newspapers over the mainstream media and fighting against injustice

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her son Evan's football career at Middle Tennessee State and the politics associated with college sports

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about how she would like to be remembered

Michael "Rahni" Flowers

Hair stylist and business owner Michael “Rahni” Flowers was born on March 15, 1955 in Chicago, the tenth of thirteen children. His father, Edmond Joseph Flowers, was a factory worker, and his mother, Mae Carrie Byrd, was a housewife. The couple had come to Chicago from Mississippi in the 1940’s as part of the great migration of African Americans seeking more economic opportunities in the North. In 1973, he entered Northern Illinois University as a pre-med/psychology major, where he studied until 1976. He later enrolled at Pivot Point International, where in 1977 he received his degree in cosmetology. After graduating from Pivot Point International, Flowers trained and worked at Vidal Sassoon for several years. In 1981, he opened the original Van Cleef Hair Studio in Chicago. In 1988, Flowers purchased the salon’s present location in what was then the still underdeveloped Chicago River North area.

First Lady Michelle Obama had been a regular client of Flowers from the age of 18, until her move to Washington D.C. He had the honor to style the First Lady, and the ladies of the First Family, for the 2009 Inauguration. Flowers has worked with a number of other celebrities, including Kerry Washington, Marilyn McCoo, Nancy Wilson, Regina Taylor, Sinbad, and Phyllis Hyman. Other notable Chicago clients include Allison Payne, Carol Mosley-Braun, Merri Dee and Muriel Clair.

Flowers, through his studio, has supported a number of organizations, including Cabrini Green Tutoring Program, Children’s Advocacy, Lynk’s Organization, DuSable Museum, WGN-TV’s Wednesday’s Child, Chicago Juvenile Detention Center, Planned Parenthood, the National Organization for the Advancement of Colored People and special interest programs during Women’s Health Month. In 2010, Flowers received a L.E.O. Award from Pivot Point International for success in field of the professional beauty.

Hair stylist and business owner Michael “Rahni” Flowers was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 25, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.226

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/25/2013

Last Name

Flowers

Maker Category
Marital Status

Domestic Partner

Occupation
Schools

Hearst Elementary School

Garfield Elementary School

Proviso East High School

Northern Illinois University

Pivot Point Beauty School

First Name

Michael

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

FLO03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Costa Rica

Favorite Quote

Your Word Is Your Bond.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

3/15/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Bacon

Short Description

Hairstylist Michael "Rahni" Flowers (1955 - ) opened the Van Cleef Hair Studio in 1981 in Chicago, and purchased the salon’s present location in 1988. First Lady Michelle Obama was a regular customer of Flowers, starting in 1981.

Employment

Van Cleef Hair Studio

Vidal Sassoon

Fotomat

Community Center

National Youth Corps

Favorite Color

Cool Colors

Capt. C.A. "Pete" Tzomes

Navy Captain (Retired) C. A. “Pete” Tzomes was born on December 30, 1944 in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. He was the oldest of two children parented by James C. Tzomes and Charlotte Eudora (Hill) Tzomes, who instilled in him the value of hard work and discipline at an early age. Tzomes decided to pursue a career in the U.S. Navy during junior high school following a recruiting visit by a Naval Academy midshipman. Later, in 1963, Tzomes was admitted to the U.S. Naval Academy after briefly attending the State University of New York at Oneonta. He graduated in 1967 and was commissioned as an Ensign.

Upon graduation, Tzomes completed submarine nuclear power training which was followed by submarine training. He was then assigned to the ballistic missile submarine USS WILL ROGERS in 1969 and served in various division officer billets before being transferred to the fast attack submarine USS PINTADO. After completing Engineer Officer qualification in 1973, Tzomes was assigned as engineer officer on board USS DRUM; and, from 1979 to 1982, served as Executive Officer on board USS CAVALLA. In 1983, Tzomes became the first African American to command a U.S. submarine when he was assigned as the Commanding Officer of USS HOUSTON (SSN 713). At the conclusion of his command tour in 1986, he was assigned as the Force Operations Officer on the staff of Commander Submarine Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and oversaw the operations of all submarines in the Pacific theater. In 1988, Tzomes was appointed as the Director of the Equal Opportunity Division in the Bureau of Naval Personnel and as the advisor to the Chief of Naval Personnel on equal opportunity issues; and, in 1990, he became Commanding Officer of Recruit Training Command Great Lakes (boot camp). Tzomes then served as Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations and Inspector General before he retired from the Navy in 1994.

Tzomes was an active member of the National Naval Officers Association, including two years as a regional Vice President, while on active duty. This is a professional organization that targets professionalism and development of sea service minority officers (Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard). After Navy retirement, Tzomes worked as a utility manager at Exelon Corporation until July 2012. He held various leadership positions while primarily assigned to the Quad Cities Generating Station located in western Illinois. He continued to keep abreast of Navy issues through his affiliation with the Naval Submarine League, the U.S. Naval Institute, the United States Submarine Veterans and the Navy League. His military honors and decorations include the Legion of Merit (with Two Gold Stars), the Meritorious Service Medal (with Three Gold Stars), and the Navy Commendation Medal (with Two Gold Stars) as well as various unit and campaign ribbons.

Tzomes married the former Carolyn Eason in July, 2007. Offspring from a previous marriage include a son, Chancellor A. Tzomes II, and a granddaughter, Mariana Tzomes.

Navy Captain (Retired) C.A. “Pete” Tzomes The HistoryMakers August 21, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.233

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/21/2013

Last Name

Tzomes

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

United States Naval Academy

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

C.A.

Birth City, State, Country

Williamsport

HM ID

TZO01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Youth and teens

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Expect what you inspect.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/30/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Moline

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Captain and U.S. navy (retired) Capt. C.A. "Pete" Tzomes (1944 - ) became the first African American to command a U.S. submarine in 1983 when he was assigned as the Commanding Officer of USS HOUSTON (SSN 713).

Employment

Exelon Corporation

Bank One, Cleveland

United States Navy

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of C.A. Tzomes' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - C.A. Tzomes lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - C.A. Tzomes describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his mother's personality and her emphasis on education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - C.A. Tzomes describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his father's personality and his employment

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his adoption, and finding out that his adoptive father was his biological father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his parents getting married, and his biological mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - C.A. Tzomes describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - C.A. Tzomes describes his childhood memories of growing up in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and talks about his brother, Pierre

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - C.A. Tzomes describes the geographical location of Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - C.A. Tzomes discusses how his parents settled down in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - C.A. Tzomes talks about the black population in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, while he was growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - C.A. Tzomes describes the segregated community in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, in the 1940s and 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - C.A. Tzomes describes the neighborhood and community within which he grew up in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - C.A. Tzomes describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - C.A. Tzomes describes Christmas with his family

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - C.A. Tzomes talks about Ebenezer Baptist Church in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his experience in elementary school in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his interest in sports in school and his academic performance

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - C.A. Tzomes explains his career aspirations as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his brother, Pierre Tzomes

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - C.A. Tzomes talks about the undercurrents of discrimination and racism in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - C.A. Tzomes discusses the racial climate in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and talks about his first direct experience with racism in the South

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - C.A. Tzomes talks about being biracial, and his observations of social perceptions of skin color

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - C.A. Tzomes talks about desegregated public services in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - C.A. Tzomes discusses his desire to the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - C.A. Tzomes discusses his graduating class and the few role models in the community who emphasized a college education

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - C.A. Tzomes talks about the importance of getting good grades

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his plans to attend college and his father's alcoholism

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - C.A. Tzomes describes his application to the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - C.A. Tzomes talks about attending the State University of New York at Oneonta, and his acceptance to the U.S. Naval Academy in 1963

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his first summer and plebe year at the U.S. Naval Academy in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - C.A. Tzomes reflects upon the sociopolitical events of the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - C.A. Tzomes describes his experience during Plebe Summer at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his classmate, Calvin Huey, the first African American to play varsity football for the U.S. Navy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - C.A. Tzomes describes his experience during Plebe Year at the U.S. Naval Academy, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - C.A. Tzomes describes his experience during Plebe Year at the U.S. Naval Academy, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - C.A. Tzomes describes the racial climate during his time at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - C.A. Tzomes describes the racial climate in Annapolis, Maryland, during his time at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - C.A. Tzomes describes his social experience in the black community in Annapolis, Maryland while at the U.S. Naval Academy, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - C.A. Tzomes describes his social experience in the black community in Annapolis, Maryland while at the U.S. Naval Academy, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his aspirations of joining the U.S. Marine Corps, and instead applying for the U.S. Navy's Nuclear Power Program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - C.A. Tzomes reflects upon the Vietnam War and his experience with racism while in the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - C.A. Tzomes describes racial challenges that he faced in Norfolk, Virginia in 1964, and at the U.S. Navy submarine squadron in Key West

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - C.A. Tzomes talks about training for the Nuclear Power Program and his interest in submarines

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his interview with Admiral Hyman G. Rickover for the Nuclear Power Program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - C.A. Tzomes describes his experience with racism in the Submarine Nuclear Power Program, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - C.A. Tzomes describes his experience with racism in the Submarine Nuclear Power Program, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - C.A. Tzomes describes his experience as an Engineer Officer on the USS Drum, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - C.A. Tzomes describes his experience as Engineer Officer on the USS Drum, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - C.A. Tzomes talks about submarine officer ranks and recalls his colleague, Willie Wells, aboard the USS Will Rogers

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his assignment on the Nuclear Propulsion Examining Board and as the executive officer on USS Cavalla

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - C.A. Tzomes talks about how he dealt with racial insubordination while on assignments in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his relationship with white and black officers and crew members on the USS Will Rogers and the USS Pintado

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - C.A. Tzomes discusses Admiral Elmo Zumwalt's efforts to address racial tensions in the U.S. Navy, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - C.A. Tzomes discusses Admiral Elmo Zumwalt's efforts to address racial tensions in the U.S. Navy, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - C.A. Tzomes reflects upon the results of Admiral Elmo Zumwalt's efforts to address racial tensions in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - C.A. Tzomes discusses his selection as the commanding officer of the USS Houston in 1983, and describes the command screening process

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - C.A. Tzomes talks about becoming the commanding officer of the USS Houston, and the U.S. Navy's Centennial Seven

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - C.A. Tzomes talks about serving as a mentor in the National Naval Officers Association

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his experience as the commanding officer of the USS Houston, and the positive feedback from his mentees

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - C.A. Tzomes reflects upon his first marriage

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - C.A. Tzomes talks his assignment as the Force Operations Officer for the staff of the Commander for Submarine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - C.A. Tzomes reflects upon the advancement of African Americans in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - C.A. Tzomes discusses his service on issues of equal opportunity and racial bias in the U.S. Navy, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - C.A. Tzomes discusses his service on issues of equal opportunity and racial bias in the U.S. Navy, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - C.A. Tzomes describes his assignment as the commanding officer of the U.S. Navy's Recruit Training Command at Great Lakes Naval Base

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - C.A. Tzomes talks about meeting his second wife, Carolyn Eason

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - C.A. Tzomes talks about retiring from the U.S. Navy in 1994, and the Navy's Centennial Seven

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - C.A. Tzomes reflects upon the fall in the number of black submarine commanding officers since 2009

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - C.A. Tzomes talks about his father's death, his funeral, and the changes in his hometown of Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - C.A. Tzomes reflects upon his life and career

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - C.A. Tzomes describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - C.A. Tzomes reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - C.A. Tzomes describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
C.A. Tzomes describes his social experience in the black community in Annapolis, Maryland while at the U.S. Naval Academy, pt. 1
C.A. Tzomes describes his experience as an Engineer Officer on the USS Drum, pt. 1
Transcript
So, here you are--$$But that's the town [Annapolis, Maryland]. I still got more to talk about the town. So, the black community--remember, Annapolis is the south--racially segregated, signs and everything, okay. So, the local community embraced the black midshipmen, totally embraced us. We had one woman while I was there, and we ended up having other women. Her name was Lillie Mae Chase. They now have a street named after her in Annapolis. And she was our mother away from home, okay. We were having times, hard times, racially. Now Plebe Year, I didn't get, I could not go out. I could not go out in the streets until starting my sophomore year, okay, except for special occasions, okay. And so, Lillie Mae adopted us. And about the time there was about--well, the whole time I was there, she probably adopted about twelve or thirteen of us. And we cried on her shoulders--anything--any problems we were having, any issues. And she did so much for helping us get through, especially when things were racially trying in Annapolis at the [U.S. Naval] Academy. And the rest of the older black community was sort of like her. So, they had the area, like I told you--not my freshman year, but like I told you about Annapolis and the black theater--I used to refer to it as the black belt, okay. That's, you know, no whites are going to go in the black belt. It's an area where, it's where a large black community exists, including a social club. And I used to, I used to go to this social club. I would take my uniform, and I would change clothes in the bathroom at the social club. And then I would go hang out there on weekends whenever I was allowed to go out in town. And then they would look out for me. For example, if they saw a police or something coming down the street they'd tell me, and I would go hide in the bathroom until the police would come in and go out, say. And then I joined a black church. We had what's called church parties. You could worship at the Academy, or you could go on church parties. The churches were the Baptist church, because I told you I grew up in a Baptist church--was a Southern Baptist. And Southern Baptists had racial issues with them. So, I went to the Academy and I said, "I am not a Southern Baptist. I'm a Baptist. I want to worship where I belong for my religion." And they let me, there was a senior at the time who was going to a Baptist church out in town. So, I went to his church. It was called--I can't remember the name of the church. I want to say Second Baptist, but I can't remember. So, we used to walk--on Sundays we had a two-person church party. Then I, for two years, it was me by myself. And then I'll never forget. My senior year, there was a plebe that I sort of introduced to the church. And we all have--each company has a company officer who was responsible for everything dealing with the companies--typically, a Navy lieutenant or a Marine Corps captain. And so, myself and Tucker were going to church one Sunday. And on Monday my company officer called me in the office and said he got a phone call from one of his contemporaries who said he saw me and Tucker straggling in the streets of Annapolis, and what were we doing, doing that? And he told me, he says, "But I stuck up for you. I told them that was you marching Midshipman Tucker to church." (laughter). So, when you talk about the racial issues, okay--although they had--the Academy--and I told you earlier about the rules at the Academy. So, all I had to do was go and say, "I'm not a Southern Baptist. I want to go to my church." And they said okay.$I had one commanding officer who tried to protect me. And I need to lead to a certain story about--. Because what got me on this, you were talking about my first wife. So, this is my--the submarine that I was assigned to be the engineer to--there's a separate qualification to get your engineer's certification, and then the assignment is nuclear. Not every nuclear trained officer is allowed to be an engineer. And there's another academic thing you got to go through. So, I'm on my, my submarine is the [USS] Pintado that I'm on. And I get certified to be an engineer. So I'm getting transferred to the Drum, to be the engineer officer on the Drum, the USS Drum. And my commanding officer calls the detailer. The detailer is the person in Washington [District of Columbia] that determines where you go and when. They're called detailers. And he says, "I think we're setting Tzomes up to fail." And that's because he was very familiar with the commanding officer of the Drum, who came from a very segregated, racist, deep rooted southern background, both him and his wife, okay. And he says, "With Tzomes being the first, you do not want to send him there under that guy." The detailer didn't listen to my captain. He says, "Does Tzomes qualify for the job?" "Yes." "Do you recommend him for the job?" "Yes." "He's going to the Drum." Okay. So, I get to the Drum, and there's a story here. Because I told you that frequently on the submarine I was the first exposure to a lot of people, as far as being next to a black person, okay. So, I'm coming here with his bias towards blacks, and I'm going to be his engineer, which is a very important job. We leave port, I report to the ship overseas. We immediately go in what's referred to as a Spec Op. That's secret missions that we did in the Cold War that you can't talk about. And you don't communicate, you're not allowed to communicate, okay, at all unless there's a disaster and you have an accident, okay. Then you have to abort your mission. So, we're underway, and the person I relieved did a terrible job, and they failed an inspection. So, the captain's got this stigma over him. And this black guy now is supposed to be able to clean it up. Yeah, yeah, yeah. So, he has daily meetings with me. By the way this captain, besides the racist thing, he was so impersonal that the officers avoided him. In a wardroom, one of your favorite times of the day is to eat the meal together and socialize. In that wardroom, the captain and the oncoming, two oncoming watch officers, ate dinner together. No other officers ate dinner with them in the wardroom. So, besides this racial baggage, he's got other issues. So, he has me go to his state room every night, and we have about three hour meetings. And he gives me this list of things to do--typically thirty, forty, fifty things to do, okay. He would get up the next morning and summon me. And I'd get out of the state room about maybe ten o'clock. And then whoever worked for me that was on watch at the time, or who was going to come on watch at midnight--I would parcel out some of these things, okay. And, but I wouldn't give all the assignments out. So, he would summon me every morning about nine o'clock--eight or nine o'clock. We'd go over this list, and then he'd tear into me when I would not be able to tell him that half the list had been accomplished, okay. It went like that for two weeks. It went like that for two weeks and he told me, he says, "Engineer, I cannot deal with you." He says, "If I had the power, I would surface this submarine and take you back to port and fire you." Okay.$$This is your commanding--$$This is my commanding officer, okay. So, there's more to this.

Ann Smith

Civic leader Ann E. Smith was born in Jefferson City, Missouri in 1939 where she attended segregated schools. Her grandfather served with the United States Colored Troop regiment during the American Civil War and then graduated from Fisk University. Smith’s father, a principal, and her mother, a high school, pushed her to do well academically and athletically. During high school, she played softball and volleyball. Smith went on to receive her B.A. degree from Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri; her M.A. degree from the University of Iowa; and her Ph.D. degree from the Union Institute and Union University in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Smith began her dynamic career with sixteen years of service in academia. She taught high school in her native State of Missouri and then assumed teaching posts at Eastern Illinois University where she became the first African American appointed as a full-time professor. Smith went on to work at the University of Indiana and then Northeastern Illinois University. While there, she progressed through the ranks from instructor, assistant and associate professor to Assistant to the President and Vice President for Academic Affairs. In 1978, Smith transitioned from academia to business and joined Prudential Insurance Company. After earning several performance awards in her first year as an agent, she was promoted to sales manager. In 1981, she became director of marketing for Cook, Stratton & Company, an insurance brokerage firm. In 1986, she assumed a full time role as vice president of Endow, Inc., an insurance planning and consulting firm she had co-founded seven years earlier. Smith began serving a six-year term on the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois in 1985, thus becoming the first black woman to hold office in Illinois through a statewide election. After serving almost four years, she resigned in July of 1988 to be considered for the position of Associate Chancellor at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), and accepted the appointment in September of 1988. Later, Smith served as director of Community Relations at UIC at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and then became President of the Gamaliel Foundation until retiring in 2011.

Smith has served on the boards of a wide variety of local and national educational, community and cultural organizations, including as vice-president of Business and Professional People for the Public Interest and the West Central Association. She served on the boards of the Illinois Arts Alliance and Foundation, the National Advisory Council for the NAACP, the Duncan YMCA and the Marcy-Newberry Association. Smith was also appointed as chairman of the boards of the Chicago Access Corporation and the Southside Community Arts Center, and served on the boards of the Joel Hall Dancers, the Illinois Committee on Black Concerns in Higher Education and The American College.

Anne E. Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 21, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.232

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/21/2013 |and| 8/22/2013

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Schools

Lincoln University

University of Iowa

Union Institute & University

First Name

Ann

Birth City, State, Country

Poplar Bluff

HM ID

SMI29

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Puerto Vallarta, Mexico

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

8/17/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Civic leader and education executive Ann Smith (1939 - ) taught at Eastern Illinois University where she became the first African American appointed as a full professor. She was elected to the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois in 1985, thus becoming the first black woman to hold office in Illinois through a statewide election.

Employment

Gamaliel Foundation

University of Illinois, Chicago

Endow, Incorporated

Northeastern Illinois University

Eastern Illinois University

University of Indiana

Cook, Stratton, & Company

Prudential Insurance Company

Public Interest and the West Central

Favorite Color

Black

Yvette Moyo

Marketing and nonprofit executive Yvette Moyo was born on December 8, 1953 in Chicago, Illinois to Rudolph and Pauline Jackson. Moyo grew up in Chicago and attended South Shore High School. She graduated from Eastern Illinois University in 1974 with her B.A. degree in Afro-American Studies.

Upon graduation, Moyo was hired at the National Publication Sales Agency to work with the original Blackbook as a door-to-door saleswoman. She was promoted to account executive with the Blackbook and Dollars & Sense magazine, and eventually to the position of senior vice president of sales and marketing. Moyo remained at Dollars & Sense magazine handling branding, national events, and advertising until 1988 when she married Karega Kofi Moyo. They then co-founded the marketing firm, Resource Associates International, Ltd. (RAI) and launched Real Men Cook for Charity, an annual Father’s Day celebration in 1990. In 1992, Moyo launched the Marketing Opportunities in Business & Entertainment (MOBE) advanced marketing symposium series. In November of 2001, MOBE worked co-hosted a White House briefing on African American Business and Technology. Following the success of Real Men Cook for Charities in the 1990s, their Father’s Day events were held in thirteen cities and featured on network TV and in major national publications. These events generated over one $1 million for various nonprofits. Co-founder of the year-round nonprofit organization Real Men Charities, Inc. in 2003, Moyo served as Executive Director until 2013.

Moyo is the co-creator of two books: Real Men Cook: More Than 100 Easy Recipes Celebrating Tradition and Family, published by Kofi Moyo in 2005; and Real Women Cook: Building Healthy Communities with Recipes that Stir the Soul, co-authored with Sharon Morgan in 2012. In 2008, Real Men Cook was honored and showcased on the show “Emeril Live!” and featured on the Al Roker Show in a segment called “Do Good Food.” Moyo was personally honored in 1988 as one of the “100 Women to Watch” in Today’s Chicago Woman. She has also been the recipient of multiple awards, including the Public Relations Advertising and Marketing Excellence Award, the Woman in Entertainment Pioneer Award, the 50 Women of Excellence Award, Trailblazer/Women in the Fatherhood Movement Award presented by Congressman Danny Davis, YMCA’s Black Achievers Award, and the Black Women's Hall of Fame Kizzy Award.

Moyo is divorced and has one biological son and eight “adopted” children: Angela Saunders Hodge, Kweli, Ki-Afi, Kilolo Shalomeet, Yosheyah, Gavriel, Kush, and Kevani Zelpha (deceased) Moyo.

Yvette Moyo was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 22, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.245

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/19/2013

Last Name

Moyo

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Jackson

Occupation
Schools

Eastern Illinois University

South Shore International College Prep High School

Charles S. Deneen Elementary School

Bouchet Academy

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Yvette

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

MOY02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

That Which You Share Will Multiply. That Which You Withhold Shall Diminish.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/8/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Rice (Ginger Broccoli)

Short Description

Author Yvette Moyo (1953 - ) , founder of the annual Father’s Day celebration Real Men Cook, is featured in the book about the brand she built, Real Men Cook: More Than 100 Easy Recipes Celebrating Tradition and Family and co-author of Real Women Cook: Building Healthy Communities with Recipes that Stir the Soul.

Employment

Third World Press

United Black Fund

Model Cities Chicago

Blackbook & Dollars & Sense Quarterly Report

Dollars & Sense Magazine

Resource Associates International, Ltd

Real Men Charities, Inc.

Marketing Opportunities in Business & Entertainment

Black United Fund

Favorite Color

Orange, Turquoise

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Yvette Moyo's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Yvette Moyo lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Yvette Moyo talks about her mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Yvette Moyo describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Yvette Moyo describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Yvette Moyo describes her childhood home in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Yvette Moyo talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Yvette Moyo describes her parents' courtship and marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Yvette Moyo describes her relationships with her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Yvette Moyo describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Yvette Moyo talks about her childhood neighbors in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Yvette Moyo shares memories of her childhood in Park Manor, Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Yvette Moyo talks about her experiences at Deneen Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Yvette Moyo talks about Bryn Mawr Elementary School and the South Shore neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Yvette Moyo talks about moving to the South Shore in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Yvette Moyo talks about her experiences at Bryn Mawr Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Yvette Moyo talks about her experiences at South Shore High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Yvette Moyo describes her family's participation in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Yvette Moyo describes participating in the protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Yvette Moyo describes her extracurricular activites at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Yvette Moyo describes her undergraduate experience at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Yvette Moyo talks about her Afro-American Studies degree from Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Yvette Moyo describes her political and civic work in Chicago, Illinois during the late 1970s and 1980s

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Yvette Moyo describes her sales and editorial jobs in Chicago, Illinois during the late 1970s and 1980s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Yvette Moyo talks about her interest in Afro-American and African history

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Yvette Moyo describes her career at Dollars & Sense magazine

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Yvette Moyo talks about the development of Resource Associates International

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Yvette Moyo describes the origins of Real Men Cook in the 1990s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Yvette Moyo details the goals and achievements of Real Men Cook

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Yvette Moyo talks about her family

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Yvette Moyo talks about her children

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Yvette Moyo talks about the legacy and future of Real Men Cook

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Yvette Moyo describes the development of Marketing Opportunities in Business & Entertainment in the 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Yvette Moyo talks about Marketing Opportunities in Business & Entertainment and the growth of black communities on the Internet during the 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Yvette Moyo talks about the media interest in Real Men Cook

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Yvette Moyo talks about the inspiration for her self-published cookbook

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Yvette Moyo talks about becoming a vegetarian and her partnerships with community organizations in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Yvette Moyo describes the development of Real Men Cook brand grocery items

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Yvette Moyo reflects on her past successes and failures

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Yvette Moyo talks about her future

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Yvette Moyo describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Yvette Moyo reflects on her life and gives advice for future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Yvette Moyo talks about her identity as a HistoryMaker

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

7$4

DATitle
Yvette Moyo describes her family's participation in the Civil Rights Movement
Yvette Moyo details the goals and achievements of Real Men Cook
Transcript
Okay now just a little bit more about the Civil Rights Movement and your family's involvement and maybe even your brother [Steven Dwayne Jackson] and yourself's involvement. Where, do you remember where you were when [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther] King [Jr.] was killed? You were younger but do you remember that?$$I remember my brother telling me that King was killed and I was at home. And I remember when Kennedy was killed; I was on the schoolyard with friends. Someone said it and we were all torn up about it. With Dr. King my brother was mad about it and he was like this is what Malcolm [X] has been saying, "You don't get anything from being nonviolent." He had been--my brother's cycle was nonviolence first and he was leaning towards [Black] Panthers and I also went to the Panthers' office and did a little volunteer work following them. And then he, before he graduated from college--I mean high school he became the first black hippie that anybody had ever heard of or seen. We didn't even know that we should call him hippie until we saw it on TV but he was definitely pretty raggedy and had hair that wasn't exactly approvable by my father [Rudolph Jackson], which mine either. And but so Steve went through every cycle of the Civil Rights Movement and from nonviolence to violence to picking up arms if we have to to feeding the youth breakfast with the Panthers to being a stoned hippie and moving to Haight Ashbury [neighborhood, San Francisco, California] with a blonde by the time he left high school. So he was a good model of what was happening. He was a poster child for what was happening during those times.$$So what was your involvement or your feelings about it?$$My feelings--well I was very much--we went to [Operation] PUSH [People United to Save Humanity] meetings on a pretty regular basis. My grandmother [Izetta Clay] went every single--my grandmother and grandfather [Paul Clay] went every single Saturday to Operation PUSH meetings and to this day they still have them every single Saturday and I continue that tradition by going at least once a month and writing a check at least once a month to say, you know this is where I come from and this is what matters to people and this is how you make a difference and how you make a change. I was involved with school politics. I ran for treasurer of our class and lost to another girl named Yvette Brown [ph.] who I see all the time and I am always thinking and she is like "Actually I was the secretary," and I'm like "Well didn't I run against you." She couldn't remember but I remember I lost to another Yvette how could that be and there was not even that many Yvettes in our school. But I was active but I was also very social. I loved to dance and there were many places that we went at night and just had a good time and I watched my brother go from Brooks Brothers to a Gouster [style of dress] look to--which was a sign of the times. I watched him and understood what boys were about.$And so that--the second year we changed the name to Real Men Cook because we felt that that had more movement. We had, we heard that there was some movement like that in Los Angeles [California] called Real Men Cook but they hadn't incorporated the name and it wasn't--and we, we had our first event on Father's Day and that was what I was telling Lana that what I wanted to do was have something that combines--creates a new tradition and if we claim Father's Day now we can talk about the responsible African American fathers. Not fathers that have left their children or the media making it sound like any man that left his children wants to. We can talk about the heart of men and why they--maybe they might not be in the same household with their children which was our goal with our own children to show them that Father's Day is important. Being a father is important. It doesn't matter that our family is blended and looks different than other families but we are a family. We are cohesive and we'll all get together on Father's Day. So the kids, their moms, my son's [Rael Jackson] father would all be at Real Men Cook every year and that continued and we are now entering our twenty-fifth year of Real Men Cook. Next year 2014 will be the twenty-fifth year. But over the years we've been able to--with the proceeds of that event and the years--the early years was just wonderful because we could tell someone at a corporation this story and this vision that black men love their children as much as any other man. That black men don't leave their children because they want to. They leave their children because of social, economic conditions that would preclude them from staying in the home. Now we know forty years later that those conditions include mass incarceration of African American males with little infractions of the law. Little things like possession of a controlled substances and small amounts of them where other populations in the country get a pat on the back or get told to drive home and be careful. Our men, our fathers went to jail and that became the beginning of the breakdown of the family. So we knew twenty-five years ago there was something wrong and we knew it wasn't because men wanted to leave their families. We also knew that the social structure with public aid and we've been in a lot of economic depressions like we are experiencing now, really experiencing long run. But in those other times the social systems were set up so that women were better off if they didn't admit that they had a man in the household because they could get money to buy their groceries for their children. So and sometimes it would be like you have to leave, man and this is the story of 'Claudine' the movie, you have to leave the house because I have to take care of the children. And when the jobs were hard to get the man would say, well I'm not a man because who I am in the capitalistic system is so tied into what's in my wallet that I can't stay here and raise my head high without a job, and he would leave. Thinking that he would come back. That he would work things out. Something would change but nothing changed because the situation just got worse with this mass incarceration and with the economy and the inequality. Never getting where we thought it would be during [Reverend] Dr. [Martin Luther] King's, [Jr.] time. And there was a subversive movement to take away the African American male out of our family. Women could work but it created a situation where women were angry and left alone and their children were without a father. So Real Men Cook--the food is the hook, the food is the hook and the reason people come and the transformation that takes place when they get there is they remember that men care. They remember that if they didn't grow with a biological father that there was somebody on that block that reached out to them or maybe it was the coach, or maybe it was the minister and maybe if they didn't have that experience two generations down the road with this infraction this situation that's come up where we don't know why at this point, why black men aren't doing this around stepping up to the plate. They can get that feeling that they're cared for and that there are brothers in the communities that go invisible every single day of their lives and it is an opportunity for men to donate, to pass up Father's Day pampering to make a difference.