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Andrea L. Taylor

Corporate executive Andrea L. Taylor was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1947, and grew up in Cambridge at a time when her parents, Della Taylor-Hardman and Francis C. Taylor, Sr., attended Boston University’s graduate school. Taylor’s family moved to Charleston, West Virginia in 1956, and she enrolled in the fifth grade at the former Mercer Elementary School. After graduating from Charleston High School in 1964, she moved to Boston, Massachusetts. She went on to receive her B.A. degree in journalism from Boston University in 1968, and later pursued post-graduate studies in international politics at New York University.

Taylor began her career as a journalist working as a reporter, producer and on-air host for The Boston Globe and WGBH-TV in Boston. In 1988, Taylor founded the Ford Foundation Media Fund, where, as executive director, she oversaw the global distribution of $50 million in grants. Taylor then served as president of the Washington, D.C.-based Benton Foundation from 2001 to 2003, before serving concurrently as vice president and director of the Center for Media and Community at the Education Development Center in Newton, Massachusetts. Taylor then founded and served as managing partner at Davis Creek Capital, a media technology firm. From 2005 to 2006, Taylor served as an adjunct professor of journalism at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. While there, she developed and taught a new course, “New Media, Power, and Global Diversity,” which focused on the role of public policy in the age of digital media. In July of 2006, Taylor was named director of U.S. Community Affairs at Microsoft Corporation. While there, she has managed Microsoft’s Unlimited Potential program, the Puget Sound community engagement, and the company’s employee United States community program.

From 1989 to 2012, Taylor served as an associate of the Council of Foundations, where she was also appointed as a member of the board of directors. She was appointed as a trustee of Boston University, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Philanthropy Northwest and WNYC Public Radio. Taylor also served as a member of the board of directors for the Film Forum, Ms. Foundation for Women, and The Cleveland Foundation. In addition, Taylor served as a delegate to four global summits of the United Nations: Tunis, Africa in 2005; Geneva, Switzerland in 2003; Beijing, China in 1995; and Cairo, Egypt in 1994.

Taylor received the 2008 Distinguished Alumni Award from Boston University, and the 2013 Creative Spirit Award from the Black Alumni of Pratt Institute. She was also a finisher in the 2009 New York City Marathon.

Andrea L. Taylor was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 13, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.001

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/13/2014 |and| 1/16/2014

Last Name

Taylor

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Leigh

Occupation
Schools

Roberts School

Mercer School

Thomas Jefferson Junior High School

Charleston High School

Boston University

New York University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Andrea

Birth City, State, Country

Boston

HM ID

TAY14

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

Get started.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Birth Date

1/19/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Birmingham

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Peanut Butter

Short Description

Media executive Andrea L. Taylor (1947 - ) founded and directed the Ford Foundation’s Media Fund, as well as Davis Creek Capital, where she was a managing partner.

Employment

Microsoft

Harvard University

Education Development Center

Benton Foundation

A.H. Brown Enterprises

Ford Foundation

Bay State Banner Newspaper

Boston Globe

Cleveland Plain Dealer

Favorite Color

Black

Aileen Clarke Hernandez

Civil rights, union and women’s rights activist Aileen Clarke Hernandez was born Aileen Clarke on May 23, 1926, in Brooklyn, New York. Her Jamaican-born parents, theatrical seamstress Ethel Louise Hall Clarke and Garveyite brushmaker Charles Henry Clarke, named their daughter for Aileen Pringle, a film actress. Hernandez, who grew up in the ethnically-mixed Bay Ridge neighborhood of New York City, attended elementary school at P.S. 176 and graduated in 1943 as school newspaper editor, vice president, and salutatorian of Bay Ridge High School. At Howard University, she was taught by E. Franklin Frazier, Ralph Bunche, Sterling Brown, Alain Locke, Howard Thurman, Emmit Dorsey, Charles Hamilton Houston, James Nabrit, and Thurgood Marshall. Hernandez was a member of the Howard Players, edited The Hilltop, and was active in the NAACP with her friend Pauli Murray. Hernandez graduated magna cum laude from Howard University with her B.A. degree in political science in 1947.

Returning briefly for graduate studies at New York University, Hernandez moved to Los Angeles to take an internship with the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) and later went on to earn her M.S. degree in government from California State University at Los Angeles in 1961.

Hernandez worked for the IGLWU from 1951 to 1960; eventually she backed the efforts of the Federation of Union Representatives to obtain benefits from the IGLWU. In 1960, Hernandez resigned from the IGLWU to join the successful re-election campaign of California State Comptroller and future United States Senator Allan Cranston. In 1962, Hernandez was appointed by California Governor Pat Brown to be assistant chief of the California Division of Fair Employment Practices and began enforcing the state’s 1959 anti-discrimination law. In 1965, Hernandez was appointed a commissioner of the newly-formed United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) by President Lyndon B. Johnson. As the first female and second minority appointed to the EEOC Commission, Hernandez paid particular attention to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1966, Hernandez co-founded the activist group, National Organization for Women (NOW), with her friend and Episcopal priest, Pauli Murray, author Betty Friedan, and others. From 1970 to 1971, Hernandez served as the second national president of NOW, following Friedan. In 1971, Hernandez helped found the National Women’s Political Caucus, and in 1972 helped create NOW’s Minority Women’s Task Force. That same year, Hernandez formed Sapphire Publishing Company with nine other black women. Leaving NOW in 1979, Hernandez served on the board of the Ms. Foundation from 1976 to 1985. Hernandez toured China in 1978, and after touring South Africa in 1981, released the book, South Africa: Time Running Out.

Hernandez served as the president of Hernandez and Associates, which she founded in 1967; she has taught at San Francisco State University and the University of California at Berkeley. Hernandez was a Regents Scholar in Residence at the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1996. Hernandez has been honored by the National Urban Coalition, the Northern California American Civil Liberties Foundation, Howard University and many other organizations. In 2005, Hernandez was one of 1,000 women from 150 nations who were collectively nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize for their work in social justice and civil rights.

Hernandez passed away on February 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2007.134

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/12/2007 |and| 11/8/2013

Last Name

Hernandez

Maker Category
Middle Name

Clark

Schools

New York University

P.S. 176 The Ovington School

Bay Ridge High School

Howard University

First Name

Aileen

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

HER03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Ah, But A Person's Reach Should Exceed Its Grasp, But What Is Heaven For?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

5/23/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

2/13/2017

Short Description

Labor activist and foundation executive Aileen Clarke Hernandez (1926 - 2017 ) was the co-founder of the National Organization for Women; the National Women’s Political Caucus; the Sapphire Publishing Company; and Hernandez and Associates.

Employment

Ladies Garment Workers Union

Alan Cranston State Comptroller Campaign

California Division of Fair Employment Practices

United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Hernandez & Associates

San Francisco State University

University of California, Berkeley

University of California, San Francisco

Favorite Color

Red

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Aileen Clarke Hernandez's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about discrimination in Jamaica

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her mother's education and occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her father's occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the Jamaican community in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her extended family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls St. Philip's Episcopal Church in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her early experiences of discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her grade school education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls Bay Ridge High School, Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the entertainment of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers her activities at Bay Ridge High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her decision to attend Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers segregation in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her father's political involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her professors at Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the activists at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers Pauli Murray

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers organizing protests in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about racial discrimination in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her activities at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers the end of World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers her influences at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers graduating from Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls becoming a union organizer

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the conditions in the garment factories

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers training with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her parents' response to her career

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls organizing a strike for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the history of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about her marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the California Fair Employment Practices Act of 1959

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls leaving the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her role at the Fair Employment Practices Commission

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers working for politician Alan M. Cranston

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her support for President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her support for President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers joining the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the reaction to her appointment to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers Lady Bird Johnson

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the start of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about gender discrimination

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers Pauli Murray's role in the women's movement

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the history of the women's movement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the stereotypes of the women's movement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the founding of the National Organization for Women, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the founding of the National Organization for Women, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls resigning from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers Evenson v. Northwest Airlines, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls becoming an urban consultant

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her decision to step down as president of the National Organization for Women

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the divisions within the women's movement

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers the challenges to the Equal Rights Amendment

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the divide over abortion in the National Organization for Women

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the debate over labor equality in the National Organization for Women

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about equality in the U.S. military

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon the political changes since 1970

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her work as an urban consultant

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls speaking at a conference in Germany

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers her international labor rights work

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez remembers the California Women's Agenda

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the California Civil Rights Coalition

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Aileen Clarke Hernandez's interview, session 2, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about the women's rights movement

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about her career

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her testimony to the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the formation of National Organization for Women

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes the failings of the National Organization for Women

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls her decision to leave the National Organization for Women

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon the National Organization for Women

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls discrimination within the National Organization for Women

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her role as an advocate for human rights

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about President Barack Obama, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about President Barack Obama, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon the election of President Barack Obama

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez talks about Hillary Rodham Clinton's presidential candidacy

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her career, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her career, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her life

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez reflects upon her family

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Aileen Clarke Hernandez narrates her photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls becoming a union organizer
Aileen Clarke Hernandez recalls the founding of the National Organization for Women, pt. 1
Transcript
So what did you do after you recovered from tuberculosis?$$I went back to New York [New York] and de, decided to go ahead and get my master's [degree] at NYU [New York University, New York, New York] and was about two courses away from getting my master's (laughter) at NYU when I was sitting in the library doing a term paper. And there was a magazine on the table and I decided I needed a rest from doing my term paper so I started reading the magazine. And I opened up a page and on the page it said not the exact words but this was the tenor of it said, "Are you an oddball? Would you like a career that doesn't pay very much money but gives you lots of psychic rewards?" And there was a telephone number at the bottom of it, so I called the telephone number, and the telephone number turned out to be the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union [ILGWU]. And they were just establishing what they called their training institute, David Dubinsky, who headed that union had come to the conclusion that they needed to get more leadership from outside. Primarily from the universities and colleges because the, the employers were hiring people who were technologists in those days, to do time and motion studies on how you could do more work for less money in the garment industry, so he figured he had to get some people who could at least compete in some ways with those guys. So, he decided to set up a training institute and he put out this information all over the place about a year's training that ILGWU would give you. And at the end of the training, you would have an opportunity to decide where in the ILGWU family you would like to go work. So I, I applied, I got a chance to, to get in for a couple of reasons. One was because my mother [Ethel Hall Clarke] had been a member of the union during the Second World War [World War II, WWII] and secondly, I had been very active in the Americans for Democratic Action. And at, at that, in the Americans for Democratic Action, one of the people who I'm, I met during that period was a guy by the name of Gus Tyler. Who was a, a pretty much up in the higher echelons of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. And so when I needed to get a reference, he helped on giving me the reference too, so I got accepted, and I was one of four women among, out of thirty-two people selected for the program.$$So even, even for working for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Working for the union--$$Mostly men were--$$Working for--$$--were-$$A union that had like 85 percent of it's members were women, they all of the of, all of the officers except for one on the executive board were men. All of them were also white in those days; they were mostly Italian and Jewish, because the industry was immigrant industry. And though, and so a lot of those people had just recently come to the United States and had found a way to get work in that area. Dubinsky was a genius in a lot of ways and a person who had a lot of ideas about what you could do to make life better for people who were in jobs that were pretty well limited jobs. You, you could work in the garment industry, in the sportswear industries, without any kind of, of skills, 'cause you did piecework, you did section work. You didn't do a whole garment; you just sewed one seam all day long on a dress, and then it passed on to somebody else. Who added the cuff and it passed on to somebody else who did the hem and all the rest of it. And so what he did was he started out by having a resort for the union members, we could go on a two-week vacation at the union's resort, which was called Unity House up in the Pocono Mountains [Pennsylvania]. They started the first of the, the medical benefits for workers; tuberculosis was pretty rampant in the industries. So that they had set-up a lot of programs, they were very big with the City of Hope [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California] in those days. Which focused a lot on new techniques for tuberculosis, which of course interested me at that point in time, too.$--Tell us about the development of NOW [National Organization for Women], 'cause this, this kind of that, you know this, this NOW is about Pauli Murray kind of sets the stage for that.$$Yeah Pauli was very signif- significant figure in it, not just in terms of what she said in the newspaper. But she was doing some work with the [U.S.] Department of Labor and a lot of the help that was given to the formation of NOW came from the department, of the Women's Bureau. Where, where Pauli had been working on these issues and so Pauli had good vibes in that, in that community. She worked with a lot of those women, she had done a lot of the research work on the, on the commission's [Presidential Commission on the Status of Women] report. So Pauli was very active in the entire discussion about what she had already said to The Times [The New York Times], how do you organize women to be more forceful about pushing for this law? 'Cause if there's nobody out there pushing, nobody's gonna do anything in terms of them enforcing the law, that was pretty clear. Especially with these big, big issues of how many, how many cases have been filed with us, and how much backlog we had. They were gonna do whatever was there first, there was no question about it, so what, part of it was to get more women to file complaints. Where there was a problem and Pauli did a lot of that, and secondly was to make sure that whatever was put together was not gonna be in competition. That we're not competing with each other, the women, women's rights versus minority rights, that these were two interlocked communities. And they needed to work together on these issues, and Pauli in what she said in the statement of purpose made that very clear. But because of the way in which NOW got formed, because it actually got formed at a meeting of the Commissions on the Status of Women. And it was just after we had gotten Title VII [Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII] passed, I spoke at the first meeting of the, with the Commission on the Status of Women about the change in the law. And by the time we got to the second meeting, I was saying the same thing that Pauli was saying you know. That you need to have somebody out there speaking on this, I worked with a lot of the women in the Women's Bureau. The issues around sex discrimination 'cause they were the place to go for information. And Pauli had put her two cents in there and things were moving along very well, and women got together. And they decided at one of the Commissions of the Status of, of Women that they were gonna come back and they were going to ask the Commission on the Status of Women to take action on a particular issue. The issue that they were gonna take action on was the fact that the way the, the Title VII was written, commissioners served a five-year term was the maximum term that you had. And then you had to be reappointed if you were gonna be appointed. But because we were the first commission, they had staggered the terms, so that you wouldn't lose all of the commissioners at one point in time. So I had the shortest term, the first term, I had a one-year term, but because they hadn't done anything for one year, I actually wound up with the largest term. Because I then was reappointed for a five-year term, and then somebody had a four-year term and somebody had a three and two and a one. And the person who had the one-year term at that point was Richard Graham [Richard A. Graham] who was the businessman from Wisconsin. The Republican businessman from Wisconsin who had taken on the responsibility for the sex discrimination part of the law. We had, we had no staff, so we had to divide up who would do what, they wanted to give me sex discrimination and I said, "No. I think we need to get somebody else to get the information on this." Besides I have to deal with the relationship between the state commissions on, on equal employment opportunity and our federal commission. 'Cause the law also said that if there is a state that has a commission that relates to, to equal opportunity and employment or housing, that state has the right to take the complaints. And the EEOC [Equal Employment Opportunity Commission] should work out some arrangement with them where they get paid for doing those kinds of things. So I was supposed to work out that agreement, it was kind of interesting 'cause I had never been one of them before. I had known all of these people for all these times, (laughter) I went to the first meeting as a member of the commission. And they were up there saying, "Well you guys do this," (laughter), and I said, you, "I'm one of you, don't you remember me (laughter)?"