The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Curtis Symonds

Corporate executive Curtis Symonds was born on August 12, 1955 in Bermuda to Barbara and Norman Symonds. His family moved to Wilberforce, Ohio when he was two years old. Symonds attended the local Xenia High School, graduating in 1973, and he went on to receive his B.S. degree from Central State University in 1978.

Upon graduation from college, Symonds began working for Continental Cablevision in Ohio in 1979 as system manager. In 1983, he moved to Chicago, Illinois to work for ESPN as a local advertising sales consultant. He was later promoted to Director of Affiliate Marketing for the Midwest region. Symonds remained at ESPN for five years before joining Black Entertainment Television (BET) in 1988 as Executive Vice President of Affiliate Sales and Affiliate Marketing. In 1992, Symonds became President and Chief Operating Officer of BET Action Pay-Per-View and BET International. Symonds served as Executive Vice President of BET on Jazz in 1996 and remained in that position until his retirement in 2001. During his tenure, he helped BET build its subscriber base from 18.8 million to 65 million homes.

In 2005, Sheila C. Johnson, President of the Washington Mystics, a professional women’s basketball team in the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA), appointed Symonds Chief Operating Officer of the Washington Mystics. He is responsible for the organization’s day-to-day operations. In 2006, Symonds opened a privately funded indoor basketball facility called Hoop Magic in Chantilly, Virginia.

Symonds has also served as the President of the T. Howard Foundation, a non-profit organization devoted to promoting women and people of color in entertainment and multimedia platforms. He is a recipient of the 1998 National Cable Television Association (NCTA) Vanguard Award for marketing excellence, the highest award for marketing in the cable industry.

Symonds resides in McLean, Virginia with his wife, Pat, and their three children.

Symonds was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 23, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.154

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/23/2007

Last Name

Symonds

Maker Category
Schools

Saint Joseph College

Xenia High School

Cook Elementary School

Central State University

Warner Middle School

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Curtis

Birth City, State, Country

Bermuda

HM ID

SYM01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

All Seasons

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Any

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

Doing The Right Thing.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/12/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Bermuda

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Broadcast executive and sports executive Curtis Symonds (1955 - ) worked for ESPN and then BET in marketing and sales, eventually becoming Executive Vice President of BET on Jazz. He helped BET build its subscriber base from 18.8 million to 65 million homes. He was also COO of the Washington Mystics WNBA team.

Employment

Paxton's Sporting Goods

Time Warner Cable

Continental Cablevision, Inc.

Satellite News Channel

Entertainment and Sports Programming Networks

Black Entertainment Television

Symonds Synergy Group

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:5561,32:20042,237:26122,348:28326,425:32734,510:37142,640:37598,647:45935,741:47170,884:47430,889:55580,989:63536,1107:65006,1131:75310,1215:82585,1258:83260,1268:83860,1280:85285,1303:109115,1845:109715,1880:121700,2026$0,0:4068,68:4746,75:7458,241:20236,309:31167,464:35523,549:39770,575:41110,616:50918,741:64470,1085:64822,1090:69310,1192:70630,1271:79891,1317:93950,1507:96400,1560:107783,1692:125444,1840:125712,1986:125980,1991:126985,2014:127387,2021:137847,2246:138669,2253:141135,2271:147460,2382:147860,2388:154820,2548:167235,2707:172951,2793:183026,2965:183370,2970:186810,3012:193742,3073:196472,3108:203934,3252:207483,3317:208029,3354:218924,3464:219476,3472:220028,3479:225088,3551:229030,3569:231067,3594:232276,3609:235723,3636:237062,3656:245817,3825:246435,3832:253686,3910:254442,3920:257298,3964:261162,4040:263262,4069:263934,4078:264438,4085:281365,4288:282055,4299:284750,4320
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Curtis Symonds's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Curtis Symonds lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Curtis Symonds recalls visiting his maternal grandmother in Bermuda

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Curtis Symonds describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Curtis Symonds describes his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Curtis Symonds describes his father's background and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Curtis Symonds lists his adopted sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Curtis Symonds describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Curtis Symonds describes his neighborhood in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Curtis Symonds describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Curtis Symonds remembers Lucinda Cook Elementary School in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Curtis Symonds remembers his influences at Lucinda Cook Elementary School in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Curtis Symonds describes the African American community in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Curtis Symonds remembers his teachers at Lucinda Cook Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Curtis Symonds describes his early interest in football and basketball

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Curtis Symonds describes his experiences at Warner Junior High School in Xenia, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Curtis Symonds describes his decision to attend Saint Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Curtis Symonds recalls his experiences at Saint Joseph's College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Curtis Symonds talks about his experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Curtis Symonds talks about college athletic recruitment

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Curtis Symonds describes his decision to transfer to Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Curtis Symonds recalls his experiences at Central State University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Curtis Symonds talks about the compensation of college athletes

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Curtis Symonds recalls his decision to pursue a career in the cable television industry

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Curtis Symonds describes his role at Continental Cablevision, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Curtis Symonds recalls Ted Turner's acquisition of the Satellite News Channel

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Curtis Symonds describes his positions at ESPN and BET

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Curtis Symonds describes the growth of Black Entertainment Television

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Curtis Symonds remembers Black Entertainment Television's initial public offering

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Curtis Symonds describes the creation of BET2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Curtis Symonds talks about BET's audience demographics

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Curtis Symonds reflects upon his career at Black Entertainment Television

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Curtis Symonds talks about Black Entertainment Television's expanded networks

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Curtis Symonds talks about his wife and children

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Curtis Symonds describes his role at the BET on Jazz television network

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Curtis Symonds describes his activities during retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Curtis Symonds describes his presidency of the T. Howard Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Curtis Symonds describes how he came to be COO of the Washington Mystics

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Curtis Symonds reflects upon the perceptions of women's basketball

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Curtis Symonds reflects upon the racist remarks of Jimmy Snyder and Don Imus

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Curtis Symonds describes his plans for the Washington Mystics

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Curtis Symonds reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Curtis Symonds shares his advice to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Curtis Symonds reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Curtis Symonds describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Curtis Symonds recalls Ted Turner's acquisition of the Satellite News Channel
Curtis Symonds describes how he came to be COO of the Washington Mystics
Transcript
And then, then it was satellite cablevision, I mean satellite television rather, I'm sorry. That's when Ted Turner came in about three months later and bought the network out. And that was a rude awakening, you know, because that was my first real glimpse of Corporate America because we begi- it was funny, the Satellite News Channel was owned by Westinghouse [Westinghouse Broadcasting Company] and ABC, so you would think these two big dogs would not let this happen, you know, and they kept telling us how they weren't going to let it happen, that everything was under control, but we were hearing rumbles in the street, and I remember coming into a cable operator's office in Iowa, just like you walk in the door right here. He had his back to me, his feet up, he was reading Wall Street [The Wall Street Journal], and he said, "Curtis [HistoryMaker Curtis Symonds], did you see Wall Street today?" I'm like, "No, why?" He said, "I think you better read this." So he turns around, he hands it to me. It just says in the caption, "Satellite News Channel just been bought by Ted Turner." So I called our office and everybody is like, in no mood to talk, but it's done. I'm like wow. So that was the beginning of that. And then--$$With that, talking about different systems and different parts of the country now, Ted Turner is in Atlanta [Georgia] (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) He's in Atlanta.$$--and there's no cable in Atlanta yet.$$Right.$$I think it comes in '82 [1982]. In 1982 was when cable--Atlanta first got cable.$$Yeah, yeah, it started coming, it was on the outsides of Atlanta, it wasn't so much in the city.$$It wasn't in metro Atlanta at all.$$It was on the outside of Atlanta at the time.$$Okay.$$You know, 'cause the big cities didn't start getting wired until the mid-'80s [1980s].$$Okay.$$You know, that's, that's when that happened, you know. But I was able to luckily spin off from Satellite News Channel and get on with ESPN.$$Okay.$$And that's really where my game became to really start rolling.$So what happens next?$$Well, I was, I always stayed in contact with Sheila Johnson [HistoryMaker Sheila C. Johnson], Bob Johnson's [Robert L. Johnson] ex-wife now, and we, me and my wife [Pat Symonds] always ate dinner, was eating, we had a like a little once a month type deal with her, with her and her, at that time, fiance, which is now her husband, Judge Newman [William T. Newman], and at one of the dinners she pulled me to the side and tells me about this idea of looking at a WNBA [Women's National Basketball Association] franchise, and I just told her that if you decide to do it, with all the basketball that I love, I'd like to be a part of it. So this went on for about six or seven months, maybe a short period, maybe four or five months, she was having her people do due diligence and all the other stuff and she called me one day, I happened to be in Ohio, and said, "Look, you might want to come in town, you'd better be here the next day. They're getting ready to make the announcement that I'm getting ready to take over the Washington Mystics," and so I flew back that night and sure enough, the next morning I went to the press conference and she announced that she was taking over the Washington Mystics. And I thought it was outstanding, you know that this market's a great market for women's basketball, and I thought it was, makes a lot of sense. So then we kept conversation and she kept telling me, "I'm going to have you do something with me, blah, blah, blah," and never in my life did I think she would call me back and say, you know, she did one day, and say I'd like you to run this, and I thought running meaning, I'm a marketing guy, so I figured that she, that I would be just running her marketing area. She said, "No, I'm talking about all, I want you to be the new COO of the Washington Mystics." And that was exciting because for me and my last hurrah, you know, I'm thinking the, right now, of the entrepreneurship. It was very exciting to have this opportunity and now, I always wanted to get in the NBA [National Basketball Association], but this just gives me the opportunity, great opportunity to take a step forward by getting into the WNBA. And it's been a great ride so far, you know. We're in our second season going into season, I actually came in the midseason. I've been with 'em, almost like two and one half year now. I came my first season, I was in midseason and we were on a playoff run that year and we ended missing out by one game. Last year, we had the best record in the history of the franchise. We were 18 and 16 and we made the playoffs and got bumped out in the first round. And this year we have aspirations for bigger and better. We think that we got a good nucleus. I definitely believe we have a great team and the goal in three years is to win a national world championship here, bring one back. So I think we're gonna, we're gonna be close on the ride, you know, and, you know, it's just fun, it's just fun. It's really fun. And it's, it's also a pleasure to work for a boss who's so committed to the operation. I mean she is very, she goes out, you know, she puts her neck on the line to help us get sponsorship. She's in the arena almost at every game, cheering and hugging her girls and supporting her girls in every way possible. She's very public about, you know, her feelings about women's sports and why it needs more attention, you know, and the need to get more men into the gym. So she's a strong advocate for women's sports and I think she's a great, great, you know, ambassador of the sport. And so to have an opportunity to work for someone with that drive, you know, is nonstop. It's contagious, you know, to be, to say the least, you know, so I, it really is, it's been enjoyable, it's been an enjoyable round, I'm looking forward to our season coming up and just seeing how good we do. And, you know, I also, built a gym, gymnasium complex in Chantilly, Virginia, called Hoop Magic, and that's my last piece of my dream that I'm trying to do in giving back because it's sixty-five thousand square feet, it's seven basketball courts in one building, and that's something that me and my wife wanted to do. And so to have an opportunity to run the Mystics and also to own my own gym and be able to give back, it's just a nice marriage.

Glenn Harris

Sports talk show host Robert “Glenn” Harris was born on April 24, 1947 in Queens, New York. The son of electrical worker Pleasant Samuel Harris and June Pucket Harris, he grew up in Southeast Washington, D.C. with his brother, Ron. Harris loved sports and in 1958 won the Washington, D.C. City Little League Championship. He attended Birney Elementary School, Turner Elementary School, Garfield Elementary School and Douglass Junior High School. At Anacostia High School, Harris and his friend, Reggie Rucker, were mentored by Dave Brown. Graduating in 1965, Harris played baseball with the Washington Black Sox and briefly attended Miami’s Dade County Junior College. From 1970 to 1974, Harris attended Howard University on a baseball scholarship and graduated with his B.S. degree in physical education and urban education. Under the guidance of Chuck Hinton, Howard won the MEAC Baseball Championship twice during Harris’ playing years.

In the mid-1970s when Harris was public address announcer for Howard University’s athletic teams, he was discovered by black radio entrepreneur, Dewey Hughes. Harris began hosting the popular Let’s Talk Sports on Howard’s WHUR-FM in 1979 and went on to become Sports Director for the station. Harris has hosted Community News and Sports on Channel 4 and provided sports commentary for FOX WTTG-TV. Anchoring the only live nightly sports call-in show in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan area, NEWSCHANNEL 8’s Sports Talk, Harris earned back-to-back awards for “Best Year-Round Sports Coverage” from Virginia’s Associated Press. His feature “Anacostia at the Crossroads” garnered an award from the National Association of Black Journalists in 1995.

A streetwise, knowledgeable and well-liked authority on local and national sports, Harris participated in Howard University’s 1993 Forum on Black Athletics. In 1995, Harris received the “Glenn Brenner Award” for outstanding contributions to young people in the community at the Regional Emmy Awards. Inducted into Howard University’s Athletics Hall of Fame in 1995, Harris has also received the Outstanding Washingtonian Award. Washington Mayor Anthony Williams proclaimed June 6, 2003 as Glenn Harris Day.

Harris was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 6, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.047

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/6/2007

Last Name

Harris

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

James A. Garfield Elementary School

James G. Birney Elementary School

Turner Elementary School

Douglass Junior High School

Anacostia High School

Miami Dade College

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Days

First Name

Glenn

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

HAR23

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

All

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $500 - $1,000

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium Specifics: $500-1500
Preferred Audience: All

Sponsor

Dr. Walter Hill, Jr

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Estes Park, Colorado

Favorite Quote

I Like What I Like.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/24/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Television sports host Glenn Harris (1947 - ) hosted numerous sports talk shows, including Let’s Talk Sports on Howard University’s WHUR-FM and Community News and Sports on Channel 4 in Washington, D.C. He also provided sports commentary for FOX WTTG-TV, later anchoring NEWSCHANNEL 8’s Sports Talk.

Employment

WHUR Radio

‘Let’s Talk Sports’

WRC-TV

WOL Radio

WJLA-TV/‘Sports Talk’

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue, Green, Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:1056,25:11436,181:11892,190:12196,195:13944,228:14932,241:23672,504:29883,586:30259,595:31105,619:31481,629:35370,664:37730,740:38264,766:39332,800:53722,1035:63518,1253:67578,1272:70715,1329:89745,1718:103490,1906:114618,2054:115176,2061:116664,2106:125010,2233:125610,2244:126270,2259:126750,2269:128790,2341:133336,2392:142257,2550:145955,2591:146635,2602:147230,2609:152075,2708:152500,2714:155135,2762:164059,2903:168865,2999:172845,3052:174270,3069:176595,3114:179220,3190:191909,3405:198746,3534:199050,3540:199430,3546:220971,3840:222750,3887$0,0:20013,200:22310,232:22730,238:25060,301:25720,324:36750,626:51627,897:52179,906:63780,1079:64792,1097:71230,1188:77868,1286:78080,1291:78769,1306:104780,1670:108510,1741
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Glenn Harris' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Glenn Harris lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Glenn Harris describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Glenn Harris recalls his early understanding of race

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Glenn Harris describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Glenn Harris describes his parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Glenn Harris talks about his father's profession

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Glenn Harris describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Glenn Harris lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Glenn Harris describes his impoverished childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Glenn Harris talks about his parents' move to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Glenn Harris describes his mother's career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Glenn Harris recalls his mother's disciplinary methods

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Glenn Harris describes his early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Glenn Harris remembers his chores

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Glenn Harris talks about his personality

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Glenn Harris remembers Robert Hinton

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Glenn Harris talks about his favorite baseball players

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Glenn Harris describes the music of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Glenn Harris talks about his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Glenn Harris describes the racial demographics of his neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Glenn Harris recalls his academic difficulties

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Glenn Harris talks about his early personality

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Glenn Harris remembers the famous basketball players of his generation

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Glenn Harris remembers Reggie Rucker

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Glenn Harris describes his academic experiences at Anacostia High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Glenn Harris recalls his athletic experiences at Anacostia High School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Glenn Harris recalls lesson from his athletic experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Glenn Harris recalls his aspiration to play professional baseball

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Glenn Harris recalls attracting the interest of professional baseball scouts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Glenn Harris remembers moving to Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Glenn Harris describes his roommates in Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Glenn Harris recalls his experiences of discrimination on the baseball team at Miami-Dade Junior College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Glenn Harris talks about his baseball coaches at Miami-Dade Junior College

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Glenn Harris remembers Mickey Rivers

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Glenn Harris recalls leaving Miami-Dade Junior College

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Glenn Harris remembers his decision to attend Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Glenn Harris describes the history of Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Glenn Harris talks about the Division One baseball teams in 1970

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Glenn Harris talks about the importance of choosing the right major

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Glenn Harris remembers his professors at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Glenn Harris recalls a lesson from his mother, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Glenn Harris recalls a lesson from his mother, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Glenn Harris remembers the comedians of his childhood

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Glenn Harris recalls the speakers at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Glenn Harris describes his baseball teammates at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Glenn Harris remembers Coach Chuck Hinton

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Glenn Harris talks about meeting Negro League baseball players

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Glenn Harris recalls the start of his broadcasting career

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Glenn Harris describes his early radio shows

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Glenn Harris talks about the mentorship of Dewey Hughes

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Glenn Harris recalls his celebrity acquaintances in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Glenn Harris remembers the legacy of Petey Greene and Dewey Hughes

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Glenn Harris recalls lessons from Dewey Hughes

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Glenn Harris remembers Rock Newman

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Glenn Harris describes his family

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Glenn Harris talks about his abstinence from alcohol

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Glenn Harris describes his philosophy about talent

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Glenn Harris remembers his favorite interviews

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Glenn Harris talks about Michael Jordan's career in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Glenn Harris remembers the deaths of Len Bias and his brother, Jay Bias

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Glenn Harris describes football player Doug Williams

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Glenn Harris talks about the Washington Redskins' discriminatory hiring practices

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Glenn Harris talks about the integration of the Washington Redskins football team

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Glenn Harris remembers the early African American quarterbacks

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Glenn Harris remembers sportscasters Gus Johnson and James Brown

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Glenn Harris talks about the popular sports talk shows

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Glenn Harris describes the guest appearances on his talk show

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Glenn Harris shares his opinion on the Howard Cosell controversy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Glenn Harris talks about Prince's halftime performance at Super Bowl XLI

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Glenn Harris describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Glenn Harris describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Glenn Harris reflects upon his life, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Glenn Harris reflects upon his life, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Glenn Harris reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Glenn Harris talks about his position in the community of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Glenn Harris remembers African American football coaches

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Glenn Harris talks about writing an autobiography

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Glenn Harris describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Glenn Harris reflects upon his personal relationships

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$6

DAStory

8$6

DATitle
Glenn Harris describes his parents' personalities
Glenn Harris remembers his favorite interviews
Transcript
And, you know, I kind of realize, I don't have any recollection of the stress she must have gone through in her life. Marrying my father [Pleasant Harris] in 1945 (laughter), good lord, in this country?$$Well, were most of the people, your neighbors aware that she was white? Or, did they--?$$I think so, yeah. A matter fact as I talk to 'em now, they already knew it, you know. But, I didn't know. I know one thing, she was from New York [New York]; she had a whole lot of heart. She had a lot of courage. My mother [June Puckett Harris] used to--that's why I've become such an eclectic person when it comes to music and books and all that. I can go from Tchaikovsky [Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky], Rachmaninoff [Sergei Rachmaninoff], Brahms [Johannes Brahms], Beethoven [Ludwig van Beethoven], Bach [Johann Sebastian Bach], to this popular D.C. [Washington, D.C.] music called go-go. I can do it all, man. I, I'm proud of myself 'cause I never pigeonhole myself. My mother never pigeonhole herself. My mother was a tough New York chick, man. She married my father. There's two things you couldn't talk about; her husband or her children (laughter). She was just as black as my daddy was in her mind. But, she was cool, man. And, when she died, she suffered like a dog, man. She had scarlet fever when she was kid which scratched one of her eyeballs. She had ear surgery where they took the mastoid bone out of her ear, so she couldn't hear in her left ear. She had so many childhood things, you know, and TB [tuberculosis]. And, that's probably why I never got sick. I got immune to everything she had. The doctor told me that one time. And, plus I always was pretty, you know, pretty strong and everything. She--he said, "Probably because you don't get sick is because you got, you're immune to everything your mother had." I don't know if that's true or not, but, you know. But, anyway, he, they had a marriage for thirty-seven years. I'm sure Pop tipped out a little bit. I'm sure he did. My mother was pretty straight. I always said, "She only had sex five times, that was five kids that we had," (laughter). But, Ma didn't like daddy to drink; and, he drank. And, I guess, he drank because he was frustrated about a lot of things in life, you know, just like a lot of brothers that were drinking in those days. And, man, you could probably relate to your father, being a cool dude, man, he's okay. But, you know how this country was, man, it was apartheid. They wouldn't let him do nothing. So, only in the so called black area where you could go and enjoy your life. Mainstream was what everybody wanted to be in, you know. I think sometimes that set us back about three hundred centuries. But, (laughter) at least we could read (laughter), you know what I'm saying, our young people. So, Ma taught us how to read and count money by playing Monopoly and the games and we played, Sorry and Clue, and Monopoly; all those things, man. Didn't have a lot of money. Christmases were always big, you know, we're always wondering when Santa Claus was gonna come and Ma would always say, "He won't come until you go to sleep," you know. So, I figured that one out when I was twelve years old.$$(Laughter).$$I was twelve. I say, "Good gosh, it took me long time, didn't it?" But, in those days, you know, Santa Claus was big, you know. So, and everything was real idealistic, you know. You hear people talking about the good ol' days, the '50s [1950s], yeah, please (laughter). The good ol' days, black folk couldn't do nothing. It was unbelievable, you know. Good ol' days for whom? So, those were--that's the, that's the era I grew up in, you know. And, I understand that, and as I got better and started reading and understanding more stuff, or over-standing, I really felt like, okay, the field is balanced now, I know what's happening.$Let me ask you this, in all these years that you've been a sports broadcaster, what have been the most, I guess, the most memorable events in sports that you, you know, that's--?$$Magic Johnson was a good interview.$$Okay.$$When he first came in the league [National Basketball Association], I talked with him and he talked about his parents [Christine Johnson and Earvin Johnson, Sr.]. That was good for me. I like that. Did Michael Jordan one day and Michael Jordan was sitting there with no clothes on. Man, he sitting there hanging out, man. He just sitting there. Everybody had the microphone in the face, I guess, they had to make the deadlines or whatever. But, I waited and I got a good interview from Michael because I waited. I said, "Hey man, how you doing? I'm [HistoryMaker] Glenn Harris from WHUR sports [WHUR Radio, Washington, D.C.]." He said, "Man," and Mike will never remember this, "thanks for waiting, man. I appreciate it." Now, I know Michael's lawyer, David Falk, and Bill Strickland [William Strickland] was the other guy. They were two big boys. David Falk still big, billionaire. And, Michael Jordan, and of course, he represented Adrian Dantley also. So, I knew David Falk. Falk got a lot of enemies; I'm not one of 'em. But he does. And, Bill Strickland was another one who was a big time lawyer and a big time agent. And, every now and then, it'll be me, Strickland, Falk, and Michael Jordan. Michael Jordan don't remember me. But, I remember him (laughter). And, Michael Jordan is an Omega Psi Phi [Omega Psi Phi Fraternity], in the fraternity and I'm Kappa Alpha Psi [Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity]. So, you know, we always throw that around a little bit. But, he doesn't really know me.

Reed Kimbrough

Reed D. Kimbrough is the Director of Diversity Programs and Community Relations for Cox Communications’ Atlanta Journal-Constitution (AJC). Kimbrough manages employee development and training at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution. He is the eldest of three children of retired United States army officer William Reed and Ernestine Willis Kimbrough. Born in Selma, Alabama, on February 27, 1951, Kimbrough spent his formative years between West Germany and the southern United States.

Upon his return to the United States, Kimbrough graduated from high school in Fort Knox, Kentucky and entered Eastern Kentucky University where he graduated with a degree in business administration. In his second year at Eastern, he was instrumental in starting the first chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. He served in the United States Army and rose to the rank of captain with his primary duties in the 101st Airborne Division as a helicopter pilot. He is a retired Major of the U.S. Army Reserves.

Kimbrough joined the Atlanta Journal-Constitution in the news circulation department. He was promoted to the production department where he managed building services, shipping, receiving, packaging, distribution and management-level employee development. He currently holds the position as Director of Diversity Programs and Community Relations.

Kimbrough is active in various organizations including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peopled (NAACP), the National Association of Minority Media Executives (NAMME), the Celebrate Life Foundation, Hands on Atlanta, Habitat for Humanity, and the Georgia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. He serves on the board of Men Stopping Violence and is a long term member of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc.

Kimbrough is married to Charlcye R. Kimbrough and is the father of Anthony M. Kimbrough.

Accession Number

A2005.248

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/23/2005

Last Name

Kimbrough

Maker Category
Middle Name

D.

Schools

Custer Elementary School

The Academy @ Shawnee

Nurnberg American High School

Fort Knox High School

Eastern Kentucky University

Vilseck Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Reed

Birth City, State, Country

Selma

HM ID

KIM01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Porto Fino, Italy

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

2/27/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Newspaper publishing executive Reed Kimbrough (1951 - ) was Community Relations Director and Director of Diversity Programs at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Employment

United State Army

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

United States Department of Commerce

Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:1530,20:3485,51:5440,84:5780,89:6120,94:6545,100:10030,173:12325,220:14705,262:15215,269:24286,357:24754,364:30448,465:39028,640:52890,737:54066,854:94548,1287:97992,1367:98916,1380:100008,1397:110244,1590:112651,1625:123688,1747:127036,1791:149700,2099$0,0:3380,35:15741,129:20270,182:20910,191:22350,221:24830,330:25470,339:26670,363:27790,388:33165,410:33867,418:34335,424:34803,429:35271,436:39600,482:40770,493:55666,611:57094,631:61140,642:62028,652:63693,668:81486,946:89617,1017:90223,1024:90627,1029:92420,1034:93204,1041:101172,1118:102690,1147:102966,1152:110550,1263:112440,1274:115281,1288:116154,1304:116930,1320:117512,1327:124560,1373:128960,1391:132520,1396:135380,1411:137100,1421:145198,1510:145750,1518:150316,1549:152910,1558:153614,1566:156530,1589:158330,1619:158960,1627:172139,1698:173133,1716:173914,1737:176380,1761:177172,1770:178162,1784:179810,1790:180134,1795:180620,1802:202450,2197:206900,2247:208740,2257:211360,2274:212160,2289:214720,2338:216800,2388:217200,2394:221350,2433:224875,2494:229900,2532
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reed Kimbrough's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough describes his father's parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough describes his mother's ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough recalls drawing a plantation scene during grade school

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reed Kimbrough describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reed Kimbrough describes his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reed Kimbrough lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Reed Kimbrough describes the circumstances of his birth in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough talks about where his father was stationed

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough describes his experiences in Wiesbaden, West Germany

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough descries the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough recalls the diverse occupants of his U.S. military housing complex in West Germany

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough recalls moving to Fort Sill, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough recalls summer vacations in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough describes his paternal grandfather's land ownership and passing

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough describes his experiences in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough describes his experiences on the Fort Sill U.S. military base

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough recalls his elementary school years in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough describes his childhood road trips to Selma, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough recalls living with his paternal grandmother in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough describes Bad Nauheim Elementary School in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough recalls his experience of racial discrimination in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough recalls moving to California as a young teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough remembers the Cuban Missile Crisis

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough recalls attending Shawnee Junior High School in Louisville, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough recalls attending Nuremberg High School in Furth, Germany

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough remembers Nuremberg American High School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough remembers his extracurricular activities in Vilseck, Germany

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough talks about the teachers at Nuremberg American High School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough recalls singing songs by The Temptations on street corners

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough remembers his military mentors and the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough remembers the Vietnam War and moving back to the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough recalls the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough remembers attending Fort Knox High School in Kentucky

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough describes his social activities in Fort Knox, Kentucky

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough describes his influential teachers at Fort Knox High School

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough recalls the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough describes the unrest after Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough recalls deciding whether to go to college or enlist

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough recalls his rejection from the United States Air Force Academy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough describes his decision to attend Eastern Kentucky University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough remembers his motivation to persevere in college

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough describes his college experiences

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough describes Eastern Kentucky University's Black Alumni Association

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough remembers his most influential teachers

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough talks about the United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough recalls returning to Selma, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough recalls his marriage to Charlcye Ritchie Kimbrough

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough recalls working for Atlanta's Federal Reserve Bank

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough describes his career at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough recalls attending a three-day leadership development program

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reed Kimbrough describes his volunteer work

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reed Kimbrough explains why he agreed to share his story

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reed Kimbrough reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reed Kimbrough describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reed Kimbrough describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reed Kimbrough shares his message to young people

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reed Kimbrough talks about the importance of history

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reed Kimbrough reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reed Kimbrough narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Reed Kimbrough narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

5$8

DATitle
Reed Kimbrough remembers his military mentors and the Vietnam War
Reed Kimbrough recalls attending a three-day leadership development program
Transcript
And our role models were, were the men that we saw around us, [U.S.] military guys, that were doing positive things, at least moving in a positive direction. Did they have their own issues? Yeah, they probably did but those are the folks that we saw that were making decisions. They were primarily enlisted guys but they were sen- by this time they were senior enlisted guys.$$Now were these, these role models that you're speaking of, the older guys, were they black or were they white?$$They were primarily black--$$Okay.$$--about this time and now I'm talking about, you know, when I was, when I was a sophomore and then further on. Most of the officers were white, even then. I'm sure--I know there were black officers but they just weren't at, at our installation. Our installation was a training installation. So, and this is about the time that Vietnam [Vietnam War] was really getting hot. I remember it being, poking fun at a vet [veteran]. There was a group of us leaving the movie [in Vilseck, Germany], about four or five of us teenagers leaving the movie, and we saw this guy who was obviously intoxicated coming up the road and, and so we started picking fun of him. That's what, that is what military kids did. Military brats, they were teenagers and they, and they pulled pranks on folks and the only people they had to pull pranks on were soldiers who were about a few years older than them and we saw this guy coming up and he was staggering he and his buddy and we started poking fun of him and he looked at us, he said, "I'll kill you." He said, "I just got back from Vietnam," and he reached down to take his shoes off and we took off running. That was as close as Vietnam had gotten to me at that point. We had seen newsreels at the, at the movie theatre because at that time you go to the theatre, that you get, you get a newsreel and you get a cartoon and you get the feature.$$Okay.$$And I remember the bombing of the U.S. embassy, or the officers club, in Saigon [Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam] and because we kept getting fed that stuff. We were very patriotic.$And at that point somebody decided that maybe I should go away and get, get my perspective widened and I went to a, a leadership development program, a three-day course, through the National Association of Minority Media Executives [National Association of Multicultural Media Executives (NAMME)] where I met some folks with some national reputations. I learned more about the newspaper business and within a year of that, less than a year of that, I was tapped to become the, the operations manager of our packaging department, which is commonly named, known as our mailroom.$$Okay, now what, how do you feel that NAMME affected that, your change in position at the newspaper [Atlanta Journal-Constitution]?$$NAMME, NAMME helped me, and it was in Chicago [Illinois], it was in Chicago at, at Kellogg [Kellogg School of Management], Northwestern [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois]. NAMME gave me an insight into what newspapers, how newspapers can impact people and I think I always knew that but didn't really know what role I could have in that but in that three day period and doing, listening to some presentations and talking to some people, I realized that there were a lot of things in my background that I brought to the table that I had not adequately applied.$$And just what are a couple of those things that you realized?$$That business is built on relationships and that companies seek actively, leaders, people who could lead other people. I'd always decided that I would take a, as much as possible, take the backseat in terms of being a driver of anything. I felt I was better suited as a support person because I could get people to do things for me but as I thought about what, what, some of the things I share with you today, I realized that over the years I've always been kind of at the forefront, if not the leader, at least the guy that was saying, well you know, we can do this. If we just do this, we could do this. If we just did this piece, we can do this too and, you know, who knows what it'll look like in ten years and I had not done that with the newspaper. I was more plotting, I was more methodical, I want to do this, I want to do this and then we'll see what that happens. Somehow I came away from that three day period with a clearer understanding of how I could apply some of those skills, some of that leadership skill, and how it would just require a little bit of risk. Me just taking a little bit of risk and stepping outside of the comfort of my confines and I did that.

Alfred Liggins, III

Alfred Charles Liggins III was born on January 30, 1965, in Omaha, Nebraska. Liggins spent his early childhood in Omaha and at the age of seven moved to Washington, D.C. when his mother, radio mogul Cathy Hughes, took a job at Howard University. When he was sixteen, Liggins’s mother and stepfather purchased AM radio station WOL. At first Liggins hosted a teen talk show on WOL, though he was more interested in the record industry than the radio business. In 1983, Liggins earned his high school diploma from Wilson High School in Washington.

After graduation, Liggins drove cross-country to California where he began working in direct mail advertising before landing a job in the record industry. From 1983 until 1984, Liggins worked in sales and management for Light Records and as a production coordinator for singer Patrick Anderson. After a job with Motown Records fell through, Liggins decided to move back to Washington, D.C. in 1985 to help his mother, who was by then divorced and running the fledging radio station alone. Liggins attended night school at the University of the District of Columbia, and worked at the radio station during the day. From 1986 until 1994, Liggins worked in the sales department at WOL, quickly climbing from representative to sales manager, helping the station rise in ratings and into the black. At Liggins's urging the family business began to grow with the purchase of FM stations in Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, thus the beginning of the Radio One empire.

In 1994, Liggins took over the day-to-day operations of the family business, becoming the president and chief executive officer of Radio One, with his mother retaining ownership. In 1995, Liggins earned his MBA degree from the Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania. In 1999, under Liggins's leadership, Radio One went public and made history as the first female African American owned company on the stock exchange. In 2000, Radio One purchased twenty-one radio stations from Clear Channel, more than doubling the company’s revenue. Radio One eventually became the nation’s largest radio company, targeting African American and urban listeners with fifty-one stations in more than twenty cities.

In 2004, Liggins expanded Radio One’s media sphere when he launched TV One, a cable network for African American adults. Liggins has been the recipient of numerous awards including Ernst and Young’s Entrepreneur of the Year.

Accession Number

A2004.211

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/20/2004

Last Name

Liggins

Maker Category
Middle Name

C.

Schools

Woodrow Wilson High School

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

University of the District of Columbia

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alfred

Birth City, State, Country

Omaha

HM ID

LIG01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Nebraska

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

At The End Of The Day.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/30/1965

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chinese Food

Short Description

Broadcast chief executive Alfred Liggins, III (1965 - ) is the president and chief executive officer of Radio One. In 2004 he launched TV One, a cable network for African American adults.

Employment

Light Records

Singer Patrick Anderson

WOL Radio

Radio One

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:10490,139:14360,209:16790,258:26860,411:27665,419:28240,425:38201,604:38549,609:42660,627:44105,654:52260,792:52962,802:61284,906:61932,948:63948,1018:66468,1084:66972,1100:67404,1107:69636,1145:69924,1150:86878,1391:87190,1396:88672,1424:91870,1580:99690,1632$0,0:661,4:969,9:8592,186:9054,197:10671,231:11056,237:12904,273:14059,290:14598,299:15137,307:26255,410:26587,416:26919,421:27251,426:31899,532:38470,572:38870,578:52024,794:53536,829:54124,837:66408,968:74043,1094:77516,1134:82268,1154:83896,1190:84636,1214:90778,1359:91074,1364:91666,1373:92184,1382:102852,1537:103282,1543:108742,1649:111896,1731:112975,1748:115133,1760:115465,1769:116046,1777:117540,1813:125280,1888:124760,1909
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alfred Liggins, III's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alfred Liggins, III lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about his mother, HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alfred Liggins, III remembers his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about his maternal and paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his earliest memories of growing up in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his childhood holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his childhood home and community in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alfred Liggins, III describes a typical day in his childhood in Omaha, Nebraska and recalls his schooling there

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alfred Liggins, III remembers moving to Washington, D.C. as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his elementary schools in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Alfred Liggins, III describes his childhood personality, career aspirations and activities in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his time at Alice Deal Junior High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about his Catholic upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls a neighbor who acted as a second father for him

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his activities while attending Alice Deal Junior High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his mother and stepfather's takeover of radio station WOL-AM in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls hosting a radio show on his mother and stepfather's station, WOL-AM in Washington, D.C, as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls living with his father in Kansas City, Kansas and his maternal uncle and aunt in Houston, Texas as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his high school friends and their activities in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about the status of his mother and stepfather's radio station, WOL-AM, upon his return to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls deciding to move to California after graduating from Woodrow Wilson High School in Washington, D.C. in 1983

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls celebrities he met through HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes' work in radio

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his stepfather's move to Los Angeles, California and taking a road trip to go live with him after high school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls his initial record industry jobs while living in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls tough times that HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes went through with WOL-AM radio station in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about his aspirations for a career in the recording industry

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alfred Liggins, III describes his return to Washington, D.C. at twenty-one years old

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alfred Liggins, III reflects upon returning to Washington, D.C. and working in the radio business as a twenty-one year old

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alfred Liggins, III describes building up WOL-AM's advertising sales

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes' acquisition of their first FM station in the late 1980s, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes' acquisition of their first FM station in the late 1980s, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls making a profit after revising the format of his newly acquired radio station to play urban adult contemporary music

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls buying radio stations in Baltimore, Maryland while working out differences in management style with his mother

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alfred Liggins, III describes buying radio stations in Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C. after deregulation in the early 1990s

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about earning his M.B.A. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls buying a radio station in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alfred Liggins, III explains how he gained his own financial stake in Radio One separate from his mother, HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alfred Liggins, III recalls three events that grew Radio One financially

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alfred Liggins, III explains the rationale for making Radio One a publicly-traded company

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alfred Liggins, III reflects on Radio One's timing in going public and the company's radio station buying habits

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alfred Liggins, III reflects upon having attended Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alfred Liggins, III offers his thoughts on the importance of college for young African Americans

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about TV One

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Alfred Liggins, III talks about HistoryMaker Johnathan Rodgers, CEO of TV One

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Alfred Liggins, III describes his expectations for TV One

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Alfred Liggins, III reflects on his deferred dream of going into the record business

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Alfred Liggins, III reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Alfred Liggins, III considers his potential legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

7$8

DATitle
Alfred Liggins, III talks about the status of his mother and stepfather's radio station, WOL-AM, upon his return to Washington, D.C.
Alfred Liggins, III describes buying radio stations in Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C. after deregulation in the early 1990s
Transcript
What was happening at the radio station [WOL-AM, Washington, D.C.] when you came back in 1983 (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Same stuff I mean, you know, I mean, I was, you know, I'm trying to think did I go back to doing sports or was I doing sports in my senior year [at Woodrow Wilson High School, Washington, D.C.] I don't remember. You know, just struggling I mean, you know, they bought WOL in 1980, AM station first time they'd be in, in business for themselves. Economy was horrible, interest rate is sky high, and they were attempting, you know, a new format: black talk. And, you know, I'm sure that they and the community thought it was a noble and much-needed format but advertisers didn't necessarily see value the, the value of it at the time. And, and listeners were also migrating from the FM--from the AM dial to the FM dial. So, you know, things were tough. And that, you know, my mother [HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes] and my stepfather [Dewey Hughes] were always probably pretty good at sort of keeping from me and maybe I just wasn't all that interested. You know, how tough things were I think so when I get back I was more interested, you know, in, in being a good son. So I didn't have to go back to Kansas (laughter). But, you know, what I mean, I was turning eighteen I didn't know what the hell I was gonna do. I hadn't gotten into any colleges I just knew that everybody else was going to college and doing something. I needed to do something, and my stepfather was moving out to California. And so sounded good to me, so I was ready to go to California too; that's what I did after high school.$And then deregulation happened, and it's called the "duopoly rule" so now you can own an AM and an FM, two AMs and two FMs in a market. And (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Did you see that as an opportunity or?$$I've always did, every time there was an opportunity, I've always wanted to make the company bigger. And, and always, you know, looked for opportunities to, you know, times to do it. And so, you know, when that happened start looking around Baltimore [Maryland] to see if we could buy. We had two competitors at the time and, and one was the leading black radio station owned by Summit Communications call the BXYV or V103. It sold, and we didn't buy it but we end up buying our other competitor was owned by United Broadcasting they own WERQ [Baltimore, Maryland], 92Q is the station, and we bought that for $9 million dollars. And, and there was a big home run, and we actually squeezed the other guy out of the format and that was that was huge. Because when we once we squeezed, once we got ERQ, and really put the pressure on we started doing really start doing well in Baltimore [Maryland], making a bunch of money. And then we focused on buying our competitor in Washington [D.C.]. The station WKYS [WKYS-FM, Washington, D.C.], which was owned by Burt Lee and Skip Finley in those guys' 'cause NBC, had sold it to a minority group when they had some big merger, and they had it divest. And we knew Skip, Skip was a good friend of the family's and they, you know, needed to sell at the time, and they did the right thing decided they were going to sell it to somebody black. And so they called us we're the competitor. Washington our first station WMMJ [Majic 102.3, Washington, D.C.] was still doing great, and so we bought WKYS four $34 million dollars, which at that time was the biggest deal ever done between two black people.$$And what year was this?$$Ninety, 1995.$$Um-hm.

Cathy Hughes

Radio maven Cathy Hughes was born in Omaha, Nebraska in 1947. Beginning her career in radio in 1969, Hughes’ first position was with KOWH, a black radio station in Omaha. Her successes there prompted the Howard University School of Communications to offer her a position as a lecturer and as Assistant to the Dean of Communications.

In 1973, Hughes was named general sales manager to WHUR-FM in Washington, D.C, and by 1975 was hired as the general manager of the station. Under her guidance, WHUR-FM, which had been struggling along with $300,000 in annual sales revenues, increased its annual revenues to more than $3.5 million. In 1978, Hughes left WHUR for WYCB Radio, where she served as the vice president and general manager of the station.

Hughes and her husband at the time, Dewey Hughes, decided they wanted to buy their own radio station in 1979, and after being rejected by thirty-two banks, they found a lender. With their loan, they purchased WOL, a small Washington, D.C. station and Radio One was born. While Hughes wanted a talk format for the station, the bank was pressing for music. A compromise was reached permitting Hughes to have a morning talk show program that was followed by music programming throughout the day.

Hughes’ marriage ended shortly after purchasing the station and she began her path as a single mother. She purchased her husband’s share in the station, but hard times soon forced she and her son, Alfred, to give up their apartment and move into the station to make ends meet. Over time, however, the station began turning a profit, largely due to the success of her talk show.

Since the early days of being a station owner, Hughes’ rise has been remarkable. Today, Radio One owns 65 radio stations throughout every major market in the country, making the company the largest black-owned radio chain in the nation. In January of 2004, Hughes launched TV One, a cable television channel targeted at the African American community.

Today, Hughes has the distinction of being the first African American woman to head a media company publicly traded on the U.S. Stock Exchange, and she continues to serve as Chairperson of Radio One.

Accession Number

A2004.171

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/21/2004 |and| 3/2/2005

Last Name

Hughes

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Sacred Heart Elementary School

Duchesne Academy Of The Sacred Heart

University of Nebraska-Omaha

Harvard University

University of Chicago

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Cathy

Birth City, State, Country

Omaha

HM ID

HUG04

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Nebraska

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

It Is Not Enough For You To Do Your Very Best. You Must Do What Is Required Of The Situation.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/22/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Broadcast chief executive Cathy Hughes (1947 - ) is the founder of Radio One, the nation's largest black-owned radio chain, and TV One, which features programming aimed at African American audiences. Hughes is the first African American woman to head a media company that is publicly traded on the U.S. Stock Exchange.

Employment

Howard University

WHUR Radio

WYCB Radio

WOL Radio

TV One

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
0,0:1000,21:1800,53:2360,61:5080,113:8092,136:8668,147:9316,158:9604,163:10324,175:10684,181:11476,195:12124,206:12484,212:13564,230:13996,237:14284,242:14788,250:15148,256:17452,301:18388,315:18892,323:19612,338:21052,364:21628,374:23212,398:23932,410:24580,421:28277,431:28622,437:29174,446:29726,464:39113,566:39458,572:40217,586:46210,661:46648,668:47159,676:48473,697:48984,705:49495,713:50079,721:51393,743:51977,751:55627,830:57598,867:57890,872:58401,880:58985,888:60883,924:62197,936:65409,977:66066,987:77539,1103:78088,1115:78393,1121:79369,1141:79796,1149:80162,1156:80589,1180:82602,1219:82907,1225:88136,1288:88444,1293:90215,1319:90754,1331:91139,1337:91755,1347:93680,1392:94604,1406:95066,1413:96298,1432:97222,1449:97915,1459:104118,1535:107448,1569:109150,1595:109594,1602:110852,1620:111370,1628:111666,1633:111962,1638:112480,1647:122830,1757:123230,1763:125150,1801:130568,1858:131656,1877:134920,1966:137608,2024:141128,2105:146631,2159:153374,2206:153642,2211:154312,2225:155920,2268:156389,2280:156724,2286:157662,2305:157997,2312:158332,2318:158667,2324:159136,2333:161280,2371:162352,2405:162687,2414:163022,2420:166314,2447:166800,2454:169311,2502:169716,2508:172065,2548:172470,2554:172875,2560:175224,2603:175710,2610:176277,2618:184320,2692:184584,2697:186498,2762:188016,2799:198656,2997:198980,3002:201086,3051:202058,3067:202463,3074:208781,3198:210239,3220:210725,3228:213236,3271:213560,3276:214046,3283:215342,3302:220063,3311:220560,3320:221696,3338:225956,3405:226595,3421:227092,3429:229932,3495:236962,3583:239014,3628:240914,3662:246246,3732:247038,3746:256110,3893:261184,3984:261408,3989:261632,3994:262192,4006:262752,4018:265104,4086:265664,4097:267232,4135:267568,4143:269752,4188:270032,4194:270536,4205:270760,4210:273560,4215$0,0:276,60:828,67:3220,93:5188,106:6616,128:7120,135:7960,148:8296,153:8716,160:9388,170:13504,227:14764,246:16108,273:16444,279:21736,358:22156,363:22660,370:23080,376:30602,435:30866,440:31262,448:31658,456:32450,470:35816,535:36542,547:37268,561:42878,703:43142,708:44132,725:46046,770:46310,775:46706,782:59993,850:60421,868:60956,874:61491,880:65112,904:68751,935:69123,940:71541,977:79900,1043:80248,1048:80770,1055:82771,1084:83380,1092:83989,1101:84772,1113:85207,1119:86686,1138:87730,1149:88165,1154:89383,1174:90079,1182:90775,1191:91297,1200:91819,1209:92254,1215:92602,1220:92950,1225:93733,1239:98750,1244:100670,1278:104610,1321:105066,1328:105674,1338:106282,1352:108410,1394:108866,1401:109398,1411:118594,1608:119354,1619:125520,1635:127220,1647:127540,1653:127988,1661:128372,1668:129770,1681:133130,1733:133886,1745:134726,1757:135818,1771:136154,1776:136658,1784:137414,1792:138254,1803:139094,1813:143042,1878:143462,1884:143966,1891:147653,1926:148018,1933:148602,1942:149113,1953:151157,1993:151595,2001:155640,2044:157880,2087:159210,2114:160120,2131:160470,2137:160750,2142:161030,2147:161310,2152:161590,2157:162360,2174:162710,2180:163200,2189:163900,2202:164880,2226:165230,2231:167610,2280:168870,2340:169500,2351:169850,2357:170760,2372:172230,2402:177482,2423:178535,2438:184772,2557:191270,2661
DAStories

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Slating of Cathy Hughes' interview

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes lists her favorites

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes describes her father's family background

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes describes her father's education and career

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes recalls her father's accounting practice

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes recalls moving to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes describes her paternal grandparents' lives, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Cathy Hughes describes her paternal grandparents' lives, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Cathy Hughes reflects upon the need to preserve African American history

Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Cathy Hughes describes her mother's family background

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Cathy Hughes describes her maternal grandfather's education

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes recalls her maternal grandparents' founding of Piney Woods Country Life School

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes recalls her mother's estrangement from her grandfather

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes recalls her maternal grandfather's life and service

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes recalls her maternal grandfather's appearance on television

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes recalls her grandfather's interview for Johnson Publishing

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes recalls dinners at her grandfather's home

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Cathy Hughes describes African American women's sacrifices for their community

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes describes Piney Woods Country Life School's disciplinary policy

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes describes her mother's personality

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes describes her mother's career with the International Sweethearts of Rhythm

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes recalls her mother's career with the Omaha Symphony

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes describes her mother's connections in the music industry

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes recalls her mother's lessons in giving, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Cathy Hughes recalls her mother's lessons in giving, pt. 2

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Cathy Hughes describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes recalls her mother's community activism

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes recalls being arrested in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes recalls growing up in a closely-knit community

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes recalls her early years living in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes describes her mother's service with the youth

Tape: 13 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes describes her family's life in the projects in Omaha

Tape: 13 Story: 8 - Cathy Hughes remembers moving to Piney Woods, Mississippi

Tape: 13 Story: 9 - Cathy Hughes recalls her schooling in Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 13 Story: 10 - Cathy Hughes describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Omaha

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Cathy Hughes describes the sights and smells of her childhood

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes recalls her rebellious nature as a child

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes recalls becoming pregnant as a teenager

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes recalls filing for divorce from her first husband

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes describes how her son's birth changed her perspective on life

Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes recalls her independence as a young, single mother

Tape: 14 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes recalls her decision to relocate to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 14 Story: 8 - Cathy Hughes recalls accepting a position at Howard University's School of Communications

Tape: 15 Story: 1 - Cathy Hughes describes her role as a community activist at Howard University

Tape: 15 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes recalls her challenges as the general manager of WHUR Radio

Tape: 15 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes remembers resigning from Howard University

Tape: 15 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes recalls her innovations in radio programming at Howard University

Tape: 15 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes recalls how WHUR Radio was licensed to Howard University

Tape: 15 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes talks about her creativity as a radio programmer

Tape: 15 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes recalls her early experiences of radio

Tape: 16 Story: 1 - Cathy Hughes recalls her educational opportunities at Howard University's WHUR Radio

Tape: 16 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes describes her experience at Howard University's WHUR Radio

Tape: 16 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes describes the segregated community of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 16 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes describes her experience at WYCB Radio

Tape: 16 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes recalls the reason for WOL Radio's distress sale

Tape: 16 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes recalls her bid to purchase WOL Radio with Dewey Hughes

Tape: 16 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes recalls purchasing WOL Radio in 1979 with the help of Herb Fame

Tape: 16 Story: 8 - Cathy Hughes recalls her first night at the WOL Radio station

Tape: 17 Story: 1 - Cathy Hughes recalls meeting her chaplain, Reverend Mozelle J. Fuller

Tape: 17 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes recalls her chaplain, Reverend Mozelle J. Fuller

Tape: 17 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes recalls her business mentor Skip Finley

Tape: 17 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes recalls her hardships during the early years of owning WOL Radio

Tape: 17 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes recalls hiring an accountant for WOL Radio

Tape: 17 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes recalls the first time WOL Radio made a profit

Tape: 17 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes recalls acquiring her second radio station

Tape: 17 Story: 8 - Cathy Hughes reflects upon her sacrifices to expand Radio One

Tape: 17 Story: 9 - Cathy Hughes reflects upon the success of Radio One and the launch of TV One

Tape: 18 Story: 1 - Cathy Hughes recalls acquiring a second radio station, Majic 102.3

Tape: 18 Story: 2 - Cathy Hughes recalls expanding Radio One into Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 18 Story: 3 - Cathy Hughes recalls purchasing Radio One of Atlanta

Tape: 18 Story: 4 - Cathy Hughes describes Radio One's expansion

Tape: 18 Story: 5 - Cathy Hughes recalls the establishment of TV One

Tape: 18 Story: 6 - Cathy Hughes recalls her son renaming her company Radio One

Tape: 18 Story: 7 - Cathy Hughes recalls her son's education at University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School

Tape: 18 Story: 8 - Cathy Hughes recalls the initial public offering of Radio One in 1999

Tape: 18 Story: 9 - Cathy Hughes reflects upon her relationship with her son

Tape: 18 Story: 10 - Cathy Hughes describes securing her first loan for Radio One

Tape: 18 Story: 11 - Cathy Hughes describes her loan payment strategies

Tape: 18 Story: 12 - Cathy Hughes reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 18 Story: 13 - Cathy Hughes reflects upon her hopes for the African American community

DASession

2$2

DATape

15$18

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
Cathy Hughes recalls her innovations in radio programming at Howard University
Cathy Hughes recalls the initial public offering of Radio One in 1999
Transcript
I created for Howard University [Washington, D.C.] a program called the Quiet Storm, a format that almost got me fired. Ultimately, it went on to become the most successful, urban format in the history of black radio. It was on nearly five hundred radio stations at one time. I tried to get Howard University to license that. By now, they would have generated billions, with a B, not millions; billions of dollars in revenue. Radio stations named their whole station the Quiet Storm and did my format 24/7. I then tried to convince Howard to do a black Muzak, which still has not been done to this day. Howard was building a new hospital. And one of my fellow faculty members had been the highest ranking African American and the only African American actually with the Gallup Poll. So he knew how to do polls. He was a black pollster. So we did a poll of four hundred African American professionals, doctors and lawyers and other professionals, real estate agents, insurance executives. We asked them, number one, Leroy [ph.] said to me--that was the gentleman who was the pollster's name, that he had never seen it, 84 return, percent return rate, 84 percent of the four hundred people we polled returned their questionnaires. They were willing at this time, which was how many decades ago, to pay up to hundred and fifty dollars a month for the service. We described it as a black Muzak. Howard University had the equipment. When Katharine Graham, and The Washington Post gave WHUR [WHUR Radio, Washington, D.C.] to Howard University--WHUR, W-Howard University Radio. It had before that been WTOP-FM Radio. When they gave the station to Howard, they gave the equipment for a sub-channel. Muzak is sub channel. Muzak is actually an FM radio station on a sub channel. We had the equipment. All Howard had to do was say yes. They were already wiring the hospital. Every room in the Howard University Hospital [Washington, D.C.] has radio and television already wired in. All I had to do was sit the transmitter in the basement and bring the signal up. So there was no additional cost. All they had to do is say yes. They said no. Here we have a 84 percent respondent rate. We have people saying that they'd be willing to pay Howard up to hundred and fifty dollars a month to have a black Muzak service, because by now, my Quiet Storm was so successful, they knew it would be like the Quiet Storm. But even today, it hasn't been done. How many black professionals in the whole country would love to have a beautiful, black music service being pumped in. Now, Muzak is no longer popular because we got CDs. It kind of got--technology kind of kicked it out the back door. I think it wouldn't have been kicked out the back door as quickly if there had of been a black version of it. I think that white folks would have gussied it up a little bit. Remember, it used to be called elevator music[AB2].$$That's right.$$But they still have different forms of it. It's just called different things. When you go in grocery stores now, you have a version. They even do their own commercials. "You're listening to the Giant Food music network," you know. Now, you have satellite radio. You have so many other things. So, by then I realized that Howard University did not have the level of understanding and appreciation for my innovations and ideas that God was blessing me with that I was sharing with them. And I was not trying to get any--it wasn't for me. I wasn't trying to get anything out of it. It was for them. It would have generated--in hindsight, I now understand. Other than the bookstore, they had never had any type of revenue-generating ventures. They didn't know about being in business, and remember, I said earlier, they were government funded. So they were accustomed to filling out requisitions, sending it to the federal government, getting the money. And they went through a lot of--as any, anybody would, all of a sudden they have hundreds of millions of dollars put in a bank account in their name. They had to establish accounting procedures and, so they really didn't have an understanding, a time or a commitment to the radio station at that time.$Alfred [Hughes' son, HistoryMaker Alfred Liggins, III] then became like a tutor, a mentor, a teacher. He walked me through the entire process, and even when I still had reservations, he did a high-yield bond offering to run a test balloon up, a test run on our management team, because one of my last reservations was, we run real slim and trim, even now. Wall Street likes that, but my managers wear a lot of hats. And I was like, will they be able to withstand the rigors of the reporting required of a public corp--publicly-held corporation which are far greater now with Sarbanes-Oxley [Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002]. But even back then, the rigors were quite strenuous. So he did the high-yield bond offering to test himself and our staff, and they came through with flying colors. May 19th, Martin--Malcolm X's birthday, 1995, we're in New York [New York]. We're going public. And I'm in the bathroom regurgitating as if I were pregnant. That's how nervous I was, because right before our ticker came across the board, one of the Wall Street analysts said to me, "Do you realize that you will be the first corporation in the history of Wall Street headed by an African American female? This has never been done before." And that reaction of me getting sick to my stomach was almost like being pregnant and giving birth. I realized that this was bigger than me and Alfred having growth capital. This was bigger--this was me really lifting the bar for black womanhood, (laughter) you know. I almost wanted to sing, "I am woman," (laughter) you know. I needed an anthem. And it made such an incredible difference. So many of our staff members became millionaires because of the friend--friends and family list. So many of our friends and acquaintances were able to achieve incredible financial success. We opened at twenty-four and went to ninety-two in our first twelve months. We then split, and it was such a glorious time, that first year. Since then, the sector has been so depressed. All radio properties have been undervalued. And particularly when you're last in and you're African American, but we think that that will turn around. We have never missed a projection. Everything we have told Wall Street since day one has been the reality of the operation of my company [Radio One, Lanham, Maryland]. And that's why we're considered the best. We are now the seventh largest broadcasting corporation in America, and we plan to be the sixth, the fifth, the fourth, the third, the second and who knows? We might bump Clear Channel [Clear Channel Communications, Inc.] out of the number one spot before God finishes blessing us.

John Murphy

John Murphy, III was born into a journalistic family legacy. Born in Baltimore, Maryland on March 2, 1916, Murphy was named for his grandfather, the founder of the Afro-American newspaper. Murphy attended Temple University in Philadelphia, earning a B.S. degree in 1937, and he later attended the Press Institute of Columbia University in both 1952 and 1971.

Journalism came naturally to Murphy and the Afro-American was rapidly increasing its circulation along the East Coast when Murphy completed college. Before joining the family business, however, Murphy went to work with the Washington Tribune, where he served as the manager from 1937 until 1961. After serving on the board of directors of the Afro American, Murphy took over as chairman of the board from his cousin, Frances Murphy, II, in 1974. He also served as the business manager and the purchasing agent for the Washington Afro American. Murphy continues to hold the post.

Murphy has remained active throughout his life in a number of organizations, including several churches. He is a member of the Churchman’s Club, is on the standing committee of the Diocese of Maryland and is a vestryman at St. James Episcopal Church. He also serves on the boards of Amalgamated Publishers and the National Newspaper Publishers Association. Murphy is a supporter of the arts and education, serving on the board of the Baltimore School for the Arts and the Baltimore City Literacy Commission.

For his civic and business activities, Murphy has been honored numerous times by various organizations. The City of Baltimore proclaimed him Citizen of the Year in 1977. He has also received the Publisher of the Year Award from the University of Washington, D.C., and the Appreciation Award from the Race Relations Institute of Fisk University. Murphy and his wife, Camay, daughter of Cab Calloway, have two children.

John Murphy passed away on October 16, 2010.

Accession Number

A2003.230

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/20/2003

Last Name

Murphy

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Shoemaker Junior High School

Overbrook High School

Temple University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

MUR06

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Francisco, California, New Orleans, Louisiana

Favorite Quote

Never tell somebody, 'I told you so.'x''

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

3/2/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Seafood

Death Date

10/16/2010

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive John Murphy (1916 - 2010 ) has been the chairman and publisher of the Afro-American newspaper, which his grandfather founded, since 1974. Before joining the family business, Murphy worked with the 'Washington Tribune', where he served as the manager from 1937 until 1961.

Employment

Afro-American Newspapers

Favorite Color

Brown

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John Murphy interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - John Murphy's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - John Murphy describes his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John Murphy describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John Murphy lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John Murphy describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John Murphy remembers his father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - John Murphy recalls his childhood environs in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John Murphy recounts his school life

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John Murphy explains his college choice

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John Murphy recalls his early adulthood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John Murphy details his work in the Washington, D.C. office of the Afro-American Newspaper

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - John Murphy discusses the circulation of the Afro American Newspaper

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John Murphy discusses the Afro-American Newspaper's relationship with its employees

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John Murphy remembers past coworkers

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John Murphy talks about his administration with Afro-American Newspapers

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John Murphy explains the Afro-American Newspaper's political ties

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - John Murphy talks about his newspapers stance on black soldiers in World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - John Murphy recalls past editors at the Afro-American Newspapers

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - John Murphy explains the integration of newspapers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - John Murphy comments the lack of African-American news in national newspapers

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John Murphy recalls influential figures in the East Coast newspaper community

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John Murphy talks about changes in leadership at Afro-American Newspapers

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John Murphy discusses changes in the newspaper industry

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - John Murphy remembers highlights from his years with Afro-American Newspapers

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - John Murphy shares his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - John Murphy considers his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - How John Murphy would like to be remembered

Ronald Davenport

Businessman and lawyer Ronald Davenport, Sr., was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on May 21, 1936. After earning his B.S. degree in economics from Pennsylvania State University in 1958, Davenport went to law school; earning his LL.B. degree from Temple University in 1962, he went to Yale Law School for his LL.M. degree in 1963.

Davenport started his career as a professor of law at Duquesne University in 1963, where he remained for twenty years. When he took over as dean of the law school in 1970, Davenport became the first black man to be dean of a predominantly white school. In 1982, Davenport became a partner at Buchanan Ingersoll Professional Corporation, and a fellow of the U.S. State Department, reviewing legal systems in South and East Asia. Davenport also served as a consultant to the Constitutional Convention Preparatory Committee of Pennsylvania, and the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention. Not content with simply the practice of law, in 1972, Davenport became chairman of Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation, a group he and his wife formed from the purchase of four radio stations. By 1976, Sheridan Broadcasting owned half of the Mutual Black Network, later completing the buyout. Sheridan Broadcasting was heard through more than three hundred radio affiliates across the country; he also served as the co-chairman of the American Urban Radio Networks.

Beyond his endeavors in the practice of law and broadcasting, Davenport gave his time to a wide variety of other organizations. Davenport served on the board of Colgate University; was chairman of the Visiting Committee of African American Studies at Harvard; and served on the board of Aramark. Davenport was awarded numerous honorary degrees; the Man of the Year Award from the Masons; and participated in several conferences with U.S. presidents.

Davenport and his wife, Judith Marylyn, raised three children.

Accession Number

A2003.182

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/12/2003

Last Name

Davenport

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Spring Garden Elementary School

Stoddart-Fleisher Middle School

West Philadelphia High School

Pennsylvania State University

Temple University Beasley School of Law

Spring Garden School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Ronald

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

DAV07

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

5/21/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

USA

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Academic administrator and radio station owner Ronald Davenport (1936 - ) is the Chair of Sheridan Broadcasting, heard on over three hundred nationwide stations. Davenport had a career teaching law and has served as the dean for the Duquesne University School of Law.

Employment

Duquesne University School of Law

Buchanan Ingersoll Professional Corporation

Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation

Favorite Color

None

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ronald Davenport interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ronald Davenport's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ronald Davenport talks about his parents' and his grandmother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ronald Davenport discusses the experience of living with his grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ronald Davenport describes his childhood personality and his neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ronald Davenport details his education in Philadephia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ronald Davenport talks about avoiding the negative influences in his neighborhood as a young boy

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ronald Davenport recalls his religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ronald Davenport talks about the neighborhood survival skills he developed as a young boy

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ronald Davenport recounts his grandparents' influence and leadership in his community

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ronald Davenport details his experiences living with his mother and stepfather

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Ronald Davenport talks about his high school experience

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Ronald Davenport discusses briefly his plans to go to college

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ron Davenport discusses his decision to attend Penn State University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ron Davenport describes the small black population at Penn State in 1954

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ron Davenport recalls adjusting to the small black populace in State College, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ron Davenport explains his decision to major in economics at Penn State University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ron Davenport details his participation in student government at Penn State

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ron Davenport discusses his participation in the economics department at Penn State

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ron Davenport talks about the things that influenced him at Penn State

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ron Davenport talks about his decision to go to law school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ron Davenport explains his decision to attend Temple University's law school

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ron Davenport recalls his experiences at Temple Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Ron Davenport compares his undergraduate and graduate attitudes towards education

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Ron Davenport talks about his first jobs while in law school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ron Davenport describes his experience as a law clerk in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ron Davenport talks about his career focus and his drive to become a leader

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ron Davenport describes his courtship and marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ron Davenport discusses his mentor and his acceptance to Yale Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ron Davenport details his coursework at Yale Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ron Davenport talks about his experiences at Norris, Green, Harris and Higginbotham law firm

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ron Davenport recalls one of the law firm's biggest clients, Father Divine

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ron Davenport discusses his mentor, Austin Norris

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ron Davenport discusses civil rights in the Philadelphia area

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ron Davenport describes becoming a professor at Duquesne University School of Law

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Ron Davenport recalls his teaching experiences at Duquesne University

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Ron Davenport describes his civic involvement in Pittsburgh

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ron Davenport explains his adjustment to the community in Pittsburgh

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ron Davenport describes his civic activities in Pittsburgh while teaching at Duquesne University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ron Davenport talks about his work for the mayor's office in Pittsburgh

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ron Davenport describes his leadership roles with the Urban League and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ron Davenport recalls other aspects of his civil rights activities

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ron Davenport talks about becoming Dean of Duquesne University's law school

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ron Davenport explains his career transition from law to radio broadcasting

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ron Davenport details the origins of his broadcasting company

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ron Davenport talks about other radio broadcasters and his other business ventures

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Ron Davenport details his expanding radio business

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Ron Davenport recalls his feelings toward becoming a black business owner

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ron Davenport details the development of the Sheridan Broadcasting Network

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ron Davenport discusses Sheridan Broadcasting and its affiliates

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ron Davenport talks about his success at Sheridan Broadcasting

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ron Davenport discusses his hopes for the future of Sheridan Broadcasting

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ron Davenport discusses his successes and mistakes in the radio business

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ron Davenport talks about his children's participation in the broadcasting business

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ron Davenport considers decision-making opportunities for African Americans

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ron Davenport considers the future successes of the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ron Davenport shares his concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ron Davenport considers his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Ron Davenport considers how he would like to be remembered

Gerald Johnson

Successful publisher Gerald Oren Johnson was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, on March 2, 1947, to Willie L. Johnson and Thomasina Johnson. He graduated from West Charlotte High School in 1965 and went on to earn a B.A. in mathematics from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1969 and an M.A. in mathematics from Villanova University in 1972.

From 1969 until 1973, Johnson worked as a programmer for Univac Sperry Rand. From 1969 to 1973 he taught mathematics and computer science and directed the Computer Center at Johnson C. Smith University. In 1978, he began working for Bank of America as a programmer and was promoted to vice president. In 1986, Johnson became CEO and publisher of The Charlotte Post and chairman of the Consolidated Media Group.

Johnson has many civic and community affiliations. He has also received numerous
awards and honors for his contributions to the city of Charlotte. He has served as a member of the Mechanics and Farmers Advisory Board, the First Ward Community Reinvestment Board, and the Goodwill Industries Board. He has been an active participant in the Community Building Initiative, the Arts and Science Council, the Charlotte Chamber's Minority Business Leader Institute, "CHARLOTTE READS" leadership committee, and Partners For School Reform. He has also been co-chairman of the Finance Committee of the New Arena Committee, first vice president and publicity committee chairman of Theater Charlotte, and secretary and second vice president of the Discovery Place Board.

Johnson is a member of Mt. Carmel Baptist Church and has two daughters, Tania and Patrice, both living in North Carolina, and one grandson.

Accession Number

A2002.217

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/3/2002

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Lincoln University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Gerald

Birth City, State, Country

Charlotte

HM ID

JOH09

Favorite Season

Fall

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

3/2/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Lamb

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Gerald Johnson (1947 - ) is the CEO and publisher of the Charlotte Post in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Employment

Unicac Sperry Rand

Johnson C. Smith University

Bank of America

Charlotte Post

Consolidated Media Group

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:15160,132:23686,200:54530,523:66226,753:79238,895:82509,927:87810,1033:90910,1151:105343,1293:108997,1369:112984,1403:113368,1408:140900,1729:152056,1862:171859,1977:176530,2041:223261,2438:226110,2490:229308,2516:229782,2525:232073,2575:241517,2686:263670,2886:271210,2977:279731,3063:308770,3363:309250,3371:312450,3435:313010,3449:313730,3462:314210,3469:314930,3481:317250,3525:317570,3530:323321,3539:324690,3544$0,0:11334,75:18822,200:24390,309:30023,350:37891,513:47838,669:50358,707:53550,778:58378,851:69150,1013:71250,1050:95416,1327:95992,1336:98440,1385:98728,1390:107690,1491:108873,1515:109419,1525:115698,1591:120110,1621:123551,1702:124016,1708:124481,1714:124853,1719:125225,1724:130125,1813:141865,1959:147927,2004:148362,2010:179770,2297:181246,2321:181738,2326:191831,2571:202375,2709:213470,2869:220256,2965:230825,3122:241905,3300:242205,3327:243030,3340:245499,3350:245751,3355:246255,3364:253630,3478:257188,3501:258532,3525:260450,3533:264455,3594:266550,3613
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gerald Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gerald Johnson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gerald Johnson describes his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gerald Johnson talks about his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gerald Johnson shares the story of how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gerald Johnson talks about the black migration to Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gerald Johnson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gerald Johnson describes his childhood house

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gerald Johnson talks about the black community in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gerald Johnson talks about his father's involvement in black newspapers

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gerald Johnson describes his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gerald Johnson remembers his school experiences

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Gerald Johnson recalls his favorite teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gerald Johnson describes attending West Charlotte Senior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gerald Johnson recalls his high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gerald Johnson describes attending Lincoln University in Oxford, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gerald Johnson talks about his professors at Lincoln University in Oxford, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gerald Johnson remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gerald Johnson talks about cultural shifts in the 1960s and the lack of black papers on campus

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gerald Johnson describes computer programming at UNIVAC Sperry Rand in 1969

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gerald Johnson talks about earning his Master's degree at Villanova University in Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gerald Johnson talks about his early career and moving back to Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gerald Johnson talks about working at Johnson C. Smith University and Bank of America in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gerald Johnson describes his father's editorial style of "The Charlotte Post" in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gerald Johnson explains his involvement with "The Charlotte Post"

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gerald Johnson talks about changing the philosophy of "The Charlotte Post"

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gerald Johnson describes the management of "The Charlotte Post"

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gerald Johnson describes his approach to news coverage at "The Charlotte Post"

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gerald Johnson describes covering the black community at "The Charlotte Post"

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gerald Johnson talks about police misconduct and the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gerald Johnson talks about covering racial conflict between African Americans and Hispanics in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gerald Johnson describes the reaction and impact of covering race relations between African Americans and Hispanics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gerald Johnson talks about the problems with schools and housing in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gerald Johnson describes the quality of life in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gerald Johnson describes his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gerald Johnson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gerald Johnson describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gerald Johnson narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
Gerald Johnson remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Gerald Johnson explains his involvement with "The Charlotte Post"
Transcript
Now you were in college when Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] was assassinated right?$$Um-hm.$$What was the atmosphere on campus when that happened?$$Very, very bad, very bad. We--it--we were having a program of sorts at the university. I can't even remember what the program was about, but one of my frat brothers ran down, ran down the campus and started yelling that, that Dr. King had, had been assassinated and then the school just went berserk. And we did have some white students on the campus at the time and then people started going around hunting down--in fact, I had to pull him off of some, off of some people 'cause he just snapped. He was, he was from Dallas, Texas, and he just snapped, and so we literally had to pull him off of some people, and the school just went in turmoil and started burning down and tearing down the school and very, very sad situation. It got so bad that they closed--the president came and made an announcement he was closing school, announces, says, "We're closing the school, get your stuff and, and leave," and you know nobody had transportation. I mean a lot of people didn't have transportation and then a lot of people didn't have any arrangements to get home and it was just a mess and luckily some guys from Gastonia, North Carolina, had cars and they asked me if I needed a ride home and I told 'em yeah I'd ride with them to come home. And sad, even more sad than what happened on campus was the ride home. We had to go through cities like Baltimore [Maryland] and Washington, D.C. and so all down the 95 corridor going through cities was just, it was just really, really a sad sight for sore eyes because the cities were burning, people were looting, throwing stuff at cars, and it was just, it was a horrifying sight. It was a long sad drive home. Very little was said in the whole time. It took us almost sixteen hours to get home, and very little was said during the whole time on the drive and just the turmoil that we saw coming home was, was something. So, yeah that was, that was a moment in my life, yeah it really was.$$How did you feel about it, you know, personally?$$Very upsetting, very upsetting. It was very upsetting. I felt hurt, betrayed. I felt I couldn't trust anybody anymore. Just hurt, just hurt. He had spoken on campus before as well, and, and I looked at Dr. King as being a spokesman for the community, the African American community, and his assassination meant that we lost a spokesman and it also made me feel like we were, we were betrayed and that nobody wanted us to have a spokesman that could actually stand toe-to-toe and speak on our behalf and so I just had a lot of mixed, mixed emotions at the time.$$So, what did they--how, how did they--so what did they--how did they regroup and get you get, get the students back, you know, and graduate, you know?$$Well, that--we had to be back I think what he, he told us that they were gonna open the school back in, in a week. They were gonna close school down for a week, so we ended up having to come back in a week and, and it was tough. Everybody got back and just went through with what we had to do to get through and graduate. In fact, I was a junior, so I still had one more, one more year to go. No, what year was that, sixty--$$Sixty-eight [1968].$$Yeah, I was a junior, I was a junior and so we got back on campus and went through, went through the rest of the year, but that, for the rest of that school year it was just not the same. Just, the, the emotions were just too much.$Okay, so how did you gradually get involved with the paper?$$(Laughter) My father called me in--I would--he, he asked me to come and help him all along. Since '74 [1974] I would come in, but we would always bump heads, and I had another job and so I was just helping him on the side and, and anything I would suggest we'd bump heads 'cause he didn't want to do that. I wanted computers in here. I wanted to upgrade, do a lot of things, and he was, he was doing fine just the way, the way it was and so we would always bump heads. So, I would come in and, and help him out for a couple of months and just get fed up and, and leave. But, one time he called me in and told me that he was, that the doctors were gonna stop him from working for a couple of months because he was sick, and he asked me if I would come in and sit in for him while he was sick. I told him, "What you mean sit in for you while you're sick?" He said well, "I'm a, I'm a have to take a couple of months off and I just need somebody to oversee the place for me until I get back. It won't be but a couple of months," so I said, "Fine I'll do it," and started coming in and sitting in. Now he never said what he was sick from or, or what was bothering him. He just said his doctor told him that, and when I started coming in here a couple of things happened that just upset me in terms of how the employees were acting, and so I, I literally reprimanded several employees and immediately they ran off to tell him what had happened. And when they came back in, sort of with their tail between their legs, he told them that I was in charge and that whatever I said that was the way it had to be. And at that time, I knew he would never come back because otherwise he would have, we would have done that again. But, he said whatever I said was, was it and so I took over in March, had the con- had the conflict in April, in June he died. He had acute leukemia, which he never, he never let on that he had that until the, the final stages and once he died my family asked me to stay here and run it, and so I did. I stayed at the bank and did this for ten years and I left the bank in '96 [1996] and started doing this full time. But, I was tricked into it in other words. I was tricked into taking over the paper. Best trick that, that's ever happened, but he tricked me into it.$$All this time though, had you ever thought of yourself as one being involved in journalism at all (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) No, no, and that's, that's, that's very interesting because he, he, he would always ask us if we were going to get involved with the paper. I told him no I knew I wasn't gonna do it because I had no interest in it whatsoever, so I told him I had, I didn't have any interest in doing this and my other brothers none of, none of them took an interest either, and so we had no journalistic interest at the time. But the interesting thing to me about all of that was when, when he got ill and I had to come in and sit down and take over a job it was, it was no training. It was almost like when I got in the chair I knew exactly what to do and so just by hanging around him all this time and not necessarily working here, but I knew everything to do and so it was, it was sort of like a no-brainer, sort of like I was going through a training for this, for this position because it was, it was just a no-brainer, just coming in sitting down and, and start directing the ship the way I wanted it to run. And philosophically, we had several points of difference, but just changed the philosophy of the paper and moved on.