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Matthew Holden, Jr.

Political scientist Matthew Holden, Jr. was born on September 12, 1931 in Mound Bayou, Mississippi to Estell Holden and Matthew Holden, Sr. He received his B.A. degree in political science from Roosevelt University in Chicago, Illinois in 1954 and served in the U.S. Army from 1955 to 1957. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois in 1956 and 1961.

Holden joined the faculty at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan in 1961. In 1963, he was hired at the University of Pittsburgh. During this period, Holden also worked at Resources for the Future, Inc. in Washington, D.C. He returned to the faculty at Wayne State University in 1966, where he remained until 1969. Holden was then hired by the Washington, D.C. based independent think tank, the Urban Institute, and later became professor of political science and public policy administration at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, serving in that capacity until 1981. In 1973, Holden published The Politics of the Black Nation, followed by The White Man’s Burden in 1974. From 1975 to 1977, Holden was appointed by Wisconsin governor Pat Lucey to serve on the Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Holden later became the first African American appointee of President Jimmy Carter’s, where he served on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission from 1977 to 1981. In 1981, Holden was named the Henry L. and Grace M. Doherty Professor Emeritus of Politics at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia, and served there until 2002. He later became the Wepner Distinguished Professor in political science at the University of Illinois, Springfield in 2009.

From 1969 to 1972, Holden served on the Social Science Research Council board and held a part-time position on the President’s Air Quality Advisory board in 1972. In 1974, Holden served as chairman of the Elections Committee for the American Political Science Association; and, from 1998 to 1999, he served as president of the American Political Science Association.

Holden also received an honorary L.L.D. degree from Tuskegee University in 1985, and the Otto Wirth Award from the Roosevelt University Alumni Association in 1998. Two years later, he was awarded an honorary L.H.D. degree from the Virginia Theological Seminary. In 2012, Holden’s biography was entered into the U.S. Congressional Record.

Matthew Holden was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 24, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.031

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/24/2019

Last Name

Holden

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Northwestern University

Roosevelt University

Wendell Phillips Academy High School

University of Chicago

First Name

Matthew

Birth City, State, Country

Mound Bayou

HM ID

HOL24

Favorite Season

None

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Mississippi

Birth Date

9/12/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Jackson

Favorite Food

Corn

Short Description

Political scientist Matthew Holden, Jr. (1931 - ) was the professor of political science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1969 to 1981, and the Henry L. and Grace M. Doherty Professor Emeritus of Politics at the University of Virginia from 1981 to 2002.

Employment

University of Virginia

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Wayne State University

University of Pittsburgh

University of Illinois at Springfield

Cornell University

Jackson State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Hazel Trice Edney

Journalist Hazel Trice Edney was born in Charlottesville, Virginia. She received her M.A. degree from the Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government. Edney also graduated from Harvard University’s KSG Women and Power Executive Leadership program.

In 1987, Edney was hired as a reporter for the Richmond Afro-American newspaper. She went on to work as a staff writer for the Richmond Free Press until 1998, when she was awarded the William S. Wasserman Jr. Fellowship on the Press, Politics and Public Policy from Harvard University. In 2000, Edney was hired as the Washington, D.C. correspondent for the National Newspaper Publishers Association. Then, in 2007, she was appointed editor-in-chief of the NNPA News Service and Blackpressusa.com, serving in that role until 2010. Edney also worked as an investigative reporter as part of the NNPA NorthStar Investigative Reporting Program. While at NNPA, she covered the World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa in 2001; the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the Pentagon; Hurricane Katrina; and earthquake-ravaged Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

In 2010, Edney launched the Trice Edney News Wire. She also serves as president and CEO of Trice Edney Communications and editor-in-chief of the Trice Edney News Wire. Edney has worked as an adjunct professor of journalism at Howard University, and has served as interim executive director of the NNPA Foundation. She has appeared on the Tavis Smiley Show; CNN; C-Span, Bishop T.D. Jakes' Potter's Touch; The Al Sharpton Show; Washington Watch with Roland Martin; and the Washington Journal.

Edney’s awards include the New America Media Career Achievement Award; a fellowship at the Annenberg Institute for Justice in Journalism at the University of Southern California; the Lincoln University Unity Award in Media; the Tisdale Award; and NNPA Merit Awards, including the NNPA First Place Feature Story Merit Award in 1990 for her final interview with Virginia death row inmate Wilbert Lee Evans. She was also a congressional fellow in 1999 and 2000, and was the first African American woman inducted into the Virginia Communications Hall of Fame. Edney was named a "2008 Role Model" by the National Baptist Congress of Christian Education, and a "2010 Phenomenal Woman" by the Phenomenal Women’s Alliance. Hazel Trice Edney was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 6, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.339

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/3/2013

Last Name

Edney

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Trice

Occupation
Schools

Harvard University

Thomas Jefferson Elementary School

Louisa Elementary School

Louisa County High School

Saint Paul's College

Virginia Commonwealth University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Hazel

Birth City, State, Country

Charlottesville

HM ID

EDN01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Unto Everything There’s A Season And A Time For Every Purpose Under The Heavens

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/13/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Journalist Hazel Trice Edney (1960 - ) , founder of the Trice Edney News Wire, was editor-in-chief of the NNPA News Service and Blackpressusa.com. She was the first African American woman inducted into the Virginia Communications Hall of Fame.

Employment

Trice Edney Communications

Trice Edney News Wire

National Newspaper Publishers Association

BlackPressUSA.com

Richmond Free Press

Richmond Afro-American

Howard University

Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church

Greater Mount Calvary Holy Church

WTVR-TV

WFTH Radio

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Hazel Trice Edney's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Hazel Trice Edney lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Hazel Trice Edney describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her mother's singing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls her mother's favorite songs

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Hazel Trice Edney describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her father's military service, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her father's military service, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Hazel Trice Edney describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Hazel Trice Edney lists her siblings, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Hazel Trice Edney lists her siblings, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Hazel Trice Edney describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers her early memories of her father

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her early home

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Hazel Trice Edney describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls her community in Louisa, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers the desegregation of Louisa public schools

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls the difficulties at home

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers the birth of her son

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls seeing a vision of an angel as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about an inspiring teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Hazel Trice Edney describes her behavior in school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her interest in music

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers her early encounters with black media

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her decision to pursue collegiate study

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers marrying Eugene Edney, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls the end of her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers transferring to Virginia Commonwealth University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Hazel Trice Edney describes the challenges in leaving her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls the emotional support she had while finishing school

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers working at WTVR-TV in Richmond

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls being the news director at WFTH radio station

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers working freelance at the Richmond Afro-American

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about working full time at the Richmond Afro-American

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers her coworkers at the Richmond Afro-American

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Hazel Trice Edney describes Richmond, Virginia's political climate

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls major stories she covered at the Richmond Afro-American

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her success as a political news reporter

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers her move to the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her coverage of the L. Douglas Wilder's gubernatorial election

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers working with media leaders at the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls the highlights of her work at the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about contemporary instances of racial discrimination

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers being offered a fellowship at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers influential instructors at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls speaking at her Harvard University graduation

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls her experiences as an American Political Science Association Congressional Fellow

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about becoming a correspondent at the National Newspaper Publishers Association

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers covering the 2000 U.S. Election scandal

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls the events of September 11, 2001, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls the events of September 11, 2001, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers her coverage of Hurricane Katrina, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers her coverage of Hurricane Katrina, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls flying with the family of Rosa Parks

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about a lack of recognition for female leaders in African American civil rights organizations

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Hazel Trice Edney describes the similarities of discrimination against individuals of African descent worldwide

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Hazel Trice Edney remembers covering the 2008 U.S. elections

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about the importance of accountability in black leadership, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about the importance of accountability in black leadership, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls founding the Trice Edney News Wire

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Hazel Trice Edney describes her work at the Trice Edney Newswire

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her presidency of the Capital Press Club

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls her experiences as a professor at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Hazel Trice Edney describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Hazel Trice Edney reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Hazel Trice Edney reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Hazel Trice Edney talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Hazel Trice Edney recalls her encounters with racial slurs throughout her life

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Hazel Trice Edney describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Hazel Trice Edney narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Hazel Trice Edney talks about her decision to pursue collegiate study
Hazel Trice Edney recalls major stories she covered at the Richmond Afro-American
Transcript
When you were a senior then in high school [Louisa County High School, Mineral, Virginia], are you in the--you're in a school play, you're doing better in school? You feel energized; you won the contest. What did your counselors tell you about college?$$ They didn't. I sought them out. I, I had to go and seek out the counselors. You know, I wa- I had been the bad girl and who had suddenly become, you know, sort of like the star. And, and everybody was watching to see what was gonna happen next, but nobody said, "You know what, let me sit down and talk to you about college." I just suddenly decided in a conversation one day with a government teacher, Mr. Clutter [ph.]. I had written a story--a paper about John F. Kennedy [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy], and he was discussing the paper with me. It was something about it he disagreed with. Maybe I didn't do my research or something. It was something about he was scolding me. And I threw my head back and I said, "Well, I'm going to college" (laughter). And I didn't know--I, I don't even know why that came up at that moment, but--or why I said it at that time, but I--that was the first time I declared I'm going to college. And it was fra- and that was in the eleventh grade, and that's when I began to seek out the guidance counselors. And one of them told me actually about Saint Paul's College in Lawrenceville [Virginia], and they thought that I could possibly get in. And so in the twelfth grade I applied to Saint Paul's; and surely they accepted me. That was my, my bright--I always tell people that was my HBCU [historically black colleges and universities] cred.$What were some of the big stories in, in Richmond [Virginia] that you remember, or the memorable stories?$$ The memorable stories pertain to usually the, the, the pain and suffering of, of black people. There was a story, for example, about a, a food stamp line that stretched for blocks. You know, I wrote this story--that stretched for blocks in the wintertime, in, in the cold, in, in the summertime, in the sweltering heat, you had pregnant mothers. You had elderly women, et cetera who had to wait outside for their food stamps. And I would notice this line year after year, and finally I inquired, "What is this line?" It was in August that particular year. And I went inside the facility where they got their food stamps. There was no water, no air conditioning. It was like third world. I hate to use that term, but that's what it was like, literally. This was like--it couldn't be America happening. And so I wrote a story on it, and that story impacted the public policy pertaining to that particular food stamp distributor. The city manager at that time, who was Robert [ph.], Bob, actually cut the contract--ended the contract for that particular distributor and moved the, the recipients to another facility that--in which they could pick up their food stamps in a much more humane condition. And at the same time--and I don't take credit for this, but it just happened to have--happen at the same time. So it could have been my story that did it. Virginia went to like a stagger system in the, the food stamp recipients picking up their food stamps. They didn't all pick 'em up on the same day that caused that humongous line. And so a lot happened after that story broke that I, I believe brought hu- you know, humanity to the people who were suffering there. There were so many other stories. I remember doing a story on, on this--on seeing homeless people sleeping in paper--in cardboard boxes outside the shelter at night in the dead of winter. And we took pictures of these cardboard boxes with these people in them outside, and it was on the front page of the Afro [Richmond Afro-American; Afro-American Newspapers]. And then the next day, it was on the front page of the white daily--the Richmond Times-Dispatch. And so in many instances the stories that we were doing were followed by the white press, and this is just at the Afro. This is before I'd go to the Richmond Free Press. And, and--$$Now this is the opposite of what happens in some of the cities that I know of where the black press seems to--you know, pe- people joke that they're actually reading a white pa- paper the night before, you know.$$ Yes, they'll say we--we're following--well, this is--it's always been opposite in--you know, for, for me. It's always been opposite. I--you know, I've always tended to say okay, this is the story that goes against the grain, but nobody else is saying it. Nobody was writing it, so I'm gonna write it. And it ends up, for example, in The New York Times, which happened when I was at the Free Press. And it ended up on the front page of The Washington Post, which happened when I was at the Afro. And so it's, it's just a matter of having a gut instinct as a journalist and saying, you know what? This is a story regardless of what paper; and other papers will follow you, 'cause it is a story.

Anthony Samad

Author, columnist and professor Anthony Asadullah Samad was born in 1957 in Brooklyn, New York. He graduated from California State University in Los Angeles with his B.A. degree in communications in 1980. Samad went on to receive his M.P.A degree in public finance from the University of Southern California in 1983.

From 1980 until 1984, Samad worked as a branch manager of Beneficial Finance. In 1984, he was hired as the vice president of Founders Savings, and, from 1985 to 1990, he served as president of Liberty Finance Management. Then, in 1991, Samad founded Samad and Associates, a strategic planning and urban affairs firm specializing in the assessment and management of public policy, economic development, urban, social and race issues. In 1996, he was hired by the Los Angeles Community College District, where he currently serves as a professor of political science and African American studies. From 1997 to 2007, he attended Claremont Graduate University, where he received his second M.A. degree in political economy, and then his Ph.D. degree in political science.

Samad has authored five books: Souls for Sale: The Diary of an Ex-Colored Man (2002); 50 Years After Brown: The State of Black Equality in America (2005); Saving The Race: Empowerment Through Wisdom (2007); REAL EYEZ: Race, Reality and Politics In 21st Century Popular Culture (2012); and March On, March On Ye Mighty Host: The Comprehensive History of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. (1914-2013) (2013). From 2007 until 2011, he served as the publisher of Who’s Who In Black Los Angeles. Samad has also been a syndicated columnist, and an opinion leader, publishing articles in newspapers and websites nationwide.

Samad has membership in the Phi Beta Sigma and Sigma Pi Phi fraternities, and has served as a past master of Free and Accepted Masons, Prince Hall Affiliation. He has also been involved with the American Political Science Association and the National Association of Black Journalists. Samad was the Los Angeles NAACP branch president from 1988 to 1989, and, since 1999, he has served as the managing director and host of the Urban Issues Forum of Greater Los Angeles, a monthly public affairs forum that discusses critical issues impacting urban communities. He also served as the president and chairman of the board of 100 Black Men of Los Angeles, Inc. from 2007 to 2009.

Samad has received over 200 awards and citations for his community advocacy work, including elevation to the 33rd and last degree in 1994, the prestigious 2007 Drum Major Award from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Greater Los Angeles, and 2008’s Member of the Year from the 100 Black Men of Los Angeles.

Anthony Asadullah Samad was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 16, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.294

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/16/2013

Last Name

Samad

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Asadullah

Schools

Claremont Graduate University

California State University, Los Angeles

University of Southern California

Los Angeles High School

24th Street Elementary School

P.S. 124 Silas B. Dutcher School

John Adams Middle School

First Name

Anthony

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

SAM05

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

God Doesn’t Put Any More On You Than You Can Bear

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

3/11/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pasta

Short Description

Journalist and political science professor Anthony Samad (1957 - ) authored numerous political columns and scholarly publications, including '50 Years After Brown: The State of Black Equality in America.' He also founded the Urban Issues Forum of Greater Los Angeles.

Employment

Los Angeles Community College District

Samad & Associates

Freelance Journalist

Liberty Finance Management

Founders Savings & Loan

Beneficial Financial Company

California State University, Northridge

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Anthony Samad's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Anthony Samad lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Anthony Samad describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Anthony Samad describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Anthony Samad describes his father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Anthony Samad talks about his parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Anthony Samad remembers lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Anthony Samad describes his community in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Anthony Samad describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Anthony Samad describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Anthony Samad recalls moving to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Anthony Samad remembers his first impressions of California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Anthony Samad remembers the Watts riots in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Anthony Samad describes the impact of the Watts riots

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Anthony Samad describes his early educational experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Anthony Samad talks about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Anthony Samad talks about his early admiration of Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Anthony Samad remembers his family's involvement with the NAACP

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Anthony Samad talks about his love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Anthony Samad talks about his middle school gym teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Anthony Samad talks about his favorite athletes

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Anthony Samad talks about his high school basketball career

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Anthony Samad remembers Los Angeles High School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Anthony Samad talks about his early awareness of black politics

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Anthony Samad remembers his college recruitment offers

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Anthony Samad recalls the development of his political consciousness, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Anthony Samad recalls the development of his political consciousness, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Anthony Samad talks about the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Anthony Samad remembers joining the Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Anthony Samad recalls his decision to study broadcasting

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Anthony Samad talks about the changes in black identity during the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Anthony Samad recalls his mentors at California State University, Los Angeles

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Anthony Samad remembers earning a master's degree in public administration

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Anthony Samad recalls founding the Liberty Finance Management Group

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Anthony Samad recalls his introduction to the Nation of Islam

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Anthony Samad talks about police violence against African Americans

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Anthony Samad recalls his election as president of the NAACP Los Angeles Branch

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Anthony Samad describes his challenges as president of the NAACP Los Angeles Branch, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Anthony Samad describes his challenges as president of the NAACP Los Angeles Branch, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Anthony Samad talks about a personal scandal, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Anthony Samad talks about a personal scandal, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Anthony Samad recalls the start of his career as a newspaper columnist

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Anthony Samad recalls his conversion to Islam and return to Los Angeles

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Anthony Samad describes the work of Samad and Associates

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Anthony Samad remembers his consulting clients

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Anthony Samad remembers the riots in Los Angeles, California in 1992

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Anthony Samad describes the aftermath of the Los Angeles riots of 1992

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Anthony Samad remembers the O.J. Simpson trial, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Anthony Samad remembers the O.J. Simpson trial, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Anthony Samad remembers becoming a political science professor

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Anthony Samad recalls founding the Urban Issues Forum of Greater Los Angeles

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Anthony Samad remembers the speakers at the Urban Issues Forum of Greater Los Angeles

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Anthony Samad talks about the structure of the Urban Issues Forum of Greater Los Angeles

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Anthony Samad reflects upon the importance of the Urban Issues Forum of Greater Los Angeles

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Anthony Samad remembers earning his Ph.D. degree

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Anthony Samad describes the social regression that followed the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Anthony Samad talks about his book, 'Saving the Race, Daily Affirmations for Young Black Males'

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Anthony Samad describes his recent publications

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Anthony Samad talks about the history of the Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Anthony Samad talks about the history of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Anthony Samad describes his current book projects

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Anthony Samad reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Anthony Samad describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Anthony Samad talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Anthony Samad reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Anthony Samad describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$4

DATitle
Anthony Samad talks about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Anthony Samad talks about police violence against African Americans
Transcript
Let me go back a little bit to the assassinations of Malcolm X and Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.].$$ Okay.$$And I have a note here that both of those assassinations affected you when you were young. So, well tell us about--what did you know about Malcolm X when you were growing up?$$ I had heard of Malcolm X, but I have no recollection of hearing about his assassination at the time that it happened. I remember talking about it and hearing about it maybe a year or two later as the pro black radical movement began to take hold in Los Angeles [California] and the Panther [Black Panther Party] movement became significant in Los Angeles. Then I would hear references to Malcolm X and they killed Malcolm that kind of thing. However, the two most significant generational effects of my life happened November 22nd, 1963, and April 4th, 1968. I remember both of those days like they happened yesterday. It was like the world stopped. I remember them letting out school. I was still in New York [New York] when President Kennedy [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy] was killed. I remember the principal coming over the loud speaker and saying, telling the teachers that school is being dismissed, that the children's parents will pick them up outside [of P.S. 124, Silas B. Dutcher School, Brooklyn, New York]. I remember going outside and seeing our parents lined up on the curb and mothers crying and that kind of thing and then the teachers whispering to one another and then the teachers started crying. And then when I got home, that's when my mother [Margaret Davis] told me that the president had been killed. On the day that Martin Luther King was killed, I remember a very, very loud reaction. It was like the whole community came out on their lawns. Everybody ran out of their house screaming, "They killed him." At that point, we lived on Hobart [Boulevard], and it was like the neighborhood mourned together and it was something that I had never experienced, not even with the Kennedy death. I'd been blessed in my family not to have a lot of death. The first death that I was exposed to was the passing of my grandfather on my father's side [John Essex, Jr.], and he died around 1965, '66 [1966], and it, it was, you know, he seemed old so it seemed like just a natural course of life, but you know to see someone in the prime of their lives cut down as Kennedy and King were that brought a different social reality to me that people who do good assume some risks and those risks include death. And this is where you begin now to have conversations with your peers. Generally anytime death is mentioned in your family, it's usually by an older person trying to sit down and console or explain that grandma went to heaven, grandpa went to heaven, that kind of thing. But, to be indoctrinated to political assassinations, you know, I was twelve years old, thirteen years old when King was killed. So before you have reached pub- puberty, you have this political reality as a child that in America death can come upon you for speaking truth to power or for trying to do the right thing or just for being African American in some parts of the country was a sobering reality. It was one that really kind of shaped my worldview.$How were the first few years of Liberty Finance Management [Liberty Finance Management Group, Los Angeles, California]? How--?$$ It was, it was actually good. It allowed me to sustain myself. I will say that I probably never really gave it my full attention because it was at that time I also took a position, an officer's position, in the Los Angeles NAACP [NAACP Los Angeles Branch, Los Angeles, California] in 1986. So, it allowed me to take care of my family and while I pursued my community activism. That was the beginning of my real community activism.$$Okay, now what was the Los Angeles NAACP like when you joined? Who was in it and what were the issues?$$ I became a part of a new wave of leaders. The branch had pretty much died. I mean they had very, very few members, and there was a gentleman by the name of John McDonald who was responsible for revitalizing the NAACP. And the revitalization of the NAACP was phenomenal 'cause he brought a lot of young people including myself to the branch, and he grew the branch from nearly eight hundred members to almost fifteen thousand members. John McDonald passed away in December of 1986 [sic. 1985] at the age of thirty-five. He died of a heart attack at Christmastime.$$This is in 19--?$$ Eighty-six [1986].$$Eighty-six [1986], okay so this is shortly after he brought you in.$$ Yeah, after he pulled me in. So, all of us basically took an oath to stay engaged and try to, you know, keep John's dream alive. And this was also the period of time in which you began to see a significant shift in Los Angeles [California] in terms of the way police were treating people. Police abuse and misconduct was on the rise. We had a police chief by the name of Daryl Gates who essentially took a paramilitary stand against the black community. You know he created this thing called the battering ram. You began to see the vestiges of the cocaine and the crack movement began to come into the African American community and so, and then you began to see the rise of the black gang movement in the black community.$$Now this is, this is an era when out on the East Coast crack cocaine was coming into Washington, D.C., you know some of the East Coast cities. It hadn't reached Chicago [Illinois] yet, but was it doing the same thing on the West Coast?$$ Yeah, it was just beginning to creep in. It, it probably took five years to take hold, so by the early '90s [1990s] it was here, but you, you could see the vestiges of it in '86 [1986], '87 [1987], '88 [1988] and so you began to see LAPD [Los Angeles Police Department] take a more aggressive position. So, as vice president of the NAACP, I took on major issues with respect to economic discrimination and police abuse.$$Okay, LAPD has a long history of antagonism--$$ Oh yeah.$$--with people of color in Los Angeles.$$ Oh going back to the 1920s you know.$$Right.$$ In almost every riot whether it was the black community or Latino community, because remember the zoot suit riots occurred in the 1930s [sic. 1943], and I think that you know even though the Watts riots of '65 [1965] were oftentimes seen as the flashpoint of police misconduct, there had been many, many riots in Los Angeles and when I say many riots you know small conflicts with the police that didn't blow up into full scale riots.$$Yeah, not the, you know--$$ Earlier than 1965, way earlier.$$There's the photo of Malcolm X with a picture of a brother that was shot.$$ Well when the, the, when the police attacked the mosque [Mosque No. 27; Temple No. 27, Los Angeles, California] in 1962 and then of course they attacked the Panthers [Black Panther Party] in 1970 on, on 41st [Street] and Central [Avenue]. They shot out the, the Panther office, you know so, you know they, they have been very aggressive. In the 1980s, they, they had become paramilitary, you know, because Daryl Gates is the police chief responsible for creating SWAT [Special Weapons and Tactics], you know which is, you know the marksmen teams that you know take out snipers and those kinds of things, but that whole set up was perfected on the black community; you know it was perfected on the black community.