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Cheryl Smith

Journalist and publisher Cheryl Lynn Smith was born on June 20, 1958 in Newark, New Jersey to Joseph Smith and Earline Gadson. Smith attended public elementary schools in Newark and East Orange, New Jersey, and graduated from East Orange High School in 1976. She received her B.S. degree in journalism from Florida A&M University in 1980, and her M.S. degree in human relations and business from Amberton University in Dallas, Texas in 1986.

In 1980, Smith was hired as editor for Capital Outlook News in Tallahassee, Florida. From 1981 to 1984, she worked as a production coordinator for TV Watch in Dallas, Texas and JC Penney Life Insurance Company in Richardson, Texas. In 1987, Smith was hired at The Dallas Weekly, where she served as a staff writer, executive editor, editor-in-chief and columnist. Smith also worked for five years for Dallas County Commissioner John Wiley Price. From 1997 to 2000, she served as executive editor of Future Speak, a weekly newspaper produced by Dallas area high school and college students for the Dallas Examiner newspaper.

Smith worked as a producer and talk show host at KKDA-AM from 1990 until 2012, and as a show host of PAX-TV’s “The Ester Davis Show” from 2010 to 2012. She was also the host of Blog Talk Radio’s “Cheryl’s World,” and cable television’s “On the Dotted Line.” In 2011, Smith founded I Messenger Enterprises, where she serves as publisher and editor of I Messenger, The Garland Journal and Texas Metro News. In addition, she was an associate professor at Paul Quinn College from 1999 to 2010, and an adjunct professor at the University of North Texas from 2002 to 2009.

Smith has served as the president of the Dallas-Fort Worth Association of Black Journalists and the Dallas-Fort Worth Florida A&M University National Alumni Association. She was a two-term National Association of Black Journalists regional director, and has served as president of the Dallas-Metroplex Council of Black Alumni Associations. In 1994, she became the first African American and female to chair the North Texas Health Facilities Corporation. Smith has also served on the boards of the Dallas Alumnae Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Irving Cares and the Leslie K. Bedford Foundation. In 1995, she established the Don’t Believe the Hype Foundation.

Smith has won numerous awards, including the Messenger Award from National Newspaper Publishers Association, the Journalism Excellence Award from The Dallas Examiner, the Outstanding Journalist Award from Elite News, the Barry Bingham Sr. Award from the National Conference of Editorial Writers, as well as multiple awards from the Texas Publishers Association, the NNPA, the NAACP, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, and the Dallas-Fort Worth Association of Black Communicators. The National Civil Rights Museum awarded her the “Invisible Giant” Award, and in 2005, the Omicron Mu Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. presented her with the “Image Award.” In 2009, Smith was honored by the Journalism Educator’s Association. She also received the Outstanding Alumni Award from the Dallas-Metroplex Council of Black Alumni Associations and Woman of the Year award from the Women Empowering Women Foundation.

Since 1992, Smith has been raising her nephew and three nieces: Andre, Alayna, Annya and Ayanna.  

Cheryl Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 7, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.096

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/7/2014

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Occupation
Schools

Chancellor Ave

Whitney E. Houston Acad

G. Washington Carver Institute

East Orange Campus High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Amberton University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Cheryl

Birth City, State, Country

Newark

HM ID

SMI30

State

New Jersey

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

6/20/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Short Description

Journalist and publisher Cheryl Smith (1958 - ) was the publisher of I Messenger, The Garland Journal and Texas Metro News. She also worked for The Dallas Weekly for over twenty-five years as a staff writer, executive editor, editor-in-chief and columnist.

Employment

IMessenger

Dallas Weekly

KKDA-AM

Ester Davis Show

University of North Texas

Paul Quinn College

Carol Randolph-Jasmine

Television anchor, journalist and literary agent Carol Randolph-Jasmine received her B.A. degree in biology from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, and her M.A. degree in science education from Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. She went on to earn her J.D. degree from the Columbus School of Law at Catholic University in Washington, D.C.

Randolph-Jasmine entered television broadcasting in the early 1980s as the co-host of the morning talk show, “Harambee,” which aired on WDVM-TV, a CBS affiliate in Washington, D.C. While there, she also worked as an anchorwoman and interviewed politicians and celebrities such as Senator Ted Kennedy, comedian Richard Pryor, former first ladies Roselyn Carter and Nancy Reagan, and musician Stevie Wonder. Randolph-Jasmine then joined Court TV, where she served as an anchorwoman, and as the host and moderator of the show, “Your Turn,” until 1986.

In 1987, Randolph-Jasmine joined the literary firm of Goldfarb, Signer & Ross (now Goldfarb, Kaufman & O’Toole), where she specialized in representing authors and clients in television from 1988 to 1991, and, during that time, she also wrote a bi-weekly column, “Metropolitan Life,” for the Washington Times. She then served as general counsel for New African Visions, Inc., the non-profit organization responsible for editing the book, Songs of My People (1992). She is the co-founder of Akin & Randolph Agency, LLC, a firm that represents authors, artists and athletes. Randolph-Jasmine was later appointed as the vice president of strategic communications for Miller & Long Concrete Construction, and was then named senior vice president of legal affairs for Walls Communications, Inc., a minority-owned public relations firm in Washington, D.C.

Randolph-Jasmine is a member of the Pennsylvania Bar Association, the District of Columbia Bar Association, and The Links, Inc., where she served as chair of the Hurricane Katrina Relief Committee. In 2005, she launched a “Construction Academy” at Cardoza Senior High School in Washington, D.C. for students interested in the construction business. Randolph-Jasmine is also a member of the board of directors for the Center for Dispute Resolution.

As co-host of “Harambee” in the 1980s, Randolph-Jasmine won several awards including an Emmy Award and the George Foster Peabody Award for “Outstanding Local Programming.”

Carol Randolph-Jasmine was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 5, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.335

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/5/2013

Last Name

Randolph-Jasmine

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Catholic University of America

Washington University in St Louis

Fisk University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Carol

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

RAN11

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hilton Head, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Better To Wear Out Than To Rust Out.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/10/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Broccoli

Short Description

Television anchor, newspaper columnist, and book publisher Carol Randolph-Jasmine (1941 - ) , co-founder of Akin & Randolph Agency, LLC, is the former co-host of the morning talk show, “Harambee,” which aired on WUSA-TV, a CBS affiliate in Washington D.C. She received an Emmy Award and the George Foster Peabody Award for “Outstanding Local Programming."

Employment

Miller & Long Concrete Construction

New African Visions, Inc.

Walls Communications

Akin & Randolph Agency

Court TV

Washington Times

Goldfarb, Kaufman & O' Toole

WDVM TV

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:37400,493:45856,563:72740,829:94590,1200:105746,1330:108650,1366:109266,1375:112611,1404:113007,1409:117140,1471:120092,1529:120666,1574:153860,1964:159790,2026:175066,2314:182416,2376:185188,2449:187234,2501:187696,2509:217639,2983:229690,3216:236830,3349:244860,3424$0,0:2001,66:11560,202:15129,263:15627,270:15959,275:16540,284:17951,304:18366,311:18698,316:35045,559:35450,597:51804,813:55089,888:66888,1028:73155,1097:74104,1150:85076,1309:89407,1400:89762,1406:90117,1412:90472,1418:91821,1447:103335,1604:108226,1743:116698,1862:138410,2211:138896,2218:143108,2284:144647,2311:146348,2348:157050,2501:157405,2507:165845,2633:167495,2686:168095,2697:176120,2872:178970,2923:192290,3145:201192,3295:201852,3306:204162,3364:207200,3379
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carol Randolph-Jasmine's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her maternal grandfather's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes the neighborhood where her parents grew up

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her grandfathers

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her similarities to her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her childhood neighborhood in the suburbs of St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine remembers learning to read and beginning kindergarten at age four

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine remembers learning about black history at Riddick Elementary School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine remembers a social science project in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about her early desire to become a psychologist and her high school biology class

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about St. Louis, Missouri's black entertainment scene during her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her high school activities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her childhood career ambitions

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about her decision to attend Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her experience at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her experience at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee as a married woman

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about various professions as well as her professors at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes experiencing racial discrimination as a graduate student at Washington University in St. Louis, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes experiencing racial discrimination as a graduate student at Washington University in St. Louis, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes going to the 1963 March on Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about teaching at McKinley High School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about life in Washington, D.C. and working for the United Planning Organization

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes the 1968 riots in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about auditioning for the television show 'Harambee' in 1969

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine recalls her early days on 'Harambee'

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes a black history segment on 'Harambee'

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes the African American community of Washington, D.C. during the early years of 'Harambee'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes the impact of producer Beverly Price on the show 'Harambee'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes the organization Blacks in Broadcasting group

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about how 'Harambee' evolved as a television show and a special segment on Eubie Blake

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes 'Harambee's AIDS segment

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about earning her law degree and taking the bar exam

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine recalls traveling to Israel to cover the First Intifada

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about working at Goldfarb, Kaufman, & O'Toole

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her role in the publication of "Songs of My People"

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine explains how she was hired at Court TV

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes covering the O.J. Simpson Trial for Court TV

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine analyzes the O.J. Simpson trial

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine explains how she came to work with Miller and Long Concrete Construction

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her civic engagement

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine reflects on her hopes and what she would do differently

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about the portrayal of black people in the media

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about the importance of teaching black history

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine recounts a memorable experience from her time as a teacher

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes her family and second husband

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
Carol Randolph-Jasmine talks about how 'Harambee' evolved as a television show and a special segment on Eubie Blake
Carol Randolph-Jasmine describes covering the O.J. Simpson Trial for Court TV
Transcript
Okay, okay. So now 'Harambee' lasted until?$$I don't remember when it went off the air.$$Okay. But it morphed?$$Yeah, it did. I morphed into "Everywoman" was (unclear) the show that followed and it had Rene Carpenter as the hostess and she at one time had another person hosting with her, I think it was JC Hayward. Well I came over and replaced JC, so I would get off the set of Harambee and then go over and walk across the studio and get on the set for "Everywoman". And then they put that together and it became "Nine In The Morning". They added a male host. It was 90 minutes that we did and Doug Llewelyn was the male host. Then they cut it back to an hour again for "Morning Break" and I did that by myself. And then I did the Carol Randolph Show by myself.$$Okay. Did the format change?$$It was still very much like you see today. You know, we had--sometimes we would--we'd have, sometimes a theme, dependent upon what the topic was, segments, musical, phone-in. I remember doing a show, and I don't know why this sticks in my mind, but we were talking about homosexuality and there was a tendency for the members of the panel that was up there to be condescending to some of the questions that were coming in, cause some of them could be really rather ridiculous and show a definite lack of knowledge. And I remember saying that if you hear it from one person then you know there's many more behind him that believes this. You need to give them an answer. And the guy on the program said she's absolutely right. And then he went around and answered that question. Now stands out in my mind simply because it was an open phone question. One of the best fun shows I ever did was with Billy Eckstine and Joe Williams. That was--cause as a teenager I had a crush on Billy Eckstine. And who didn't love Joe Williams with that deep voice of his and they performed. So it was a great show that I'm so sorry that we don't have. And we did a special with Eubie Blake. Claude Matthews was the co-host at that time. And we did a--that was just before Eubie actually died and he played. It was a wonderful, wonderful experience.$$Now he's a pioneer black (unclear). How old was he when he died?$$Was he in his nineties or something like that when he died, I think he was. His fingers could still move up and down the piano, you know, so. Yeah, I think they did this show. What was the Broadway show did in his--$$Oh, "Scott Joplin." Oh no, "Ragtime." Was that what you were talking about. Oh, no, not "Ragtime".$$--It was a Eubie Blake show and he was on '60 Minutes.'$$Yes. Uh-huh, but we were before them. And I don't know how we happened to get him before them, but we did, you know, and we did a special with him that aired at night time. Now I remember doing a show, who was the co-host of that one. I don't even remember now, but we did a late night show cause somebody had decided that there was an audience for late night, and we were talking about sex and a whole bunch of things on that one. That was an interesting show. That was a fun show.$$So it lasted for a few years, or--$$That was only for a pilot. We just did it just to see if there was an audience out there. There was. I don't remember now why they didn't decide to go on and, in fact, just sitting here talking to you about it has brought that back to me, you know, to my mind. But I had forgotten about it, yeah.$So did you have to move out to L.A. [Los Angeles, California] for that?$$No. They had a reporter out there. Actually, I was on the air when they had just gone into making the decision, cause you know these views about what was gonna happen and so forth. And I always felt that the prosecution had not done a very good job in terms of laying out their case. They'd over done it in terms of the DNA evidence, etc. And I remember one of my professors in law school said, "If you gonna go out to shoot a king, you better have a kings-sized rifle." I didn't think they had it and especially with that bit about with the glove, you know, if it doesn't fit, you must have acquit which is the way it was presented in the closing arguments.$$Yeah, by Johnnie Cochran?$$By Johnnie Cochran. And I thought--I remember when O.J. Simpson put on those gloves, I think he was just as surprised as anybody that the things didn't fit. 'Cause you know, I had done domestic law, not a lot of it when I was in Washington [D.C.], and the one thing I always thought, when a woman--when a man finally understands that a woman may really, one who has been abused, is really leaving you, she's in the most danger at that point. Because they don't see whatever, the beating up or any of these other things that they've done as being criminal because she deserved it, I'm entitled, that kind of thing. And so when the first story broke that she was dead and he was arrested, I thought he had done it. I just didn't think the prosecution ever proved it. So I was on the air talking to Ricky Clemmon [ph.], she was out in California, and all of a sudden they said, oh, oh, we got a verdict. But they didn't know what it was 'cause they had to bring in all the people, but it was very quick. So everybody thought it was gonna be a guilty verdict. And Steve Brill [ph.] had sent around this notice to saying there would be no outburst, you know, if you did that, you would be fired. But that was Steve Brill, you know, he would give you these extreme kind of you know notifications. And then when it came in, it was a not guilty thing. It was like most amazing to a lot of people. But it really wasn't to me because I think Marcia Clark thought she could handle that kind of a jury. I understand black people, I understand black women, whatever. Well, I have been, since, on a jury here and I can't tell you I can understand black people because we don't march in the same way. You know, you can say, you know, black people are gonna do this that and the other as she thought she could identify with and what they did was, you know, they were waiting for some kind of a hook, and Johnnie Cochran gave it to them with this, "If it doesn't fit, you must acquit." And there you have it. But it was on the air, and then O.J. Simpson called in and I was on the air one time. I didn't recognize his voice. I don't remember now exactly what it was he wanted to talk about-$$Did he call incognito or did he-$$--He even--no, he said this is--I was on the air and somebody came flying into the studio and said, O.J. Simpson is on the air. And he was trying to explain, I think, this was when his--the second trial was up, you know about the civil trial. I don't remember his question, but he and I got into a discussion about that, so those are things that stand out in my mind about Court TV.

Pluria Marshall, Jr.

Publisher and broadcasting executive Pluria Marshall, Jr. was born on January 17, 1962 in Houston, Texas. His father, Pluria Marshall, Sr., is a professional photographer and a civil rights activist in the media business. Marshall graduated from Clark College, now Clark Atlanta University, in 1984 with his B.S. degree in business administration and management.

In 1981, while attending Clark College, Marshall was hired at KLTV in Tyler, Texas, as a management-training intern. He spent the next two summers in Lufkin, Texas, and continued his management-training program. He then worked for WXIA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia and for Turner Broadcasting in 1982 and 1983. From 1984 to 1985, Marshall completed his management training and development position at WLBT-TV in Jackson, Mississippi. In 1986, he served as the station manager and then as vice president of WLBM-TV in Meridian, Mississippi. Marshall entered into an agreement to purchase WLBM in 1990, but the transaction did not consummate due to a suspicious fire at the facility in April of that same year. In 1992, he purchased The Informer & Texas Freeman in Houston, Texas. Then, in 1993, Marshall became general manager and owner of WLTH Radio in Gary, Indiana, and also purchased the KHRN radio station licensed to the Hearne, Texas, Bryan College Station radio market in 1994. He ran both the AM talk radio station in Gary and the radio station in Bryan College Station for several years.

In 1997, Marshall joined the board of the Wave Community Newspapers, and purchased a controlling interest in 1998. He then purchased the Los Angeles Independent in 2000. After the purchase of the Los Angeles Independent, Marshall merged both operations to form the Los Angeles Wave Publications Group. In 2013, he launched Integrated Multicultural Media Solutions; a media planning and buying firm that specializes in placing ads that target multicultural audiences.

Marshall has been a member of the National Black Media Coalition, the National Association of Broadcasters, and the National Association of Television Programming Executives. He has also served on the boards of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, the Texas Association of Broadcasters, the California Newspaper Publishers Association, and the National Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation. Marshall is chairman of the board and president of the Watts Willowbrook Boys & Girls Club.

Pluria Marshall, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 15, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.295

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/15/2013

Last Name

Marshall

Maker Category
Schools

Clark Atlanta University

Lockhart Elementary School

Meyerland Performing and Visual Arts Middle School

James Madison High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Pluria

Birth City, State, Country

Houston

HM ID

MAR17

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Don't Make Dollars That Don't Make Cents.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

1/17/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hamburgers

Short Description

Broadcast executive, publisher, and newspaper publishing chief executive Pluria Marshall, Jr. (1962 - ) was the owner and publisher of the Houston Informer and Texas Freeman and the Los Angeles Wave Publications Group. He also operated WLTH Radio and Integrated Multicultural Media Solutions.

Employment

KLTV

WXIA TV

Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.

WLBM TV

WLTH Radio

KHRN

Informer & Texas Freeman

Los Angeles Wave Publications Group

Integrated Multicultural Media Solutions

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:5100,103:7704,144:8541,158:9099,166:10587,186:11796,209:13470,250:17097,359:21654,423:36602,592:40292,717:53928,916:56594,977:57110,984:74700,1417:75351,1425:80187,1516:90224,1579:98910,1834:105930,1913:109770,2015:124190,2363:128780,2461:129410,2470:129860,2476:130580,2485:144338,2722:144758,2732:146018,2779:152298,2837:162262,3107:172825,3303:187871,3541:188306,3547:193265,3655:199964,3790:200399,3796:208841,3878:216038,3987:217936,4062:252805,4470:259455,4669:260460,4712$0,0:10552,307:10982,313:17346,419:20614,470:29254,512:40228,648:40852,655:46704,756:59185,878:61795,985:67798,1071:68320,1091:81230,1289:88160,1401:88848,1412:101350,1660:111622,1815:118837,1927:121516,1971:123172,2021:124468,2049:128788,2151:131164,2210:131668,2219:141958,2352:142490,2361:160075,2717:160585,2724:163815,2771:172099,3089:173874,3150:195450,3364
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Pluria Marshall, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about his mother's upbringing in the Third Ward of Houston, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about his father's civil rights activism

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his paternal grandparents' professions

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about his father's education

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his father' role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers his father's accomplishments as a photojournalist

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his household

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls accompanying his father on photography shoots

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers his neighborhood in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his early interest in sports

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about the influence of his father

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his experiences of integration busing

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers Johnston Middle School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes the racial demographics of James Madison High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his participation in athletics at James Madison High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers his part-time position at KPRC-TV in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers the black publications in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about his father's relocation to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers his decision to attend Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes the communications department at Clark College

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his college internships, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his college internships, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers the Atlanta Missing and Murdered Children cases

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about the historically black college experience

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers his decision to major in business

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his training at WLBT-TV in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers his first impressions of Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his role at WLBM-TV in Meridian, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his management approach at WLBM-TV in Meridian, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers the programming on WLBM-TV in Meridian, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls the major news stories in Meridian, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers the fire at WLBM-TV in Meridian, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about his sales position at KBXX Radio in Houston, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls acquiring WLTH Radio and KHRN Radio

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers his partnership with Lorenzo Butler

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about the programming on WLTH Radio in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers the programming changes at KHRN Radio in Hearne, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his decision to settle in Houston, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about the Houston Informer and Texas Freeman

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his editorial philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his role at the National Newspaper Publishers Association

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls joining the board of Wave Community Newspapers, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes the history of Wave Community Newspapers, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his challenges at the Wave Community Newspapers, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes the Los Angeles Wave Publication Group's role in the community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about his business strategy for Los Angeles Wave Publications Group

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. remembers filing for bankruptcy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about his hopes for African American broadcasting

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. reflects upon his family

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. talks about the Black Media Preservation Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Pluria Marshall, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$11

DATitle
Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls his role at WLBM-TV in Meridian, Mississippi
Pluria Marshall, Jr. recalls joining the board of Wave Community Newspapers, Inc.
Transcript
So you were there fif- fifteen months. What happened? Why did you, well why didn't you stay longer?$$Well, as you can probably tell by my, my history, I, I like to work, and there was really not a whole lot more for me to do. I mean I had been in three years--three summers of training, been at WLBT [WLBT-TV, Jackson, Mississippi] for, you know, a little over a year. And so Frank [Frank Melton] would, you know, we'd have board meetings, and he was, he'd allow me and my cohort to attend the board meetings, you know, for the exposure. And so, they would always talk about this little station [WLBM-TV; WGBC-TV] in Meridian [Mississippi]. They said, "Oh, man, that station's not making money." The guy would come, and he would have a song and dance every month. Why we're losing money, why we're doing this, why we're doing that or whatever. And so I said to Frank, you know, I'm twenty-two, twenty-three years old, I'm like, "Frank, come on, man, you know, if it's losing money, I mean, you know, give me a shot. Let me run it," you know, and I'm, yeah, as they say full of piss and vinegar. And so he said, "Well, hell, Pluria [HistoryMaker Pluria Marshall, Jr.], you know, you can't do any worse than what's going on there now. We're losing money." And so I said, "Okay, great." So he says, "All right, you can move to Meridian." And so, I said, "Okay, great." So we had to renegotiate my little package that I was getting paid and everything. And so he said--so I said, "So what do I do?" He said, "You make it make money." I said, "Okay, so how do I do that?" He said, "You cut your expenses, raise your revenue." I said, "Oh, okay, great. That's easy, you know." And so literally, I got there and the guy that ran the station, it was a guy named Glenn Rose. Glenn was a nice old guy, but he's just not really good at raising or selling ads and things of that sort. And he used to always say, "Pluria, you just, you're just too aggressive, you just, you know, you just, you gotta be patient." I said, "Dude, I have no patience, you know, I've gotta get this done." So--$$This sounds like a clash in cultures of--in Mississippi, they do, they move slower. They move slower.$$Oh, they do. They do.$$So I mean you're like, you know--$$Yeah, I (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) anybody watching this can see.$$Oh, yeah, yeah, I'm like, hey, guys, you gotta move. You know, I mean I'm, I can't sit here and wait, you know. So, finally, after probably about, you know, two or three months, you know, Glenn gave me, through Frank, he said, "All right let him be a--," I was a station manager. And so I'd go in, "I'm sorry, fine. We can fire this person. We need to do this. We're gonna raise the rates. We're gonna make the--," I did all the things that I was trained to basically do. And so ninety days after I got there, the station made money. And so, you know, I said, "Frank. I did it, all right? So make me the general manager," (laughter). And so he was like, "You know, you're being a little impatient, Pluria." I'm like, "Yeah, I am, you know." And so I kept pushing and pushing and pushing. And so finally Glenn said, you know--and Glenn was a little bit older and been around the business for quite some time. He said, well, he's gonna basically retire. And so I said, well, you know, the station's mine at that point. And so Frank, you know, put me in as the vice president and general manager. And it also helped that NBC was on its rise in the mid-'80s [1980s]. So we had 'The Cosby Show' and we had all this great programming. Although the station was a bit of a, less than a full powered station, it covered the Meridian area. But it wasn't as big as the station in Jackson [Mississippi]. And so, you know, I kept it, it never lost a dime as long as I ran it. It was always very profitable. And so I ran it from, essentially, '85 [1985], '86 [1986] until 1990.$$Okay, and you got a large black viewing audience down there, I would imagine?$$We do, we do. Yeah, the state's about 50 percent black.$$Right.$$Yeah.$$So anything you put in the air, there's gonna be a lot of black folks, at least by this time, having--with TV sets. They can check it out.$$Right, oh, yeah, definitely, definitely.$$And watching a lot of TV.$$Yeah, 'The Cosby Show' was a hit. It definitely was.$$Okay, okay, so you were there--you weren't there that--were you there very long? I mean--$$From, from, as I said, from about '85 [1985] to '90 [1990], roughly 'cause when I spent--I was in Jackson for about fifteen months. So, and that was from '84 [1984] to '85 [1985]. So, late '85 [1985] to 1990. So I was there about, you know, for five and a half years.$Is it now talk, time to talk about the Wave?$$Sure, sure, sure, sure.$$'Cause there's--$$(Simultaneous) So, so all right, so we segued, so we have Houston [Houston Informer and Texas Freeman]. We had Gary [WLTH Radio, Gary, Indiana], we had KHRN [KHRN Radio; KVJM Radio, Hearne, Texas]. I mean we got all these properties, and so as I said, when they, they deregulated radio, it made it difficult for me to one, find stations, two, acquire financing. And, and so our offices in Houston [Texas] were domiciled within the 610 loop [Interstate 610]. So Houston has a loop system. So 610 is the loop. So there was this company that was getting a fairly large bit of notoriety called Enron [Enron Corporation]. And, you know, I knew who they were. They were big. They were doing all kinds of things.$$That's the big energy company that--$$Enron, oh, yeah.$$--the big energy that got in trouble.$$This is the big one.$$Enron, all right.$$Enron, so, you know, as I'm out looking for money, I get a phone call from someone who says, "Hey, Enron company is looking to do things locally in a local community." And so they said, "Okay, so--," I'm like, "Great, that was good. How does that help me?" "Well, they have money to invest." I said, "Oh, fantastic." So they said, "One of the first requirements--," (laughter), which was you had to be within the 610 loop. I said, "Really?" I said, "As long as my business is inside the loop, I'd qualify for one of their possible loans?" And he said, "Yes. I said, "Wow, okay," I said, "that's great." So I'm involved with NNPA [National Newspaper Publishers Association] and I'm out scouting and talking to people and so, they, I get a call that there's this paper in Los Angeles [California] called the Wave. And so I said, "Okay, fine." So I went and did my research on L.A. There was a Wave, the Los Angeles Wave was a community paper. The Los Angeles Sentinel was a black paper. So I said, "Well, heck, let's just, you know, run the gamut and see what we can find out." I contacted the people over at the Sentinel, had a real difficult time getting to the owner, just never could get any traction there at all. So I talked to the, this gentleman that was running the Wave, C.Z. Wilson. And so, you know, I talked to him, and, he says, "Oh, yeah, man, we're doing great things. We got a bunch of people, and I'm taking over, and we're looking to acquire, had some challenges." And so I said, "Okay." He said, "Oh, I want you to come over and join my board [of Wave Community Newspapers, Inc., Los Angeles, California]?" I said, "Really?" I said, "C.Z., I mean, I know I'm a young, young guy," probably thirty-eight, thirty-nine years old, "but I'm buying businesses just like this. I mean I would buy this newspaper." He said, "Oh, don't worry about it--," he used to call me young buck, "Oh, don't worry about it, young buck. You come on in." So I said, "No, I'm gonna have my lawyer write you a letter to basically let you know that essentially, I'm a fox and you're a henhouse. And I like eggs," (laughter), you know. "So I want you to be very clear that if you add me to your board, there's a possibility that I would acquire, acquire this newspaper, you know, from you guys." And so, you know, he said, "Oh, fine." I said, "Okay, no worries. I'll come in, and I'll join the board."

Dana Canedy

Writer and journalist Dana Canedy was born and raised near Fort Knox, Kentucky. Although she was the daughter of a military family, Canedy knew from a young age that she wanted to be a writer. After being the first in her family to graduate from high school, Canedy went on to receive her B.A. degree in journalism from the University of Kentucky. While at the University of Kentucky, she volunteered for internships and phoned publications in order to see if she could work for free. In her junior year of college, Canedy received an internship from the Wall Street Journal.

Upon graduation, Canedy was hired as a police beat reporter at the West Palm Beach Post, where she worked for one year. Not happy with her position, she left the West Palm Beach Post and went to work for the Cleveland Plain Dealer, where she was a reporter from 1988 until 1996. Then, in 1996, Canedy was hired as a reporter for the New York Times, where she covered stories ranging from race relations to spending time with a murderer in order to learn how and why he killed. Canedy also worked as a national correspondent and as bureau chief for Florida. In 2001, she was part of the team that won a Pulitzer Prize for national reporting for "How Race Is Lived in America," a series on race relations in the United States. In 2006, Canedy was promoted to senior editor at the New York Times in charge of newsroom recruiting and hiring, newsroom staff training, and career development.

Canedy authored the New York Times best-selling memoir A Journal for Jordan: A Story of Love and Honor, which was published in 2008. It tells the story of Canedy's fiancé, First Sergeant Charles Monroe King, who died as the result of the detonation of an improvised explosive device (I.E.D.) during the war in Iraq. Canady now lives with her son Jordan in New York City.

Dana Canedy was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 12, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.298

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/12/2013

Last Name

Canedy

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

University of Kentucky

Mudge Elementary School

Radcliff Elementary School

North Hardin High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Dana

Birth City, State, Country

Fort Knox

HM ID

CAN05

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Kentucky

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

I Love You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

6/8/1965

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster Pizza

Short Description

Newspaper editor and author Dana Canedy (1965 - ) was a senior editor at The New York Times. She was part of the team that won a Pulitzer Prize for "How Race Is Lived in America." She was also the author of The New York Times bestseller A Journal for Jordan: A Story of Love and Honor.

Employment

West Palm Beach Post

Plain Dealer

New York Times

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dana Canedy's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dana Canedy lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dana Canedy describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dana Canedy describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dana Canedy describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dana Canedy lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dana Canedy describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dana Canedy remembers her community in Fort Knox, Kentucky

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dana Canedy describes her family's household

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dana Canedy remembers Mudge Elementary School in Fort Knox, Kentucky

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dana Canedy talks about growing up on a military base

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dana Canedy remembers her chores

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dana Canedy talks about her father's infidelity

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dana Canedy talks about her early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dana Canedy describes her parents' values

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dana Canedy recalls moving to Radcliff, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dana Canedy remembers North Hardin High School in Radcliff, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dana Canedy remembers her influential teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dana Canedy talks about her early interest in writing

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dana Canedy recalls her start at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dana Canedy remembers her newspaper internships

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dana Canedy remembers her internship at The Wall Street Journal, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dana Canedy talks about her African American peers at the University of Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dana Canedy describes her passion for journalism

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dana Canedy remembers her internship at The Wall Street Journal, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dana Canedy remembers securing her first full-time reporting position

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dana Canedy describes her experiences as a police reporter for The Palm Beach Post

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dana Canedy recalls her decision to leave The Palm Beach Post

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dana Canedy describes the work environment at The Plain Dealer in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dana Canedy talks about her reporting experiences at The Plain Dealer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dana Canedy remembers the Robert C. Maynard Institute for Journalism Education

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dana Canedy recalls the news stories she covered at The Plain Dealer

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dana Canedy talks about the role of emotions and objectivity in journalism

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dana Canedy talks about her aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dana Canedy remembers being offered a position at The New York Times

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dana Canedy talks about the apprenticeship program at The New York Times

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dana Canedy talks about the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dana Canedy talks about her training at The New York Times

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dana Canedy talks about The New York Times organization

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dana Canedy describes The New York Times' role in the news industry

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dana Canedy talks about her relationship with Gregory L. Moore

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dana Canedy remembers meeting Charles M. King

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dana Canedy describes her decision to have a child

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dana Canedy talks about Charles M. King's career

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dana Canedy reflects upon her relationship with Charles M. King

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dana Canedy reflects upon the role of religion in her relationship with Charles M. King

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dana Canedy talks about Charles M. King's journal

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dana Canedy remembers Charles M. King's death

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dana Canedy remembers her decision to write about Charles M. King's death

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dana Canedy remembers reading Charles M. King's journal for the first time

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dana Canedy talks about the process of writing 'A Journal For Jordan'

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dana Canedy talks about her son, Jordan King, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dana Canedy talks about her son, Jordan King, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dana Canedy reflects upon her life after Charles M. King's death

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dana Canedy reflects upon her memories of Charles M. King

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dana Canedy remembers her first position at The New York Times

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dana Canedy remembers the impetus for 'How Race Is Lived in America'

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dana Canedy describe her work on 'How Race Is Lived in America'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dana Canedy recalls her professional growth after the publication of 'How Race Is Lived in America'

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dana Canedy describes her experiences as chief of The New York Times' Florida bureau

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dana Canedy describes her role as assignment editor on the national desk of The New York Times

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dana Canedy describes her responsibilities as a senior editor at The New York Times

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dana Canedy talks about the future of journalism

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dana Canedy talks about the impact of digital technology on journalism

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dana Canedy describes her plans for the future

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dana Canedy describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dana Canedy reflects upon the legacy of her generation

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dana Canedy reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dana Canedy describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$3

DAStory

4$7

DATitle
Dana Canedy remembers her decision to write about Charles M. King's death
Dana Canedy recalls the news stories she covered at The Plain Dealer
Transcript
So like I, I--it's funny. As you'll see this pattern in my life, I always come back to writing, right? So I come back to work after the funeral, and I just couldn't work. I'm like, "Okay, so you bury him [Charles M. King] and then you just go on like nothing happened?" So my boss--one of my bosses, Jill Abramson, who's now the executive editor and who's a friend, came by my desk one day and said, "How are you doing?" And I said, "I'm, I'm not well." And she said, "Well, leave," and I just left. And then I said to her--we were coming up on, in this country, of three thousand soldiers dying in the war [Iraq War], and every time there's like, five hundred soldiers, one thousand soldiers. You hit these sort of artificial markers in, in numb- casualty numbers. News organizations take that as an opportunity to take stock in where we are in the war. And so we were preparing this big package about the, the war which I was involved in. And I remember thinking, I'm the only soldier--the only national journalist in the country who's lost a soldier in this war and had that knock on the door from the [U.S.] military. I need to write about this. So Jill said, "Let's do it," and I wrote a first person piece about losing a soldier in war that ran on the front page of The Times [The New York Times]. And I remember at that time, one of the people who was in charge of website said, "We thought the site was going to crash from all the traffic." And he said--he said to me, "I wondered, what did we do?" And he said, "And I looked at the paper and I said that's what we did." And the response was so overwhelming that I realized I wanted to keep writing. And so--and I wanted people to know more and more about this man than the journal. And not just about us, but about the sacrifices that military families make every day without anybody knowing about them. And so I wrote the book, 'A Journal for Jordan' ['A Journal for Jordan: A Story of Love and Honor,' Dana Canedy] is the title, incorporating pieces of the journal into a memoir of our life together. And I wrote it primarily for Jordan [Canedy's son, Jordan King], so every chapter of the book starts, "Dear Jordan." And, and it was really--this is the most amazing thing. It wa- it's, it's the last project he and I ever did together. Because he wrote his part, and then I wrote my part; and we put it together. And so we really have this project that lives on, you know.$You know, I was--at that time, I might spend, you know, twelve hours in prison with a murderer to understand why he did what he did--I, in fact, I did do that--why he did (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Can, can--$$--what he did. Sure.$$--we--can we talk about that particular case, who the murderer's name was and--$$Oh, gosh, I don't remember his name.$$Okay, okay.$$I can find the clip for you (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) That's okay--$$But anyway, I'll never forget the case. It was--it was a guy who murdered his girlfriend's husband on the--slaughtered him on the front lawn of the house. And I, I get--I was thinking--and then when she showed up at the trial with her new boyfriend, and I remember thinking how did this happen? How did this guy end up doing this? And it was very clear to me that she had manipulated him into seeing her as a victim and killing her husband for her. She was from a wealthy family; he wasn't; so she got off scot free. And, and, and he was going to spend the next twenty, thirty years in prison. And I wanted to understand, how did you become a murderer, you know, for this woman? And so I literally spent the day in prison with him, and I had him explain to me everything. He told me where he put the, the knife in this guy's neck, why he did it, and I just found it fascinating. I, I guess, you know, part of being a, a journalist is wanting to study human nature of all sorts. So that was just one example. I could give you a million examples of where I got to just like study human nature. I'll never forget being at the cop shop one day. We had a little office there. And I get a call from this woman. This was right when crack cocaine was, was, was, was making the news. Nobody really knew what it was. So this woman calls. It's a slow news day. She says, "Listen, my son is in a coma--a coma because he smoked crack cocaine, and I don't know if he's going to make it. I want you to come and, and look at him and te- you know, I want to tell you about him so that this doesn't happen to other young people." Well, I thought this was a prank call, but I was like, well, let me go see. I go to the hospital and lo and behold, I walk into this hospital room and there's this young--he's a baby really, sixteen, seventeen year old kid, (unclear) to all these machines and monitors. And the mother's there and she tells me the story about how she, in her view, lost her baby. And oh, my god, I wrote that story [for The Plain Dealer], and, and, and I think it was--the mayor talked about it; teachers talked about it. I remember one time--I mean, just--I love studying and documenting human nature. I had a day off and I was at the mall. And I walked past this art gallery, and literally in the window there was a chair and an easel. And there was a young African American boy painting the most lovely painting. So I walked in and I asked the store, "What is--what, what is he doing? Why is he--?" He says "Oh, my gosh, this kid, he's a really gifted painter, you know. He's, he's, he's been accepted into the Art Insti--the Chicago Art Institute [School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois], but he doesn't have the money to go. So I let him sit in the window and paint to earn money, and hopefully he can take some art classes." I wrote that story and the kid got the money for college. Oh, what better way to spend your workday? My gosh, to this day, I've still--it's just to be able to do this with your life is--it's, it's a blessing and it's an honor; it humbles me all the time. And I'm thankful to God to be able to do this kind of work. It's really incredible.

Brent Staples

Journalist and author Brent Staples was born on September 13, 1951, in Chester, Pennsylvania. His father, Melvin Staples, was a truck driver; his mother, Geneva, a homemaker. The oldest son of nine children, Staples grew up in Chester, but, due to his family’s financial problems, moved seven times before finishing junior high school. After being approached by the only African American professor at Widener University, then the Pennsylvania Military College, Staples was accepted into Widener through a program called Project Prepare. He graduated from there in 1973 with his B.A. degree in behavioral science. Staples was awarded two doctoral fellowships; one from the Danforth Foundation and another from the Ford Foundation. He went on to receive his Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of Chicago in 1982.

From 1977 until 1981, Staples taught psychology at various colleges in Pennsylvania and Chicago. Then, in 1983, he was hired at the Chicago Sun-Times as a science writer. In 1985, Staples moved to The New York Times, where he was hired as an editor of The New York Times Book Review. Staples also frequently contributed to the Times Magazine and the Book Review. In 1986, he published the essay, “Just Walk on By” in Ms. magazine, a piece that would eventually be required reading for college courses throughout the country. Staples became an assistant editor for metropolitan news at The New York Times in 1987, and was appointed a member of The New York Times Editorial Board in 1990.

In 1994, Staples’ autobiography Parallel Time: Growing Up in Black and White, was published. Parallel Time was awarded the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award in 1995, and was also a finalist for the Los Angeles Times Book Prize. In 2000, he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters from Mount St. Mary College. In 2006, Staples was awarded a Fletcher Foundation Fellowship for his book-in-progress, Neither White Nor Black: The Secret History of Mixed-Race America. He has also served as a visiting fellow for multiple organizations including the Hoover Institution, the University of Chicago and Yale University.

Brent Staples was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 18, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.274

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/19/2013

Last Name

Staples

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

A.

Schools

Widener University

University of Chicago

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Brent

Birth City, State, Country

Chester

HM ID

STA09

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/13/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

No Favorite Food

Short Description

Author and editorial writer Brent Staples (1951 - ) , author of Parallel Time: Growing Up in Black and White, has served on the New York Times editorial board for over twenty years.

Employment

Chicago Sun-Times

New York Times

Favorite Color

Purple

Mary C. Curtis

Newspaper editor and news correspondent Mary C. Curtis was born on September 4, 1953 in Baltimore, Maryland. She was the youngest of five children born to Thomas Curtis and Evelyn Curtis. After graduating from Seton High School in Baltimore, Maryland in 1971, she enrolled at Fordham University in New York City and graduated form there in 1975 with her B.A. degree in communications. In 2006, Curtis was awarded a Nieman Fellowship from Harvard University.

From 1985 through 1994, Curtis served in a variety of editing positions at The New York Times, including as editor of “Home, Education, Life” and “The Living Arts,” a section in the National Edition that she helped to develop. She also served as the Features editor for the Arts and Entertainment section at The Sun in Baltimore. In addition, Curtis held positions as a reporter and as an editor with The Associated Press in New York, Hartford, Connecticut and with the Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. She also contributed news articles to TheRoot.com, theGrio.com, National Public Radio Creative Loafing , and served as a national correspondent for AOL’s PoliticsDaily.com. In 2011, she joined the The Washington Post as a contributor for the blog, “She the People.” She covered the 2012 Democratic National Convention for The Charlotte Observer.

Curtis is a member the National Association of Black Journalists. Curtis received the Carmage Walls Prize in 2005 for commentary in a competition sponsored by the Southern Newspaper Publishers Association. She is the recipient of several Green Eyeshade Awards from the Society of Professional Journalists and The National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ). The North Carolina Associated Press recognized Curtis with the Thomas Wolfe Award for her writing “My Rebel Journey,” an examination of Civil War heritage groups. She received the Clarion Award from the Association for Women in Communications in 2010 and 2012. Curtis was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the Region IV National Association of Black Journalists in 2004.

Curtis and her husband, Martin F. Olsen, live in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Mary C. Curtis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 8, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.156

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/8/2013

Last Name

Curtis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Harvard University

Fordham University

The Seton Keough High School

St. Pius V Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Mary

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

CUR05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Tropez

Favorite Quote

To whom much is given, much is required.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

9/4/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Newspaper editor, newspaper correspondent, and newspaper columnist Mary C. Curtis (1953 - ) former reporter for The Baltimore Sun and editor at The New York Times, was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the Region IV NABJ.

Employment

Washington Post

Creative Loafing Atlanta

Fox Charlotte

AOL

Grio, The

CNN

Charlotte Observer

New York Times

Baltimore Sun

Arizona Daily Star

Associated Press (AP)

Traveler's Insurance, Co.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Mary C. Curtis

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis describes her mother's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her maternal great-grandmother, who was born into slavery

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis recalls her mother's upbringing in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis continues to describe her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis describes her father's family background and her father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Mary C. Curtis describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Mary C. Curtis lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis describes being the youngest of five children

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis recalls her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis describes her neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis remembers being on the television show 'Romper Room'

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis describes her elementary school, St. Pius the Fifth, run by the Oblate nuns

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis recounts how books influenced her as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis describes her impressions of her family's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Mary C. Curtis shares her love of the Arts and how the Arts have shaped her life and career

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis talks about Seton High School, an integrated Catholic high school in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis discusses her experiences at Seton High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis remembers attending her fortieth high school class reunion

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis shares her memories attending Fordham University in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis recalls meeting her husband at Fordham University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her favorite professors and guest speakers at Fordham University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis reflects on her family's upward mobility

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis discusses the journalists she admired in the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis describes working with the Associated Press after graduation from Fordham University, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis describes how she was treated as a young black female reporter in the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis describes taking a break from journalism during the years of 1977-1981

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis recalls attending the Maynard Institute for Journalism Education in 1981

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her experience in Tucson, Arizona from 1981-1983

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis describes being a black female journalist in the 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis shares some memories of living and working in Tucson, Arizona

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis describes moving back to the East Coast and working at The Baltimore Sun in 1983

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis talks about joining the National Association of Black Journalists in 1984

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis talks about diversity and the benefits of being involved with the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis talks about the importance of diversity of views in news stories

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her work at the Baltimore Sun

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis describes her transition to the New York Times

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis describes moving to Charlotte, North Carolina to work for the Charlotte Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her son, Zane, and the move to Charlotte, North Carolina from New York

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis describes the vibrancy of Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her Neiman Foundation Fellowship at Harvard University in 2005, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her Neiman Foundation Fellowship at Harvard University in 2005, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her Neiman Foundation Fellowship at Harvard University in 2005, part 3

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis describes her return to Charlotte, North Carolina after her 2006 year at Harvard University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her 2004 Thomas Wolfe award-winning article

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis talks about the aftermath of her Thomas-Wolfe award winning article in 2004

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her coverage of the 2007-2008 primary elections

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis recalls covering the 2008 elections and interviewing President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis talks about being laid off at the Charlotte Observer in 2008 and her journalism work since then

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis talks about how she covers conservative news stories

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her journalistic philosophy

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Mary C. Curtis talks about interviewing Franklin McCain of North Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Mary C. Curtis describes her different journalist affiliations

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Mary C. Curtis describes the arts events she covered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Mary C. Curtis talks about her family and her son, Zane

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Mary C. Curtis talks about the future

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Mary C. Curtis talks about being on 'Jeopardy'

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Mary C. Curtis describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Mary C. Curtis narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
Mary C. Curtis talks about diversity and the benefits of being involved with the National Association of Black Journalists
Mary C. Curtis talks about her coverage of the 2007-2008 primary elections
Transcript
Now, this is something I hear from a lot of black journalists, that they really feel, there's a particular kind of loneliness working at a white newspaper, basically, where you just don't have the--they feel, you know, it takes a lot of stamina to, you know, to stay, you know, withstand it, I guess, and you know, that's what I--that's what people keep saying, that it's a lot of pressure (unclear) (simultaneous)-$$Well, I'm not sure I'd use the word stamina as much as, you know, you are, you're doing your job, but say, if you're talking about news judgment or how a story is played or you wanna make sure that when you have people of color in the paper, that you--I'm in features. So most of the minorities you would see on the pages are in Metro or news, when they're doing something or is the face of welfare or poor people or--I mean not always. But it's usually news. And to me, I love features because it humanizes people. And you have the universal experiences. We all garden, we all cook, we all go to church. We have these experiences we share, so it's especially important that minorities are represented in stories in the food section, in the feature section, in the faith section, you know, all of these--in the entertainment section, and all of these sections. So you see people doing the same things you do. When you have a home story that is about a minority family in a home, these kinds of things. So you're always trying to make sure that happens, to make sure if you do a feature story, say, on romance, on couples, that there's diversity, and not just diversity of race, but of income level, of geography, so you're not just picking people from some part of the city, certain neighborhoods, of age. So if you have a romance story, maybe older people, and so you're mindful of that. But when you're making that, you're making that case every day in the newsroom, and you are doing your job and trying to make people understand that this is just not an extra to be put in a story, but it makes the story more complete and more accurate. So it's good journalism, and sometimes that's pressure because people are under deadline pressure. People, of course, relate more to people like themselves, so when you are alone in the newspaper or in any media organization, you're it or there's a few of you. So it is, I would say it's not stamina, but it's every day, it's--it takes energy. It takes energy, and I do think, you know, people kid about the parties at NABJ [National Association of Black Journalists], but part of it is the relaxation of being there and of knowing, when you say--it's, you're talking in a shorthand because when you say, I was trying to convince my editor, and they say, oh, I know, you know (laughter). So it's a meeting, you don't have to explain yourself. You don't have to be anyone but yourself. And I think there's a certain comfort level in that. It's the people, the way, reason people belong to any club. And I think a misnomer when people say, well, we, there's no national organization of white journalists. Well, first of all there're people of every color that belong to NABJ [National Association of Black Journalists]. White people do belong to it, Hispanic people, it's, if you believe in the mission of diversity. So it's not an exclusive organization. It's an inclusive organization, just like NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] or any of those organizations. It is inclusive. It's about the message, and it's just nice knowing you're with people that, people who, that particular message is important to those people. And so, yeah, I think it is relaxing, and when, that very last night before you come back, there usually is a dance. And there's music and people are dancing, and it is a release of sorts. And I think there's nothing wrong with that. You know, you've worked hard, you're--you know, even at NABJ [National Association of Black Journalists], you're wearing your business clothes. You never know who you're gonna run into, that give you a future job. You're going to the job fairs. So it's about business and it's about skills development, but it's also about being with folks, you know, who--I like to say it is a shorthand. And it's about catching up with people that you haven't seen for a while because the nature of the business is that you travel to different places. You get a job here or there. So it's saying, oh, my goodness, you know. I haven't seen you. You're working in Detroit [Michigan] now, that kind of thing. So I, it's work and it's therapy (laughter). We all need that, so I agree, I agree. It's, you know, I've never--I don't think that newspapers or media organizations are any more discriminatory or whatever as any part of society. But I do think sometimes we have to emphasize that they are, indeed, a part of society. So it's not as though the people who work there--I do think sometimes journalists think, we don't have those problems because we're more open minded than that. Well, the people are human beings. When you go into the door of whatever organization, you don't drop society's roles. You don't drop any prejudices at the door because you're a journalist. You hope to, and you work at it, but we all bring something to it. So that's a part of it.$And Ed Sanders was just--and later, they made him the principal of the school, a white school that--and he hired the first black teacher there, B.B. Delaine, I think, who was the son of the Reverend Delaine of the Clarendon County case in South Carolina that was part of the 'Brown v. Board of Education' [1954]. So there's so much Civil Rights history here. But it's, you're right, you know. It, sometimes it takes a lot, but if you just say, "I'm gonna do what I have to do." So he taught me something, but I was--so that was in the '[Charlotte] Observer' too, and then when the South Carolina primaries happened in 2000--started going in 2007, I went to the debate in South Carolina, the first Democratic debate. And I saw on the stage, [President] Barack Obama and [Senator] Hillary Clinton and [Senator] John Edwards and [Governor] Bill Richardson and all these folks, [Senator] Joe Biden, I thought, you know, this is gonna be something. This is gonna be something. So I really hadn't been that involved in politics, but, you know, sometimes you see a story and you gotta grab a hold of it. And you go to that debate and then you go to the Republican debate, and you have to, you need a cheat sheet because they all look the same, you know, well, you know who [Mayor Rudy] Giuliani and [Senator John] McCain and [Governor Mitt] Romney are, but, and you realize how different it's gonna be, and this is gonna be historic. So I just got a hold of that story, tried to make it mine, got the paper's first two interviews with [President] Barack Obama, the only interview with [Senator] Hillary Clinton, followed [Governor] Mike Huckabee around South Carolina, just tried to tell that story, and that--tried to tell that story, tried to tell it.$$Now, this is a campaign that North Carolina's favorite son, [Senator] John Edwards, kind of went down and the--he had issues with his marriage and all that got in the press and-$$Yeah, although, not at the beginning there. I mean in 2000--the 2008 campaign, remember that famous debate in Myrtle Beach [South Carolina] where [Senator] Hillary Clinton and [President] Barack Obama were going at each other, and their supporters were in front with dueling cards. And [Senator] John Edwards was sort of the peacemaker.$$Oh, sure, John Edwards was-$$So calm.$$--a favorite of a lot of people, you know-$$Yeah, and then there were some people who thought, "Well, this isn't gonna be the time for a woman or a minority, that the Democrat--he would be the white guy Democrat that people come back to" because, remember that was the year after [President George W.] Bush where it was such a prime year for a Democrat. So, that's why a lot of people got frustrated when what came out, came out because if he had gotten it, of course, it would have come out, and that would have totally ruined it for it. But, yeah, it was obviously, another great time to be a journalist. Even though North Carolina's primary was late, it actually counted. But I initially covered the--South Carolina is one of the first in the South. So I got to go down there and write columns off of the appearances, see [Presdient] Bill Clinton just hang out and go out around South Carolina with the Republicans and Democrats, watch a Baptist minister bless [Governor] Mike Huckabee and, you know, all of that. It was, I really liked to see the--my piece, my column started to be on the intersection of all of these things, to look at it, and to see the culture piece in the campaigns because what are debates, but political theater? So when you're in a Republican debate and they're talking about torture and all of them are, you know, Romney's, I'm pro-Guantanamo, let's expand it, and, you know, you have [Representative] Tom Tancredo talk about, you know, Jack Ry[an], you know, "Send in the guy from '24'" and [Senator] John McCain says, "You know, we shouldn't torture because it's not about who they are. It's about who we are." And no one applauds, and you realize the only guy against it on the stage is the guy who's been tortured. So that's the story. You know, so it's finding that piece of, looking at it and saying, wow, you know. To watch Oprah [Winfrey] appearing with [President Barack] Obama in South Carolina in a stadium. It was just covering the scene. And I went on to Denver, not for the '[Charlotte] Observer', actually. They didn't send me to the Democratic National Convention. But I got a chance to go and I went and covered for Neiman [Foundation], wouldn't have missed it, went on my own time. That's when the papers were cutting back. I was starting to see the writing on the wall. So, although, you know, it was a great experience.

Robert "Buck" Brown

Cartoonist and painter, Robert “Buck” Brown was born Bobby Brown on February 3, 1936 in the “Browntown” suburb of Morrison, Tennessee. His parents, Doris Lemmings Brown and WPA worker Michael Fate Brown, separated when Brown was five years old. Moving to Chicago, Brown attended A.O. Sexton Elementary School and Englewood High School. At Englewood, Brown placed second in an art contest where the winner was sculptor, Richard Hunt. Brown graduated from Englewood High School in 1954. In 1955, Brown joined the United States Air Force and gained notoriety for his cartoons. By 1958, Brown was attending art classes at Wilson Junior College, driving a Chicago Transit Authority bus and sketching the dramas of everyday life. Attending the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Brown submitted his cartoons to various publications, and one was accepted by Hugh Hefner of Playboy magazine in 1961. Brown graduated with a B.F.A. degree in 1966.

After nearly fifty years, Brown was best known for his cartoons painted in acrylic colors. His famous naughty "Granny" became a permanent fixture in Playboy magazine. Brown, whose fame came at the height of the Civil Rights Movement, drew more white characters than black ones. However, Brown often depicted establishment types, like the U.S. Cavalry besieged by Indians or other people of color.

Brown not only made a name for himself as a cartoonist but also as a painter of humorous paintings. Some of his paintings were part of Bill and Camille Cosby’s art collection. Another celebrity singer, Johnny Mathis, had a wall in his office covered with Brown’s golf cartoons. His cartoons and illustrations had also appeared in Ebony, Ebony Junior, Jet and Esquire magazines.

Brown passed away on Monday, July 2, 2007 at age 71.

Accession Number

A2007.022

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/20/2007

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Austin O. Sexton Elementary School

Englewood High School

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Kennedy–King College

Edward Tilden Career Community Academy High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Morrison

HM ID

BRO41

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

2/3/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Death Date

7/2/2007

Short Description

Painter and cartoonist Robert "Buck" Brown (1936 - 2007 ) was well-known for his "Granny" cartoon, which appeared in Playboy magazine. His other works ran in the Chicago Sun-Times, Ebony, Jet, The New Yorker and other publications.

Employment

Playboy

Chicago Transit Authority

U.S. Air Force

Ebony, Jr.

Dollars & Sense Magazine

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert "Buck" Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert "Buck" Brown lists his favorites, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert "Buck" Brown lists his favorites, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert "Buck" Brown talks about his relationship with Alex Haley

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his family's work

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his childhood in Morrison, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls listening to the radio with his paternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert "Buck" Brown talks about haints in Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers his early interest in drawing

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his father's service in World War I

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his parents' marriage and separation

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers the segregated South Side of Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers listening to the radio with his brother

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers Chicago's Austin O. Sexton Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls Englewood High School, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his artwork in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls Englewood High School, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers working with Hugh Hefner at Playboy magazine

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers living on his own from sixteen years old

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers his decision to join the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls racial discrimination in the U.S. Air Force, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls racial discrimination in the U.S. Air Force, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers leaving the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls drawing a caricature of his commanding officer, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls drawing a caricature of his commanding officer, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers working for the Chicago Transit Authority, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert "Buck" Brown remembers working for the Chicago Transit Authority, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls attending Chicago's Woodrow Wilson Junior College

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls how he began working for Playboy magazine

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his style of painting for Playboy

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert "Buck" Brown recalls attending the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert "Buck" Brown talks about why he left Playboy magazine

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert "Buck" Brown reflects upon his retirement from Playboy magazine

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes the creation of the Granny comic strip

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert "Buck" Brown reflects upon the reception of his cartoons, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert "Buck" Brown reflects upon the reception of his cartoons, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes racial discrimination in the cartoon industry, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes racial discrimination in the cartoon industry, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his work with Ebony Jr.! magazine

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his work under affirmative action

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Robert "Buck" Brown reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Robert "Buck" Brown reflects upon the career of artist Leroy Neiman

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Robert "Buck" Brown reflects upon his body of work

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Robert "Buck" Brown reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Robert "Buck" Brown talks about his favorite cartoonists

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes his family

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Robert "Buck" Brown reflects upon his career

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Robert "Buck" Brown describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Robert "Buck" Brown narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Robert "Buck" Brown talks about haints in Tennessee
Robert "Buck" Brown describes racial discrimination in the cartoon industry, pt. 1
Transcript
Oh, I was telling you earlier when, when the haint story that would always get (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, your brother's [Howard (ph.)] haints, yeah, that one, yeah.$$No, no, no, no, this, this--I, I really don't, I can't identify who it was, but somebody was sick. And somebody went up to see about him. And they got there and everything was dark. It was dark outside, it was dark inside. And so, they struck a match to light this candle, and something blew it out. And, you know, I'm under the cover saying, "Oh Lord." And they struck another match, lit the candle, and something blew it out. Say, "I'm going to light one more match, and if he blew this out, I'm gone," and, sure enough, blew it out. And I said, "Oh, Lord," and, you know, being young and frightened, this scared me to death. It was always something like that.$$Look, it's real dark out in the woods, right, out in the country?$$Oh, that's where they invented dark. We went up to McMinnville [Tennessee] to a fair, you know, a little jive thing what, you'd hit the bottle, throw a ball at the bottles and stuff. And I, I went out with my uncle who had a truck. He had so many kids, that's what he needed to carry them in. But we was asking him, having a good time, said, "Well, we'd better go." So, we drive back with the wind blowing and stuff like that. And we get about a third of a mile from my grandma's house, and I'm waiting for him to turn to go up by grandma's house. And he's--my uncle hollers, hollers back, "See you later, Bobby [HistoryMaker Robert "Buck" Brown]." I said, "What?" I had to get down on that road. I could just barely see the difference between the dust and the, the weeds and stuff, and knowing that I, I was in a rattlesnake valley. And so, I'm tiptoeing, and that wasn't good enough, so I finally broke into a full run, and didn't stop until I got to grandma's house. That gave me a, a description of terror, very, very dark. And yet, you know, we'd be sitting on a front bench some nights, and you hear somebody coming out of the road whistling, you know, singing, and--$$Can you see much by moonlight in that kind of situation? When the moon is full, can you see anything?$$I imagine you can. And if you got things on your mind, other than, you know, snakes, I, you know, I know they get snakes down there 'cause I remember as a--well, before I came to Chicago [Illinois], we were going to a festival at Vervilla [Tennessee] I think the name of it is. And I was riding on the mule with my dad [Michael Brown], and Uncle Doc [Doc Brown (ph.)] had his mule and stuff like that. And everybody stopped, and here's the biggest rattlesnake you'd ever want to see in the middle of the road. So, my uncle got off his mule and got a big, big pole, and did him in. Now, this is early in the morning. And on the way back that night, the, the rattlesnake's tail was still switching, you know, I guess, the nerves and impulses and stuff. And that has always terrified me. That land down here is, is laying fallow, you know. Everybody got up and went north and stuff like that, and moved to town, or what have you. As a matter of fact, we went through there last year. And I counted five or six deer. And I'd never seen deer down there at any time. So, you know, it's, it's going back a while. So, I know, I know the rattlesnakes are going, "Come here, Bobby, come here, come here (laughter)."$$(Laughter).$You were saying that there's, believe it or not, there's racism in the cartoon business?$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, okay.$$I don't, you know, it's not a mean, spiteful thing where it, they look up, and see that you're a boo-boo, and change this thing. They eliminated the characters in my comic strip--just kept the two soul brothers. And, but somebody told me that they were trying to get the syndicate acclimated to where they could sell my strip to the little tiny out-of-the-way, the boonies, and stuff like that. So, you could make five dollars a month off, off of them if you were lucky. So, you know, there wasn't, there wasn't, you, you weren't going to make it as, as a black Jim Davis or a Charles Schulz [Charles M. Schulz]. And so, I couldn't get it to the point where they liked it any longer. And so, one night, we decided to call it a day. And I was tickled to death because, you know, it was driving me up the wall, you know, 'cause I had to be more than what I was, you know. And I was raising hell when it started out. So, I ran into the president a couple of years after, up in Milwaukee [Wisconsin], at a cartoonist get-together. In fact, we were in the same golf cart together.$$Now, who is this, the--$$Mike Cargeria [ph.].$$Okay.$$He was the head of the Tribune Syndicate [Chicago Tribune Syndicate] at the time. And we, finally, after we warmed up and loosened up and stuff, we talk, started talking about it. And I said, "Mike, you know, it don't matter whether I'm pink, purple, or polka dot. I create so much humor in my life. I just want to be able to use that, you know, to, to get something going. I don't have to do a black strip or, you know, or do something about Eskimos. Just let me be funny." He kept saying, "Send me something." So, you know, the newsstands on the corner, the guy selling papers and magazine--okay, I had a little guy who, at one of these newsstands, and he got the newspapers on the front and (unclear). And he deals with the traffic coming in four different direction, and all the different people and stuff, and it worked as far as I was concerned. So, I did it up, Xeroxed it, and sent it off to them. They got it on a Monday. I had return mail Thursday and Friday again. Said, "Buck [HistoryMaker Robert "Buck" Brown], we took your latest submission, passed it around, and we all loved it. And we all agreed to amend that it would work better if it was black." I said, oh, Lord. So, at the time, I had a American Staffordshire Terrier. I kicked him up and down the right path about three weeks, you know, saying, why can't I just be funny? But then, you know, I said, "Well, hey," me and the devil were talking about this. So, I said, "If I want to be a syndicated cartoonist, have something to do every day. I guess I had to make the character black."

Camilla Thompson

Camilla Bolton Perkins Thompson has distinguished herself as both a science educator and as an authority on the African American history of Jacksonville, Florida. As an African American teacher of chemistry and physics, she was a pioneer for her generation. As a local lay historian, her historical research, writings, interpretation, presentations and organizational activities on Jacksonville’s African American history were motivated by the need to preserve the history for younger generations.

Thompson was born on March 6, 1922 in Jacksonville, Florida. Her mother, Camilla (Bolton) Perkins, was a Jacksonville elementary school teacher and her father, Daniel W. Perkins, was a prominent lawyer. Thompson grew up in the LaVilla neighborhood of Jacksonville which was a segregated town of its own, where she attended a wooden two-story school house. She graduated from Stanton Senior High School in 1939. In 1943, Thompson received her B.S. degree in chemistry from Florida A&M University. In 1974, she received her M.S. degree with a focus on the teaching of chemistry and physics from the University of North Florida.

From 1944 to 1976, Thompson taught chemistry, physics and math at four Jacksonville junior and senior high schools - Abraham Lincoln Lewis Jr. High, Northwestern Jr. High, William Raines High and Andrew Jackson High School. From 1976 to 1981, she was an instructor of chemistry at Florida Community College. During her teaching career, Thompson was married to Capers M. Thompson and they had three children—Muriel, Michael, and Reginald, born between 1947 and 1953. When Thompson retired from teaching, she was serving on the board of the Clara White Mission. The White family had accumulated a large collection of news articles and artifacts on Jacksonville’s African life and history. Thompson volunteered to organize and preserve a large collection of historical materials accumulated by the White family.

Over a ten year period, between 1985 and 1995, Thompson wrote a weekly column called “Reflections on Black Jacksonville” for the Jacksonville Free Press. Her more than 500 articles covered people, places and events in Jacksonville’s black history and culture. She is widely known for her illustrated talks on “Remembering the African American History of Jacksonville from 1925 to 1960.

As chairperson of the Black Historical Tour Committee and as a Tour Coordinator, Thompson served as a principle figure in the Tour of Black Historical Sites (30 in all) in Metropolitan Jacksonville, sponsored by the Gamma Rho Chapter of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. Thompson’s work as a lay historian, researching, preserving, interpreting and disseminating the African American history of Jacksonville, has been a major contribution to historical memory and cultural and educational programs for the City of Jacksonville.

Thompson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 19, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.125

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/19/2006

Last Name

Thompson

Maker Category
Schools

New Stanton High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Camilla

Birth City, State, Country

Jacksonville

HM ID

THO12

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York, New York

Favorite Quote

Take One Day At A Time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

3/6/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Jacksonville

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tomatoes

Short Description

High school math teacher, newspaper columnist, and historian Camilla Thompson (1922 - ) wrote for the Jacksonville Free Press.

Employment

A.L. Lewis Junior High School

Northwestern Junior High School

William M. Raines High School

Andrew Jackson High School

Favorite Color

Pink

Timing Pairs
0,0:1701,45:8424,189:8748,194:9477,202:10206,214:10935,221:13041,256:28986,553:38636,657:46574,787:50705,856:62284,977:70092,1051:76175,1163:76483,1168:78485,1203:82874,1289:93654,1372:94184,1378:94608,1383:95774,1398:109064,1546:110565,1580:118860,1797:136242,2029:139530,2061$0,0:730,13:2774,40:3577,58:5767,147:6205,159:6497,164:7081,174:10512,293:11096,303:13943,368:20146,406:30380,596:35484,620:43492,748:51115,890:51654,898:52270,909:53348,937:54657,967:60028,985:61108,998:61864,1007:67264,1083:68020,1092:68776,1100:74295,1167:88788,1337:95256,1437:96628,1461:100868,1474:101450,1481:101838,1486:102226,1491:102614,1496:105524,1539:106203,1549:107755,1572:110690,1577:112744,1620:113692,1638:115746,1683:118274,1726:119459,1747:123703,1770:129960,1844:130617,1856:131055,1864:131566,1872:132004,1879:140880,1946:148020,2018:170680,2338:171994,2360:201042,2794:201580,2826
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Camilla Thompson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Camilla Thompson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Camilla Thompson describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Camilla Thompson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Camilla Thompson describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Camilla Thompson describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Camilla Thompson describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Camilla Thompson describes her sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Camilla Thompson describes the history of Florida's African American beaches

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Camilla Thompson remembers visiting New York City as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Camilla Thompson describes Jacksonville's LaVilla neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Camilla Thompson describes her neighbors' occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Camilla Thompson recalls her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Camilla Thompson describes segregation in Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Camilla Thompson recalls attending Jacksonville's LaVilla School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Camilla Thompson describes the Boylan-Haven School and Stanton High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Camilla Thompson recalls her interest in math and science

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Camilla Thompson recalls her summer pastimes as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Camilla Thompson remembers Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Camilla Thompson recalls her post-graduate education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Camilla Thompson recalls teaching at A.L. Lewis Junior High School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Camilla Thompson describes her marriage to Capers M. Thompson, Sr.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Camilla Thompson recalls balancing motherhood with her teaching career

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Camilla Thompson remembers teaching chemistry in Jacksonville's schools

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Camilla Thompson recalls being selected as a federal desegregation teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Camilla Thompson talks about her teaching career and master's degree

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Camilla Thompson explains how she became interested in history

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Camilla Thompson talks about philanthropist Eartha M. M. White

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Camilla Thompson remembers writing for the Jacksonville Free Press

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Camilla Thompson describes her work in historical education and research

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Camilla Thompson describes the history of Bethel Baptist Institutional Church

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Camilla Thompson describes the Bethel Baptist Institutional Church museum

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Camilla Thompson talks about Zora Neale Hurston's connection to Jacksonville

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Camilla Thompson describes her book on the history of Jacksonville

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Camilla Thompson talks about the importance of African American history

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Camilla Thompson reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Camilla Thompson describes her plans for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Camilla Thompson describes her hopes for the African American community and how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Camilla Thompson narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Camilla Thompson recalls her childhood pastimes
Camilla Thompson describes the Bethel Baptist Institutional Church museum
Transcript
(Laughter).$$I want to talk about your early schooling and elementary, junior and senior high, but before we move to the schooling, to kind of finish up on the neighborhood and growing up, what sights, sounds, and smells remind you of growing up on Beaver Street in LaVilla [Jacksonville, Florida]?$$Okay. Well, one of the sites was LaVilla playground [LaVilla Park; Florida C. Dwight Memorial Playground, Jacksonville, Florida], and that was the playground that one of my mother's [Camilla Bolton Perkins] friends, Miss Florida Cutton Dwight, was the director. She was the first playground director there. In fact, she was the first playground--African American playground director in Jacksonville [Florida], and she started out at another park, Oakland park, but she was at LaVilla more. And so I could go there, and she had games to suit, you know, children of all ages, and then they had--they played baseball or softball, basketball, and she had arts and crafts where some of us learned how to knit and crochet, and we played games like jack stones and shoot marbles, and we had the maypole plaiting during May, and all of these kinds of things. So she made quite a difference in the lives of many of the young people, and some of them fondly recall Miss Florida Dwight as being their person who helped them. And then there were movies in the neighborhood, and there were several movies around the corner a few blocks, the Strand Theater [Jacksonville, Florida] and the Frolic Theater [Jacksonville, Florida]. And later--I was out of college by then when they did the Roosevelt [Roosevelt Theatre, Jacksonville, Florida], but the Ritz Theatre [Ritz Theatre and Museum, Jacksonville, Florida] was in 1929, and many times our parents--we would walk around there, and when we would leave there, there was Dr. Othewald Smith [ph.] who had a pharmacy and his medical practice in a building across from the Ritz, and he had a little ice cream set-up, the little wrought iron table and chairs, and we just loved to go there after we had been to the movies.$Well, we are here surrounded by all the artifacts and the history of Bethel [Bethel Baptist Institutional Church, Jacksonville, Florida]. Did you help to put this together, this museum that we're--church history museum (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, I led the group in trying to get it together, because as we were writing histories, we asked people to look in their attics and garages and find old programs and old books and artifacts, and we got so much until when we finished, we were saying, well, what are we gonna do with them? And so we said, we can't throw it out. And so in the process, the pastor was moving from this room, which used to be the pastor's study, into an office in the administration building, so we asked for this room. And so this is what we have, and we got this set up and had the grand opening in 1995.$$I see. As I sit here talking with you, in the display case to my right, your left, there's a very large book, and it says, membership book. That has the names of members during what period?$$Okay. That's an interesting book. It has the names of members from 1870 to 1924, and there are some others, but the sad thing is that the book that comes from '25 [1925] to the '50s [1950s] is missing. But then we have one that takes up in the '50s [1950s] and moves on. But we were happy to have that one. Someone who had a beautiful handwriting entered the names of each one of those members. They gave the name, the address, the church that they came from, the location of that church, and how much that person pledged to give each week, each month, or each year, and all of that is listed in that membership book.$$What are the--some of your other favorite items and artifacts in this church museum? Which ones do you have special feeling about, any others besides that?$$Well, one of the things, some photos that we have on either side behind you have the photos of some of our early organizations like deaconess boards, deacon boards, trustee boards, early choirs, and that kind of thing. And in the center there, there's a large list of people who made contributions to the reduction of the mortgage in--between 1918 and 1919, and we found that on the stairwell, and it was where we found this rolled up, and it was real dusty, and we said, oh, how in the world can we clean it up. But when we looked again, there were two pages, and all we had to do was peel off the top page, and we have a clear document, and so we were able to go and have it framed so that people can look. And people gave anywhere from maybe fifty cents up to--I think the highest amount was like five hundred, which was given--left as a part of the estate of Mr. A.W. Price, who was a member here and also one of the seven founders of the Afro-American Life Insurance Company [Jacksonville, Florida].

Dennis Paul Kimbro

Author of Think and Grow Rich: A Black Choice, Dennis Kimbro was born December 29, 1950, in Jersey City, New Jersey. In 1972, he received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Oklahoma. He later earned his PhD in political science at Northwestern University, researching wealth and poverty in underdeveloped countries.

Kimbro wrote Think and Grow Rich: A Black Choice as an updating and extension of the work of Napoleon Hill, who wrote the 1937 bestseller Think and Grow Rich after researching the practices of highly successful persons, and who left at his death an unfinished manuscript directed towards African Americans. Kimbro was commissioned by the Napoleon Hill Foundation to complete the manuscript. Published in 1991, Kimbro and Hill's book became a number-one bestseller.

Clients of Kimbro’s lectures have included General Motors, Walt Disney, Frito-Lay and Wells Fargo. He has appeared on television shows including Today and CNN’s Larry King Live, and in publications including Success, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and USA Today. He is listed in Who’s Who in Black America; a recipient of the Dale Carnegie Achievement Award; and a past Director of the Center of Entrepreneurship at Clark Atlanta University. In addition, in 1996, he served as one of eight national judges for the prestigious Ernst & Young USA Today Entrepreneur of the Year, held in Palm Springs, California.

In 2005, Kimbro’s second edition of What Keeps Me Standing: A Black Grandmother’s Guide to Peace, Hope & Inspiration was released. He is married, lives in Atlanta and is the father of three daughters.

Accession Number

A2006.074

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/12/2006

Last Name

Kimbro

Maker Category
Middle Name

Paul

Schools

University of Oklahoma

G. Washington Carver Institute

Benjamin Franklin Junior High School

Teaneck Senior High School

Northwestern University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Dennis

Birth City, State, Country

Jersey City

HM ID

KIM02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New Jersey

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Learn How To Say 'I Can.'

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

12/29/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Management consultant and author Dennis Paul Kimbro (1950 - ) wrote the popular books, 'Think and Grow Rich: A Black Choice' and 'What Keeps Me Standing: A Black Grandmother’s Guide to Peace, Hope & Inspiration'. He was highly sought after as a public speaker and management consultant.

Employment

Clark Atlanta University

Texas Instruments

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:326,4:13081,256:13365,261:14075,278:21175,449:23163,505:28843,641:36130,725:38370,787:39490,812:46146,895:46644,904:48802,934:51624,968:52454,987:56687,1067:65032,1180:65477,1186:68770,1241:72241,1345:76691,1421:77047,1426:89958,1617:90282,1622:91254,1638:97475,1690:99554,1732:109872,1961:122960,2184:123590,2197:139935,2490:140586,2498:141423,2508:146560,2582:147113,2590:150194,2649:150984,2660:156666,2734:157406,2746:157776,2752:159330,2780:163104,2831:166138,2893:166730,2904:182410,3139:182710,3174:184885,3224:193585,3354:207403,3595:214510,3807:215062,3919:230236,4110:230576,4116:231052,4128:240204,4280:240649,4286:241094,4292:243942,4335:244832,4356:245722,4367:247769,4395:248303,4403:248748,4409:253973,4468:256297,4510:256795,4518:262522,4624:264016,4650:264348,4655:269340,4717:277100,4899:277420,4904:277820,4910:278540,4924:287680,5100$0,0:630,11:1197,25:1890,43:2268,59:3528,179:4221,356:8820,436:17199,640:35830,866:36425,884:36850,890:51398,1139:52208,1152:52694,1160:54800,1190:57392,1203:58672,1234:61104,1400:61424,1406:62640,1430:62960,1437:63280,1443:63728,1454:74004,1658:74784,1669:78153,1703:79180,1718:79733,1726:83367,1817:83920,1825:90714,2002:97365,2100:97697,2105:106163,2307:106578,2313:107408,2326:109068,2355:137720,3039:146300,3155:148884,3195:149700,3232:161986,3439:165418,3516:165886,3532:168616,3601:169006,3608:170956,3650:176220,3664:181257,3796:186367,3913:186732,3919:187097,3930:195698,4026:198240,4116:208310,4264:208670,4269:209210,4277:211460,4310:212630,4329:212990,4334:223376,4489:228398,4598:230828,4651:233339,4692:233906,4749:254204,4991:262330,5131:262630,5136:263980,5153:264730,5165:265255,5174:265630,5180:266005,5186:274180,5373:274555,5379:283074,5529:286182,5624:286700,5639:289364,5703:289734,5746:298854,5800:299274,5806:299862,5814:301122,5838:308400,5887:308920,5893:311450,5918
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dennis Paul Kimbro's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dennis Paul Kimbro lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes his father's experience in World War II

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes Kearny, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls Columbia Elementary School in East Orange, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls those who influenced him to pursue education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dennis Paul Kimbro reflects upon the education of the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dennis Paul Kimbro remembers the assassinations of civil rights figures

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes New Jersey's Teaneck High School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls New Jersey's race relations in the 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls his decision to attend the University of Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the process of writing his first book

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dennis Paul Kimbro remembers pledging Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes his studiousness

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls his parents' thoughts on him attending college

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the nine values of greatness, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the nine values of greatness, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the nine values of greatness, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls his interview with Johnnetta B. Cole

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the nine values of greatness, pt. 4

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the nine values of greatness, pt. 5

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dennis Paul Kimbro remembers a lesson from William Clement Stone

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the publication of 'What Makes the Great Great'

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dennis Paul Kimbro remembers how he struggled financially in the 1990s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes his book 'Daily Motivations for African-American Success'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the impact of 'What Makes the Great Great'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the inspiration for 'What Keeps Me Standing'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes 'What Keeps Me Standing,' pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes 'What Keeps Me Standing,' pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls Janey Coverdale's letter on forgiveness

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dennis Paul Kimbro recalls his decision to become a professor

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes his future projects

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dennis Paul Kimbro reflects upon the success of Barbara L. Thomas

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dennis Paul Kimbro describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dennis Paul Kimbro reflects upon his life

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the process of writing his first book
Dennis Paul Kimbro describes the inspiration for 'What Keeps Me Standing'
Transcript
And then, right when I finished in 1972, I graduated in 1972, my first job, I worked for Texas Instruments [Texas Instruments Incorporated] in Dallas, Texas, okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Doing what?$$I was a front line supervisor. Back then, they were just starting to manufacture Texas Instruments, the silicon chips, okay. That was used for the TI [Texas Instruments] calculator. Remember the two calculators that they had, one was the financial calculator and the other one was--there was a financial and scientific calculator and the other one was a regular calculator. I can't gloss over this--got married my senior year in college. Yup. Me and my wife got married by a justice of the peace. We were both seniors at the University of Oklahoma [Norman, Oklahoma], got married and went back to class after we got married (laughter), had our first child, okay--$$While you were still in school?$$Yeah, um-hm, and got married. Several months later my first daughter was born, went to Dallas, Texas, worked for Texas Instruments, worked there for one year, but I knew that I wanted to go to grad school.$$Did you know what you wanted to do?$$Yes. Back then I was still studying wealth and poverty, okay? And I went to grad school. I got a free ride from Northwestern [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois]. They had a program in political science, of all things, and I took it because it was a free ride, okay? Because I don't know what I actually want to do. I want to do international business and this, that, and the other, so I took it and they had a three-year program, and it was a free ride, but I was looking at wealth and poverty among under-developed countries, okay? And, all that time, the three years that I was at Northwestern, I just started collecting data and I started looking at why is one country, you know, impoverished while another one is wealthy. What are the linkages, what are the mindsets, what are the institutions that these wealthy countries, you know, particularly in sub-Sahara [Sub-Saharan Africa] and Africa, what do they produce? How are they galvanized, you know, how are they pulled together? Who organizes them? Well, by the time I got to my third year and I defended my dissertation, I didn't want to study countries. I still wanted to ask that question about wealth and poverty. I didn't want to study countries. I wanted to study individuals, and I didn't want to study anything about Africa. I wanted to study African Americans here in the United States, and so, I did a 180. I started looking at the wealthy African Americans here in the United States, and I started collecting data, you know, because there weren't any books, and no one had published anything on these individuals. Again, at the time it was get a job, work on a job, work for the government, that type of whole mindset, and I was, there were only a few people that were creating wealth, and I was collecting data on them, and so I had all this data, all this research that I conducted, and I turned to my wife and I said, "Pat [Patricia McCauley Kimbro]," I said, "I think there's a book here and I'm not sure, but I think that maybe I could write a book off of everything that I learned on the surface, you know, circuitous with these individuals, but I won't know," and she said, "Well, when will you know if you have a book or not?" And I said, "Well, you gotta conduct face-to-face interviews," and she said, "How do you do that?" And I said, "Well, maybe I'll apply for a grant or somebody will blah-blah-blah," and she says, and it was really my wife's idea, she said, "Don't wait for a grant. Go ahead and do it now." I said, "Well, you don't understand. I mean, you gotta fly to these locations, you have to stay in a hotel, and we don't have money for that." She said, "Well just get started. Maybe some people around here, you can drive to with this, that and everything, and somehow, some way, the money will come." Well, that's one year ordeal. I thought I could finish this book in eighteen months, Shawn [Shawn Wilson]. That book took seven years of my life. It took me longer to write what became 'Think and Grow Rich: A Black Choice,' [Dennis Kimbro and Napoleon Hill] than to finish my Ph.D., and the money never came (laughter) but I just went around the country interviewing successful African Americans. I had a list of fifty individuals. What did I know? I said these are the fifty that I've got to interview and you can go back to this particular time. We're going back to late '70s [1970s], early '80s [1980s], and you can imagine who were the fifty, you know, John Johnson [HistoryMaker John H. Johnson] of Ebony magazine, Don King, the fight promoter, Wally [Wally Amos], Famous Amos chocolate chip cookies, you know, those type of individuals--Ernesta Procope [HistoryMaker Ernesta G. Procope], she was the only black woman on Wall Street, E.G. Bowman investment company [E.G. Bowman Company, Inc., New York, New York]. So, those were, Ral--those were the individuals that I was going to meet and interview.$So, by the time that the third book, 'What Makes the Great Great' ['What Makes the Great Great: Strategies for Extraordinary Achievement,' Dennis P. Kimbro], has come out, you've become a motivational speaker and you're speaking (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And I never see it in myself. I don't even claim being a motivational--people may, you know, they may hear me, you know, and they might say, man, your words are inspiring. Your words motivate me. But I'm just a college professor. I've never said that I was a motivational speaker. I mean, you may capture me and you may pigeonhole me into that, and I have no problems with that, okay, but I teach. That's what I do for a living. People come up to me all the time, Shawn [Shawn Wilson], "Man Dr. Kimbro [HistoryMaker Dennis Paul Kimbro], I wanna do exactly you want to do." I said, "You--you're a teacher?" "No, I don't teach." "Oh, you're a writer?" "No, I don't wanna write." "You're a college professor?" "No, I don't wanna--." "What is it that I do that you wanna do?" "Man, I wanna be a motivational speaker." I said, "Okay, go do it," (laughter).$$So, the reason I say that is because out of you travelling country, the book, the standing--what's the title?$$'What Keeps Me Standing' ['What Keeps Me Standing: Letters from Black Grandmothers on Peace, Hope and Inspiration,' Dennis Kimbro].$$'What Keeps Me Standing' comes about--$$Yup.$$And it's just a great idea for a book.$$And that was the idea of my youngest daughter. Again, you gotta rewind the videotape and go back to this time period where Bill Clinton [President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton] is running for reelection against Bob Dole, okay, and I was about to go on another wing of the tour for 'What Makes the Great Great,' and I knew that I was gonna be gone for several days, blah-blah-blah, and this, that and everything, so my wife [Patricia McCauley Kimbro] said, "Well, takes a mini-vacation. Let's get all the girls together." I had one in college, one was about to go in college, and I had my youngest daughter, who was about to go into high school and the girls always loved going up to North Carolina, this, that and the everything, so no one wanted to fly. They wanted to drive and this, that and everything, so we're driving, I've got the three girls in the back, my wife is reading USA Today, and I'm driving, and when she gets through reading it, she just throws it in the back to the girls, and my youngest daughter, MacKenzie [MacKenzie Kimbro], she gets a hold of it and right there on the first page, it's about the impending, upcoming presidential election, and while I'm driving she says to me, she says, "Dad, who you gonna vote for?" And I said, "MacKenzie, that's a good question. I don't know. You tell me, who should I vote for?" And she said, "Well, if I could vote, I know exactly who I'd vote for." I said, "Who would you vote for?" She said, "I'd vote for Grandma Mary [Mary Anderson Kimbro] for president and Grandma Ruby [Ruby McCauley] for vice president." I was driving and I said, "And why would you want to do that?" She said, "Because Dad, man, they know everything, man. Grandma Mary helps me with this, Granma Ruby helps me with that," and these are two black women. If you put their entire education together, you still wouldn't get a high school diploma, but in the mind and in the eyes of a young child, they know everything. So I just thought about that and even when I'm on tour and signing books at 'What Makes the Great Great,' and blah-blah, and it just stayed in my mind, days turned to weeks, weeks turned to months, I guess about six months later, this thing just wouldn't let me go, so I turned to my wife and I said, "Pat, you know, I'm thinking about this grandmother book and even if I were to write this book, even if I were to write this book, I can't go around the country interviewing all these folks. It would take me forever. How would I get this information?" And my wife says, completely passe, completely off the cuff, in passing, she says, "That's easy." I said, "What do you mean, easy?" "Tell them to write you a letter." And I said, "What do you mean?" "Tell them to write you a letter." I said, "Who, in this day and age, will write a letter, in this day of emailing, faxes, phone call, call waiting, (laughter) voicemails?" I said, "No one takes the time to write a letter." She said, "Yeah, they'll write you a letter." So, whenever I gave a presentation, if I thought the audience would lend itself, the audience was apropos to that type of setting, people would ask me all the time, "What book are you working on now?" And I would share that with them and I would say, "By the way, if there are any black grandmothers in the audience who would love to write a letter, blah-blah-blah." And I, did I received letters over a five-year period. Oh, my God, did they respond. Over a five-year period I received letters from every type of black grandmother under the sun. I received letters from black grandmothers, Ph.D.s from Harvard [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts], high school dropouts, doctors and lawyers, third grade education, grandmothers whose children and grandchildren are thriving and surviving, to one grandmother, her name is Flora Kelly, she lives is Waterloo, Iowa, in Waterloo, Iowa. She has seven children. The day that she wrote my letter, five were incarcerated in prison. She told me, she told me right there in the letter, that she would go down to the correctional facility and she would see her sons, but she just got to the point in life where she just hated to see her sons caged up like animals, and she would write 'em letters. She sent me one of the letters that she would write to her sons. I received three letters from white women, white grandmothers raising black children (laughter). Every type of letter out there.

Mary "Betty" Brown

Civic leader, newspaper columnist, and nurse Mary Elizabeth “Betty” Brown has been a steady and stylish presence in Chicago and in Elgin, Illinois for more than thirty-five years. From her column, "Steppin Out with Betty Brown” in the Elgin Courier to serving as the first black nurse at Saint Joseph's Hospital in Joliet, Illinois, Brown has always been a trailblazer.

Born in Chicago, but raised in Schaumburg, Illinois on the estate of her father's employer, Brown and her two brothers had to learn to play quietly because the employer did not know his chauffeur's children lived in his coach house. Brown's mother also worked as the family cook, and after saving enough money, Thermon and Margaret Stephens moved their children to Elgin, Illinois. A multi-talented student of voice and dance, Brown was well known at her church, St. James AME Church, Wing Elementary and Elgin High School, but her mother discouraged her from pursuing singing.

Brown’s mother was a nurse's aide at Sherman Hospital and Brown decided to apply to the nursing program there, but she was promptly rejected. Disheartened, Brown approached St. Joseph's Hospital and became the first black nursing student in Joliet, Illinois. Not long after graduating, she married her sweetheart, Floyd Brown, who was just beginning to make a name for himself in Chicago radio. Brown served as a wardrobe and makeup consultant to Miss Illinois in the Miss America pageant for four years. She was named one of the One Hundred Women of Destiny selected by Marilyn Miglin & Associates. Brown received numerous awards for her civic work, including HI CHIC Award in Fashion, the Altrusa Outstanding Woman of the Year, Outstanding Woman in Advertising and the YMCA Margaret Henry Award.

Brown and her husband, Floyd Brown, live in Elgin, Illinois. They have two children and several grandchildren. Their son, F. Keith Brown, was the first black judge in the Northwestern Illinois suburbs. Their daughter, Diane Douglas, works in human resources.

Mary "Betty" Brown was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 26, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.008

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/26/2006

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Elgin High School

Abby C. Wing School

St. Joseph Hospital School Of Nursing

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Mary "Betty"

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

BRO35

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy, Paris, France, Switzerland

Favorite Quote

Ye Know Not When The Son Of Man Is Coming, And I'm Ready.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

3/7/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Trout, Vegetables

Short Description

Civic leader, newspaper columnist, and nurse Mary "Betty" Brown (1932 - ) is a noted style maven in Chicago, serving as a wardrobe and makeup consultant to Miss Illinois in the Miss America pageant for four years. She was also named one of the One Hundred Women of Destiny selected by Marilyn Miglin & Associates.

Employment

St. Joseph's Hospital

Sherman Hospital

NorthShore Magazine

Elgin Courier News

State of Illinois Department of Nursing

Favorite Color

Jewel Tones, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Mary "Betty" Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Mary "Betty" Brown lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes where she was born

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Mary "Betty Brown describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her parents' family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her early childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her experiences at Abby C. Wing School

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her sibling rivalry with her brothers

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes Elgin High School

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Mary "Betty" Stephens describes her childhood career aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her experiences at Elgin High School

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Mary "Betty" Brown recounts the beginning of her nursing career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes Elgin, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Mary "Betty" Brown recalls her nursing experiences at Saint Joseph Hospital

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her training as a nurse

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Mary "Betty" Brown recalls treating tuberculosis patients as a nurse

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Mary "Betty" Brown recounts meeting her husband, Floyd Brown

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Mary "Betty" Brown recalls visiting family in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes living on the estate of her father's employer

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her and her husband's occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Mary "Betty" Brown recalls marrying Floyd Brown and the birth of her son

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her children

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her volunteer activities

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her private duty nursing and civil rights activities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her experiences with racism

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her and her husband's careers

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Mary "Betty" Brown recalls her activities after her children left for college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Mary "Betty" Brown recalls being a stylist for the Miss Illinois and Miss America pageants

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her fashion sense and extravagant wardrobe

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Mary "Betty" Brown remembers teaching etiquette classes

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes being a member of One Hundred Women of Destiny

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Mary "Betty" Brown recalls her work for the Illinois Department of Public Health

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes being a society columnist

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes being a member of the Fashion Group International

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Mary "Betty" Brown explains why she chose to live in Elgin, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Mary "Betty" Brown talks about establishing her own identity

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Mary "Betty" Brown details learning how to iron from her mother

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her children's musical talents

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her son's cooking

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Mary "Betty" Brown reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Mary "Betty" Brown describes her close-knit community in Elgin, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Mary "Betty" Brown talks about travelling with her husband and continuing her column

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Mary "Betty" Brown remembers her mother and grandmother

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

13$5

DATitle
Mary "Betty" Brown recounts the beginning of her nursing career
Mary "Betty" Brown describes her fashion sense and extravagant wardrobe
Transcript
Nineteen fifty-one [1951] you graduated [from Elgin High School, Elgin, Illinois], you decide that you want to pursue nursing?$$Well, I wanted to. I worked at the hospital there. My mother [Margaret Brown Stephens] was a nurse's aide by then at Sherman Hospital [Elgin, Illinois], and so naturally she said that I could work there for the summer. She'd let me--find me a job although they only had two blacks in the whole hospital working as aides.$$Now, where is this Sherman--?$$Because Sherman Hospital is in Elgin [Illinois] because they were prejudice, and somehow my mother got the job and she worked in central service, and that's where I worked and I thought, well that's a good job for me because I'll be going into nurse's training. And so I worked there that summer and then I wanted to pursue nurse's training, so I went to the, the director of nurses and told her I wanted to come in to nurse's training because they had a school of nursing there. And she said to me, "I'm sorry that you couldn't pursue that because nobody would like you to give them the bed pan." And so that's when it--prejudice really slapped me in the face because there were Spanish people working there. In fact, there was one Spanish girl that worked in central service with me that was the same color as me, and she could just barely speak English and they took her in.$$So--$$So, that was the big hurt that I felt that I really realized that, "Oh, my. There is a difference." And the other thing I realized that I wanted to get a job at Woolworth's [F.W. Woolworth Company] and they would not have blacks work there also. So--$$So could you shop there?$$Oh yeah, we could shop there, and you could eat at the fountain.$$But you couldn't work there?$$Work there, no.$$'Cause that's an interesting flip.$$Very interesting. But my mother had a friend who worked for the mother head of Saint Joseph's Hospital [Saint Joseph Hospital; Presence Saint Joseph Medical Center] in Joliet [Illinois], the mother superior, and so her friend said, "I'll intercede for you," and her name was Sister Priscilla [ph.], "And maybe Sister Priscilla would take you in," 'cause she was very fond of this lady who worked for her. And so she did intercede for me and Sister Priscilla said that she would interview me. And I went for my interview and she was a very strict woman, very--. I, I liked her though from the beginning and she said, "Ms. Stephens [HistoryMaker Mary "Betty" Brown], I will treat you no better and no worse than any other student," and I was her first black student at Saint Joseph Hospital in Joliet.$$What year was that?$$That was 1951 'cause I went right in.$--But I would be the wardrober and meanwhile while I wardrobed the Miss Illinois pageant, I got to meet all the designers in, in Ill--Chicago [Illinois], the top ten designers. Of course, they all want to--just like with being the president's wife, everybody wants to wardrobe somebody who's famous and say, "That's my dress." And so she had quite a wardrobe and all the Miss America contestants from Illinois had fabulous clothes and wardrobes, and they had cars that--they didn't give them to them, but they had free use of that--those cars, and cleaning bills--everything.$$Right, right. So this (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) So I got to meet all the designers and so I figured if they're designing from them, they ought to design for me (laughter).$$(Laughter) That's right.$$And when I went to Atlantic City [New Jersey], they all laughed. They'd say, "Boy, you look as good as the Miss America ladies" (laughter).$$Like, "Of course. Why shouldn't I."$$It, it, it was a good lesson and it, it, it exposed me to a whole different group of people and fashion, but I will say that I had an aunt--and she's still living--she's ninety-six years old and she lives in Harlem [New York, New York] and she's lived there all her life. And of course, I have to tell you about Harlem afterwards, and she worked for Mollie Parnis who wardrobed all the presidents' wives. And so I had these gorgeous clothes because if somebody didn't like them, they just threw it away. That's how extravagant the whole field--it's like food, they throw it away. Our country throws away things. And so my aunt would send me these beautiful clothes and little did I realize and one day I'm looking in the back of one of my dresses and I--and I was reading a magazine. I said to my husband, "Mollie Parnis?" I said, "That's what I wear," and Floyd [Floyd Brown] says, "Oh, you don't wear Mollie Parnis." (Laughter) And there it was, and the lady that wore the same size as me was Mrs. Lyndon Baines Johnson.$$Oh, Lady Bird [Lady Bird Johnson].$$Lady Bird, and so he [President Lyndon Baines Johnson] didn't like anything 'cause he would come there and help pick her clothes and he would reject everything, so everything he rejected, my aunt would pick it up and she'd send it to me.$$(Laughter) That is too funny.$$So when I was a young woman, I had these five thousand dollar gowns and things. I didn't have that kind of money, but I had those gowns. In fact, they used to say that, "No wonder poor Floyd works so hard, his wife is in those thousand dollar gowns," (laughter).$$She's running him ragged (laughter).$$Yeah. And then I really became very friendly with a lot of the designers here in the city and they were very nice to me. Lots of times they would just like to--I paid for them, but maybe not the cost that most people would but they would--if I was going to something, they would make sure I had on their gown.$$Like who, who were some of those designers?$$Oh, the one that's--Yolanda [Yolanda Lorente] who is--has a showroom in the Bloomingdale Building [Chicago, Illinois] on the fifth floor. She designs most of my things now.$$Really? Now who designed this outfit that you're wearing today?$$Oh, this was just off the rack. I have a sense of style and color though. I just know clothes because if you're around them, it doesn't have to be expensive. I keep telling people that. You just have to look a lot (laughter).$$This is very true.$$Thank you.