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Brenda Hughes Andrews

Newspaper publisher Brenda H. Andrews was born on August 13 in Lynchburg, Virginia to Mabel Hughes and Earl Hughes. In 1962, Andrews and three other African American students Cee Cee Jackson, Lynda Woodruff, and Owen Cardwell integrated Lynchburg’s E.C. Glass High School. One year later, Andrews attended the March on Washington in Washington, D.C. Andrews graduated from E.C. Glass in 1965, and briefly attended Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, before marrying and moving to California. Andrews graduated with her B.A. degree in English and psychology from California State University, Sacramento in 1970.

From 1970 to 1973, Andrews worked as a teacher in Rancho Cordova, California. In 1977, she joined the U.S. Army, where she edited a military community paper in Nuremburg, West Germany, and worked as an associate editor of the Army’s Newswire Service at the Pentagon. After leaving the Army in 1982, Andrews began working as the assistant to the publisher at Journal and Guide, a prominent black newspaper in Norfolk, Virginia. In 1987, she became the newspaper’s publisher and president, and owner in 1991, at a critical time in the paper’s existence, changing its name to New Journal and Guide.

Under Andrews’ leadership, the Guide celebrated its one hundred eighteenth year anniversary in 2018, as one of the nation’s oldest members of the Black Press. She established a website and other digital and social media to meet the changing news industry. In 2014, she incorporated the Guide Historical Society as a 501-c-3 nonprofit arm of the business to preserve the paper’s historic archives and award journalism internships.

Andrews has been the recipient of various honors including the 2013 MLK Memorial Award from Old Dominion University and the Tidewater Humanitarian Award from the Virginia Center for Inclusive Communities in 2016. In 2015, Andrews was named one of the 25 Women in Arts by the Southeastern Virginia Arts Association and one of the top 25 businesswomen in Inside Business, The Hampton Roads Business Journal. In 2017, Andrews was a Journey for Success “Legendary Pearl” honoree. She is a member of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, and serves as an honors fellow and foundation board member at Norfolk State University as well as on the board of the National Newspaper Publishers Association.

Brenda H. Andrews was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 16, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.001

Sex

Female

Interview Date

01/16/2018

Last Name

Andrews

Maker Category
Schools

Robert S. Payne Elementary School

E.C. Glass High School

California State University, Sacramento

First Name

Brenda

Birth City, State, Country

Lynchburg

HM ID

AND16

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Tropical Places

Favorite Quote

All Things Happen For The Good of Those Who Love the Lord And Are Called According to His Purpose.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Norfolk

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Newspaper publisher Brenda H. Andrews ( - ) was the president and chief executive officer of the New Journal and Guide in Norfolk, Virginia.

Employment

New Journal and Guide

U.S. Army

Folsom Cordova Unified School District

Favorite Color

Red

Charles W. Cherry II

Publisher, radio station manager and lawyer Charles W. Cherry II was born in 1956 in Daytona Beach, Florida to Julia T. Cherry and Charles W. Cherry, Sr., founder of the Daytona Times and Florida Courier newspapers. In 1978, Cherry received his B.A. degree in journalism from Morehouse College, where he also interned for WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia. He then went on to receive both his M.B.A. and J.D. degrees from the University of Florida in 1982.

Cherry had his own law firm for twenty-one years and served as a city prosecutor for Fort Lauderdale, Florida and as a state prosecutor in South Florida. He also served as general counsel for the Housing Authority of the City of Fort Lauderdale, where he worked closely with its former executive director, the late Dr. William H. Lindsay. In 1989, Cherry and his father purchased WPUL-AM 1590, a Daytona Beach-area radio station. From 1998 to 2000, he served as general manager of Greenville, South Carolina’s WCSZ-AM. In 2000, Cherry was named general manager of WPUL-AM and became host of the station’s Free Your Mind radio show.

In 2004, upon the death of his father, Cherry returned to journalism and newspaper publishing. In 2006, the Cherry family re-launched the Florida Courier as a statewide newspaper; Cherry became its publisher and his column, Straight, No Chaser appeared weekly. He also went on to write commentaries, editorials, and stories for his other family-owned newspaper, the Daytona Times. In addition, Cherry served as vice president, secretary and general counsel of his family’s Tama Broadcasting, Inc., as well as vice president of corporate communications for Global Health Professionals, Inc.

Cherry published Excellence Without Excuse: The Black Student's Guide to Academic Excellence (1994), which has been used as a textbook in college-preparation classes and seminars. He was elected to the board of directors of the National Newspaper Publishers Association in 2009, and served on the Government Affairs Committee of the Florida Press Association. He also founded the Florida Black-Owned Media Coalition, Inc., a trade association representing Florida mass media owned by African Americans.

Charles W. Cherry II was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 7, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.230

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/7/2014

Last Name

Cherry

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

William

Schools

Campbell Elementary School

St Paul's Catholic School

Father Lopez Catholic High School

Seabreeze High School

Morehouse College

University of Florida

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Daytona Beach

HM ID

CHE08

Favorite Season

None

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

West Africa or the Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Free Your Mind And Your Ass Will Follow, For the Kingdom of Heaven Is Within

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

8/6/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Fort Lauderdale

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Scallops

Short Description

Publisher, radio station manager, and lawyer Charles W. Cherry II (1956 - ) is the publisher of the 'Florida Courier' newspaper. He also served as vice president, secretary and general counsel of Tama Broadcasting, Inc, and as a city and state prosecutor in South Florida. He is the author of Excellence Without Excuse: The Black Student's Guide to Academic Excellence.

Employment

City of Fort Lauderdale

State of Florida

Housing Authority of the City of Fort Lauderdale

WCSZ-AM

WPUL-AM

Florida Courier

Tama Broadcasting, Inc.

Global Health Professionals, Inc.

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles W. Cherry II's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles W. Cherry II lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his maternal African ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles W. Cherry II describes his mother's childhood in Leslie, Georgia pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles W. Cherry II describes his maternal grandmother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his mother's childhood in Leslie, Georgia pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his mother's college experience at Morris Brown College and her career as a home economics teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his father's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles W. Cherry II describes the Barlow family, his father's maternal ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his father's education at Morehouse College and Alabama State University

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his father's various jobs and business ventures

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the two newspapers his father started, the Westside Rapper and the Daytona Times

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his likeness to his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his father's entrepreneurship

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the roles he and his siblings play in the family business

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles W. Cherry II describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles W. Cherry II describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Daytona Beach, Florida pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charles W. Cherry II describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Daytona Beach, Florida pt.2

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the "wade-in" to integrate the beach in Daytona Beach, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the march his father planned to protest the Apollo space missions

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his family being threatened with violence

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the impact of school desegregation on the African American community in Daytona Beach, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his first grade teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about reading the World Book Encyclopedia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his lack of religious upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about having a father who was an entrepreneur

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his childhood activities

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his experience at Seabreeze Senior High School in Daytona Beach, Florida pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his experience at Seabreeze Senior High School in Daytona Beach, Florida pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about transferring out of Catholic school to Seabreeze High School in Daytona Beach, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the impact of racism on mental health

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his interest in journalism

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about applying for college

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the night before his high school graduation

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his father's newspaper, the Westside Rapper, going out of print and where the word "rapper" came from

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his first semester at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his friend from Daytona Beach, Florida leaving Morehouse College due to sexual harassment

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his professor HistoryMaker Na'im Akbar at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his journalism internship at WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his experience studying journalism at Morehouse College, in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about Olympic gold medalist Edwin Moses

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about earning his J.D. and M.B.A. degrees from the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about receiving academic support from black students in graduate school

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about becoming a state prosecutor in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the inspiration for his book, 'Excellence Without Excuses: The Black Student's Guide to Academics Excellence'

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his father's newspapers, the Daytona Times and Florida Courier

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about being the outside counsel for the Fort Lauderdale Housing Authority pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about being the outside counsel for the Fort Lauderdale Housing Authority pt.2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about ways to create safe public housing

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about changing the way he dressed after visiting Africa

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about what he learned from purchasing his first radio station, WPUL

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about being general manager of WPUL

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about small local radio stations being pushed out of the market

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about Tama Broadcasting

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his controversial radio talk show 'Free Your Mind'

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the problems in Daytona Beach, Florida's black communities

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about production and distribution of his newspapers, the Florida Courier and Daytona Times

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about the content within the Florida Courier

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about HistoryMaker President Barack Obama's presidency

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about HistoryMaker U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about Florida's Stand Your Ground law

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about political trends in Florida's African American communities

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about adjusting his newspapers to the digital age and the books he is writing

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his business ventures in Africa

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Charles W. Cherry II reflects on what he would do differently in his career

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Charles W. Cherry II talks about his family

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Charles W. Cherry II considers his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

10$3

DATitle
Charles W. Cherry II talks about his journalism internship at WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia
Charles W. Cherry II talks about what he learned from purchasing his first radio station, WPUL
Transcript
You were talking about your career trajectory in college you're majoring in journalism even though you were greatly influenced by psychology.$$Greatly influenced by, by psychology and [HM] Dr. [Na'im] Akbar but decided to go ahead and, and just make the media the main career and so we went over to Clark [later Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia]. All of, all of the media folks at, at Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia] actually were taking classes at Clark. And which was a great thing because they had a top notch journalism, you know journalism and, and broadcast school there.$$Who was in charge of that? Or who was the main influence over there?$$My main influence was Nellie Dixon who was the, the journalism instructor and we had a, a Herb Eichelberger was over the, the, the broadcast school. And what happened was at that point in time, this was, this was, this was early in, in TV broadcast with regard to having black folks as part of, of, of there was a, there were issues in the TV in, in the TV industry in Atlanta [Georgia] because they had maybe one or two black, black reporters. And so we were told folks from--in journalism at the AU Center [Atlanta University Center, Atlanta, Georgia] so that was Morehouse, Clark, and Morris Brown [College, Atlanta, University] and Spelman [College, Atlanta, University]. We, they had a conference with those of us who were in journalism and broadcast and said, "all right we are going to take some of y'all 'cause and y'all gotta be top notch because we have told these white folk that we have some, some kids over here who can get the job done. We're gonna put, put some, we're gonna put some of y'all in some internships in some of these stations over here and here's what our expectations are of you. You will do well. If you can't do well, you know you're not gonna embarrass the AU Center, you're not gonna set this project back so tell us right now if you're not gonna be able to get it done." So I was one of those who volunteered and they, they gave me an internship at WAGA-TV which was Channel 5 in Atlanta for my last two and a half years at Morehouse. And that was, that was a great experience. I was a sports producer. On the weekends I did a certain part of the six o'clock news. So I wrote and produced small sections of the six o'clock news and 11 o'clock news on some week days and on the weekends. And they put me with Bill Hartman who was a guy who was a, a sports guy who's been there probably thirty years. And I, I functioned well. And [Bill] Hartman says I was the best intern that he had. He was hating to see me go but I tell you what happened?$$What?$$I decided to take the law school aptitude test my senior year did well on it. Again on a humbug decided to apply to the University of Florida. University of Florida came back with a full ride of, of grants not, not loans but grants and told me if I came that they, they'd make sure I got a grant as long as I could make it through the first year. So I decided to go to law school and not because, because of the money and at that point in time again, the University of Florida [Gainesville, Florida] was under the Consent Decree so they had to have black students. I knew I was gonna be coming back to Florida I figured that a law degree would probably be a pretty good thing. So I accepted that. But before I decided to actually go I had a conversation with the, the station manager because they offered me a job. So I, I was when I went to the meeting with the station manager, I expected that he was gonna say, "Well Charles you done a great job, you're, Bill Hartman, your boss likes you. You know the six o'clock news, the major producers like you. You know you done a great job. Gonna put you on salary X amount of dollars and you got a great career here." Well, he, what he told me was, "That what we're gonna do, we're gonna give you forty hours, but we're gonna extend that at the minimum wage that we're paying you as an intern right now." And I, I, I was flabbergasted. I was like, "I'm sorry, sir, but I worked here two and a half years. I done an excellent job as you, as you have told me and are you saying that I have a forty hour job but that even with a college degree and two and a half years of experience at this station, that I'm only gonna make minimum wage?" He said, "Yes." I was done. That was my media career.$Now let me go well, I'm gonna go to 1989 with the purchase of WPUL [-AM]. Your, your, your father [Charles Cherry, Sr.] and your brother [HM Dr. Glenn W. Cherry] were involved in this right?$$Yes, my father, my brother and a group, a group of my fraternity brothers from Omega Psi Phi fraternity at Morehouse [College, Atlanta, University] we had established a venture capital fund so we got funds from Morehouse's venture capital fund and we got, got some, some friends and some family put some money together and bought that station in Daytona [Beach, Florida] that dad ran in conjunction with the Daytona Times for a number of years.$$Okay. Now was this a station that was black-oriented at the time you purchased it?$$Country western. So it was a country western station. We made the biggest mistake that we, that we made as radio owners which is a rookie mistake which is to change the format from country western to black, basically R&B and all of our, our white clients just, they, they just left. You know we thought that it doesn't matter what the format is and, and it did matter. Because we lost every dollar from the little country western bars and the, the, the, the saddle stores and the, the, the shoe shops and all the rest of that, that had put money into this so. If we had to do it over again, we would have left it alone. But I think at that point in time we, we were just so happy in Daytona Beach [Florida] to have our own station that could play Earth, Wind and Fire and Teddy Pendergrass and all that 24/7 that we just--it was a big, it was sort of a big juke box for us when we, when we first started.$$Okay. But did the advertising come?$$No. Well advertising came but it didn't come from there. So we when you are in a black format and once--that's one thing we've learned along the way that you pay a, you, you pay a disproportionate penalty for targeting black people in almost any business because you sort of, you sort of pigeon hole that white owned businesses or traditional or mainstream businesses. You have to sort of prove to them that you'll bring value that, that black people do consume and, and, and it's, it's, it's an uphill struggle for the most part, particularly post--post-desegregation. Again black folks can take their money anywhere. And so you have to prove your value to both your black consumers as well as everybody else. And that's sort of a double standard that I think that a whole lot of, of black businesses deal with. But unfortunately that, that's just of sort of where we are right now.$$Okay. Okay. So, where does your advertising revenue come from now?$$Well it comes from, from folks who, who--well let me, let me back up. What we decided to do particularly when we started having multiple stations is that we have multiple formats. So you have, you have a chance to go to multiple customer, customer bases. So we have a--you have a R&B format, you're looking at people who are targeting a black/urban audience. You know you have a, a Hispanic format. You have a jazz format. You have a religious format. You have a top forty format. So when we, when we got, where we had eleven stations, we sort of run the--ran the gamut in terms of the number of formats and so you have a better chance of, of, of having a, a much broader consumer base that you can, that you can serve and then you have different formats that you can sell to, to an advertiser.$$So, so you started, well you started with WPUL was that sort of like a testing ground for what you would do with the rest of your stations? 'Cause the other stations were purchased from what I understand from 2000 to--from 1998 to 2000,--$$Right.$$--I guess?$$Yep, yep.$$Okay.$$Un huh. Well we--I think we learned how to be broadcasters at WPUL. You know we, we learned, we learned how to, how to tell time 'cause radio time is very exact. You learn what people respond to and what they don't. You learn how to, how to, how to carve expense. I mean the whole issue of revenue and expenses in radio is, is different from, from other kinds of industries. You know you learn, you learn, so you learn it and it wasn't something that I think we did consciously originally to go and get bigger, but when we--what we saw, when we saw how daddy was having fun and he was making money, we looked at it from a, from a financial perspective that radio has value and that there are stations out there that we can get and we learned enough about radio to turn it around and a sort of get stations that may be undervalued or that maybe, that may have too many, too much expenses and then from a business perspective put 'em in a--shape, pick a format and then move, move it forward.

Robert Bogle

Newspaper chief executive Robert Bogle was born to John Bogle, a vice president and advertising director at The Philadelphia Tribune, and Roslyn Woods Bogle, an advocate and activist throughout the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. In 1973, he graduated from Cheyney State College with his B.A. degree in urban studies and attended the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Business and Finance to study marketing and economics.

Bogle was first hired at The Philadelphia Tribune in 1970, and was named advertising director in 1973. He served in that position until 1977, when he became director of marketing. From 1981 to 1989, Bogle worked as executive vice president and treasurer for the Tribune and was then promoted to president and chief executive officer. In 1991, Bogle was appointed president of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), where he served two terms. Among his achievements as president of the NNPA were the dedication of the new national headquarters in Washington, D.C., the introduction of the NNPA’s national wire service, and the establishment of new and enhanced relationships with major national advertisers, including Toys R Us, Procter & Gamble, U.S. Air, K-Mart, and Walt Disney World Company.

Bogle has served on the boards of U.S. Airways Group, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Pennsylvania Newspaper Association, United Way of America, the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, the Workforce Investment Board, and the African American Chamber of Commerce. In addition, in 2009, Philadelphia Mayor Michael A. Nutter appointed Bogle to the Independence Blue Cross board of directors.

Bogle is chairman of the Hospitals and Higher Education Facilities Authority of Philadelphia and serves as a commissioner of the Delaware River Port Authority. He has served as chairman of the council of trustees of Cheyney University and is an advisor to the United Negro College Fund, a member of the executive committee of the Boy Scouts of America, and a life member of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. He is also a founding member and president of the African American News and Information Consortium, a group of premier Black newspapers in some of the largest markets in the United States of America.

In 1993, Bogle was named one of Ebony magazine’s 100 most influential black Americans. In 1995, 1997 and 1999, the NNPA honored Bogle with the Russwurm Award, the highest honor to the “Best Newspaper in America.” Bogle received an honorary doctorate of humane letters degree from Drexel University in 2000.

Robert Bogle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 11, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.151

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/13/2014

Last Name

Bogle

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Schools

Cheyney University of Pennsylvania

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

BOG02

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Maarten

Favorite Quote

Never To Your Friends Your Secrets Tell, For One Day Your Friend May Be Your Foe And Out Into The World Your Secrets Will Go.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Oxtail Stew, Pig's Feet. Chitlins, Roast and Turkey

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Robert Bogle ( - ) is the president and chief executive officer of The Philadelphia Tribune. He also served as president of the National Newspaper Publishers Association from 1991 to 1995.

Employment

The Philadelphia Tribune

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Bogle's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother's academic abilities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about his father and his parents' views of race and character

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle talks about how his parents met, his likeness to them and lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle describes his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Bogle talks about his brother, HistoryMaker Donald Bogle, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle talks about his brother, HistoryMaker Donald Bogle, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about growing up in Darby, Pennsylvania where he attended integrated schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle talks about the lessons he learned from his father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle states his elementary school and recalls his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle talks about meeting influential African Americans as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Robert Bogle talks about growing up knowing that he would have to choose between education, work, and the military after high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Bogle talks about South Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and black-owned theaters across the country

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle claims Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as the birthplace of the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about working as a newsboy, his educational experience, and moving to Yeadon, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about attending Yeadon High School in Yeadon, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about attending Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle lists his instructors at Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about how he came to work at the Philadelphia Tribune

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle talks about his studies at Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania and working at the Philadelphia Tribune

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle talks about participating in the student union at Cheyney University of Pennsylvania in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Marguerita Le Etta Washington

Omaha Star publisher Marguerita Le Etta Washington was born on August 16, 1948 to Anna Le Brown and attorney Edmund Duke Washington. Washington’s maternal great grandfather, the richest man in Bessemer, Alabama, left his fortune to his black daughter, her grandmother. The white relatives resolved the matter by burning down the Bessemer courthouse. Washington’s aunt, Mildred Brown, founded Omaha, Nebraska’s Omaha Star in 1938. Washington graduated from Kansas’ Lincoln High School in 1964, at the age of sixteen. Afterwards, she briefly attended Lincoln University in Jefferson City. She then went on to attend the University of Nebraska at Omaha where she earned her B.A. degree in sociology and elementary education. While earning her M.A. degree in administration and special education, Washington began teaching in the Omaha public schools. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska - Lincoln in administration and instruction in 1985.

On November 2, 1989, Washington’s aunt, Mildred Brown, was laid to rest, and Washington became the Omaha Star’s new publisher. The Omaha Star has a circulation of 30,000 in Nebraska with a staff that is encouraged to be readers and critical thinkers. Regular contributions are made by Phyllis Hicks and State Representative Ernest Chambers. A community institution, the Omaha Star’s headquarters was recognized as a historical landmark designation in 2006, and under Washington’s leadership, a memorial will be created in honor of her aunt, Mildred Brown.

In 2005, the Omaha YWCA recognized Washington as one of the ten “Women of Vision.” In 2007, Washington formed the “Mildred D. Brown Memorial Study Center, Inc.,” in order to give young people the opportunity to study and research the history of African American journalism in Nebraska as well as getting hands on experience with a local newspaper.

Washington was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 5, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.280

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/5/2007

Last Name

Washington

Maker Category
Middle Name

Le Etta

Schools

Lincoln College Preparatory Academy

R.T. Coles Vocational Junior High School

Wendell Phillips Elem. Magnet

Lincoln University

Avila University

University of Nebraska-Omaha

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Marguerita

Birth City, State, Country

Kansas City

HM ID

WAS05

Favorite Season

Fall, Summer

State

Kansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nebraska

Birth Date

8/16/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Omaha

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chili, Hot Wings

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Marguerita Le Etta Washington (1948 - ) was the publisher of the Omaha Star, the only African American newspaper in Nebraska.

Employment

Omaha Public Schools

Omaha Star

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marguerita Le Etta Washington's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about her mother's birth

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about her father's birth

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington explains why her father fled Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington explains why her father fled New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls being raised by her father

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her parents' personalities and her likeness to them

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her neighborhood in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her parents' commitment to education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington remembers trips with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes Wendell Phillips Elementary School in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her mischief at Wendell Phillips Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the vocational education programs in Kansas City, Kansas

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls the founding of the Omaha Star

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington remembers her subscription to the Kansas City Call

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes Lincoln High School in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington remembers her stepmother

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her activities at Lincoln High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her experiences at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her transfer to St. Teresa's College in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington remembers her brief marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her studies at the University of Nebraska-Omaha

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her doctoral dissertation

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her work in the Omaha Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her educational philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls becoming the publisher of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington reflects upon her challenges at the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about the Omaha Star's news coverage

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the writing staff of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the different responsibilities of journalists and publishers

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about the Omaha Star's advertisers

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls the most popular issues of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the latest issue of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community of Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington reflects upon the changes at the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington shares her plans for the future of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$4

DATitle
Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her work in the Omaha Public Schools
Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about the Omaha Star's news coverage
Transcript
From what I understand you taught in Omaha [Nebraska] public school system for--I guess from 19--what to, from--?$$To, actually when I inherited the paper [Omaha Star] I tried to do both, stay with OP, I thought I was superwoman, I'm not (laughter) I found out. And I did both the paper as well as work for Omaha Public Schools, but I found out after five years I couldn't do that. It was, it was taking a toll on me.$$Okay so, oh so, oh well you worked on your, your, you worked for the public schools from '72 [1972] until 1989, I guess right?$$Uh-huh.$$Yeah.$$Well actually it was longer than that it was five years after '89 [1989].$$Okay, all right so 'til 1994, I guess?$$Yeah, like I said I worked with both.$$Okay, now what, what did you do for the public schools?$$I started off as a pre-school teacher because I forgot I also studied early childhood education, as well as elementary education. And then secondary so, you know. So, I started off pre-school teacher, then I became an elementary teacher and taught grades--primary, the primary grades. Then I was the special education and I taught all of the grades. And then I went to secondary education and I because a resource teacher, meaning I didn't have a classroom. I went to the classrooms and--$$So, you would help the other teachers develop research materials and resources and thing (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Uh-huh, right, right. Then I was placed in a, I'd guess you'd call it a semi-administrative position, or maybe administrative position. Vocation, vocational education where I would go to various schools and teach study skills to kids and how to take tests and that kind of thing. I developed--I guess you call it a vocational program where I would take kids to various corporations and businesses and what have you and some of them would get, get hired. In fact, I understand that some of them are working at these places this very day. And I didn't--especially kids that I worked with were behavior problems mostly or, or they had disabilities, you know LD students. Learning disabilities, none of them were I mean they could have grown up and, and become the president. I mean they weren't low functioning, it's just most of them had behavior problems, you know. So--$$It's easy--$$Say what?$$We think of some of the presidents we've had, it's easy to imagine that some of them could be president.$$Yeah, yeah. So that's what I did. This particular vocational education program was federally funded and that only lasted for two years.$What were the, what are the big community issues that the paper has covered since you've been, been here in charge?$$Well, economic development for one thing which is badly needed because ever since the riots in the '60s [1960s] I believe yeah, '60s [1960s], '60s [1960s], '70s [1970s], '60s [1960s] yeah '60s [1960s]. And they burned everything down, except some black businesses. And they removed the, the rumble, or the crumble I better say crumble and all we had was vacant lots. And many people moved out of the area. And especially after the interstate the freeway came through here and many people had were forced to move. What was your question again, I'm sorry?$$I was asking you about some of the issues in town [Omaha, Nebraska] (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Okay.$$--and we were talking about community economic development?$$Well, economic development.$$Economic development.$$Economic development that's one of the main things that we talked about. Health issues we're strong on health issues. Educational issues we're strong on that. We've even gotten to the point now where we're talking about domestic issues, because there's so much spouse abuse. So, in fact that is really out of control so, we're talking about that a lot. All of the particular issues that are of importance to us we cover. But, this is a paper and it always has been that is a positive paper. Now, I realize negative news sells newspapers but they can get that in a daily paper. Omaha Star tries to uplift people. It tells what people are doing that are positive. There's also emphasis on our young people and what they are doing. And that's what the Omaha Star is all about.$$Now, is most of the (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) My philosophy is that pay a lot of attention to the young people because as the old saying goes they are our future.