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Ann Smith

Civic leader Ann E. Smith was born in Jefferson City, Missouri in 1939 where she attended segregated schools. Her grandfather served with the United States Colored Troop regiment during the American Civil War and then graduated from Fisk University. Smith’s father, a principal, and her mother, a high school, pushed her to do well academically and athletically. During high school, she played softball and volleyball. Smith went on to receive her B.A. degree from Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri; her M.A. degree from the University of Iowa; and her Ph.D. degree from the Union Institute and Union University in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Smith began her dynamic career with sixteen years of service in academia. She taught high school in her native State of Missouri and then assumed teaching posts at Eastern Illinois University where she became the first African American appointed as a full-time professor. Smith went on to work at the University of Indiana and then Northeastern Illinois University. While there, she progressed through the ranks from instructor, assistant and associate professor to Assistant to the President and Vice President for Academic Affairs. In 1978, Smith transitioned from academia to business and joined Prudential Insurance Company. After earning several performance awards in her first year as an agent, she was promoted to sales manager. In 1981, she became director of marketing for Cook, Stratton & Company, an insurance brokerage firm. In 1986, she assumed a full time role as vice president of Endow, Inc., an insurance planning and consulting firm she had co-founded seven years earlier. Smith began serving a six-year term on the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois in 1985, thus becoming the first black woman to hold office in Illinois through a statewide election. After serving almost four years, she resigned in July of 1988 to be considered for the position of Associate Chancellor at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), and accepted the appointment in September of 1988. Later, Smith served as director of Community Relations at UIC at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and then became President of the Gamaliel Foundation until retiring in 2011.

Smith has served on the boards of a wide variety of local and national educational, community and cultural organizations, including as vice-president of Business and Professional People for the Public Interest and the West Central Association. She served on the boards of the Illinois Arts Alliance and Foundation, the National Advisory Council for the NAACP, the Duncan YMCA and the Marcy-Newberry Association. Smith was also appointed as chairman of the boards of the Chicago Access Corporation and the Southside Community Arts Center, and served on the boards of the Joel Hall Dancers, the Illinois Committee on Black Concerns in Higher Education and The American College.

Anne E. Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 21, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.232

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/21/2013 |and| 8/22/2013

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Schools

Lincoln University

University of Iowa

Union Institute & University

First Name

Ann

Birth City, State, Country

Poplar Bluff

HM ID

SMI29

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Puerto Vallarta, Mexico

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

8/17/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Civic leader and education executive Ann Smith (1939 - ) taught at Eastern Illinois University where she became the first African American appointed as a full professor. She was elected to the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois in 1985, thus becoming the first black woman to hold office in Illinois through a statewide election.

Employment

Gamaliel Foundation

University of Illinois, Chicago

Endow, Incorporated

Northeastern Illinois University

Eastern Illinois University

University of Indiana

Cook, Stratton, & Company

Prudential Insurance Company

Public Interest and the West Central

Favorite Color

Black

Frances Graves Carroll

Frances G. Carroll was born on May 8, 1932, in Chicago, Illinois. She attended Raymond Elementary and Forestville Elementary, and graduated from DuSable High School in Chicago before earning her B.A. degree in early childhood education from Roosevelt University. Carroll completed her Master of Education degree in special education from Chicago State University and received her PhD in education from The University of Sarasota in Sarasota, Florida.

Carroll has spent much of her adult life teaching in the Chicago education system and training future teachers and principals. From 1954 to 1999, she taught the Professional Advancement Courses for the Chicago Public Schools. Carroll has taught at the City Colleges of Chicago, Governor’s State University, Chicago State University and Roosevelt University. In the early 1970s, she worked at DePaul University with the Model Cities Program while serving as the Director of the Inter-Institutional Teacher Training Program for Early Childhood Education. In this capacity, Carroll trained instructors from eleven universities in childhood education. She has worked as an elementary school counselor and in the public school system’s mental health programs. From 1979 to 1984, Carroll served as Coordinator of the school system’s Evaluation and Diagnostic Unit. From 1984 to 1992, she was the Director of Staff Development for Special Education Teachers. In this position, Carroll trained parents to advocate for their special needs children. She was the parent coordinator of Cook County Juvenile Detention Center from 1992 to 1995, where she created a interactive parent program and lobbied successfully to change the school’s name to Nancy Jefferson Alternative School (named for a local social advocate) because the name of the school hurt students’ opportunities when they attempted to transition into gainful employment.

In 1999, Carroll became the president of the Carroll Family Foundation, a scholarship foundation for students with special needs. Carroll started the foundation with her own money and serves as the board director. That same year, she joined the SAS program at DePaul University where she mentored principals in effective instructional practices and administrative leadership. In 2000, she became the vice-president of Group 17 Education Consultants, Inc., and in 2003, Carroll was appointed to the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. As a newly appointed trustee, Carroll re-stimulated the debate over the use of Chief Illiniwek as the University of Illinois mascot. Due to Carroll’s patient effort, the University of Illinois board officially retired the image of Chief Illiniwek in March 2007.

Carroll married Floyd Carroll on April 22, 1956, in Chicago at Progressive Baptist Church. They have two adult children, Floyd, Jr., and Francesca, and are members of the Greater Bethesda Baptist Church.

Accession Number

A2008.019

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/19/2008 |and| 7/10/2008

Last Name

Carroll

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Graves

Schools

Du Sable Leadership Academy

Benjamin W. Raymond Elementary School

Forrestville Elementary School

Roosevelt University

Chicago State University

Argosy University

First Name

Frances

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

CAR16

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cancun, Mexico

Favorite Quote

To God Be The Glory.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

5/8/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Education executive and education instructor Frances Graves Carroll (1932 - ) was a leader in the field of special education in Chicago, Illinois from 1954 to 1999. She also served on the Board of Trustees for the University of Illinois and as a chapter president of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority.

Employment

Frances E. Willard School

Andrew Canegie School

Andrew Carnegie School

Chicago Public Schools

Urban Teachers Corps

Consortium of Colleges and Universities

Kennedy-King College

Governors State University

Roosevelt University

Cook County commission on women's issues

Nancy B. Jefferson Alternative School

Favorite Color

Green, Pink

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Graves Carroll's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her father's occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers her father's taste in clothes

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers living in Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers her classmate, Quincy Jones

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her friendship with Marion Lett Beach

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls attending Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her early interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the Progressive Baptist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers Walter Dyett

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the marching band at DuSable High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her experiences with black hair stylists in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the businesses in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her likeness to her twin sister

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about her transition to college

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about African American politics in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her teachers at DuSable High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the history of Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers attending the Chicago Teachers College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls transferring to Roosevelt College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her sister's political activities at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her cultural experiences at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers her classmates at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers her teacher certification exam

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the start of her teaching career

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the influence of Frances Horwich

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the rules and activities in her first grade classroom

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls earning a master's degree in special education

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls moving to the Woodlawn neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the early guidelines for special education

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the overcrowding in the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her home in Chicago's Woodlawn neighborhood

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the overcrowding at the Andres Carnegie School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her approach to special education

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about her success as a special education teacher

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll argues against the use of medication to control students' behavior

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her support for mental healthcare in the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls working with the Consortium of Colleges and Universities

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls training special education teachers

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls serving as the diagnostic coordinator for the Chicago Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls earning a doctoral degree in special education

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her doctoral dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls serving as a special education director for the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers serving on the Cook County Commission on Women's Issues

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her work on the Youth Guidance board

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls serving as principal of the Nancy B. Jefferson Alternative School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers Nancy Jefferson

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the renaming of the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center's school

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers working with parents at the Cook County Juvenile Detention Center

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the heat wave of 1995 in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her tenure at the Nancy B. Jefferson Alternative School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the Carroll Family Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her education consulting firm

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the campaign for a new mascot at the University of Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll explains the perceptions of the Chief Illiniwek mascot

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her proposal to remove the University of Illinois' racist mascot

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the removal of the Chief Illiniwek mascot

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the aftermath of Chief Illiniwek's removal

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the history of the Native American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her family

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about her activities at the Greater Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her involvement in the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Graves Carroll's interview, session 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her civic activities with the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the breakfast program at the Greater Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the Youth Guidance agency

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her professional memberships and honors

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her leadership of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the activities at the Progressive Baptist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her early role models, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her early role models, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the importance of volunteerism

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the removal of the Chief Illiniwek mascot

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her motivations to retire Chief Illiniwek

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her tactics for retiring Chief Illiniwek

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the changes in the field of special education

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the state of special education programs

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about her family's influence

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Frances Graves Carroll recalls transferring to Roosevelt College in Chicago, Illinois
Frances Graves Carroll talks about her success as a special education teacher
Transcript
Mom [Grace Winstead Graves] said, "Well, why don't you try Roosevelt [Roosevelt College; Roosevelt University, Chicago, Illinois]?" At that time we were a little bit more able, and tuition was thirteen dollars a semester hour. So, they had a break. We had a winter break, and we took the letter--we never threw away anything. We took the letter down to Roosevelt, and they admitted me the same day. I took my grades, and so if we didn't get admitted we could go right on back to Teachers College [Chicago Teachers College; Chicago State University, Chicago, Illinois] (laughter) in February or whenever school started. And so Roosevelt started earlier, and so we got registered to make sure it was a real registration, and started at Roosevelt. And my life was different from that day on.$$So this about 1950?$$Nineteen fifty-two [1952].$$Two [1952]. Okay, okay.$$And life, it was a whole different world of freedom--the liberalism, the acceptance. And they had Lorenzo Turner [Lorenzo Dow Turner]. I don't know if you ever heard of Dr. Lorenzo Turner. And he brought African students into Roosevelt from Nigeria. Every year he would to Ghana or Nigeria and bring students back. And to my knowledge, that was the first university--I know we didn't have him at Chicago Teachers College. And he lived at 39th [Street] and Ellis [Avenue] in a big old house. And he would invite his classes over to meet and to discuss with the African students. And we would take them to our church [Progressive Baptist Church, Chicago, Illinois], and the music was so--after studying the African culture--studying it--you could not tell the difference between the African music and the music at the Baptist church. And so it was very, very interesting. And then my mom would invite them to dinner, and we would have African and Asian students.$$Now, can, do you remember the names of some of the students that--$$Well, Atunde Adakawa [ph.], I remember that name; Atunde I can remember. And there was a Joe Williams [ph.], but he was from Liberia. So, they spoke English, you know. Now, all of the students spoke English because they had to speak English to come here. But there was maybe five or six. Some we stayed closer friends with. Atunde was really, in fact he--when I got married he was, he was at the wedding. I stayed with him and met his wife. He's dead now. Because he went back to Africa. But there were many, at least twenty that we interacted with. And then Dr. Turner died. When Dr. Turner died, in maybe the '80s [1980s], we kind of lost that relationship. But by that time, the world was going international. We moved to 60th [Street] and Blackstone [Avenue], across the street from the International House at the University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois]. And so then we would have African Americans, Africans, Asians, and Indians for Thanksgiving dinner and Christmas dinner. Remember, I said my mom was a good cook.$$Okay. So, when you say you moved, was that you and your sister [Grace Graves Dawson], or--$$Me and my sister and my mother.$$And your mother, okay.$$We bought our mother a house when we graduated from college at twenty-one. We bought her a house at 60th and Blackstone.$$Okay. So you maintained these--now this is interesting in this time period, and important too, that Dr. Turner was trying to, you know, bring together the--$$Right.$$--African students and the black students.$$He, he did. And, you know, of course we didn't understand the significance of it. It was just that you loved your professor. St. Clair Drake was there. And Turner, and Rice [ph.], he's still there. He may have just retired now, but he was an historian at Roosevelt. And the president of Roosevelt, Sparling [Edward Sparling], was exceptional, and he would come and talk to the students. Now, presidents do that now. But to have the president--we never saw the president at Chicago Teachers College. But Dr. Sparling would come into the cafeteria, which was on the first floor of Roosevelt and talk to us. He would come up to the lounge and ask how you're doing. And so, as a result of that kind of interest and relationship, the first society that was formed within the alumni was the Sparling society, and you had to pay a hundred dollars, which was a lot of money in '54 [1954] to belong to the Sparling society. We're charter members of the Sparling society. Our names are now on, have been all the time, in the student lounge on the wall for the Sparling society.$So--$$We've talked about several different things at the same time.$$Yes.$$Do you want to go back to special ed [special education]?$$Yeah, we--yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) I just had one more point about special ed.$$Okay.$$Is that in--what was it--late in '69 [1969] or the '70s [1970s], I was able to--after going into special ed, naturally when you just get your master's degree in a subject and you get a chance to really teach it, it's exciting. So I guess I was very excited about what I was doing, and the challenges were to see if you could overcome them. And having been at Carnegie [Andrew Carnegie Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois] for--just when it was starting up--what I call startup school--I had many friends. So, what I would do to--if you got, if you did your work real well, the first thing then was to teach work habits. Because in the classroom, most of the kids who got identified was because they didn't do the work. So, you had a routine. Everybody had a job, but you had a routine where you had to be finished by a certain length of time. That gave me the time to get my paperwork done, pages, attendance, et cetera, and then we would move into instruction. And, but, when--if they were able--and I had big boys--if they were able to read at the same level groups--so you read--if you didn't know the words and you didn't know how to read because you had fooled around or whatever--they'd learn how to read. So, I taught the phonics method. But once they learned how to read, then they had to read at their grade level. And so then I got my friends to take them into their classes, so they got to sit in the classes with the regular level. And Carnegie went up to the sixth grade, so I would put them mostly in the fifth and sixth grade because they were big boys. And the male teachers--I had male teachers in the fifth and sixth grade, and they loved my kids because they were so well behaved and they would pay attention. So they would go to their regular grades, and then at the end of the year I got the principals to let me transfer them to their regular grades. So, that was--the parents started asking that their children be in my special ed classroom. So that was like, I guess that was a real reward for me. And the kids really loved--and I took them everywhere. We went on long trips. We went to Galena [Illinois], we went to the museum, we went on train rides, and whatever I heard of. I went skiing, and I would tell the kids about all the activities. And so, they were motivated. They got to go if they participated and did their work, and I could get the principal to let me take them everywhere. Parents would go along with them to Springfield [Illinois]. We went everywhere, so that was unheard of for special ed kids to go. And the people never knew they were special ed. I never told them they were special ed, and they would compliment them on their behavior. You know, you better not say a word, you know (laughter).

Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon

Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon has made a career out of caring for the health and welfare of those less fortunate. Bacon was born on September 21, 1937, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Her father, Henry Johnson, was a postal clerk and her mother, Vina V. Johnson, was a schoolteacher.

Bacon earned a B.S. from Xavier University in New Orleans in 1958. She moved to Chicago to attend medical school, attending the University of Illinois School of Medicine, graduating in 1962. Bacon did not intend to stay in Chicago for an extended period of time. However, the inner-city patients she saw reminded her of the people she knew growing up in Louisiana.

In 1968, Bacon was fired from a publicly supported medical facility at the Altgeld Gardens' Murray Homes on Chicago's South Side for making her views on the need to improve the meager care provided there known. In response, Bacon opened the Clinic in Altgeld, Inc., a not-for-profit agency offering total health care and serving as the primary medical resource for the Altgeld Gardens area. The facility handles 15,000 patients a year. The center was funded out of her personal savings and Medicaid reimbursement until 1991, when it began to receive federal funding. The clinic has greatly improved the health of Altgeld Gardens community residents. When Bacon first opened the clinic, the infant mortality rate was 50.2 per thousand, in 1990 this number was reduced to 9.2 per thousand. In 2001, Bacon retired as medical director of the clinic.

In 1992, Bacon returned to singing. Singing had played an important role in Bacon's early development. She performed in many recitals and concerts throughout her youth and college years, but the demands of practicing medicine took precedence. She has been a featured soloist at Chicago Orchestra Hall, ETA Theater and numerous churches.

Accession Number

A2002.129

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

7/10/2002

Last Name

Bacon

Maker Category
Middle Name

Jackson

Schools

Xavier University of Louisiana

University of Illinois College of Medicine

McDonogh No. 35 Senior High School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Archival Photo 2
Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

BAC01

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

9/21/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Medical director and physician Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon (1937 - ) dedicated her life to providing health services to the underprivileged housing project Altgeld Gardens. Dr. Bacon founded the Clinic in Altgeld, which reduced the infant mortality rate in Altgeld Gardens from 50.2 per thousand to 9.2 per thousand.

Employment

Clinic in Altgeld Gardens

Chicago Department of Health

Cook County Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gloria Bacon interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon describes her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon discusses her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon explains how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon describes her two siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon recalls her earliest memory, learning her ABCs

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her greatest familial influence

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon remembers the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gloria Bacon describes her response to being the oldest child

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gloria Bacon describes activities in her childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gloria Bacon describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon confronts pressure to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon recalls memorable moments in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon discusses her limited early exposure to white people in New Orleans

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon describes herself as a well-rounded high school student

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon chooses to attend Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon experiences school life in an all-black environment

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her experience at Xavier University of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon describes incidents of colorism from her college years

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon discusses her coursework at Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon discovers her interest in singing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon chooses to attend Howard University's Medical School, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon explains her interest in sewing

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon finds ways to succeed in medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon considers diversity at Howard University's medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon describes her interests in the medical profession

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon discusses the issues that women in medicine face

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon discusses her move to the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon experiences a chilling Illinois winter

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon becomes pregnant during her second year of medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon describes her first job after medical school at a Medicaid clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon finds similarities between Altgeld Gardens, Chicago and New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon describes her inspiration for opening a new clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon reflects on the opening of her new medical clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon discusses the historical and political context of the opening of her clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon describes patient volume at her Chicago medical clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon discusses the early stages of her medical clinic's development

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon considers the socioeconomic situations of her patients

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon considers black self-determination with respect to the healthcare industry

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon discusses the beginning of her involvement with Chicago's Provident Hospital

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon remembers the closing of Chicago's Provident Hospital

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon discusses lessons learned from managing a medical clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her experience on the University of Illinois's Board of Trustees

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon speaks to her love for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon describes her concerns and hope for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon discusses elitism in the medical field

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon gives advice for those considering the medical profession

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon discusses her love of writing and performing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon discusses her legacy, showing care for the black comunity

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Gloria Bacon, valedictorian of her grammar school class

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Gloria Bacon poses as part of Xavier University's homecoming court, 1956

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Gloria Bacon is sworn in as a member of The University of Illinois Board of Trustees

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Gloria Bacon, elementary school spring festival queen

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Gloria Bacon with other members of her high school homecoming court

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Gloria Bacon is inducted into the American Academy of Family Physicians

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Gloria Bacon confronts pressure to become a doctor
Gloria Bacon discusses the historical and political context of the opening of her clinic
Transcript
Well, the truth is, my mother [Vina Velma Johnson] made--I, had a challenge. I went to the, doctor's office. I was maybe in my teens and the doctor said, "Oh, I understand you're going to be a doctor." And I said, "That's what my ma- that's what my mother (with emphasis) wants," like the teenager, like the sullen kind of teenager is going to say. So I got home and my mother said, "No, now, that's the last time I want to hear that from you. You don't want to be a doctor. You don't have to be a doctor. You just do whatever you want to do, but I just was trying to give you some--." Basically, "I'm trying to give you a good start on life." You know what I'm saying, "But you don't have to be a doctor for me. I don't need you to do anything for me." (Unclear) so she fronted me off in such a way that it was, "Okay." (Laughs). I'd been getting all my passes based on the fact that I wanted to be a doctor. (Laughs) Now, you know, here I am in high school, you know, getting ready, people know me all around, all the things that I do. "Am I going to back out?" But I'll say it's like at that point, it was at--it was probably at that point that I took it on because, like I say, she threw it back at me, because I had really in a very sullen way, I mean I was a, good--I could--I had a good, some good years of being a really sullen, ugly teenager. Where you just give the really ugly answers. And so she just threw it at me. I mean just up in my face. And from that point on, then I think that having come to grips with the, with the whole piece of choice, then I made the choice.$Now, can you put this in context the, you know, the--you've done a little bit of it, but the Altgeld, you know, The Clinic at Altgeld [Bacon's medical clinic in Chicago, Illinois], can you put in context historical context in terms of what was happening in the medical industry at that time, you know, I mean what changes were happening, how poor people were actually being treated, you know, (unclear).$$Well, you have a lot of things going on, well, in terms of, now remember Altgeld [Gardens, public housing projects, Chicago, Illinois] was isolated altogether. Altgeld was not part even in 1969, '70 [1970], Altgeld wasn't even part of the regular CTA [Chicago Transit Authority] transportation line. So you had the south, we had the South Suburban line which was a, line that ran straight up [Martin Luther] King Drive, separate, which brought people. But that was like once every hour or once whenever it came. And, so you didn't and then you had to pay a separate fee to get on CTA to go from Alt- you know, to go from Altgeld any place else. So, a lot of the people in Altgeld used Michael Reese [Hospital, Chicago, Illinois] and some, to some extent Mercy [Mercy Hospital and Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois] as a, place because you could come directly on the line, get off on King Drive [Chicago, Illinois] and be by Mercy or be by, Reese. So that going out and going some place else was very difficult. I mean it was two or three bus lines, trips. It was two or three bus fares. It was a lot of time. So that's, one, that's part of what the impetus was in the, in writing of the, of the proposal because it was so difficult. It was not any place easy. Plus, the people in Altgeld basically had been from the projects as we all--it was sometimes in quotes and basically were not reasonably well accepted outside. Many of them did not venture outside. Many of them lived almost like insular lives inside of Altgeld. There's a school. There's a grocery store. There's a church. There's whatever else you basically, the kind of things you need inside. So many of the people lived inside and so going downtown to Marshall Fields [department store] was like going to New York [New York] on a (unclear). It was like, it was like really going away. So that part of it we're looking for was trying to figure out how to bring better quality care inside a development since a large percentage of the people were going to use the services inside and not outside. So that's part of, what's going on. The other piece that I alluded to in the beginning was just, Medicaid [federal medical insurance program] was beginning to evolve. So if you're talking about a population of people in public housing by and large a large percentage of them would be, would be eligible for Medicaid. We're now talking about increasing the access that's available for them to be able to use medical and health care services. So that's, really, what I had in mind. I, like I say, when I'm, I'm trying probably got caught up in the whole, you know, in much more a social, in much more a social, sociological model, rather than me being caught up in medicine. Medicine was like the, sticker. It was like the lost leader piece almost in terms of how you got people in that came for, services. But it really was looking at the total, the total life that was the, and, and some of the things that were missing and, and beginning to try and think about how to do that. And that, that's how, that's really what, the, what the clinic was. It was, it was always more than just a medical facility.$$Were, politics, Chicago politic, did they enter in at all in this? Or was that a factor? Are you--?$$You know, I kind of it's like I, I'm not, I don't read the newspaper daily during the last twenty--most of my life because I, initially, I was getting children ready in the morning and I didn't have time. And then after that, I never got to it. So in, there are a lots of things that I do sometimes which are good and sometimes are bad, where I live my life like separate from whatever the rest of the world's doing, what the rest of the city's doing on that day. And most of the time we didn't really have a lot of fights, and we didn't--I, didn't get into it too much in the way of many problems from time to time. I had good relationships with most of the commissioners of health, you know, basically, either who knew me or who knew what we were doing. And so we could make that kind of contact. I knew [Mayor] Jane Byrne just in terms of mayors by name, and I knew [Mayor] Harold [Washington]. I know the mayor, and, and I think he knows basically the as in--I didn't know, I just met briefly senior, [Mayor Richard J.] Daley. I know Mayor [RIchard M.] Daley at this point, but, not a lot of, interaction. You know, but we pretty much have been my job was to take care of my own business to try to make sure I'm not we didn't get in, we didn't we have not had much in the way of, a fight.