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Fillmore Freeman

Organic chemist and chemistry professor Fillmore Freeman was born in 1936 in Lexington, Mississippi. Freeman earned his high school diploma from John Marshall High School in Chicago, Illinois in 1953. In 1957, he graduated summa cum laude from Central State College in Wilberforce, Ohio, with his B.S. degree, and then went on to pursue his graduate studies at Michigan State University, where he received his Ph.D. degree in physical organic chemistry in 1962.

After a brief stint working with a private firm, Freeman served as a National Institutes of Health Fellow at Yale University in 1964. The following year, he became an assistant professor of at California State University at Long Beach. During this time, the school expanded its chemistry and biochemistry programs to accommodate the growing interest in these fields. In 1973, Freeman became a professor of chemistry at the University of California at Irvine, where he continued to work for the duration of his professional career. With his background in physical organic chemistry, Freeman has conducted research on a number of topics, including organic synthesis pathways and reactions, particularly those of cyclic compounds. His research has also relied heavily on the use of computational chemistry. In 1991, Freeman was the recipient of a grant from the National Institutes of Health to study the biochemical properties of allicin, a component of garlic chemistry. Freeman’s work has had a strong emphasis in isolating, researching and synthesizing compounds with anti-tumor and anti-viral properties.

Freeman has received much recognition for his work in the field of physical organic chemistry. He was named an Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellow and a Fulbright-Hayes Senior Research Fellow. He also had the opportunity to serve as a visiting professor at the Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry and the University of Paris. Author of numerous academic papers, Freeman was identified as the third most highly cited African American chemist in a 2002 report by Oklahoma State University.

Fillmore Freeman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 29, 2011.

Accession Number

A2012.203

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/27/2012

Last Name

Freeman

Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

John Marshall Metropolitan High School

Central State University

Michigan State University

Yale University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Fillmore

Birth City, State, Country

Lexington

HM ID

FRE06

Favorite Season

None

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France, Berlin, Germany, Spain

Favorite Quote

The time before memories.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

4/10/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Organic chemist and chemistry professor Fillmore Freeman (1936 - ) joined the faculty of California State University in 1973. He has conducted significant research in the field of physical organic chemistry, particularly in the synthesis and structural understanding of potential anti-tumor and anti-viral compounds.

Employment

University of California, Irvine

California State University, Long Beach

California Research Corporation

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Université de Paris VII

Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles

Max-Planck-Institut

Favorite Color

Blue, Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Fillmore Freeman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about segregation and slavery in Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his paternal family owning land in Mississippi, and his father's role as a Baptist minister

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his father's training to become a Baptist minister

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his parents moving to Chicago, his mother's death, his father remarrying, and his four siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the socio-economic dynamics of skin color in the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about moving to Chicago when he was five years old, and his early experience there

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the Chicago public school system, and the condition of the city's housing projects in the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in Catholic school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about gang activity in Chicago in the 1940s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about leaving Chicago in 1953

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman talks about graduating from elementary school and attending high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about attending his father's church as a child, and his perspective on religion

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his parents' employment in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his jobs as a youngster in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about Maxwell Street in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about playing basketball in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his academic performance in high school and the pressures of life for African Americans who lived in the housing projects

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman describes his studies and his extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to attend Central State University, and his involvement in the ROTC Program

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his professors at Central State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about Charles Wesley, HistoryMaker, Alice Windom, and segregation in Wilberforce and Xenia, Ohio in the 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to pursue a doctoral degree at Michigan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman describes his Ph.D. dissertation on tetracyanocyclopropanes chemistry

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the interest in cyclopropane chemistry in the 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman describes being involved in a serious laboratory accident at Michigan State University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his recovery from a serious laboratory accident in 1959 - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman talks about meeting his wife in Chicago, and getting married in 1959

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his recovery from a serious laboratory accident in 1959 - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to work at Standard Oil of California, and his experience there

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience as a postdoctoral researcher at Yale University and his decision to work at California State University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the lack of African American faculty and students at the University of California, Irvine

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his sabbatical at the University of Paris, and accepting a tenured position at the University of California, Irvine

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman describes his research on using chemical compounds to combat Chagas disease

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his involvement with NOBCChE

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in Paris in 1972

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Fillmore Freeman describes the university system in California

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his early research in synthetic organic chemistry, screening chemical compounds against HIV, and his work on carbenes

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his sabbatical at the University of Illinois, Chicago in 1976

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his experience on sabbatical at the University of Illinois at Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience at the Max Planck Institute in Germany and at Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles in France

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the African American demographics at the University of California, Irvine

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about serving as a visiting scientist and program director of organic and macromolecular chemistry at the NSF in 1989

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his research in the area of organosulfur chemistry, and his collaboration with Professor Eloy Rodriguez

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the health benefits of garlic and its component compounds - part one

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the health benefits of garlic and its component compounds - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his report on the properties of di-tert-butyl chromate in the Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the dwindling number of African American faculty in chemistry departments across the United States

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman describes the field of computational chemistry, and its applications in medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman shares his perspectives on the impact of computers on society and the future of physical organic chemistry

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his work to promote undergraduate chemistry research and his goals for the future

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman reflects upon his career and his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his hobbies

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman shares how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$5

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
Fillmore Freeman describes his research in the area of organosulfur chemistry, and his collaboration with Professor Eloy Rodriguez
Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to work at Standard Oil of California, and his experience there
Transcript
So it seems in 1991, it seems you received a grant of $507,750 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study tropical plants in Latin America and Africa that fight various fungal diseases, viruses and--$$Yeah, but that was in conjunction with Professor Eloy Rodriguez who was in the School of Bio [Biological] Science, so it was a joint grant.$$Okay, all right, and this is something. Did you have much experience with folk remedies growing up?$$No.$$Okay.$$Well, not experience, but I knew about them. I mean if you got sick in the old neighborhood, there's no such thing as going to a doctor. Everybody had some kind of folk remedy, many of which did not work, but that's all you could have.$$I just wondered if your family had any folk remedies, you know, that you remembered growing up?$$No, the medicine I remember most of all is Vicks VapoRub because of the way it smelled, and they'd rub it on your chest, and that's supposed to cure you when you got sick or have a cold. But that was an interesting collaboration. He's at Cornell [University, New York] now, but we inadvertently become, became sort of world experts in organosulfur chemistry. And when I was in Germany, they had some money left over. And they asked me did I want to go to a conference. And so I looked around, and in Yugoslavia, there was an organosulfur conference. And so I decided, hey, they want me to go so I will go. So I went to this conference which was on the Adriatic Sea. It's a place called Portoroz, and it's just like California. This was when Tito [President Marshal Tito] was still in power in Yugoslavia. But it was just capitalism. It was a tourist place. But it was, after being in Germany for that winter, it was so nice to get to this warm coast. And these sulfur chemists were arguing about a particular reaction intermediate called an alphadisulfoxide. So, you know, I just said, well, we'll just, we can just oxidize this and oxidize that because we know how to oxidize things. So everybody just laughed. So I came back to the [United] States after Germany. And there was a graduate student, Christos Angeletakis, a Greek fellow. And he wanted to do research with me. And we were looking for this elusive intermediate, the alphadisulfoxide. And one way to do that is to work at very low temperatures so you could (unclear) the rate of reactivity. And we were looking and we were looking. We couldn't get any spectroscopic evidence for it. But finally we did. So we became the first ones to identify or to build an alphadisulfoxide. And so we got into sulfur chemistry. Now, to get back to Professor Rodriguez, he's the big world's expert on plant chemists, chemistry. Now, there is this lady, Goodall, who studied the chimpanzee,--$$Yeah, Jane Goodall.$$You're right. Well, when she was studying some of these chimpanzees, she noted that they would eat leaves from a certain plant. They would just keep the leaves in their mouths. They wouldn't chew it. They'd spit it out. Some of them swallowed it. And so it turned out that some Canadian chemist was interested in this, Professor Rodriguez. And so they started isolating the chemical components of this particular plant. And it turns out that the significant component was some brilliant red compound. It had a six-membered ring and all kinds of things on the side. But in the six-membered ring, they had two sulfur atoms. So since we were thought to be world experts on organosulfur chemistry, and that's when I started collaborating with Professor Rodriguez. Again, all unplanned, but, you know, we've done a lot of sulfur chemistry.$Now, what did you do between '62 [1962] and '64 [1964]?$$I worked for Standard Oil of California. This is in the Bay Area [San Francisco, California], and it's a little--there's Berkeley and next to Berkeley is a little town called Richmond. And next to that, there's a bridge that goes from Richmond over to Marin County. And that's where the Standard Oil refinery was. At that time, Standard Oil had a lot of administrative offices over on Bush Street in San Francisco. And so I worked there for two years, and one of the reasons I went to work there was because they promised that we were gonna do basic research as opposed to industrial research. Well, there were about eleven of us in basic research. And that lasts for six months. After that, as with any big company, profits drive everything. And so we used to have these, what we called "dog and pony" shows where the people from Bush Street would come over, and we'd tell 'em what we're doing. And all they wanna know is how much money is that gonna make us. And so basically, during that two-year period, almost all of us had moved over, moved from basic research over to some industrial routine kind of work. And out of the eleven of us, nine of us left, and became professors somewhere in the United States because, again, we had wanted to do basic research. In industry, at that time, Standard Oil was one of the big people in the detergent industry because when they would crack petroleum to get these low molecular weight compounds, we all alkanes, and they could just put--and alkenes, and they could just put a sulfonate group on it. So you needed alkane, alkene that's nonpolar and a sulfonate group that's polar. So this is how you make suds and things. The non-polar part gets out the dirt and the oil and the polar part (unclear) solubility. But these things would not break down easily in the environment. Streams were getting blocked and plugged up, and so we were just looking for ways to improve making those, but also to make alternatives. So what you would do is to run a reaction and then you have to try all different concentrations. So it's routine, the same thing. Then you'd try different temperatures. Then you'd add, change one reagent, and so industrial chemistry is necessary from the profit motive. But intellectually, it's not very challenging. It's very routine. And so that's when I left to go back to Yale [University, New Haven, Connecticut] when I got a National Institutes of Health [NIH] post-doctoral fellowship.$$Okay, this is in 1964?$$Right.$$Okay, so this is a post-doc at Yale University in New Haven [Connecticut]. And--$$Now, the California Research Corporation eventually became the Chevron Research Corporation. And so--$$Oh, the California, I mean the Standard Oil?$$Right, the California Research Corporation was the research arm of Standard Oil.$$Okay.$$And so now it is the Chevron Research Corporation. And, of course, getting a job there was a big deal because growing up in Chicago [Illinois], I had always wanted to live in California. But that was also part of the big migration in the United States to the West. And there were not many jobs for chemists at that time. Shell had a facility at Emeryville which is north of San Francisco. And in Albany, California, there was a government lab. So basically, those three labs, California Research Corporation, Shell and the government lab were the only ones that were hiring people. So everybody was trying to get to the West Coast. And that's when I was in Detroit [Michigan]. I went from Lansing [Michigan] to Detroit. It was 13 [degree Fahrenheit] below [zero]. Got to San Francisco. This is in January on my interview trip. And they were having a heat wave. It was 88 degrees. Now, even since being a little kid, growing up in Chicago, I know I'm going to California. And that trip just solidified everything. There's no way I wanted to live back in the Midwest or where there was cold weather.

Lez Edmond

Distinguished professor Lez Edmond was born in Jacksonville, Florida. He was on the faculty of one of America’s leading Catholic institutions of higher learning, St. John’s University in New York City. As a child, Edmond attended a Seventh Day Adventist school, where he received his high school diploma. Edmond continued his education and received his B.A. degree and his M.A. degree from Adelphi University. He then received his PhD degree from the Union Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio.

In 1962, Edmond co-authored with Earl Sweeting African History: An Illustrated Handbook, presenting the accomplishments of the continent of Africa and its people. In 1964, Edmond wrote the Harlem Diary, chronicling his thoughts and observances about Harlem’s 1964 race riot. Harlem Diary appeared in the Catholic magazine, Ramparts, and was reprinted in Reporting Civil Rights: American Journalism. By the late 1960s, Edmond had become a known civil rights activist in Harlem. He worked closely with several civil rights leaders including Malcolm X, who invited him to attend meetings at the Nation of Islam.

Edmond began his professional career in research and development at Radio Engineering Lab in Long Island, New York. Joining Seton Hall University, Edmond began his teaching career. He continued his studies with psychologist Carl Rogers before joining St. John’s University as an associate professor of Psychology and the Social Sciences at the school’s College of Professional Studies. Edmond was the recipient of the Spirit of St. John’s Award.

Edmond lived in New York City.

Edmond passed away in April 2017.

Accession Number

A2006.110

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/10/2006

Last Name

Edmond

Maker Category
Schools

Seventh Day Adventist School

Adelphi University

First Name

Lez

Birth City, State, Country

Jacksonville

HM ID

EDM01

Favorite Season

All Seasons Except Winter

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

I Believe In Peace, Justice, And Truth.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/9/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

4/10/2017

Short Description

Civil rights activist and psychology professor Lez Edmond (1932 - 2017 ) was known for his writings on the Civil Rights Movement in Harlem in the 1960s, where he worked with Malcolm X and other leaders. He was associate professor of Psychology and the Social Sciences at the College of Professional Studies at St. John's University.

Employment

Seton Hall University

St. John's University

Radio Engineering Lab, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:9277,13:41740,271:52650,396:69955,653:87988,984:88681,994:92762,1066:121409,1405:121824,1411:127678,1491:174966,2082:175758,2094:184755,2186:188835,2222:189175,2227:207722,2477:226980,2772$0,0:4934,43:5942,61:6302,67:7310,80:7670,86:7958,91:8894,108:9398,117:10046,128:10550,137:13920,148:14570,161:16000,198:16260,203:21190,309:29024,411:30146,436:39266,579:44840,633:54947,686:55242,692:55714,701:84881,1111:85285,1116:90376,1157:97050,1240:97362,1245:101184,1318:103680,1376:114347,1509:114881,1516:116127,1535:125440,1626:126610,1641:127150,1649:127960,1660:130840,1703:141346,1796:142866,1825:143246,1831:143930,1844:145222,1863:145906,1874:154666,1956:155104,1963:170790,2205
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lez Edmond's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lez Edmond lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lez Edmond describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lez Edmond describes his maternal great-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lez Edmond describes his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lez Edmond describes his mother's siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lez Edmond describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lez Edmond talks about his family members who migrated north

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lez Edmond describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lez Edmond describes his community in Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lez Edmond recalls his role models in Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lez Edmond recalls popular musicians from his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lez Edmond remembers reading African American newspapers

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lez Edmond describes his childhood understanding of race, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lez Edmond recalls his childhood understanding of race, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lez Edmond describes his Seventh-day Adventist school in Jacksonville

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lez Edmond describes his experiences of discrimination in Jacksonville

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lez Edmond recalls learning about the murder of Emmett Till

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lez Edmond talks about witnessing racial violence in New York City's Harlem

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lez Edmond describes the meetings of the Organization of Afro-American Unity

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lez Edmond remembers the bookstores he frequented in New York City, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lez Edmond remembers the bookstores he frequented in New York City, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lez Edmond describes his decision to attend Adelphi College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lez Edmond describes Adelphi College in Garden City, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lez Edmond recalls joining the Civil Rights Movement in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lez Edmond remembers his relationship with Malcolm X

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lez Edmond talks about his career in electronics, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lez Edmond talks about his career in electronics, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lez Edmond describes his coworkers at Radio Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lez Edmond remembers President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lez Edmond remembers Malcolm X

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lez Edmond talks about his Native American ancestry

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lez Edmond describes the ethnic diversity of Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lez Edmond describes his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lez Edmond describes the events leading to the riots in Harlem in 1964

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lez Edmond remembers writing about the riots in Harlem in 1964

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Lez Edmond remembers his decision to pursue a teaching career

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lez Edmond describes his opposition to the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lez Edmond recalls lessons from Malcolm X

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lez Edmond describes his early teaching career

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lez Edmond remembers joining the faculty of St. Johns University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lez Edmond recalls lessons from psychologist Carl Rogers

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lez Edmond describes Malcolm's X's role in the community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lez Edmond recalls being offered positions in journalism

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Lez Edmond recalls the First World Festival of Black Arts in Dakar, Senegal

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Lez Edmond describes his relationship with psychologist Carl Rogers

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Lez Edmond talks about the stories of the Bible

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Lez Edmond talks about his master's degree in education

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Lez Edmond talks about psychic phenomena

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Lez Edmond talks about relations between African Americans and Jewish people

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Lez Edmond remembers Lewis H. Michaux, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Lez Edmond remembers Lewis H. Michaux, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Lez Edmond reflects upon his career

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Lez Edmond recalls serving as a consultant to filmmaker Michelangelo Antonioni

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Lez Edmond remembers creating his film, 'Zabriskie Point'

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Lez Edmond reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Lez Edmond describes his family

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Lez Edmond remembers being hired at St. Johns University in Queens, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Lez Edmond narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

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DATitle
Lez Edmond remembers the bookstores he frequented in New York City, pt. 2
Lez Edmond describes his early teaching career
Transcript
And then the third bookstore was down at 52-54 West 13th Street and it was on--owned by Mr. Andrew Curtese [ph.] and he was from the Soviet Union, he was a Marxist and he had literature from all over the world, and for some reason or another, and he owned the building. There was a restaurant downstairs, he owned the building. His wife played the piano beautifully, his son was very smart, on drugs. All he wanted to do was to sit in that beautiful park [Washington Square Park, New York, New York] there at NYU [New York University, New York, New York] and, and play chess. That's all he wanted to do, and whom else? I just happened to go in his bookstore one day. It was not really a bookstore; he was really more of a book distributor and we would just start talking and I let him know I was in grad school [Adelphi College; Adelphi University, Garden City, New York] and everything and he says, "Well, what are you doing in grad school?" and I let him know and he says you should be reading this, you should be reading that and he was the one that really educated me on Europe. It was him and he made me look good but I'm not the only one that he made look good. Guess who else he made look good? [HistoryMaker] James Forman of SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee] when he was going for his master's [degree], that's also whom was tutoring him (laughter) yes and, and it, it's I think that you must sometimes be fortunate because Mr. Michaux [Lewis H. Michaux] was telling me things, and, and just being so nice to me Mr. Moore [Richard B. Moore] the same thing and Mr. Moore's book on the word Negro and it's evil use ['The Name "Negro": Its Origin and Evil Use,' Richard B. Moore] is a classic. He had a committee, Earl Grant was that committee and there's--you're fortunate to have the original first edition of that book, I, I know it's worth something and they have a photo in there on Earl Grant and Earl Grant is in that photo. So that was a great experience for me, meeting all those different people. In fact he and his wife, I guess they were teaching me culture, had taken me to see Vladimir Horowitz, the great pianist. They took me to see the great pianist Vladimir Horowitz and they were into that just like my uncle that I told you about, the uncle that was the fighter.$$Ali [Ali McArthur (ph.)]?$$Yeah, him he, his wife was also from the Caribbean and she to use to like to go to those teas. Aunt Ida [Ida McArthur (ph.)] use to like to go those teas on Sunday and that's how I got to meet Joe Louis. I was at one of those teas one time and he sat there and he talked with me, answered all of my dumb questions 'cause I didn't know, I wasn't old enough really ask him an intelligent question and that's how I met Joe Louis.$And from that day until this, I have loved teaching, and I'm happy that my aunt lived long enough for me to tell her before she made the transition that she was right, 'cause she told me when I was five years old I was gonna be a teacher. My mother's [Ruth McArthur] sister that was next to her, she told me that I was gonna be a teacher, and I asked her, I said, "Aunt Emma [Emma McArthur (ph.)], how did you know I was going to be a teacher?" She said, "By the way you addressed the other children." Isn't that interesting? And she always told me I was gonna be a teacher, always when I was a little kid. I says, "But I don't like teaching," and--really interesting, and--$$Your first teaching assignment?$$My first teaching a-? You know how I started teaching really, I'm talking about legitimately, Lenny McCree [ph.] I worked for asked me to take--I worked with Lenny McCree. Lenny was from England and he was teaching and he said, "Lez [HistoryMaker Lez Edmond], would you take my class?" I said, "Sure I'll take your classes for you," and the people loved me they says and I remember it was, his last name was Buchan [ph.], he says, "Lez, we need you in the system," and that's how I got into the system, that's how I got my file number and everything. 'Cause if you checked it out you'll know that my file number is a very low number so you'll know I've been around for a while.$$So how did you get from--how did you get to Seton Hall [Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey]?$$Some ladies were having dinner together and Judy Miller [Judith Miller] whom was head of the department at Seton Hall was describing the kind of person she wanted to come to Seton Hall. So Charshee McIntyre, I don't know whether you read her book says, "Oh, you need Lez." And, and I owe a great debt to Charshee. I'm happy that we were able to discuss it before she made the transition because Charshee thought so much of me until she says, "I can always tell when students have had you." I she, said says, "Any student come to my class I can tell when they had you for a professor," so I don't know what it was that she picked up about me but it was because of her that I ended up at Seton Hall.