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Sylvia Bozeman

Mathematician Sylvia Bozeman was born in Camp Hill, Alabama in 1947. She was the third of five children to Horace T., Sr. and Robbie Jones. Although her father worked with numbers daily in his profession as an insurance agent, it was her mother, a housewife, who first cultivated Bozeman’s love for mathematics. In 1964, Bozeman graduated valedictorian of Edward Bell High School in Camp Hill, and in the fall enrolled at Alabama A&M University in Huntsville, AL. Bozeman graduated from Alabama A&M University 1968 with her B.S. degree in mathematics. She went on to earn her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in mathematics, from Vanderbilt University in 1971 and Emory University (Atlanta) in 1980, respectively. The areas of her research and publications have included operator theory in functional analysis, projects in image processing, and efforts to enhance the success of groups currently underrepresented in mathematics.

Upon graduation, Bozeman worked for one year as an instructor of mathematics at Tennessee State University, and then joined the faculty in the Mathematics Department at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia. She began as an instructor in 1972, became assistant professor in 1980, an associate in 1984, and full professor in 1991. Moreover, Bozeman served as chair of the Mathematics Department from 1982 to 1993, as adjunct faculty in the Math Department at Atlanta University from 1983 to 1985. In 1993, Bozeman established the Center for the Scientific Applications of Mathematics at Spelman College, and served as director. In a special partnership between the mathematics departments of Spelman College and Bryn-Mawr College, Bozeman co-directs Enhancing Diversity in Graduate Education (EDGE), a national program that assists women in mathematics in making the transition from college to graduate school. In 2007 the EDGE Program was given special recognition by the American Mathematics Society for its effectiveness.

Her noted scholarly activities include several publications, funded research (by NASA, the US Office of Army Research and the Kellogg Foundation); and her recognitions, contributions, and services as a gifted teacher and presenter. Bozeman is a member of the Mathematical Association of American, and, in 1997, she became the first African-American elected as an MAA Section Governor in the association’s eighty-two year history.

Bozeman and her husband, Dr. Robert Bozeman, live in Alabama with their two children, Robert, Jr. and Kizzie.

Sylvia Trimble Bozeman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 18, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.209

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/18/2012

Last Name

Bozeman

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Trimble

Occupation
Schools

Emory University

Vanderbilt University

Alabama A&M University

Edward Bell High School

Agreeable Hill Elementary

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sylvia

HM ID

BOZ02

Favorite Season

Christmas, Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/1/1947

Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Favorite Food

Vegetables, Desserts

Short Description

Mathematician Sylvia Bozeman (1947 - ) was the founder and director of The Center for the Scientific Applications of Mathematics at Spelman College.

Employment

Spelman College

Favorite Color

Cranberry

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sylvia Bozeman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sylvia Bozeman lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sylvia Bozeman describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sylvia Bozeman describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her father's education and career aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sylvia Bozeman describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her family

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sylvia Bozeman describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sylvia Bozeman describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her family's involvement in the church

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her memories of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about how black schools were named

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her decision to attend Alabama A&M University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about meeting her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about Alabama A&M University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her introduction to mathematical research

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about the political climate at Alabama A&M University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sylvia Bozeman remembers her career aspirations during her college years

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her female math instructors

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her decision to attend Vanderbilt University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about integration at Vanderbilt University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her experience at Vanderbilt University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about teaching at Tennessee State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her decision to attend Emory University for her Ph.D.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sylvia Bozeman describes her dissertation on operator theory

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her involvement with the black math community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about black women mathematicians

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her post-doctoral employment prospects

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her career at Spelman College

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about the STEM initiatives at Spelman College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her professional memberships and awards

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her work at Spelman College

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about the evolution of Spelman's STEM programs under the leadership of Dr. Etta Faulkner

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her professional affiliations

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about the renovation of Tapley Hall

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about the EDGE Program

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her presentation at the Congressional Diversity and Innovation Caucus

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about the government's inadequate support of STEM initiatives for HBCUs

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about black mathematicians

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about the future of the EDGE Program

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about Bob Moses' Algebra Project

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sylvia Bozeman reflects upon her life choices

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sylvia Bozeman reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her husband, a fellow mathematician

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Sylvia Bozeman talks about her children

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Sylvia Bozeman reflects upon how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sylvia Bozeman describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
Sylvia Bozeman talks about her introduction to mathematical research
Sylvia Bozeman talks about her career at Spelman College
Transcript
Now Huntsville is now the sight of a, is a NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] center in Huntsville.$$Right. So Redstone Arsenal turned into Marshall Space Flight Center. And so that's one of the NASA sites. It was originally named Redstone Arsenal. But it is still the same NASA facility, evolved.$$Okay, so now it's the Marshall Space Center. So--$$Um-hmm. Robert worked out there when he, as a, you know sophomore, junior in college math major. He actually worked out there in the evenings as a, in an engineering position. That's what they called them, engineer.$$Okay. So this is, you really--did you follow the space program closely when you were growing up?$$I don't know that I followed it more close than anybody else but you know I was aware and I went out to, onto Redstone Arsenal. Actually my department chair, Dr. Howard Foster was a physicist and he had some connections out there and he hired me as a student research assistant to help him with some calculations and he took me out there and had them to give me access to a computer, a small computer, small meaning probably the size of that file cabinet over there but at that point it probably could do about as much as a little hand (unclear). But you know, but it was my first introduction to the idea of computing.$$Okay. So you learned how to--was the computer basically a big calculator or something that--?$$Yes, really. And I don't, I can't even remember how much I learned from being out there you know working on that because I didn't really have a lot of help. But I, you know I did help him with his calculations there and back in, back on campus using desk calculators to the point that he did acknowledge me in his paper when he published his results. And so you know that probably gave me my first introduction to research and then the next summer I can't--I would, and it must have been due to his influence but I ended up spending a summer at Harvard [University] in a summer program for students that came from minority institutions, mostly across the south. There was a summer program in Harvard in math. Well I guess it wasn't just in math. I was in math and some of the other students but some of the students were in other areas. So I spent a summer there and after that you know I was primed for graduate school. So I have to think that Dr. Foster influenced me to do these things. I can't imagine how else I would have ended up at Harvard in a summer program.$$Now what's his first name?$$Howard Foster.$$Okay, oh Dr. Howard Foster.$$Uh-huh.$$And he was, he taught physics and math at--?$$He was chair of the math and physics department. It was one department but he was a physicist and he taught physics.$$Now did he teach you calculus?$$No, just physics. He only taught physics but he was the chair of the--it was a combined department.$$So, but you had calculus I guess for the first time in--?$$I had calculus at Alabama A & M with Dr., I'll think of that in a minute. His name just slipped right out of my head. I had a Cuban calculus professor, Castillo, Dr. Castillo. He was one of my favorite teachers too, C-A-S-T-I-L-L-O.$$Okay.$$Dr. Castillo, so he taught all of us calculus, my husband, taught my husband calculus too.$Okay. Now I have this on the outline in 1977, is this when you founded the Center for Scientific Application of Mathematics?$$No, that happened in 1993 so I'm not sure.$$Okay, all right. I think I got it in the wrong place.$$'77 [1977], I'm trying to see what--$$Well lets not worry about that now and--$$Okay. I don't know what happened in '77 [1977]. I was trying to remember what that would have been.$$But I know that after, it sys here--$$I probably went back to graduate school in '77 [1977], I guess.$$Yeah, you had been working on your Ph.D.?$$Uh-huh, I went back in '76 [1976].$$Okay, but in '82 [1982], this is two years after your Ph.D., you became the chair of the math department here.$$Right, like I said more responsibilities, right? So it's unusual to, I thought it was unusual for somebody to be, have two, be two years out of graduate school and then become chair of the math department but that's what happened.$$Well in a time when you know technology and the science and technology are leaping forward, what--did you have--I mean what were your priorities as chairman of the math department at Spelman [College] in '82 [1982]?$$In--so I guess it was 1980 when I was finishing up. I think that--I guess I have my dates right. I had a student named Daphne Smith and she went, left Spelman and went to MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, private research university] in math and she got a Ph.D. in math and probability. And it was a realization, it was--she was the first student out of this department, math department to get a Ph.D. in math. And I think it made us start to think more about our--the need for more of our students to go on to get Ph.D.s in math and it was a realization all across the sciences here, that not just math but in all of the sciences, we needed to put more emphasis on having students to go on to graduate school and to get Ph.D.s. And so we started an all out effort to do that and that was one of my priorities during the time I was chair to get more of our students into graduate school and more of them to earn Ph.D.s.$$Okay. All right, now was the department in pretty good shape when you inherited the chair, chairmanship?$$In terms of good shape you mean in terms of the number of faculty and number of students or--?$$I guess in terms of the--you had just come out of a Ph.D. program. Were they up to, you know was it up to speed the way you would like it to be when you came out?$$In terms of the curriculum?$$Right.$$I think, we had a pretty strong curriculum because see when I was taking over as chair I was taking over from Dr. Etta Faulkner who had been chair and she was top notch.$$Right, now I've heard of her before.$$Oh yes.$$Yeah.$$So she--$$Tell us something about her. Now what's her background and--$$She, I can't remember what year she came to Spelman, maybe it's '69 [1969] but she finished her Ph.D. at Emory [University] and she was, came here and became chair of the math department and Dr. Shirley McBay was also here, another black woman mathematician and Shirley became associate dean or something like that. She was you know, one step up. No, and chair of the science division. That's what Shirley was and the dean. And so the two of them had already, when I came they had already started looking at the fact that only 10 percent of our students were in math and science at Spelman and they thought that there needed to be more, that we needed to really put more effort into getting women into science. So--and some of what I'm about to say I'm thinking, I'm taking from an article that Dr. Faulkner wrote about the history of the sciences at Spelman and she talks there about how the science building was dark and dreary and there was no talk about women being in science and math on campus, nothing appeared in our literature about it. And they talked the president into starting a new era to try to change that. And they started a summer science program to try to bring, get these women who were coming into the school into the sciences at the very beginning and they did all kinds of things to try to improve the sciences and they did. And so they got the whole faculty on board so whatever we did it was not in the math department it was all across the sciences. We worked together to try to increase the number of students that were going on to, that were coming into the sciences in the first place and graduating with a BS and then by the time I came along as chair in the 80s [1980s], it was now okay, how many of these students can we get to go on to graduate school and to get Ph.D.s in math and science?

Joseph Gordon, II

Research chemist and research manager Joseph Grover Gordon, II, was born on December 25, 1945 in Nashville, Tennessee to Joseph Grover, Sr. Juanita Elizabeth (Tarlton) Gordon. He is one of four children, including Eric Rodney, Craig Stephen, and Rhea Juanita. After briefly attending Atkins High School in North Carolina, Gordon went on to graduate from the prestigious Phillips Exeter Academy in 1963. Gordon earned his A.B. degree in chemistry and physics from Harvard College in 1966. He received his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970.

After finishing his graduate education, Gordon worked at the California Institute of Technology as an assistant professor in the Chemistry Department. In 1975, he began working as a research staff member at Almaden Research Center (IBM Research) and was promoted to interfacial electrochemistry manager in IBM’s Applied Materials Division in 1990. There, Gordon managed a research staff team and contributed greatly to the fields of materials science and electrochemistry. Between 1975 and 1994, Gordon established a program in fundamental electrochemistry that developed solid: liquid interface. From 2004 to 2009 Gordon Developed an exploratory battery materials research program and evaluated new battery technology for ThinkPad strategic planning in Raleigh, North Carolina and development in Yamato, Japan. In 2009, Gordon was hired as the senior director for the advanced technology group in at Applied Materials, Inc. Throughout his career, Gordon has published numerous research papers in leading scientific journals, such as Physical Review Letters and Sensors and Actuators A: Physical.

Gordon is a member of several professional organizations, including the American Chemical Society, Society for Analytical Chemistry, Electrochemical Society, and the National Research Council. Throughout his career, Gordon has shown a continued commitment to scientific research and has credited with twelve United States Patents. Gordon has been recognized many times for his work. In 1993, he was awarded the Black Engineer for Outstanding technical Achievement, and in 1993 the National Organization of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers awarded Gordon the Percy L. Julian Award. Gordon and his wife, Ruth M., reside in San Jose, California.
Joseph G. Gordon, II was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 7, 2012.

Joseph Gordon passed away on September 13, 2013.

Accession Number

A2012.242

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/8/2012

Last Name

Gordon

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Grover

Occupation
Schools

St. Vincent de Moor

Fort Bragg Elementary School

St. Benedict The Moor

Phillips Exeter Academy

Exeter Community Day School

Harvard University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Atkins Academic and Technology High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

Nashville

HM ID

GOR03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere With Friends

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

12/25/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Jose

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Black-Eyed peas

Death Date

9/13/2013

Short Description

Chemist Joseph Gordon, II (1945 - 2013 ) is credited with twelve United States patents for developing solid liquid interface technologies and the battery materials research programs for IBM ThinkPad computers.

Employment

California Institute of Technology

Almaden Research Center (IBM Research)

Applied Materials (Firm)

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:814,9:1190,14:2130,28:2976,39:3822,50:9370,121:11610,163:17420,279:17770,285:19730,331:30894,479:63860,786:65260,810:73340,893:83560,1077:83980,1084:86100,1100:88684,1120:89832,1143:92760,1156:95440,1183:95740,1190:95990,1196:98690,1229:99810,1259:100290,1270:103258,1299:110940,1404:115034,1463:122566,1539:128827,1650:129229,1657:129698,1666:129966,1671:133090,1701:133986,1719:139562,1814:140588,1853:142530,1882:142750,1887:146580,1940:147180,1954:147630,1961:147930,1966:149330,1973$0,0:1588,17:1956,22:2416,28:7844,116:10696,157:11984,181:18640,216:19000,221:19810,233:24860,301:28412,385:28782,391:29152,397:40510,562:42148,594:42904,608:51476,703:51788,710:52048,716:53570,723:54290,733:55250,747:56050,755:58130,786:59170,800:63554,859:67031,964:67487,975:78613,1039:80365,1072:87592,1207:89052,1236:89709,1246:96964,1333:97391,1341:109470,1509:117185,1621:117493,1626:119716,1644:121648,1684:122476,1692:124776,1713:125420,1721:130940,1801:131400,1807:137323,1898:137737,1904:139669,1965:140704,2010:143050,2066:161640,2207:162690,2230:163530,2244:164580,2265:165140,2275:168872,2312:169116,2317:170641,2342:171312,2356:171922,2367:176518,2392:184729,2591:194893,2751:195177,2756:200786,2887:207174,3003:210216,3072:225960,3224
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joseph Gordon's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joseph Gordon lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joseph Gordon describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joseph Gordon talks about his mother's growing up in Sumter, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joseph Gordon describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joseph Gordon talks about his father's growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joseph Gordon talks about his early childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joseph Gordon describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joseph Gordon describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Joseph Gordon describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joseph Gordon talks about growing up in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joseph Gordon talks about the integration of the medical societies

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joseph Gordon talks about his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joseph Gordon talks about his early interest in science

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joseph Gordon talks about his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joseph Gordon talks about his memories of the Civil Rights Era

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joseph Gordon talks about his grade school and his family's religious background

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joseph Gordon talks about his experience at Phillips Exeter Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joseph Gordon talks about his peers at Phillips Exeter Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joseph Gordon talks about his social life at Phillips Exeter Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joseph Gordon talks about his decision to attend Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joseph Gordon discusses his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joseph Gordon talks about his advisors at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joseph Gordon talks about his decision to pursue a career in chemistry

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joseph Gordon summarizes his experience at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joseph Gordon talks about living in France

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joseph Gordon talks about his professors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Joseph Gordon describes his dissertation

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Joseph Gordon talks about his pre-doctoral fellowship from the National Science Foundation

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Joseph Gordon talks about his post-doctoral employment opportunities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joseph Gordon talks about notable people at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joseph Gordon compares his experiences at the California Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joseph Gordon talks about his experience at the California Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joseph Gordon talks about electrochemistry and his work at IBM

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joseph Gordon talks about his professional awards

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joseph Gordon talks about his professional activities and awards

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joseph Gordon talks about the significance of NOBCChE

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Joseph Gordon talks about his racial ambiguity

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Joseph Gordon talks about his professional activities

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joseph Gordon talks about his career transition into more managerial roles

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joseph Gordon describes his technological contributions at IBM

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joseph Gordon talks about his career at Applied Materials Incorporated

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joseph Gordon reflects on his career

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joseph Gordon talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joseph Gordon reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Joseph Gordon talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Joseph Gordon talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Joseph Gordon describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

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Joseph Gordon talks about growing up in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Joseph Gordon describes his technological contributions at IBM
Transcript
Okay, we were talking about sights and sounds and smells. Now, Winston-Salem [North Carolina] has a pretty active black community there. Did you live in, I mean what was, how was Winston-Salem situated? I mean what--$$Okay, yeah, actually, it was a characteristic smell there every year. It was cured tobacco. And we actually used to put the stalks on the lawn for fertilizer. So the whole place smelled of, actually, it's a quite nice smell, I think, of, curing and cured tobacco. Winston-Salem at the time was about, slightly less than 50 percent black. It was, it was, quite physically divided. We lived in East Winston, which was the black part of town. We built a house on a, you know, in a circle [sic, cul-de-sac] at the end of 14th, 14th Avenue. The neighborhood was quite mixed. So in our circle, we had, the guy up the street from us was a, was a barber, next door was a physician, next door to him was a, were two college professors who taught at Winston-Salem, but TC at the time, now Winston-Salem State. There was a high school teacher, another high school teacher, a high school football and tennis coach, the high school music teacher and the elementary school music teacher. And then up the street further, you know, there were people who were, you know, there were a couple of policemen, you know, other--I'm not quite sure exactly what jobs, but they had nonprofessional jobs, the head of the [National] Urban League lived on the street, and it was, it was actually a fairly, fairly mixed sort of, sort of neighborhood, which was characteristic I think of black neighborhoods at the time. You couldn't, there wasn't enough space to have isolated, actually, you know, only professional people in one, in one area. And so we were able to walk to the school. We went to a Catholic school, and I was able to walk to high school. There was one black high school in town, one city high school and there was a county, black county high school.$Okay, okay, now, some place within your career at IBM, didn't you do something, didn't you develop a new battery or something for--$$Okay, yes, during this, about the same time, in early 2000, well, since 1990 I had been working on, with the "Think Pad" division on lithium ion batteries. And in the early, mid-'90's [1990s]--I'd have to go back and figure out the dates now, I had a small group that I actually was trying to develop a new lithium ion battery for, for portable electronics. After a while though, it became obvious, when I put together several business plans, that IBM wasn't interested in making batteries. So we, we stopped that effort also. But it turned out that the "Think Pad" people still needed technical assistance in setting standards for, for safety, the qualification standards, and there're a whole stream of new technologies coming on, and they needed somebody to help them evaluate the new technologies. So I stayed involved in that for a while. And then in the, around 2002, '03' [2003], there were a series of laptop fires that were quite publicized. And so all of the laptop companies then put together groups to investigate the cause. So every single incident was investigated. And I was the technical person for the IBM incident team who worked with the engineers in development and with outside consultants to do a failure analysis on each incident so we actually knew what was going on and could feed back to the battery manufacturer that they needed to correct some part of the manufacturing process. So that was a pretty intense operation for about, for two or two and a half years. Yeah, one year I remember I spent more than a 180 days in hotels, traveling to various places to perform the analyses.$$Now, that's between 2003 and 2005?$$I think, I think that was the time. I'd have to go back and look and--$$I remember the incidents, yeah, an Apple computer battery caught fire--$$Yeah, it caught fire at some conference--$$Yeah, and blew, yeah.$$--yeah, right, okay. And every time there was even a report of something at an IBM thing, we'd go and investigate it, whether it got into the news or not. And I also, at that stage helped with the, what series is it? I think it's the T-40 series. We put in a number of improvements in that battery pack to help reduce the severity of a failure of an individual cell, okay. And several people at research were involved in, in helping with that and to getting these things and doing simulations, doing calculations, doing experiments.$$So if it did get hot enough, it wouldn't actually flame up or something?$$Right, yes, so it wouldn't catch fire, and it wouldn't set off an adjacent cell. If you have a single-cell failure, that's usually not real serious. The big incidents happen when you have one cell set off another cell, sets off another cell. And you get all six or all nine go off.$$Okay, all right, now, but, okay, so--$$Yeah, so that actually took a lot of time. I was actually, at that time I was also the second-line manager. So that was a pretty, that was a pretty, how do I say it--fully occupied my time for a while.$$Hectic time, I guess.$$Very hectic, that's the word I'm looking for (laughter).

Paula Hammond

Chemical engineer and engineering professor Paula Therese Hammond was born in 1963 in Detroit, Michigan. Although she grew up wanting to become a writer, Hammond changed her mind after taking a junior high school chemistry class. She was hooked by the idea of using two materials to create a something completely different. After graduating from high school, Hammond attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where she obtained her B.S. degree in chemical engineering in 1984. She was then hired by Motorola in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, where she worked for two years. In 1988, Hammond earned her M.S. degree from Georgia Institute of Technology and then returned to MIT to earn her Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering in 1993.

Following a postdoctoral research fellowship in chemistry at Harvard University, where she became interested in surface chemistry, Hammond went on to become a faculty member of MIT. In 2003, she worked as a Radcliffe Institute Fellow, focusing on a project that allowed for the creation of polymers that form micelles in water. These isolated packages could be used to assist in drug delivery. Hammond is the Bayer Chair Professor of Chemical Engineering, and serves as its Executive Officer. Additionally, she has participated in the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She also helped found the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN), whose mission is to help design more functional technology for the nation’s soldiers. Hammond’s research interests include the nanoscale design of biomaterials, macromolecular design and synthesis, and directed assembly using surface templates. In 2010, Hammond made a research agreement with Ferrosan A/S, a pharmaceutical company, to develop a bandage that would use Hammond’s technological innovations in Ferrosan’s collagen bandages. Throughout her career, Hammond has served as a mentor to many graduate and undergraduate students and has published nearly 150 scholarly articles pertaining to her research in chemical engineering. She has also encouraged an increase in the presence of minority scientists and engineers at MIT by chairing the Initiative on Faculty, Race and Diversity.

Hammond has won numerous awards for her work as a scientist and as a professor. She was named the Bayer Distinguished Lecturer in 2004 and the Mark Hyman, Jr. Career Development Chair in 2003. In 2010, the Harvard Foundation awarded her the Scientist of the Year Award at the annual Albert Einstein Science Conference. Hammond has also been named one of the “Top 100 Science Stories of 2008,” by Discover Magazine. Hammond is married to Carmon Cunningham, and they have one son, James.

Accession Number

A2012.218

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/9/2012

Last Name

Hammond

Middle Name

T

Schools

Georgia Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Harvard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Paula

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

HAM04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Aruba, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Science informs....

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

9/3/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Chemical engineer and engineering professor Paula Hammond (1963 - )

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Georgia Technical Research Institute

Motorola, Inc.

Dow Chemical Company

Favorite Color

Intense Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:2231,41:9312,172:15229,307:15617,312:16490,322:16878,327:25112,387:26176,422:27544,451:28000,459:29596,482:31040,505:31420,512:31876,522:33472,560:34460,574:38560,594:41409,644:42025,654:44181,685:44643,693:55376,827:62862,987:65766,1040:74444,1108:76390,1134:78390,1183:84870,1300:85510,1309:86550,1323:87750,1339:92710,1437:93430,1447:94550,1483:102423,1578:112387,1728:112752,1734:117132,1838:135196,2004:135572,2031:136418,2044:144972,2173:152235,2217:154746,2253:155556,2266:155961,2272:157419,2286:159930,2324:164142,2395:164466,2400:170624,2456:171464,2467:176084,2535:176588,2543:178352,2578:180032,2597:181292,2616:181796,2624:189294,2689:189689,2695:190084,2701:193495,2737:193933,2745:194444,2754:196415,2801:197437,2819:197875,2827:198386,2836:200138,2868:203642,2921:204153,2930:204737,2939:212127,3002:213666,3034:214638,3048:215367,3059:228557,3219:238609,3383:239399,3396:244455,3509:249646,3542:250238,3551:250534,3556:252014,3581:252606,3591:254456,3628:254752,3633:256602,3670:256898,3675:260154,3725:260820,3736:271271,3842:271656,3848:272195,3857:280130,3977:285350,4028$0,0:4925,42:5249,47:8246,126:9623,150:10109,157:11405,189:11891,196:12701,207:14402,232:14888,239:15455,245:31750,435:32170,441:33850,467:39814,546:45568,578:46974,600:47270,605:48750,631:49046,636:52376,707:59166,773:59628,781:60288,792:61212,809:64380,868:64908,876:66030,895:66624,905:67218,921:67812,931:71244,1002:71772,1012:72036,1017:72300,1022:81869,1142:82247,1149:84326,1187:90340,1264:91188,1273:102114,1426:105002,1469:105762,1479:110702,1573:111462,1586:113210,1610:117629,1636:118577,1651:127578,1754:128766,1772:131934,1834:140550,1886
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Paula Hammond's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother studying nursing at Howard University and Wayne State University

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's community involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her brothers, Gordon Francis Goodwin and Tyehimba Jess

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond recalls her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about growing up in northwest Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond remembers the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about Motown and the music of her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks about her early school days

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her most memorable teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond discusses her early aspirations to become a writer

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond describes the cultural changes in Detroit, Michigan and increasing gang activity

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her decision to attend Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond talks about studying at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about the professors that mentored and inspired her

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond talks about meeting her husband, John Hammond

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks describes the discrimination she faced while working at Motorola in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about working at Georgia Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her doctoral studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond talks about her post-doctoral research at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her return to Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond describes her current research concerning the directed assembly of nanomaterials

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond discusses the practical application of her research

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond talks about liquid crystalline and block polymers

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Paula Hammond talks about dendritic block copolymers and tissue engineering

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Paula Hammond talks about the use of biomaterials in the human body

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond discusses nanoparticle drug delivery and other discoveries

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her honors and awards

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond gives advice to young minority students of science

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond reflects on her career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond shares her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond tells how she would like to be remembered

DASession

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DATitle
Paula Hammond describes her current research concerning the directed assembly of nanomaterials
Paula Hammond discusses nanoparticle drug delivery and other discoveries
Transcript
All right. Now, since you've been here, professionally you've been involved with--and I'm going to ask you to explain some of these things.$$Yes. Sure.$$It seems that we have a menu of your--of the areas you concentrate in.$$Oh, sure. And I can help you narrow them too, if some of them are--some may be more important than others, you know.$$$$Okay. Well, what about macromolecular design and synthesis?$$All right. That just refers to the fact that we make new polymers. We actually, in my group, have a couple of different skill sets. One of them is what you just described. We can, understanding the function that we want a polymer system to have, design the polymer to do what we anticipate it needs to do. So, we actually use synthetic chemistry as a tool in that case to make a new material system that will do what, you know, the desired function.$$Okay. Now, I don't know if it's time to talk about this or not, but this is--I guess this what you--this is the core of what you're doing now. I guess, it's you're using-- you're doing nanomaterials--$$That's right.$$--where you're able to layer different compounds together and make new materials.$$That's right. Exactly. And, in fact, that's the other skill set that we use. We put that all in the category of self-assembly or directed assembly. We take a material that has a certain interaction with another material, and in a controlled fashion, assemble a new structure from those two systems, two or more systems. Sometimes even one singular system can undergo soft assembly. In this case it's two systems. We're taking a positively and negatively-charged material and alternating them. And, in doing so, we create nanoscale layers, and we build these materials nano layers at a time, and we can put different material systems into different layers. With that level of control, we can design a material system from the bottom up, and determine what function exists, and how it will function based on what we incorporate into the film.$$Okay. And this is--the final product is a thin film, right?$$The final product is a very thin film, sometimes as thin as a few (tenths?) of nanometers; sometimes as thick as microns. And, we can actually coat a very broad range of things, very large structures as large as--well, there's no limit. It essentially can be--very large structures can be coated or very, fine, tiny structures and features can be coated. So, we can coat everything from a nano particle that's used for drug delivery, to an electrode that is used in electrical chemical energy applications, to a very large surface that is used as an optical reflector for an antireflective surface for a large glass structure, for example.$$Okay. So, this is what you mean by self-organized polymer systems?$$Yes. That's one of the ways in which we generate self-organized polymer systems. The other is to use that synthetic tool to create a molecule that assembles with itself in water, and we make some of those systems as well. They assemble into micellar particles, small nanoparticles when they're in water, based on hydrophobic or water hating and hydrophilic or water-loving segments.$$Okay. Okay. What about alternating electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly?$$Yes.$$That's what you just described.$$That's what I just described.$$Okay.$$Layer-by-layer assembly. The automated pieces that we--the process I was describing originally was done by dipping and allowing time for the material to absorb it to go on time. We developed an automated approach that sprays these systems one after the other, and we can generate the films much faster. One of my students invented this approach. We patented it, and we actually have a company he founded called, Svaya Nanotechnologies in Sunnyvale, California. It was founded in 2009, and it's in its third round of funding right now. And he's the one who's coating things that are as large as this table or long, rolled, reel-to-reel pieces of film, using the layer-by-layer technique.$All right. Now, what have been, I guess, your career research highlights? I know--now, you teach and do research, right?$$I teach and do research. That's right. I would say some of the career highlights include some of our more recent work, including nanoparticle drug delivery work that we've been doing. We've been able to find, very recently in our lab, a way to generate RNA, which is the mechanism we can use to turn off bad genes that can cause disease or promote disease in a way that is very unique. It allows us to deliver a large amount of RNA in a nanoparticle without causing toxic side effects, which are common with other methods of RNA encapsulation. So, that's something I think is a highlight, and we just published the work last year. Some of the earlier highlights include the work that we've done in designing these layer-by-layer films to release different drugs at different times, and it's something that we've been able to demonstrate with simple systems, but we're now trying to make more advanced films so that you can, for the implant example, release antibiotics, get rid of any infection, and release the growth factors to bring in these new healthy cells to the body.$$Okay. Now, we were reading about a partnership--well, a research agreement that you all made with--that MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology] made with Farrosan.$$Oh, yes. That's right. This is with the sponge that stops bleeding, essentially. And we, actually, from that work developed a coating that can be released or deployed very rapidly. And that's another very recent highlight in our work, which we hope will, ultimately, be licensed, and used--deployed to the Army.$$Okay. That's exciting stuff. Now, you're written over 150 articles or maybe more by now. I know this is an old project.$$Oh, yes. Yes. It's a little over 200 now, but it's close (laughs).

Edward Tunstel

Robotics engineer and technology developer Edward Tunstel, Jr. was born on November 29, 1963 in Harlem, New York to Agnes Tunstel and Edward Tunstel, Sr. As a child, Tunstel was very interested in art, which led him to pursue an initial interest in architecture. However, after he attended a seminar held by the New York Academy of Sciences the summer of his junior year in high school, he decided to shift his focus to engineering instead due to his curiosity in learning how things worked. He graduated from Springfield Gardens High School in Queens, New York in 1981 and received his B.S. and M.E. degrees in mechanical engineering from Howard University in 1986 and 1989, respectively.

Upon his graduation from Howard University, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recruited Tunstel. In 1992, he was granted the JPL Minority Fellowship to further his education at the University of New Mexico, where he received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1996. Tunstel has continued to work with the JPL following the completion of his Ph.D. program, and he has served in various roles. One of his larger projects was to serve as a Flight Systems Engineer for autonomous surface navigation of the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers. He has also served as the mobility and robotic arm lead on the Spacecraft/Rover Engineering Team for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers’ surface operations on Mars. Since 1997, he worked as the Space Robotics and Autonomous Control Lead at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, where he continued to solve robotics problems for NASA. His research interests include: autonomous control systems, cooperative robotics, and mobile robot navigation.

Throughout his career, Tunstel has written a number of articles on the subject of robotics and intelligent control. He has also edited and contributed to several books related to robotics and engineering. Tunstel is a member of several professional organizations, including the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE), and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He has also been honored for his contributions to the science of robotics and space exploration. Tunstel is married to Jan Harwell Tunstel.

Accession Number

A2012.145

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/15/2012

Last Name

Tunstel

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

W

Occupation
Schools

University of New Mexico

Howard University

Springfield Gardens High School

St. Mark the Evangelist School

St Catherine Of Sienna School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Edward

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

TUN03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Monterey, California

Favorite Quote

Keep It Moving, Fair Enough.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

11/29/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cookies

Short Description

Electrical engineer Edward Tunstel (1963 - ) was a skilled engineer who worked with the Jet Propulsion League of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on such projects as the Mars Exploration Rovers.

Employment

John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory

United States Department of the Navy

Howard University

Engineering Information, Inc.

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:6662,171:9190,225:11797,275:17130,306:17446,315:20132,369:25504,451:35348,534:35640,539:39362,566:39896,574:42655,625:43189,633:49510,707:49960,718:50410,724:53599,753:55445,799:58853,888:59492,898:59918,905:62616,961:62900,966:66790,972:74279,1068:78500,1176:81613,1203:82614,1223:84154,1267:92864,1401:93192,1406:94920,1411:98834,1493:107286,1578:114465,1680:115145,1691:115825,1704:118545,1751:119650,1767:120160,1774:121265,1791:121690,1797:122200,1804:129480,1889:130360,1903:130760,1909:131080,1914:131400,1919:131720,1924:145144,2074:145480,2079:146152,2088:149092,2137:150940,2177:153460,2223:158753,2264:165706,2364:172760,2391:173850,2436:183190,2562:190624,2631:194003,2684:198960,2730:199656,2741:201222,2761:201657,2767:221947,3000:223063,3018:228222,3026:230666,3063:231606,3075:232170,3083:233768,3107:234802,3127:235460,3139:236024,3146:240673,3182:247765,3333:248713,3346:249266,3355:250056,3367:251794,3413:262012,3495:262317,3501:262744,3528:276880,3684:277195,3690:283960,3763$0,0:2328,17:2910,24:3783,34:22040,214:22975,232:29160,276:29844,287:33112,352:33720,361:37132,389:41465,439:42889,466:43779,477:45292,499:46449,517:50622,552:51342,569:51990,579:53070,601:53574,610:62544,728:63136,737:66096,803:66762,813:67058,818:67354,823:68242,838:76544,925:77380,938:79052,973:79432,979:91090,1129:93106,1161:95542,1200:95878,1205:108324,1336:110781,1381:111418,1390:113147,1413:116490,1423:118450,1432:119755,1449:120190,1455:122143,1465:124273,1505:125267,1526:127919,1540:128381,1547:129459,1569:140668,1726:142054,1744:143638,1765:147070,1790:149039,1801:152562,1852:157445,1919:159020,1953:163295,2031:165545,2067:174494,2192:175142,2203:176870,2234:184508,2322:185152,2330:186072,2348:186440,2353:187452,2363:187912,2369:201040,2442:203560,2466:204085,2472:206642,2487:207370,2495:208202,2508:210074,2532:217058,2653:217798,2662:218538,2673:219204,2698:222071,2718:222386,2724:222827,2747:223331,2757:225432,2777:234512,2897:235458,2914:239495,2945:242915,2980:243390,2986:244890,2991:245214,2996:245619,3002:252758,3080:253499,3098:253955,3108:254354,3119:256094,3137:256502,3144:257046,3154:266590,3277:270546,3344:270914,3349:271374,3450:275514,3482:286249,3574:297836,3762:298420,3771:299661,3795:299953,3800:306435,3876:306760,3882:316164,4035:317340,4054:317928,4061:327384,4149:328154,4160:336547,4331:343260,4432
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Edward Tunstel's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Edward Tunstel lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Edward Tunstel describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Edward Tunstel talks about his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Edward Tunstel describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Edward Tunstel talks about his father's career in the supermarket business

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Edward Tunstel recalls how his parents met and describes their personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Edward Tunstel talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Edward Tunstel describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Edward Tunstel describes his early neighborhood in Harlem

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Edward Tunstel describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Harlem

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Edward Tunstel talks about his interest in art and how it influenced his aspirations in engineering

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Edward Tunstel describes his interest in science fiction and comic books

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Edward Tunstel talks about his early perceptions of African American scientists

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Edward Tunstel talks about his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Edward Tunstel recalls his favorite subjects and field trips during school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Edward Tunstel talks about moving to Jamaica, Queens in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Edward Tunstel describes his interest in basketball and the game's influence on his social skills

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Edward Tunstel talks about his experience at St. Catherine of Siena School in Queens, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Edward Tunstel describes his childhood aspirations of becoming a scientist

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Edward Tunstel talks about his parents' encouragement and his reading interests

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Edward Tunstel recalls being inspired by science and technology during his youth

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Edward Tunstel talks about his favorite teacher at St. Catherine of Siena School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Edward Tunstel recalls entering Springfield Gardens High School in Queens, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Edward Tunstel talks about his early religious experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Edward Tunstel describes his science instruction at Springfield Gardens High School

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Edward Tunstel talks about the racial demographics of Springfield Gardens High School

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Edward Tunstel recalls the New York Academy of Sciences' influence on his career aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Edward Tunstel describes his personality and academic performance in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Edward Tunstel recalls his decision to apply to Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Edward Tunstel talks about the historic African American administrators at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Edward Tunstel describes his experience at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Edward Tunstel recalls the protests at Howard University in the 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Edward Tunstel remembers his professors and role models at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Edward Tunstel talks about how he improved his study habits at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Edward Tunstel describes his decision to pursue mechanical engineering at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Edward Tunstel talks about his experience of studying robotics at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Edward Tunstel recalls pursuing his master's degree in robotics at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Edward Tunstel recalls the social challenges in Washington D.C. in the 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Edward Tunstel talks about the relationship between the students at Howard University and the neighboring community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Edward Tunstel describes his master's thesis at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Edward Tunstel talks about being recruited by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Edward Tunstel describes his early experiences at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Edward Tunstel talks about the work environment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Edward Tunstel describes his work with NASA's Robby and Rocky rovers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Edward Tunstel talks about NASA's robotic spacecraft

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Edward Tunstel describes his work with the Mars Pathfinder Rover

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Edward Tunstel talks about his JPL Minority Fellowship

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Edward Tunstel describes the concept of fuzzy logic based navigation of mobile robots

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Edward Tunstel describes the development of the LOBOT mobile robot

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Edward Tunstel describes his work with robotic rovers

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Edward Tunstel talks about his role as the lead system engineer for the Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Edward Tunstel recalls acting as the flight systems engineer for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Surface Mission Phase team

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Edward Tunstel talks about the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) surface mission of 2003

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Edward Tunstel describes the Mars Exploration Rovers

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Edward Tunstel talks about the Mars Exploration Rover Curiosity and its mission in 2012

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Edward Tunstel talks about the range finding capacity of robotic rovers

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Edward Tunstel describes the technological advances at NASA

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Edward Tunstel recalls working on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) program

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Edward Tunstel talks about leaving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Edward Tunstel describes his experience at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Edward Tunstel talks about his membership at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Edward Tunstel describes the advancements in cybernetics and robotics

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Edward Tunstel describes his robotics hobby

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Edward Tunstel shares his predictions on the future of robotics

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Edward Tunstel talks about his predictions for artificial intelligence

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Edward Tunstel reflects upon his life

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Edward Tunstel describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Edward Tunstel talks about the socio-economic impact of having a society serviced by robots

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Edward Tunstel reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Edward Tunstel talks about his family

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Edward Tunstel describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Edward Tunstel narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$8

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Edward Tunstel talks about his professors and role models at Howard University
Edward Tunstel talks about his forecast on the future of robotics
Transcript
Now, were they still doing African Liberation Day when you were there [Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia]?$$Yes, yes. You know, and so, yeah, and so the campus was a venue for a lot of interesting things as well. So they, in so many different ways, I could talk for a long time about how good the experience was at Howard, you know, aside, ever aside from the academic aspects. But along the line of the academic aspects, one of the things that I put high on my list though really is the, you know, seeing folks who look like you as professors and many of them, quite accomplished professors, you know. And this is even, not just in engineering. It's across all the schools, you know. And that had a major impact, you know. Again, the baseline thing is that it gives you a feeling that what you're trying to do, you know, in terms of getting this degree and maybe doing something useful with it afterwards, is in reach, whereas, if you didn't have these physical examples in front of you, which I hadn't had prior to coming to Howard, it's more of a question, you know. Maybe you're still confident that you can do various things, but I think it's more of a question. And I think that question is totally dispelled in that environment.$$Okay.$$It's more, it's like, you know, and if you can't succeed at what you're trying to do, it's really probably yourself and not, you know, the fact that you're not, somehow not capable, you know, 'cause you got too many examples, good examples around you.$$Okay, so, now, who were some of the professors that were there that you're reminded (unclear)--$$Well, Lucius Walker [also a HistoryMaker] was one of 'em. At a time when I was there, I had worked, I was doing work-study, and I had, was working for the dean's office, in fact, doing things like the, the school of engineering mail and stuff like that. But what it did is, it allowed me to spend more time than otherwise in and out of--in and around the dean's office. So I got a chance to, in some sense, you know, watch him work or watch him interact. He was also teaching courses at the time, so I got a view of him as a professor, and I got a view of him as a dean, and I had a view of him in interactions with the administration in his office, a more, sort of interpersonal view. He was always very impressive to me. He was sort of an example of someone, I guess my iconic example of a scholar, right, an accomplished scholar. And I thought, I hadn't had particular aspirations at that time necessarily of becoming a professor or anything like that. But he was my example of it, you know. That's what it is. It's that guy, and so he was, he had a certain type--that sort of influence on me, that sort of impact. There were other professors as well. Professor Emmanuel Glapke. His name is spelled G-L-A-P-K-E. And he was a, he taught in the mechanical engineering department. His main area was an area called heat transfer. Now, he mostly stood out to me, I think, because he was an example to me of, sort of engineering excellence, if you will, someone who really, really, really knew his field, but not only that, could really communicate it well, whether he was teaching it or whether he was just talking about it to the laymen. And I always thought that was a pretty impressive--now, he always had a pretty good relationship with the students as well, on the personal level--$$Oh, I'm sorry. What was his ethnicity?$$He was, I believe he was--I don't know. I don't remember which country from directly, but from Africa.$$Okay.$$But he had been in America for quite some time by the time I had encountered him. So I don't know if he was, you know, he was probably first generation, but probably came to America when he was much younger.$$Okay.$What's the, what future practical uses do you see for robots that we're envisioning today?$$Well, let's see, that we're not envisioning.$$Or we don't have today?$$Right, okay, okay. Well, there're certain services that we currently have, and, you know, people envision robots capable of taking over some of these services, although this may not be the greatest idea. One of them is things like bartending, right? Now, there's already been recently, I think out of a university project, with college students, they've created a robot bartender, not the body of one, but something that can mechanically take the right mixtures of different types of alcohol and mix drinks. So you can imagine going from that to something that can actually deliver that to a human who asks for it. Some people may not want something like that because of the personal and interpersonal interaction with the bartender that many of us enjoy. But I foresee many areas and services, in particular, where robots would eventually contribute. I hesitate to use the words "take over" because almost behind every robot you ever see, there's typically a human nearby, and often that human is necessary for the robot to continue to work properly or even to know what it should do. The robots on Mars, for example, can do nothing unless we tell them to everyday and so forth. But other areas, we're already seeing this now actually, robots to do precision surgery, surgeries in the cases where the oscillation or vibration of a surgeon's hand can be somewhat critical. The steady hand and the accurate hand of the robot mechanism is sometimes looked at as an advantage in those cases. But not solely--that's already happening, robotic surgery. But robots can also be used over distance so that the capabilities of a master surgeon in some country for example can be used to outdo some master operation on someone in a very remote part of the planet by actually having this--taking that system there, the surgeon doesn't have to go, but through that tele-operation mechanism, they can actually do the surgery remotely using a robot on the other end. And some of that's already started as well. What I see in the future is the ability to increase the distances between which that can actually occur. And that's, I think, is very promising, particularly for regions where, that don't have access to major medical care like that. So that's another area. Another aspect is, we're already becoming pretty fully networked as a society with our own computers, our cellular devices, the Internet and so on. We have different applications like Facebook [social networking site] and what have you that are connecting people more and more and more. I think where we're going and what's gonna happen in addition to that is that robots are gonna become part of this network took. It's an interesting thing that one company has done--a robotics company, they've figure out a way to automate a warehouse that delivers goods to a front desk that fills orders. This company has recently been bought by Amazon, for example, so that they can use that system to fill their orders. This is a system where the network, the robots are networked, effectively. And an order comes in and needs to be fulfilled, it's somehow input to the system, and behind this curtain, if you will, is an army of robots that carry the products on them in bins. And they move around the warehouse to the point where the robots that have the products that are ordered come near the front, open up the curtain, human picks up the object, puts it in the package, and it's off to the shipment. So the ability to network robots, I think we're gonna find other ways to use that capability whether it's a robot in your home that supplements your security system by being able to walk around, and when there's something that occurs that's not savory or maybe a water leak or something like that, something you need to be alerted to, it's instantly networked to you somewhere. You could be in France. And so I see robots becoming part of a larger network that we're already cultivating. You might imagine that there's some undesirable associated with fully networking everything. You start to get into the science fiction of the robot takeover sorts of (laughter) concepts in movies and such. So there's something to watch out for, at least, but I think we're headed, at least more in that direction than we are today.

Darryll Pines

Aerospace engineer and mechanical engineer Darryll Pines was born on August 28, 1964 in Oakland, California. received his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. He went on to receive advanced degrees in mechanical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, his M.S. degree in 1988 and his Ph.D. degree in 1992.

Pines worked for the Chevron Corporation and Space Tethers, Inc. before joining Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)’s Advance Technology Program. At LLNL, he helped design the sensor technology of Clementine-1 spacecraft. In 1995, Pines joined the faculty of the University of Maryland (UMD) as an assistant professor. He became the director of UMD’s Sloan Scholars Program in 1996 and the director of the GEM Program in 1999. Pines has also served as chair of the Engineering Council, director of the NASA CUIP Program and director of the SAMPEX flight experiment. He took a leave of absence from 2003 to 2006 to serve as the program manager for the Tactical Technology Office and Defense Sciences Office of DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). In 2006, Pines became chair of UMD’s Department of Aerospace Engineering, where under his leadership, the department was ranked eighth overall among United States universities. Three years later, he was named dean of the A. James Clark School of Engineering and the Nariman Farvardin Professor of Engineering. Pines’ research focuses on structural dynamics, smart sensors, biologically inspired structures as well as the guidance and control of aerospace vehicles.

Pines was named a fellow of the Institute of Physics, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He has received the NACME Alumni Circle Award and a National Science Foundation CAREER Award.

Darryl Pines was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 13, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.155

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/13/2012

Last Name

Pines

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

University of California, Berkeley

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Darryll

Birth City, State, Country

Oakland

HM ID

PIN05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Historic

Favorite Quote

Scientists study the world that is. Engineers design the world that will be.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/28/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Aerospace engineer and mechanical engineer Darryll Pines (1964 - ) is the dean of the A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland, College Park.

Employment

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

University of Maryland, College Park

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Darryll Pines' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Darryll Pines lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Darryll Pines describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Darryll Pines describes his mother's childhood in Liverpool, England

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Darryll Pines describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Darryll Pines describes his father's decision to join the U.S. Air Force and his parents meeting in Liverpool, England

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Darryll Pines talks about American servicemen who married British women while stationed in England

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Darryll Pines describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Darryll Pines describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Darryll Pines talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Darryll Pines describes his parents' careers

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Darryll Pines describes the sights and sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Darryll Pines talks about the Black Panther Party, the loss of jobs, and the gradual deterioration of the East Oakland neighborhood where he grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Darryll Pines talks about the prominent entertainers and athletes who came from Oakland, California

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Darryll Pines talks about political activism in the San Francisco Bay Area

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Darryll Pines describes his exposure to technology

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Darryll Pines describes the neighborhood where he grew up in East Oakland

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Darryll Pines describes his mother's role in getting into Berkeley High School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Darryll Pines describes his experience in grade school at Markham Elementary School and St. Benedict's Catholic School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Darryll Pines describes watching the moon landing and meeting Neil Armstrong

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Darryll Pines talks about the major events of 1994

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Darryll Pines describes his relationship with his twin brother

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Darryll Pines talks about playing basketball

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Darryll Pines describes his decision to become an engineer

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Darryll Pines describes his decision to attend the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Darryll Pines talks about his mentor and advisor, Daniel Mote

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Darryll Pines talks about his interest in science fiction

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Darryll Pines talks about political activism in Berkeley in the 1980s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Darryll Pines talks about his decision to study mechanical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Darryll Pines talks about the relationships he formed at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Darryll Pines talks about decision to attend MIT and his dissertation on the control of structures in space

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Darryll Pines describes human powered aircraft

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Darryll Pines describes his Ph.D. dissertation research

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Darryll Pines talks about his doctoral advisor, Andy von Flowtow

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Darryll Pines talks about meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Darryll Pines describes his space research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Darryll Pines describes his decision to work at the University of Maryland, College Park

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Darryll Pines describes his students' research in deep space navigation and uninhabited air vehicle systems

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Darryll Pines describes his professional relationship with Freeman Hrabowski

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Darryll Pines describes programs designed to increase minority student enrollment in STEM

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Darryll Pines describes the NASA CUIP program for the next generation of space vehicles

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Darryll Pines describes the SAMPEX program at NASA Goddard

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Darryll Pines describes his research with DARPA

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Darryll Pines talks about DARPA's technological contributions to modern-day society

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Darryll Pines describes his experience as chair of the aerospace engineering department at the University of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Darryll Pines talks about the current generation of students in engineering and science

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Darryll Pines describes his students' efforts to use their engineering skills to have a positive impact on society

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Darryll Pines talks about the balance between his research and administrative roles

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Darryll Pines talks about recruiting minority students to the University of Maryland's College of Engineering

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Darryll Pines describes cutting edge research in science and engineering

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Darryll Pines talks about his hopes and concerns for the African-American community today

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Darryll Pines talks about what he would have done differently to prepare for his career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Darryll Pines reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Darryll Pines talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Darryll Pines describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

3$8

DATitle
Darryll Pines talks about decision to attend MIT and his dissertation on the control of structures in space
Darryll Pines describes his space research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Transcript
Okay, alright. Alright, now, okay, so MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts] now, how did you choose MIT? Was it easy--well, if you can get in, you should choose it (laughter).$$Well, okay, you know, four years later after coming out of high school, I was a much smarter person, much wiser about the world. And I realized that, and I'm a very competitive person, so once I realized--I went to U. C. Berkeley [University of California, Berkeley] and I was able to do well. I realized that I wanted the biggest challenge. I wanted to take on the toughest challenge and I wanted to be at the best school this nation had to offer, and I felt that was MIT. And I wanted to also experience the East Coast, and so I applied to MIT, Stanford [University, Palo Alto, California], U.C. Berkeley, University of Washington [Seattle, Washington] and Cal Tech [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California]. The only school I didn't get into, and I won't hold it against them, was Cal Tech, and it really made me mad at the time, I mean, to be honest with you. And I still hold that letter today, right. And it's used, I've used that letter as ammunition for my entire life, to be honest with you. Even though this is on this tape, I'm just telling it like it is (laughter). You know, because I said I got into every school and I didn't get into Cal Tech, you gotta be kidding me, at that time, you know, twenty, twenty-one, twenty-one years old. So, I went to MIT, and being the competitive person that I am, I wanted to go to the best college, and I felt MIT was that school. And it actually turned out to be one of the best decisions I ever made in my life. And because I went to MIT, got admitted, obviously started my graduate program, met some fantastic people--I mean people who just are my colleagues and best friends today--I met a fantastic advisor who took me underneath his wing. His name was Andy von Flotow. He was--$$Can you spell that?$$Yeah. Andy, A-N-D-Y, von Flotow, V-O-W [space] F-L-O-T-O-W. And he was, Andy was a person who grew up in Canada and got his Ph.D. from Stanford [University] and ended up on the faculty at MIT in the aeronautics and astronomics department. Even though I was a student in mechanical engineering, Dr. von Flotow was willing to take me as a student, a graduate student, and do some research on space structures control. And at that time, in space research there was this interest in building these very large telescopes. I mean, telescopes, if you can imagine, ten kilometers in length, I mean ten kilometers in length in space, to look deep into the vacuum and see if there are other solar systems, civilizations, so forth. And one of the problems that these large structures had is that they were so long that they would vibrate, and therefore when they vibrated they would affect the focus of the instrument. So, the problem I worked on was could I develop a method that can control these structures to, you know, fractions of an arc, what we call the arc second of angle, very small fraction of an angle, to get the resolution that these instruments needed? And I ended up developing the sensor that could be used to control these vehicles of large spatial extent, and that's what I worked on for my Ph.D. But I worked on it for Andy von Flotow. And in so doing I met so many fantastic people at MIT, and really understood why I was in MIT, just like I had thought. I didn't know what it would be, what the experience would be, but the experience was even better than I could imagine. So, I truly enjoyed it, and to this day I feel like it was one of the best decisions of my entire life, was to go there and be educated at MIT, so--.$Okay, okay. Now, 1992, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [in Livermore, California]. So, what was going on there?$$So, I chose Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory because at the time, even though it's a Department of Energy facility and tends to work on big physics projects--because Livermore's lab is dominated, again, by scientists as we had an earlier discussion about (laughter). So, big physics happens at Lawrence Livermore Lab. But what they were doing just before I got there is that they had this incredible space project that involved-- you may remember this, as under President [Ronald] Reagan's time, 'Star Wars', do you remember that? And during this time period he put a lot of money into a space shield for the United States that literally, for any intercontinental ballistic missile [ICBM] coming from Russia or anywhere, that we could put up and deploy a family of spacecraft that would not only look out for the intercontinental ballistic--ICBMs, but it would also shoot them down in their ascent trajectory. So, I joined that program. Honestly, I joined that program because it was spacecraft and I was excited about being a part of that, to be honest with you. And they had a lot of money. They had a billion dollars of money. Livermore had several hundreds of millions of dollars for this program, and they were looking at the time for a spacecraft engineer to help solve that problem. So, I was in heaven. I was like wow, I get to work on all this stuff, this is great. So, I went to Livermore and I became part of the main team that was working on this problem. And while we were working on that problem we got another big project which was called the Clementine Spacecraft, which was a demonstration program to demonstrate advanced technology that would help legitimize the Star Wars problem. That is, that you could detect ICBMs coming at you and you could shoot them down. So, Clementine was the demonstration project that demonstrated this could be done. So, my job was to do the navigation for the spacecraft, but also help design and analyze some of the instruments, the sensors, the optics that were used to track the ICBMs. So, this turned out to be a great project for me, because what happened was there was a major science part of the project. So, we were going to deploy the spacecraft. It was going to do an orbit around the moon and then after it did an orbit around the moon it was going to fly by an asteroid, the spacecraft. So, I, with a couple of colleagues at National Naval Research Lab was developing the navigation algorithms and the control algorithms for the vehicle. And it turned out that this particular spacecraft with the sensor sweep was the first spacecraft to discover water at the South Pole of the moon, which allows for life to exist on the moon. But no one had confirmed whether there was water on the moon and not at the South Pole. So, this did it at the South Pole. Using the hyper-spectra imagery system that we had, we were able to ascertain that indeed water was present at the South Pole. It was a major discovery in science, and it was such a major discovery in science at the time, that to this day a replica of the Clementine Spacecraft sits in the [National] Air and Space Museum [Smithsonian Institute, Washington, District of Columbia]. So, that was a proud moment for me personally to be a part of that program and a part of that accomplishment with my colleagues from Livermore and from Naval Research Lab. So, I was just lucky, again, in the right place and the right time there to work on that program. And then I worked on several other programs related to uninhabited air vehicles also, for Livermore up until about 1994.$$Okay, okay. That's big stuff. So '94 [1994], is that your last year with Lawrence Livermore?$$That's right. So I ended up having a great time. I worked there from 1992 actually to 1995.

Arnold Stancell

Chemical engineer and corporate oil executive Arnold Stancell was born on November 16, 1936 in Harlem, New York to Maria Lucas, a seamstress and Francis Stancell, a musician. He lived with his single mother and was focused on his education throughout his youth. After passing competitive exams to attend Stuyvesant High School, Stancell went on to City College of New York where he graduated magna cum laude with his B.S. degree in chemical engineering in 1958. Stancell was awarded a graduate fellowship from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and became the first African American to earn his Ph.D. degree from MIT in chemical engineering in 1962.

After graduation, Stancell worked at Mobil Oil Corporation from 1962 to 1970, researching new chemical and plastic products. During this time, he was awarded eleven patents for new plastics processes and plasma (ionized gas) reactions for new products. In 1970, Stancell took a leave of absence from Mobil Oil to teach at MIT. He started a research program on plasma reactions at surfaces and his student, David Lam, went on to found Lam Research, the preeminent company worldwide in plasma etching of circuits into the surface of silicon chips. In 1971, Stancell declined a tenured professorship position at MIT to return to Mobil Oil. He continued to excel at Mobil, becoming vice president of Mobil Plastics in 1976 and led the commercialization of a new plastic film that revolutionized packaging and replaced cellophane. In 1982 he became vice president of Mobil Europe Marketing and Refining based in London. He then progressed through a number of additional executive positions becoming vice president of oil and natural gas Exploration and Production in 1989 responsible for finding and developing oil and natural gas reserves in the U.S., Europe, the Middle East and Australia. Stancell initiated, negotiated and launched the now $70 billion liquefied natural gas production joint venture between Mobil and Qatar which sells natural gas to markets worldwide.

In 1993, he retired from Mobil after a thirty-one year career and a year later accepted George Institute of Tecnology’s invitation to join its faculty as professor of chemical engineering. He became the Turner Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering in 2001, and in 2004 retired as Professor Emeritus. After the 2010 British Petroleum (BP) oil spill, Stancell consulted and advised the United States Department of Interior. In 2011, he was appointed by President Barack Obama to the National Science Board.

Stancell has received numerous recognitions including the American Institute of Chemical Engineers National Award for Chemical Engineering Practice, Career Achievement Award of City College of New York, Professional Achievement Award of the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers and in 1992 was named Black Engineer of the Year. In 1997, he was inducted into the National Academy of Engineering and in 2009, was elected to its Board. In 2010, he was appointed to the Governing Board of the National Research Council. He has also received numerous outstanding teacher awards. Arnold Stancell is married to artist Constance Newton Stancell.

Arnold Stancell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.090

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/14/2012

Last Name

Stancell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

F

Occupation
Schools

Stuyvesant High School

City College of New York

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Arnold

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

STA07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Europe

Favorite Quote

Everything comes to he that waiteth, if he worketh while he waited.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Connecticut

Birth Date

11/16/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Stamford

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beef Tenderloin

Short Description

Chemical engineer and corporate executive Arnold Stancell (1936 - ) had a thirty-one year career with Mobil Oil starting in research and rising to vice president of Exploration and Production. He served on the National Science Board and advised the United States government after the British Petroleum (BP) oil spill.

Employment

Georgia Institute of Technology

Mobil Oil Company

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Arnold Stancell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Arnold Stancell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Arnold Stancell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Arnold Stancell describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Arnold Stancell talks about meeting his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Arnold Stancell describes his earliest childhood memory and his childhood home

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Arnold Stancell describes the sights, sounds and smells of his growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Arnold Stancell talks about his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Arnold Stancell talks about his junior high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Arnold Stancell talks about his involvement in the church and youth organizations

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Arnold Stancell talks about his junior high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Arnold Stancell talks about his high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Arnold Stancell talks about his high school experience and his decision to go to City College of New York

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Arnold Stancell talks about his experience at City College of New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Arnold Stancell talks about social baggage

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Arnold Stancell talks about living in Harlem during the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Arnold Stancell talks about his interest in polymers

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Arnold Stancell talks about his first professional job at Exxon and his decision to pursue a doctoral degree

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Arnold Stancell talks about his perceptions of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Arnold Stancell talks about his experience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Arnold Stancell talks about his mentorship at MIT

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Arnold Stancell describes his dissertation on improving crude oil recovery

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Arnold Stancell talks about his work at Mobil

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Arnold Stancell talks about the poetic qualities of thermodynamics

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Arnold Stancell talks about his work with plasma

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Arnold Stancell talks about his professional relationship with NOBCChE and how he met his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Arnold Stancell talks about his marriages

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Arnold Stancell talks about his work at Mobil Chemical, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Arnold Stancell talks about his work at Mobil Chemical, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Arnold Stancell considers the environmental impact of his work

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Arnold Stancell talks about his progressive roles at Mobil, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Arnold Stancell talks about his progressive roles at Mobil, part 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Arnold Stancell talks about David Lam

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Arnold Stancell talks about his international work with Mobil

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Arnold Stancell talks about Mobil's drilling activities and drill technology

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Arnold Stancell talks about the Quatar Deal

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Arnold Stancell talks about the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Arnold Stancell talks about his retirement from Mobil

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Arnold Stancell talks about the BP Oil Spill

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Arnold Stancell talks about his perceptions of U.S. education

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Arnold Stancell talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Arnold Stancell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Arnold Stancell talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Arnold Stancell talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Arnold Stancell describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Arnold Stancell talks about his progressive roles at Mobil, part 1
Arnold Stancell talks about his international work with Mobil
Transcript
Okay, alright. Now, now in 1980, you were in the management of Mobil Corporate Planning in New York?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$Ye that's--$$How did that come about, first of all?$$Well, I must have done a good job on the vice president of plastics, so I think the president of Mobil heard a presentation from me on our plastics business. And so this particular job, when you come now to New York--I came from the Rochester area, Macedon, New York, down to New York City headquarters. Now you're in a position where you're handling planning for all of Mobil, and you report to the senior vice president for planning of Mobil. And he's on the board. So now the board directors, the presidents of Mobil's major divisions and the chairman and the president of Mobil all get a chance to see you up close. You make presentations, you make points regarding strategies of the different businesses and so on. And I guess I could have used a little mentoring more at that time, so that now I've been with Mobil for awhile, I mean, I just, I'm coming right out--first I was in research, then I ran a business--I'm coming into world headquarters. I mean I don't know the rules of the game, and I'm in a very visible position, being this manager of corporate planning, making presentations to the board and so on. So, you start picking up on what's the way things are done. I always called it the way I saw it, though. And so I must have done pretty well with that, but that was a very exciting time, because Mobil made a bid for Marathon Oil, and I started getting more into the financial aspects of Mobil, of course through the business of my prior job, running the film business, plastic film business. So with corporate planning, you get heavily into financial matters, but a president asked me to head up a task force within a small group, and he wanted to keep it quiet. To select the target, Mobil was ready to make an acquisition that we would be an oil company, and of the various oil companies, what's our recommendation? And so, that was really exciting. We worked, obviously, secretly and so on, and we chose Marathon Oil. We thought they were heavily undervalued compared to their real underlying value. I came up with estimates of their underlying value, and we had experts from the financial houses worrying about how you structured a deal, and it was a heady time. we mounted our offer. It was on the low side, and Marathon rejected it. Now, Marathon's another oil company, so they knew that if Mobil takes them over, you know, we didn't need their whole super structure. So, they held us up and they filed an antitrust suit. We increased our offer. We kept increasing our offer. But they were successful, as you might expect, really, that they filed an antitrust. That takes time, and people had started at sixty dollars a share and it got up quickly to 70 dollars a share, 80 dollars a share. We finished putting our offer out there at 120 dollars a share, and people didn't take our offer, they took the 120 dollar a share offer from U.S. Steel. U.S. Steel joined in, and U.S. Steel bought Marathon. And of course, there was not going to be antitrust issues that Marathon had some refineries, they had some service stations, and if Mobil and Marathon got together, it would restrain trade. There were no issues, because U.S. Steel is a steel company. So they quickly closed their deal and we were locked out. So, people thought we would never close on our deal, it would take too long. But here's a guy who was 120 dollars a share right now. So that was very disappointing that we missed out on the Marathon acquisition.$Okay, alright. Now, when we broke, you were in London as a vice president for Mobil Europe, right?$$Yes.$$And the '80's [1980s] were a time, I was thinking about this during the break, that British Petroleum started, you know, making inroads into the U.S. market in the '80's [1980s]. I don't know if they were doing that when you were there, but it was--$$Yes, they were, they had a presence in the U.S. market through Standard Oil Ohio. and their exploration and production, they were active in the Gulf of Mexico and other areas of the U.S. They were not aggressive, but they had a presence. The early '80's [1980s] in London, Europe was going through where like Margaret Thatcher was putting in her conservative policies in Britain, and there was a big fight with the coal unions. And it was a time of transition in Europe to more of a market economy, even more of a market economy, so--$$Okay. I know that was the beginning of it. That was, Standard Oil of Ohio was basically taken over by BP.$$Yes, that's right.$$By the end of the '80's [1980s], they had not only Standard Oil of Ohio, I think, but Standard Oil, period, right?$$They had Standard Oil of Indiana, Amoco. They ended up merging with--around late '80's [1980s], like '89' [1989] or something like that, yeah.$$So, what were you doing? So you're in London, and what were some of the highlights of what you're--$$It gets a little--my district--the advantage of having a technical background, and you're also running a business, I think you can maybe see some issues. And in terms of when you build a refinery, it's not just saying I'm going to run some crude oil through here and get some products. You've got to be concerned about the location of those products, because the transportation costs of those products to the different markets can be considerable. So, people recognize that, but then also the configuration. What hardware do you put in a refinery? If you just put in simple hardware--so, you got a refinery, it takes crude oil and gives you some products, but it's the type of products you get. You want to maximize gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil and diesel. Those are the products that have the value to them. The heavy part, after you get through refining, has low value. So, you really want to take the heavy part that has low value and put investment in to convert that up to these higher value products. So you want crude oil to come into the box, and out just comes gasoline, heating oil, jet fuel, and diesel. And if you don't have that, your refinery is going to be uncompetitive. You won't have the margins to survive against refineries that have all that hardware. So, we cut through all the issues of in terms of what refineries you should keep, which ones we should invest in, by having this simple picture, and we use that very powerfully. We ended up as negative, but we ended up shutting four refineries. But we invested heavily in the remaining ones to make them only produce G and D, and overall we were more profitable. So that was very exciting. I had a strategy that made sense. The, just the different countries, I'm trying to think of any particular issues-France--we had a lot of union issues because we were trying to make our operations more efficient. But the laws of the country gave a lot of strength to the unions, and you couldn't close, you couldn't shut down... As I mentioned, some refineries you want to keep, some you don't. And so it was difficult, very difficult. In France we tried to shut down a refinery which was a negative, but it made economic sense. We were going to continue with the workers in other operations, but we couldn't move them. See, the mobility of workers in Europe wasn't, isn't like the mobility here in the U.S. If you have an operation and you say, look you can be more efficient, you can have your job, but you'll have your job over here. I know it disrupts your family, but, et cetera. But people, a lot of people will do that. But in Europe, they won't. And so we had union people bust into our offices in France and Paris armed with bats and threatening the general manager. So I got a call from the general manager, the president of Mobil France, and he says, "Arnie" (laughter), because they call me Arnie, "We got a problem here. The workers are rioting here, threatening and so on." So, I said, "You've got to call the police." (laughter). Cooler heads ended up prevailing, but you know, they took to the streets on that one. We ended up convincing enough workers to take the deal and things calmed down, but it was a trying time.$$What was the deal?$$The deal was that we had another refinery location and a refinery we thought was competitive that had the kind of hardware that I was telling you about. And we were going to expand that. We could move a bunch of those jobs up north. So they were down in this lovely area near the Mediterranean, charming restaurants, charming hillside, and we were going to move them up to Ravensheugh, north, and they didn't want any part of that. So, and then for those who didn't want to move at all, they agreed in negotiation with the union on a payout. But a bunch did take it, and moved up to Ravensheugh. There were those kinds of things in Europe.$$Alright. So you were there for--$$I think it's almost three and a half years, or four years, three years.$$Okay, so you arrived in '82' [1982], right?$$'82' [1982] and left in '85' [1985].$$'85' [1985], right.$$Yes three years, yes.$$So you became vice president of Mobil Global Marketing and Refining Planning in New York.$$Yes so that's Mobil's deal of, now you've finished an operating job, and now you go back to world headquarters and now back into planning, but now for broader knowledge and strategy for a major division. I had the corporate planning job, but this is a way now of getting more familiar with the marketing and refining. I had not been in marketing and refining. So, with that job--I mean, I was in marketing and refining, operating--now I'm getting marketing and refining, a broad overview.$$Okay, alright. So what are some of the highlights of that?$$That was, I'm trying to think of the, at that time, now we were, in terms of the particular operation, you know, it really was a continuation of this thought that I started in Europe where now I could apply it to Mobil's global marketing and refining, where you look to your refineries that are going to be your keepers, because you're going to invest heavily in them with this upgrading to make more valuable products, and less investment going into closure of the office for overall better efficiency. And we applied that worldwide. of course we operated-- marketing and refining, you know, we had Japan, we had, you name it. We were marketing and refining throughout the--well, Singapore, Australia. I didn't start it, but we started in Saudi Arabia with marketing and refining, mainly refining. So it was a continuation of the strategy that we started in Europe, but now applying it more broadly [unclear].