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Dr. Georges C. Benjamin

Healthcare executive Georges C. Benjamin was born on September 28, 1952 in Chicago, Illinois to Tessie and George Benjamin. After graduating from Lindblom Technical High School in 1970, Benjamin received his B.S. degree in biology from Illinois Institute of Technology in 1973. He went on to receive his M.D. degree from the University of Illinois College of Medicine in 1978, and complete his internal medicine residency at Brooke Army Medical Center in 1981.

In 1981, Benjamin joined Madigan Army Medical Center as chief of the Acute Illness Clinic in the department of emergency medicine; and, in 1983, he was reassigned to Walter Reed Army Medical Center as chief of emergency medicine. From 1987 to 1990, Benjamin served as chair of the department of community health and ambulatory care at the District of Columbia General Hospital. From 1990 to 1991, he served as acting commissioner of the District of Columbia Department of Health; and, in this role, he also served as interim director of the District of Columbia Fire Department’s Emergency Ambulance Bureau. From 1991 to 1994 he practiced emergency medicine and worked as a health policy consultant. He returned to the Emergency Ambulance Bureau from 1994 to 1995, serving again as interim director. In 1995, he was appointed deputy secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; and, four years later, he was promoted to secretary of the department. In 2002, Benjamin stepped down as secretary to join the American Public Health Association (APHA) as executive director. In this position, he also served as publisher of the nonprofit's monthly publication, The Nation's Health, the association's official newspaper, and the American Journal of Public Health. Benjamin authored more than 100 scientific articles and book chapters, as well as the book The Quest for Health Reform: A Satirical History, a history of health care reform shown through political cartoons.

In 2001, Benjamin served as president of the Association of State and Territorial Health. In 2016, former President Obama appointed Benjamin to the National Infrastructure Advisory Council. He was a Master of the American College of Physicians, a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration, a fellow emeritus of the American College of Emergency Physicians, an honorary fellow of the Royal Society of Public Health, and a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

In 1998, Benjamin received the Noble J. Swearingen Award for Excellence in Public Health Administrative Management from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. He was named one of the Top 25 Minority Executives in Health Care by Modern Healthcare Magazine in 2008, 2014, and 2016. In 2017, Benjamin received the Hidden Figures of Public Health Award from Black Caucus of Health Workers of the APHA and the Meritorious Achievement Award from the National Medical Association. He also received an honorary Doctor of Science from Meharry Medical School.

Benjamin and his wife, Yvette Benjamin, have two daughters: Stephanie and Kali.

Dr. Georges C. Benjamin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 24, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.104

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/24/2019

Last Name

Benjamin

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Curtis

Organizations
Schools

Illinois Institute of Technology

University of Illinois College of Medicine

Perkins Bass Elementary School

Juliette G. Lowe Upper Grade Center

Lindblom Math & Science Academy High School

Brooke Army Medical Center

First Name

Georges

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

GEO05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Aruba

Favorite Quote

Never Start A War Until You Count Your Guns

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/28/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Bacon and Eggs

Short Description

Healthcare executive Georges Benjamin (1952- ) served as executive director of the American Public Health Association. He previously served as secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

Employment

American Public Health Association

Madigan Army Medical Center

Walter Reed Army Medical Center

District of Columbia General Hospital

District of Columbia Department of Health

District of Columbia Fire Department, Emergency Ambulance Bureau

Holy Cross Hospital

Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Health Policy Consultant

Self Employed

United States Army Medical Corps

United States Army Medical Service Corps

City University of New York, School of Public Health at Hunter College

The George Washington School of Public Health and Health Services

Georgetown University

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

University of Maryland College of Medicine

Howard University

National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians

American Heart Association

American College of Surgeons

Favorite Color

Blue

Isisara Bey

Corporate entertainment executive and event producer Isisara Bey was born on July 18, 1953 in Brooklyn, New York to Shirley and Eustace Jones of Guyana. She graduated from the Academy of St. Joseph in Brentwood, New York with honors in 1970. Bey earned her B.A. degree in theater in 1976 and her M.A. degree in media communications in 1980, both from Antioch University.

Bey’s career began as an on-air personality for WEAA.FM at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland. She then worked as an award-winning news writer and producer for WJZ-TV. In 1988, Bey began working at Sony Pictures Entertainment in Los Angeles, California as a management associate. She was promoted to director of corporate affairs in 1992, later becoming the senior director. She then transferred to Sony Music Entertainment in New York City as vice president, corporate affairs. She retired from the position in 2007, and became the vice president of programs for the non-profit organization, Count Me in For Women’s Economic Independence. She also founded her own consulting company, Journey Agent Productions, serving as a keynote speaker, live events producer and workshop facilitator. Her U.S. and international clients included the Institute for Veterans and Military Families, the Apollo Theater, New York Public Radio, American Society of Transplantation, New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Odyssey Media Business Women’s Retreat, Association of Southeast Asian Nations Women of the World (WOW) Festival, Vital Voices and Pathways to Prosperity. She served as the artistic director of the March on Washington Film Festival in Washington, D.C. since 2014.

Bey served on the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation board, and organized the first Congressional Tri-Caucus retreats of Black, Hispanic, and Asian & Pacific Islander members of Congress. Bey also served on the boards of the National Book Foundation, Tony Bennett’s Exploring the Arts Foundation, Rhythm & Blues Foundation and the e-Women Network Advisory Council.

As a news producer for WJZ-TV, Bey received the National Unity Award for reporting on social issues and Maryland’s Associated Press award for best investigative/documentary. She was also awarded the Outstanding Radio, Producer, Short Form award from Associated Press.

Bey has one daughter named Makara Bey.

Isisara Bey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 29, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.013

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/29/2016

Last Name

Bey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Schools

St. Peter Claver Elementary

St. Pascal Baylon School

Academy of St. Joseph

University of Connecticut

Antioch College

First Name

Isisara

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

BEY03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Someplace New

Favorite Quote

The Rest Of My Life Is The Best Of My Life.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/18/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Curry

Short Description

Corporate entertainment executive and event producer Isisara Bey (1953 - ) worked as the director of corporate affairs of Sony Pictures Entertainment and the V.P. of corporate affairs at Sony Music Entertainment. She also founded the business consulting agency Journey Agent Productions.

Employment

WEAA.FM

WJZ-TV

Sony Pictures Entertainment

Sony Music Entertainment

Count Me In for Women's Economic Independence

Journey Agent Productions

March on Washington Film Festival

Favorite Color

Orange and Amber

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Isisara Bey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey talks about the history of Guyana

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey talks about her mother's education and immigration

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey talks about her extended family in Guyana

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey describes her upbringing in Queens, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey talks about the establishment of the St. Peter Claver School in Queens, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey remembers the Academy of St. Joseph in Brentwood, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey remembers her early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey recalls her experiences of discrimination at the Academy of St. Joseph

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey remembers developing an interest in radio

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey talks about her college scholarship

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey recalls her start at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey remembers the social movements of the late 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Isisara Bey describes her parents' perspectives on the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey remembers her decision to leave the University of Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey recalls how she came to attend Antioch College in Columbia, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey recalls joining the Theatre Project in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey recalls her introduction to the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey describes the history of the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey recalls her activism with the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey talks about the reparations movement

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey talks about the influence of the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Isisara Bey describes her current affiliation with the Moorish Science Temple of America

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Isisara Bey remembers her influences at Antioch College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey talks about Take Our Daughters to Work Day

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey remembers her employment during graduate school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey recalls hosting the morning show on WEAA Radio in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey remembers the programming on WEAA Radio

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey recalls teaching at Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey remembers her internship at WJZ-TV in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey talks about the growth of black radio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey recalls receiving an award for her news coverage

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Isisara Bey talks about the death of her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Isisara Bey remembers the management training program at Columbia Pictures

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Isisara Bey describes her position in corporate affairs at Columbia Pictures

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Isisara Bey talks about Sidney Poitier's impact on the film industry

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Isisara Bey recalls her mentors at Columbia Pictures

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Isisara Bey recalls creating a diversity symposium for film executives, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey recalls creating a diversity symposium for film executives, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey reflects upon the legacy of H. LeBaron Taylor

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey remembers the speakers at her diversity symposium

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey recalls the response to her diversity symposium

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey recalls her exhibition of portraits from the Columbia Records archives

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey recalls her promotion to head of corporate affairs at Sony Music Entertainment

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey recalls hosting a retreat for the Congressional Tri-Caucus

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey remembers her decision to adopt a child

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey remembers traveling to Cambodia to adopt her daughter

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey describes how adopting her daughter changed her life

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey remembers adjusting to single parenthood

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey recalls her challenges at the Sony Music Diversity Council

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey recalls her role in the founding of the Congressional Tri-Caucus

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey describes her work at Count Me In for Women's Economic Independence

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey remembers her TEDx talk

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey recalls founding Journey Agent Productions

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Isisara Bey talks about the March on Washington Film Festival, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Isisara Bey talks about the March on Washington Film Festival, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Isisara Bey remembers the Women of the World Festival

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Isisara Bey reflects upon her career, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Isisara Bey reflects upon her career, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Isisara Bey describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Isisara Bey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Isisara Bey talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Isisara Bey describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Isisara Bey narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Isisara Bey remembers developing an interest in radio
Isisara Bey recalls hosting a retreat for the Congressional Tri-Caucus
Transcript
Now in light of what your career is about, in terms of media--$$Yes.$$--and so, what was your exposure to media growing up? I know--$$Oh, this was (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) I know there was a lot of education, and--but did you go to the movie, did you watch television, listen to the radio?$$It was Guyana. When I was growing up, Guyana didn't get television until the mid-'80s [1980s] and so there were two radio stations and those radio stations provided everything in the country. And when I was younger, my mother [Shirley Jones], one of her batch mates [from Queen's College, Georgetown, Guyana], was a writer for one of the daily papers and he had a program on the air. You know, Guyana is such a small country that whenever people came to visit, someone would put them on a program and have them on the air. So I remember Uncle Basil, Basil Hinds was his name. He led, he was the head of the American library there and he wrote for one of the papers [The Guyana Annual] and he had a jazz show ['Just Jazz']. And I came to Guyana once with my 45s [45 rpm record]. And I brought several 45s on the air. So I had the--I had The Jackson 5, 'I Want You Back.' And he'd play his song--music and I'd play one of mine and we would talk about them. So I played that song and he said, "Well you know they sound good, but I don't think they're gonna last very long." So what was fun was years later coming back, even a few years later and him saying, "I guess I was wrong about that." But I remember once being asked to be on one of the morning shows and the engineer was a young woman. And this is when everybody did their own records and they would play--the radio stations in Guyana provided all the entertainment because that was all there was. So there were--the radio plays from England, these were in seven year cycles. They were like soap operas on the air. And then they had classroom on the air so people could learn things who were in the rural parts of the country. They had the farm report and one other program that stuck out to me was the death announcements. So this funereal music would come on--an organ playing. And a gentleman would then recite the names of any Guyanese who had died anywhere in the world, except in Guyana. So who died in England, who died in New York [New York], who died in Canada. Back then those were the only places Guyanese went to. New York, Toronto [Canada] and London [England]. And so radio on the air was on all day long because it was something different, radio plays, Guyanese plays after independence, a lot of programming that Guyanese made themselves, popular music, it was the lifeline. I remember one time we took a trip into the interior which is what it was called going from the country down into the remote parts. And on a big ferry boat that was on the Essequibo River and then people would come on to the boat. It would start and then it wouldn't stop, it would slow down. So folks would take a launch from the bush and they would transfer their produce to go to the market and the boat would slow down so they could jump on. And I could hear the radio from stop to stop out in the interior. Once cousin Gertie [ph.] and I were walking from our house to go play bingo and we were concerned because we would miss 'Dr. Paul' who was on in the evening. But everybody was listening, and because it was always warm weather there were no windows with glass, it was all shutters. People were outside and we heard the whole program walking to bingo. So I realized--it fired my imagination how important radio was and how much people could visualize and learn, and be connected through radio. So that's what sparked my interest in working in radio.$So when he asked to do that, the idea I came up with was to do a retreat for those three minority groups [Congressional Tri-Caucus]. And so that we would fund. The first one was held outside of Washington [D.C.] in Virginia at a hotel. It was over a weekend. We--I hired someone to do--to facilitate some of their work together, and also had entertainment. So I went to [HistoryMaker] Russell Simmons. At the time they had the 'Def Poetry Jam' and we created a 'Def Poetry Jam' evening during their retreat and had some of the poets that later were on 'Def Poetry' on Broadway to come and perform. A multicultural group of poets. We had Sarah Jones come who is the actress who does, she won a Tony [Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre] for her one woman performance where she represents a number of different cultures. Her first piece was called 'Surface Transit.' She has this uncanny ability to replicate any accent under the sun and she tells the story of different immigrants coming to New York [New York] in America, and their--their influence with each other. So she performed. She had a piece called 'This Revolution will not be Televised' [sic. 'Your Revolution']. It was kind of based on the one that Gil Scott-Heron song ['The Revolution Will Not Be Televised'] that he did that had been banned from the air, and so she was able to perform it in front of members of [U.S.] Congress who was going, "Why was this banned?" And we're able to work with helping her reverse that. The other moment in that retreat that stands out for me was the facilitator had had them--we had a timeline on there and she asked them to go up and to indicate when they got involved in public service. And one of them on the Hispanic caucus [Congressional Hispanic Caucus], one of the congressmen, talked about his political career started as a border guard. He was a border police. And in Sarah's monologue, she replicated a young man whose family had been arrested by the border police and used a term that they use to describe the border police [La Migra], a Spanish language term. So later when the congressman is talking about it, he talked about how he had heard this term and it was derogatory in a sense, and moved him to tears. You know, he got emotional about it and in that came this whole conversation of everyone talking about what brought them into public service. So we had those who were the children of migrant workers with the grandchildren of sharecroppers with the--the descendants of immigrants with the same universal approach to public service and now in the Congress and that was started because they were in the same room together talking about it and because they heard a theater piece that urged them to--that was the catapult to that. That was the culmination to me of everything that I think is important in the work that I do.$$Okay, and this retreat was in what year?$$Oh you're asking me years, I remember when I was thinking about--$$About 2001, 2000--$$--preparing this. It was after LeBaron [H. LeBaron Taylor] died, so it might've been around 2002 or three [2003].$$Okay.$$So we did three actually with them. That first one and then a year later or so we did one that was in Puerto Rico, and then the third one was in Texas right around the time of Hurricane Rita. So it was not as--we had to switch the focus of it more into a town hall in Houston [Texas] because of the devastation and the need.$$Okay, okay. Now you were the founder of Sony's [Sony Music Entertainment] diversity--?$$Yes, they did not have affinity groups then, and so I helped form a black, Hispanic and Asian affinity groups; and then that was the year I was one of the founding members of the diversity council for the company [Sony Music Diversity Council].

Toni Fay

Communications executive Toni Fay was born on April 25, 1947 to George E. and Allie C. (Smith) Fay. Fay received her B.A. degree from Duquesne University in 1968. She obtained her M.S.W. degree, four years later, from the University of Pittsburgh. She also received her M.Ed. degree from the University of Pittsburgh in 1973. Fay began her professional career in 1968 when she was hired as a caseworker for the New York City Department of Welfare. She was then named the director of social services for the Pittsburgh Drug Abuse Center in 1972. Fay was also appointed regional commissioner of the Governor's Council on Drugs & Alcohol for the state of Pennsylvania, serving in that capacity from 1973 to 1976. In 1977, she was named director of planning and development for the National Council of Negro Women. She was then hired as an executive vice president of D. Parke Gibson Associates, a public relations firm.

In 1982, Fay was named manager of community relations for Time-Warner, Inc. in New York. After only a year with the media conglomerate, she was promoted to the position of director of corporate community relations and affirmative action. She would go on to serve in that role for ten years before being appointed Time Warner’s vice president and corporation officer. After eight years as vice president, Fay launched her own management consultant firm TGF Associates in Englewood, New Jersey.

In addition to her corporate career, Fay was a member of the transition team for former U.S. President William Clinton in 1992. She was also appointed by President Clinton to the boards of the National Institute for Literacy and the Corporation for National and Community Service.

Fay has served on a number of boards for civic, social and educational entities, including that of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, UNICEF, the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute and Library, the Apollo Theatre Foundation, the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, Bethune Cookman College, the Coro Foundation, the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, the U.S. Capitol Historical Society and the Quincy Jones Listen Up Foundation, among many others.

Toni Fay was interviewed by the The HistoryMakers on August 1, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.162

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/1/2012

Last Name

Fay

Maker Category
Middle Name

Georgette

Schools

Duquesne University

University of Pittsburgh

A Whizz Kids Preschool Inc Ii

A-Karrasel Primary Grade Center

Benjamin Franklin Junior High School

Teaneck Senior High School

P.S. 169 Robert F Kennedy School

First Name

Toni

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

FAY01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France, Morocco

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/25/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Englewood

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Communications executive Toni Fay (1947 - ) was vice president of Time Warner, Inc.

Employment

New York City Department of Welfare

Pittsburgh Drug Abuse Center

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

National Council of Negro Women (NCNW)

D. Parke Gibson Association

Time Warner, Inc.

TGF Associates

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
0,0:4058,57:6102,105:6540,112:6905,118:13122,203:14114,223:14548,231:16904,279:17214,285:17772,296:18144,303:18516,310:19756,335:21182,368:21740,379:27322,445:27618,450:28358,464:29468,488:29838,494:30282,502:33020,552:33538,560:37980,576:38920,587:40424,610:41458,626:42022,633:43432,652:46285,670:46620,676:48027,703:48362,709:48898,720:53789,822:55732,861:56067,867:58144,900:58680,909:60422,943:68618,1013:69458,1025:72483,1055:72909,1063:73761,1080:74258,1088:74755,1099:75678,1138:76175,1146:77595,1174:78021,1181:79725,1227:80009,1232:80932,1252:81784,1271:83701,1293:84127,1300:85192,1317:88902,1333:89790,1347:90456,1357:92158,1403:94452,1453:103782,1607:104522,1620:105262,1633:106520,1654:114390,1750:117414,1800:118206,1812:119286,1833:121374,1872:122238,1886:126670,1933$0,0:516,15:1032,22:1634,31:1978,36:3096,52:6250,81:7457,106:8096,119:10297,167:10723,175:11007,180:14202,230:14699,239:15409,255:17539,318:18178,329:18888,341:19243,346:26460,404:26790,410:27054,416:27450,424:29166,469:29760,479:30618,496:31674,519:36030,637:41830,672:42726,690:43878,717:45286,745:45862,761:46310,770:46566,775:46886,782:47398,796:49830,847:50278,856:51942,889:52198,894:52646,902:53286,915:57539,938:58178,949:58604,956:62935,1050:64142,1074:66201,1130:66911,1141:67550,1152:73233,1239:76709,1294:77262,1302:81799,1331:82380,1343:86754,1412:87557,1427:88068,1436:90477,1490:92520,1498:95220,1562:96645,1594:97020,1600:97545,1609:98070,1617:101326,1647:115338,1856:116994,1885:117282,1890:117642,1896:118290,1907:120018,1940:120378,1946:121386,1964:122898,2002:123258,2008:124626,2038:125274,2053:132790,2128:133430,2151:134870,2180:136470,2219:139270,2277:140470,2296:141350,2316:142870,2342:147280,2365:150605,2422:154350,2437:155022,2450:155406,2455:157902,2507:163270,2579:165370,2625:167170,2658:167545,2664:173298,2753:182630,2861:183725,2873:184674,2890:185331,2903:185623,2908:186426,2924:187375,2934:187813,2941:188689,2957:189127,2964:192120,3023:193507,3058:195624,3102:199598,3114:200372,3125:200802,3131:203636,3194:204548,3208:205384,3226:207740,3274:211768,3387:217392,3499:218000,3508:223836,3548:224750,3562
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Toni Fay's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Toni Fay lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Toni Fay describes her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Toni Fay describes how her maternal grandparents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Toni Fay describes her maternal grandfather and great uncle's occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Toni Fay remembers visiting her grandfather in New Jersey after the 1967 Newark riots

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Toni Fay describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Toni Fay talks about her family's relationship to the Presbyterian Church

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Toni Fay recaps her maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Toni Fay describes her mother's childhood in Harlem, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Toni Fay talks about her father and paternal family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Toni Fay talks about her father and paternal family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Toni Fay describes her father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Toni Fay talks about her father's start of an African American high school football league

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Toni Fay talks about her father's draft into the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Toni Fay describes her family's perspective toward the draft

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Toni Fay explains how her parent met and fell in love

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Toni Fay describes her childhood home in Harlem, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Toni Fay describes her parents' dispositions and considers her likeness to them

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Toni Fay describes experiencing discrimination in the Teaneck, New Jersey schools

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Toni Fay recalls her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Toni Fay describes her childhood activities in Harlem, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Toni Fay describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood in Harlem, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Toni Fay remembers beating Roosevelt "Rosey" Brown in ping pong

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Toni Fay talks about the distinction between Harlem and Washington Heights

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Toni Fay describes her experience at P.S. 169 elementary school in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Toni Fay describes her experience at Stitt Junior High School and moving to Teaneck, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Toni Fay describes playing in the band at Stitt Junior High School in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Toni Fay describes leaving New York City for Teaneck, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Toni Fay describes how she avoided being held back from the eighth grade

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Toni Fay talks about her neighbors in Teaneck, Jersey, including the Isley family, and northern migration to the suburbs

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Toni Fay describes attending summer camp and other structured activities

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Toni Fay describes the racial discrimination she experienced in Teaneck, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Toni Fay talks about entertaining her parents' friends

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Toni Fay talks about her father's establishment of a football team in Teaneck, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Toni Fay recalls attending the March on Washington in 1963 and boycotting companies that were segregationist

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Toni Fay talks about Malcolm X and remembers visiting "Southern" cousins in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Toni Fay talks about her decision to attend Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Toni Fay explains why she elected not to attend Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Toni Fay describes her undergraduate experience at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Toni Fay talks about HistoryMaker Ronald Davenport, then-professor in the Duquesne University School of Law

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Toni Fay describes being accepted into graduate school at the University of Pittsburgh

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Toni Fay talks about her graduate studies at the University of Pittsburgh, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Toni Fay talks about her graduate studies at the University of Pittsburgh, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Toni Fay talks about heading the Governor's Council on Drug and Alcohol Abuse in Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Toni Fay talks about her parents' mentorship

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Toni Fay talks about C. Delores Tucker, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Toni Fay describes moving to San Francisco, California briefly after leaving her job in Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Toni Fay talks about C. Delores Tucker, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Toni Fay talks about moving back home after spending one year in San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Toni Fay describes interviewing with and being hired by HistoryMaker Dorothy Height

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Toni Fay describes initiatives she oversaw at the National Council of Negro Women

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Toni Fay describes being hired by the D. Parke Gibson Association public relations firm

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Toni Fay describes being hired at Time Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Toni Fay describes her experience at Time Inc. and relationship with executive William J. Trent, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Toni Fay describes making connections with Betty Shabazz, Coretta Scott King, and others through the Black Leadership Family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Toni Fay talks about the members, requirements and objectives at the Black Leadership Academy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Toni Fay describes the development of her literacy program at Time Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Toni Fay describes the literacy program she developed at Time Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Toni Fay talks about Time Inc.'s merger with Warner Communications Inc. in 1990

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Toni Fay describes working on 'Songs of My People' photography book

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Toni Fay describes meeting HistoryMaker Quincy Jones and her involvement in the Listen Up Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Toni Fay talks about becoming Time Warner's first African American officer

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Toni Fay describes working on 'Americanos: Latino Life in the United States' and Gordon Parks' 'Half Past Autumn' at Time Warner

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Toni Fay talks about the external projects she worked on, including the Business Policy Review Council

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Toni Fay explains why the Business Policy Review Council stopped operating

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Toni Fay talks about her retirement from Time Warner

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Toni Fay talks about challenges surrounding the preservation of the Apollo Theater

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Toni Fay talks about her role in the revitalization of the Apollo Theatre in Harlem, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Toni Fay remembers HistoryMaker Ossie Davis

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Toni Fay describes her role on President Bill Clinton's transition team

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Toni Fay describes her literacy work with the Clinton Administration and Time Warner Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Toni Fay lists various boards she has served on over the years

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Toni Fay describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Toni Fay reflects considers what she might have done differently

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Toni Fay considers her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Toni Fay talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Toni Fay shares her advice to young professionals

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Toni Fay describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Toni Fay narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Toni Fay narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

6$3

DATitle
Toni Fay talks about heading the Governor's Council on Drug and Alcohol Abuse in Pennsylvania
Toni Fay describes working on 'Songs of My People' photography book
Transcript
And I got--as I said, I think I've been blessed my whole career. All of a sudden, there was a brand new agency being started by Governor Milton Shapp in Pennsylvania. And it was to be the single-state agency for drug and alcohol abuse. Again, this was a whole new wave in the whole health and mental health arena nationally. So he started it, and the single-state agency was called the Governor's Council on Drug and Alcohol Abuse. And for some reason, I was hired to be head of the whole region, which put me in charge of twenty-four counties in western Pennsylvania in allocating their drug and alcohol money for their county programs and other things. It's the first time I'm managing a staff, first time I was traveling statewide to look at programs. So I learned so much, and the first time I had to deal with administration, with panels. So I was taken from a community-based activity, thinking about, you know, we're just gonna improve the lot of people, to an administrative position dealing with budgets and money and plans and, and more racism, which was easier because outside of Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania], if you know western Pennsylvania and you should coming from Dayton [Ohio], I mean it's Appalachia in some places. I remember going to one of my counties and the, the county commissioner was blind. And I'm walking in to introduce myself, and he said, "Oh, yeah, I heard this, this colored gal got that job." I said, yes, and she's right here in front of you, you know (laughter). And what, and, and you have a request before me, you know. So, you know, I learned those--it was like the sum total of the things I had learned from Teaneck [New Jersey] (laughter), that I had to bring to that experience too. But it was a great job. I mean it propelled me totally out of traditional social work into now looking at this whole understanding of public health systems and administration and managing people.$There were two things going on that propelled me in getting my officer's stripe, which was unbelievable. First, I had this, "what the hell" attitude. I'm just gonna keep my head down and not stay in the gossip, rumor mill about who's on first, who's on second. My boss, who was then Jerry Levin [Gerald Levin], who became the chairman of Time Warner later on and did the AOL deal to our, our chagrin, Jerry said, call me only if you need me 'cause he was in his own political battle. So, you know, we were all just holding on. None of us were gonna put our hands up to say, "I'm leaving" 'cause they said, "Oh, at least let's get a package if we're gonna leave." So that's when I was approached to take on this project called 'Songs of My People.' I had gotten a call from a couple of the photographers that were looking at some way--quite frankly, they were a little outraged that this project around black women had traveled all around the United States and gotten such notoriety and there weren't any black photographers engaged in it. So many of them had gotten together, who were the top photographers in many of the newspapers around the country to say, let's do a day-in-the-life kind of concept. They brought it to me. I said, this is fabulous. Now, how am I gonna talk this company into it? I went to our book company and said, you all got to do this. They said, it sounds good. I said, I want us to get into the exhibition thing. We could travel this to all of our markets because in the newspaper--I'll never forget, when I went to the chairman, I said, "Look, Jerry, every paper is talking about records and synergy and movies and synergy. Not one is mentioning books, not one is mentioning magazines, not one is mentioning--it's all about now, this new entertainment complex. I have a book project that I wanna get all of our businesses engaged in." And it's gonna propel our agenda in terms of saying to the black community, we are here and the white community too. And think about all these museums. You like culture. Well, I sold it to Jerry to say--he said, "Toni, I like your thought." He said, but I don't even know how we're gonna pay for this. If we have to commit to fund an exhibition, all our money's tied up in this deal. Do you know how I got the exhibition funded? There was a line that the banks had not attached that was the retirement gift for Dick Munro, who was the outgoing CEO. That was the only line not attached in the deal we're paying for this merger (laughter). So if you ever see any literature from 'Songs of My People,' 'cause it traveled in over a hundred countries, you know, through the State Department [U.S. Department of State]. I mean it's just great. It always says, and "Is dedicated to Dick Munro through his retired," (laughter). It went on for five years. It was a major book, gangbusters exhibition. And what I liked most about it, and I think why people remember me and always come up to me and all of our executives in the company and said, "I'm one of the 'Songs of My People' photographers. They all got better jobs. Some became the press secretaries for Clinton [President William "Bill" Clinton] and everybody got promoted at their newspapers. And that's also how we got so much press 'cause when we would hit town, all of a sudden they could go to their publisher and say, look, I'm in this exhibition, and this is in our town. So you're gonna get some play. I mean it was just gangbusters. It was a landmark thing for the craft of photography. So that was one--

Frank Morris

Educator Frank Morris, Sr., was born in Cairo, Illinois on July 21, 1931. At age six, he moved to Boston, where his grandparents and his aunt and uncle raised him. An honor student in high school, Morris was awarded a scholarship to attend Colgate University. From there, he attended Syracuse University, earning his M.P.A. degree. Morris later went on to earn a Ph.D. in political science from MIT and he later completed the requirements for his master’s in international affairs from Georgetown University.

After graduating from Syracuse University in 1962, Morris joined the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, working out of the Seattle office. He joined the U.S. State Department in 1966, and by 1969, he was the deputy regional coordinator for the Latin America Office of Program and Policy Coordination. In 1972, Morris moved to Chicago, where he became an associate professor of political science at Northwestern University. After working with the National Education Institute and the Community Services Administration, Morris joined the U.S. Foreign Aid Program to Jamaica, where he retired as deputy director in 1983. Returning from Jamaica, Morris became the executive director of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation. In 1986, Morris was named the associate dean of the Graduate School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 1988, he left for Morgan State University, where he retired as the dean of graduate studies and research in 1996. After moving to Texas in 1997 to be closer to his grandchildren, Morris became a visiting professor in government and politics at the University of Texas, where he remained until he retired in 1999.

Throughout his distinguished career, Morris was highly influential in all the positions he held. While working with the State Department in Jamaica, he oversaw the growth of U.S. federal aid to the country to become one of the three highest per capita U.S. AID programs in the world. While serving as dean at Morgan State, he formed a partnership with the Hokkaido Foundation of Japan and instituted a program to teach Japanese. He has also served as a consultant to organizations in the U.S. on issues relating to Africa and Europe.

Morris has received numerous awards over the years, including having been named “Father of the Year,” by the Chicago Defender and recipient of the Superior Honor Award by the Department of State. He and his wife have four children.

Accession Number

A2004.217

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/27/2004

Last Name

Morris

Maker Category
Schools

George A. Lewis Middle School

Roxbury Memorial High School

John B. Drake Elementary School

Williams Elementary School

William Lloyd Garrison Elementary School

Boston Latin School

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Colgate University

Syracuse University

Georgetown University

First Name

Frank

Birth City, State, Country

Cairo

HM ID

MOR07

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

The Trouble With Common Sense Is That It's Not So Common.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/21/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Broiled Lobster

Short Description

Academic administrator and political science professor Frank Morris (1931 - ) served as the executive director of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, and became the associate dean of the Graduate School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland. In 1988, he was hired by Morgan State University, where he retired as the dean of graduate studies in 1996.

Employment

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development

United States State Department

Latin America Office of Program and Policy Coordination

Northwestern University

National Education Institute

Community Services Administration

United States Foreign Aid Program to Jamaica

University of Maryland, College Park

Morgan State University

University of Texas

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
0,0:2403,115:10413,315:11036,323:19224,562:23650,575:24045,581:24361,586:25783,620:28627,668:34236,801:40793,943:41899,977:53370,1099:53740,1105:55146,1123:55738,1134:57588,1182:62990,1302:63360,1308:73294,1426:82340,1546:83220,1559:83620,1565:95720,1810:96000,1819:96420,1826:96840,1834:101950,1919:102370,1925:109256,1993:111136,2020:112170,2030:115554,2081:119015,2115:121875,2159:128029,2202:129520,2231:129946,2238:132431,2341:141377,2491:142797,2523:143507,2534:145282,2568:145779,2579:146134,2585:159660,2762:170256,2896:170611,2902:174140,2954:175449,2997:175988,3031:177990,3082:186537,3219:187076,3236:187615,3244:190310,3282:191157,3298:191619,3305:191927,3310:197700,3316:197964,3321:198294,3326:198690,3333:203970,3450:211318,3553:216232,3624:216934,3696:230706,3822:231410,3831:232642,3855:235106,3898:237658,3937:238274,3946:239242,3962:239858,3969:243050,3976:244240,3989:245192,3998:252669,4044:253131,4056:255595,4094:256827,4121:259950,4143:260400,4151:261075,4166:266390,4243:267074,4255:270704,4312:272675,4356:278359,4436:279527,4466:282155,4523:282812,4533:283250,4540:284272,4564:286316,4612:293990,4670$0,0:780,9:1092,14:1560,21:4992,100:5382,109:5694,114:6006,119:7722,143:10140,175:12636,221:26237,442:26804,457:43626,701:51870,821:52510,833:54350,870:70870,1091:71805,1148:87794,1439:91250,1486:103540,1588:103840,1593:104665,1622:112840,1903:117115,1996:117565,2003:122615,2019:122875,2024:123135,2029:132105,2237:133015,2245:133405,2253:133795,2260:139660,2319:139940,2324:141340,2339:144150,2368:144398,2380:144770,2387:148056,2434:149358,2468:149606,2473:151528,2532:153450,2587:157790,2705:162646,2748:165616,2829:166078,2837:167398,2879:169300,2891
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frank Morris's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frank Morris lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frank Morris describes his mother's family background and how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frank Morris describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes his paternal aunts and uncles

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frank Morris describes his father and paternal aunts

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frank Morris describes his paternal uncles and their professions

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls his grandparents' hosting extended family at their home

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frank Morris describes living in Cairo, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frank Morris describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frank Morris describes his father's family

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frank Morris recalls his early childhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frank Morris recalls his experience in Boston Public Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frank Morris describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frank Morris recalls a field trip to Boston's Museum of Science

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frank Morris remembers leaving Boston Latin School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Frank Morris describes Roxbury Memorial High School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Frank Morris describes his paternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Frank Morris talks about playing basketball in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frank Morris describes his classmates at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frank Morris recalls his internship at Senator Leverett Saltonstall's office

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frank Morris explains why he chose Syracuse University for graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frank Morris remembers playing football at Colgate University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes his experiences at Syracuse University in New York

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frank Morris recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Frank Morris recalls his time in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls working for the U.S. Department of State

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Frank Morris talks about the importance of understanding history

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frank Morris describes the value of critical thinking and his doctoral program at MIT

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frank Morris remembers his trip to Ghana in 1970

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frank Morris describes his time at Northwestern University and writing for the Evanston Review

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frank Morris describes his civil rights work and NAACP involvement in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes his government research positions in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frank Morris critiques the Jensen Study and IQ tests

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frank Morris describes problems with standardized testing

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls his work as education chairman of the Montgomery County, Maryland NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Frank Morris recalls serving as USAID's deputy director and chief of operations in Jamaica

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frank Morris talks about his work with USAID in Jamaica

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frank Morris describes changing racist hiring practices in Jamaica

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frank Morris recalls how he handled unfair work practices in Jamaica, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frank Morris recalls how he handled unfair work practices in Jamaica, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frank Morris recalls nominating his secretary for an award and seeing Bob Marley in concert

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frank Morris recalls joining the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frank Morris describes his achievements with the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls his disappointments at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Frank Morris recalls his disappointments at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Frank Morris recalls being fired from the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Frank Morris recalls becoming a professor and attending FESTAC '87

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Frank Morris recalls becoming dean of graduate studies and research at Morgan State University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Frank Morris reflects upon American graduate schools' lack of recruitment for minority students

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Frank Morris talks about his friendship with HistoryMaker Edward "Buzz" Palmer

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes his work with the Center for Immigration Studies

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Frank Morris explains the impact of immigration on the American economy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Frank Morris describes his trip to Europe with HistoryMaker Edward "Buzz" Palmer

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls uncovering misallocation of funds at the Daniel Hand Fund, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Frank Morris recalls uncovering misallocation of funds at the Daniel Hand Fund, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Frank Morris describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Frank Morris reflects upon his career

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Frank Morris talks about affirmative action and his principles

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Frank Morris reflects upon his legacy, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Frank Morris reflects upon his legacy, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Frank Morris shares his thoughts on reparations for African Americans

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Frank Morris narrates his photographs.

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

8$1

DATitle
Frank Morris recalls working for the U.S. Department of State
Frank Morris talks about his work with USAID in Jamaica
Transcript
Okay so now you were in Seattle [Washington] through (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Seattle, Tacoma [Washington] from '62 [1962] through '66 [1966], yes.$$Okay and '66 [1966] you took a job with [U.S.] Foreign Service with the state department [U.S. Department of State].$$That's exactly right a lateral into the Foreign Service into the Latin American bureau. When I was at Syracuse [University, Syracuse, New York] I had a tremendous interest in management information systems and so AID [United States Agency for International Development (USAID)] sort of recruited me along that line. Then I went into the Latin American bureau in development policy and moved right on up the ladder there.$$Now you went to Uruguay right?$$Oh that was in '67 [1967] when they had the presidents summary of the presidents of [Latin] American meeting with LBJ [President Lyndon Baines Johnson] and he was meeting with the different American presidents. That was a wonderful experience. That was a wonderful experience for me in a number of ways because as a relatively junior Foreign Service officer for the first time in my career ever I was working twelve hours on/twelve hours off in the office of the exec staff which was secretary of state staff with Dean Rusk. I was one of his staff down there. One of three people that was his staff that prepared documents for him and what I saw it's really not an overwhelming job, you can have a junior office do this if they've got the intelligence, was to see all the intelligence that was coming in to the secretary of state from all over the world including super-secret stuff from the military intelligence, CIA [Central Intelligence Agency] and all of that and prepare a briefing statement--document for the secretary of state. So when he gets up in the morning, he sees the things that he must know in case he has to talk to the president. So we saw embassy stuff from the state department, we'd see the CIA stuff; we'd see the military stuff. I found out some things then that will always be with me. One of the things was that how much of what goes for secret--top secret stuff in the U.S. government is over classified. I would see the same material classified as secret and top secret from military intelligence, state department intelligence and other intelligence, CIA intelligence and it's going to the secretary of state and then I would have because we also had the newspaper clippings from the papers around the world, I would find articles The Baltimore Sun, The Washington Post, The New York Times and gave greater in depth coverage than what our fantastically super-secret things were doing. I'm saying who are they keeping it a secret from? What really hit home and this is a true story Dean Rusk every morning when he got down the one thing he wanted to see before our briefing that we'd worked twelve hours to prepare of all the stuff around the world was a copy of The New York Times. This is the honest to goodness truth folks that showed me something. I hope that our press and especially the great papers and their foreign correspondents haven't cut down to the extent that I hope this is still the case as it was then for informing the American people. I still believe that it is that the great papers have people from the inside that would give them really good information and so there is tremendous over classification going. They want to classify things to the American people. The enemy knows it but the American people folks want to keep things classified for them. So that was a wonderful experience.$$Do you think that maybe it's because since people don't really read the paper like they ought to so a lot of people are going to know anyway if it's in The New York Times?$$That's sad, that's really sad and what's going to count as an educated person and an empowered person is the ability to differentiate for knowledge. I used to tell my students that the powerful in the United States don't try to exercise control by limiting media but it's by finding people with information and figuring out that our people are not going to be educated enough to be able to find the wheat from the chaff or know how to do it or want to take the effort to do it. So this is the essence or one of the essences of being empowered, to be able to filter through-being able to handle large volumes of information whether that's reading quickly, whether it's being able to absorb, being able to record things or take notes so that you will know and to recognize what's important. This is the essence I think of empowerment in education and also understand how and when bureaucracies are vulnerable.$Well you were asking about my time in the [U.S.] Foreign Service in Jamaica and I'm really proud of that. I made some major improvements down there. When we went down there Jamaica was not really very much on the radar list of American countries of interest because it had just come out of the [Michael] Manley regime and he is not very friendly with the United States.$$A friend of [Fidel] Castro (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Well it wasn't that he was a Jamaican--an independent Jamaican and I think that we once again the early version was either you're with us or against us. To stay an independent country you can't be a friend of Castro and be a friend of ours it's an arrogance that is not worthy and so when we went down there that's the way it was in '79 [1979]. Then in '80 [1980] they had an election of where Seaga--Edward Seaga who is the other competitor to Manley won in an election that it was full of violence and so forth and Seaga (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Just to be, for point of clarification, Seaga is white, right?$$Yes Lebanese and so Seaga really convinced Reagan [President Ronald Wilson Reagan] that he was big private enterprise fellow brilliant. Seaga [sic. Michael Manley] London School of Economics [London School of Economics and Political Science, London, England] all very, very socialist (unclear), he convinced Reagan he was going to be the private enterprise man and we went from almost being the bottom of the per capita U.S. foreign assistance to almost to the top and Reagan--Jamaica was his first foreign trip and so we were part of a plan and I figured this was coming. So one of the things that helped win my award was that we had been planning early the AID [United States Agency for International Development (USAID)] director and I for just such an event that we would have contingency plans if all of a sudden it could be a big increase in aid to Jamaica. Sure enough there was so we were able to get it almost underway almost overnight. But more than that I'll show you the second highest award--agency award in the state department [U.S. Department of State] superior honor award for my work in Jamaica and going out and talking to Jamaicans and encouraging them to look at things differently. One of the sad things I found in Jamaica was that there wasn't a value of Jamaican products. Some of the things that Jamaican products not just their beer but some of the beautiful wood if you look around in my home I have some of the guango wood and other things and some of their paintings. Jamaicans had for years I guess one of the remnants of colonist, some Jamaicans had always believed that things which were foreign were better and one of the things I pointed out that some of their things are some of the greatest in the world and they need to realize that before they could really affectively market them.