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Adrienne Bailey

Educational consultant Adrienne Yvonne Bailey was born on November 24, 1944 in Chicago, Illinois to Julia Spalding Bailey and Leroy Bailey. Bailey received her B.A. degree from Mundelein College in 1966 and her M.A. degree in education from Wayne State University in 1969. Bailey received her Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 1973.

In Chicago, Bailey taught social studies, English, French and mathematics at Deneen Elementary School and was the neighborhood youth corps supervisor at the South Shore YMCA and the program coordinator for the Circle Maxwell YMCA in the late 1960s. Bailey then worked as the education coordinator at the Government Office of Human Resources from 1969 to 1971 and as the university coordinator of the Northwestern Community Education Project at Northwestern University from 1972 to 1973. In 1973, Bailey was appointed to a six-year term on the State Board of Education, and from 1973 to 1981, Bailey was a senior staff associate at Chicago Community Trust. She has also served as vice president of the National Association of State Boards of Education. Bailey was the Vice President of Academic Affairs for the College Board of New York in 1981 and on the Education and Career Development Advisory Committee of the Urban League in 1982. Bailey then served on the Government Educational Advancement Committee from 1983 through 1987, while also serving on the National Committee on Secondary Schooling for Hispanics from 1983 to 1985.

Bailey is currently serving as an ExEL (Executive Leadership Program for Urban Education) at Harvard University.

Bailey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 4, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.121

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/4/2008

Last Name

Bailey

Maker Category
Schools

Holy Cross Elementary School

St Dorothy Elementary School

Mercy High School

Northwestern University

Central State University

Wayne State University

Mundelein College

First Name

Adrienne

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

BAI07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

It Is What You Get To Know, That's Where It Is At.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

11/24/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Education consultant Adrienne Bailey (1944 - ) dedicated her career to education, served as a teacher, education coordinator at the Government Office of Human Resources, and as the university coordinator of the Northwestern Community Education Project. Bailey also served a six-year appointment on State Board of Education, and served on the Government Educational Advancement Committee.

Employment

South Shore YMCA

Circle Maxwell YMCA

Detroit Board of Education

Illinois Board of Education

Governor's Office of Human Resources

The Chicago Community Trust

The College Board

Board of Education of the City of Chicago

Stupski Foundation

Strategic Philanthropy, Ltd.

Harvard University Graduate School of Education

Chicago Public Schools

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:564,10:1034,16:1410,21:3745,39:4013,44:4415,52:7229,103:8301,126:8904,138:9239,144:10579,178:11517,193:17561,253:17845,258:18910,276:19762,289:20472,303:20756,308:22034,338:22815,351:23170,357:26365,427:27430,446:27927,454:29347,469:30980,494:31335,500:33181,533:33820,544:34317,552:36021,586:36731,598:37086,604:37583,613:38648,631:39287,641:48338,708:48626,713:50498,753:53234,811:54818,843:55826,866:56258,877:56690,884:57626,903:58058,910:58778,924:74059,1087:74929,1101:76147,1118:79366,1165:85673,1213:89980,1276:92973,1316:93557,1326:94068,1335:94871,1348:95163,1353:96112,1364:97134,1382:97718,1392:98010,1397:104318,1462:106478,1491:107486,1508:108062,1517:112741,1563:115009,1603:115414,1609:115819,1615:117115,1639:118573,1662:119788,1686:120112,1691:120760,1702:121732,1717:126434,1734:128436,1764:129129,1774:130669,1800:132363,1819:132748,1825:134981,1866:137291,1909:138523,1926:139062,1934:139601,1943:139986,1949:140833,1959:141372,1967:145432,1982:166567,2254:167257,2263:170293,2343:170569,2348:170845,2353:171328,2362:171880,2371:172156,2376:173053,2391:173329,2396:174157,2412:175054,2434:176640,2444$0,0:2418,47:2808,53:4680,81:9594,157:12860,181:19139,318:22589,377:23624,394:23900,399:28592,470:37130,647:38235,675:43630,785:44410,801:46230,844:46555,850:51430,971:58038,1013:58486,1036:59382,1070:60534,1097:61750,1120:62390,1132:62966,1143:64694,1179:65270,1190:68150,1253:70774,1321:71606,1336:72502,1352:79264,1397:80744,1420:81780,1434:83260,1449:84814,1472:87404,1534:96542,1634:97060,1643:99132,1677:100168,1693:101204,1710:101722,1719:102018,1724:104312,1779:108752,1880:111194,1907:111564,1913:112526,1928:112970,1935:117916,1946:118148,1951:119192,1980:119424,1985:119830,1993:120642,2012:122208,2059:122962,2081:123542,2098:124238,2106:125456,2139:125804,2147:132850,2244
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Adrienne Bailey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey recalls the neighborhood of Woodlawn in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her move to Park Manor in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Mercy High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey recalls entertainment of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey remembers her summers in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Sister Mary Leonette

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey remembers studying the French language

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey recalls studying abroad in France, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey recalls studying abroad in France, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey describes her first teaching position

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her travels in France

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her work at the Circle Maxwell YMCA in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the West Side and South Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey remembers the riots after Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey remembers Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her experiences in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her Ph.D. program at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her experiences at Northwestern University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey remembers being hired at the Chicago Community Trust

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment to the Illinois State Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey remembers leading a delegation to Japan

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her presidency of the National Association of State Boards of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the national standards of education

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her trip to China

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey describes her multicultural education policy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her position at the College Board

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her achievements at the College Board

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey describes her involvement on education advisory boards

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment as Chicago Public Schools deputy superintendent

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work as an education consultant

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work with the U.S. Department of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Adrienne Bailey recalls her work for the United States Agency for International Development

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Adrienne Bailey describes her work for the Harvard University Graduate School of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Adrienne Bailey talks about notable activists in education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Adrienne Bailey describes her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Adrienne Bailey describes her hopes and concerns for education in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the challenges in public education

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Adrienne Bailey talks about the future of public education in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Adrienne Bailey describes her philosophy of education

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Adrienne Bailey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Adrienne Bailey talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Adrienne Bailey describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Adrienne Bailey narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$11

DATitle
Adrienne Bailey recalls her appointment to the Illinois State Board of Education
Adrienne Bailey describes her education initiatives in Mississippi, pt. 1
Transcript
The other thing that came to me during that time is that we were moving away from, in Illinois from an elected constitutional officer and state superintendent. There had been a constitutional convention, none of like what's on the ballet today, to get away from that elected position and there was, at that time, Governor Dan Walker was creating the first appointed Illinois State Board of Education. It's interesting enough because it was the private sector and the legislation assigned the state board responsibilities over both public and private education. So, unbeknownst to me there was a group that had promoted my name, primarily because of my experience in private education, as a representative they wanted to advance to the government for appointment. Now part of the appointment criteria is you cannot be, you see, an employed educator, so you can't work for a school system, so I had a unique background in that I was trained as an educator, had a strong educational set of experiences, but I was, I fit the criteria so I was appointed then as one of, let's see, two or three African Americans to the first appointed Illinois Board of Education in about 1973 or 1974. I served on that board for eight years, leaving it in 1980 as its vice president. During that time my career also jettisoned. I would say that was probably the time that I was just on the move, thanks to many great advocates and supporters of me, but my career just kind of took off. I then became the president of the National Association of State Boards of Education, and became well acquainted, therefore, with state board members and chief state school officers in all fifty states and at the same time I was invited by the governor to be a commissioner, a member of the Education Commission of the States, which involves the fifty states but in each state it involves the governor, the heads of the two legislative parties, usually someone from the state board and someone from the state education leader side.$$Let us go back and get some dates. I don't want to mess up here.$$Okay.$$So you were appointed to the Illinois State Board of Education?$$Right, and probably in about 1973 or 1974.$$Seventy-four [1974], okay. And then you became president of the national state board of education.$$Probably about '78 [1978] or '79 [1979], because I'm just back from the fiftieth year anniversary of that organization in Washington [D.C.] two weeks ago.$I worked in Mississippi for a period of two or three years around the grassroots community initiative for, you know, focusing on academic rigor and training parents about you know, about what it meant to be able to look at quality and, as I recall, that was just so touching because we actually trained people who had never spoken in front of groups. They developed you know, preparations and note cards and they would begin their opening about, so we had decided that because we are doing this as a collaboration between this community organization [Mississippi Action for Community Education, Inc., Greenville, Mississippi] and parents and the state education department, that we didn't want the participants to listen to a group of talking heads about the state. Education people couldn't get up first, and so it was parents getting up to greet people in which they, opening comments were, "I want to tell you why quality education is important for your children in Mississippi," and they would use examples that were in their own life about how you judge quality, what is going to a grocery store, and had come to understand, therefore, about how having discernment around quality in their own children's education was an important attribute that they needed to acquire, so we did that in probably about twenty-two communities in preparation for Mississippi's subsequent accountability law, which was going to put pretty strict constraints on testing and eventually graduation requirements. So, I can remember that even though that was several years ago, that adage to the parents was don't worry, that's not going to catch up with you right now but guess what? Today, Mississippi has graduation tests that you must pass, so the whole ideal to parents was that you don't start at the ninth or the tenth grade to figure out that you've got to get over this hurdle, that it really begins back in your early elementary and middle school, to know whether or not there is this high quality instruction in the teaching and the learning that your student is getting, but not only from letting the schools define it for you, but you being able to capture this in terms of your own understanding of the kind of education your child is receiving.

Dr. Billie Wright Adams

Medical professor and pediatrician Dr. Billie Wright Adams was born in Bluefield, West Virginia. Her father, William Morris Wright, was a country doctor who accepted chickens and potatoes in lieu of cash for his services. Adams received her B. S. degree from Fisk University in 1950. The following year, she received her M. S. degree in zoology from the University of Indiana in Bloomington. Intending to begin a career in research, but not wanting to be isolated in the laboratory, Adams enrolled in medical school at Howard University. After receiving her M.D. degree in 1960, she focused her efforts on pediatric medicine, completing her residency at Cook County Children's Hospital. She then completed a fellowship in hematology at Cook Country Hospital from 1963 to 1964.

From 1964 to 1967, Adams served as a research associate in the Department of Hematology at the Hektoen Institute for Medical Research. She began teach as a clinical instructor at the Chicago Medical School in 1967. Adams served as an attending at Michael Reese Hospital in the pediatrics department in 1970 and then was appointed chief of the Pediatric Hematology Clinic at Mercy Hospital. Two years later, she joined the faculty of the University of Illinois in the Department of Pediatrics as a clinical assistant instructor. In 1976, she was promoted to clinical associate professor. Adams became the project director in 1980 of a United States Department of Health and Human Services funded grant for a Pediatric Primary Care Residency Program at Mercy Hopsital. From 1981 to 1987, Adams served as the Assistant Program Director of Mercy Hospital & Medical Center’s Department of Pediatrics. Her professional responsibilities over the years have also included acting bureau chief of the Chicago Department of Health, Bureau of Community and Comprehensive Personal Health; former president of the Chicago Pediatrics Society and coordinator of a medical student training program at Cook County Hospital.

Adams was recognized many times for her dedication to pediatric care. In 1997, the Illinois Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics named her Pediatrician of the Year. She received the 1999 Chicago Medical Society Public Service Award and the 2012 Timuel Black Community Service Award from the Jazz Institute of Chicago. Adams served on the board of the Ounce of Prevention Fund. Adams is the widow of Frank Adams and the mother of Chicago attorney Frank Adams, Jr.

Dr. Billie Wright Adams was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 17, 2002.

Accession Number

A2002.187

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/17/2002

Last Name

Adams

Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Wright

Schools

The Toya School

The Young Street School

Genoa Junior High School

Genoa High School

Fisk University

Indiana University

Howard University

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Billie

Birth City, State, Country

Bluefield

HM ID

ADA01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

West Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

West Virginia Mountains, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

5/15/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Watermelon, Fruit

Short Description

Medical professor and pediatrician Dr. Billie Wright Adams (1935 - ) was the program director in the Department of Pediatrics at Mercy Hospital. Adams also served as an associate clinical professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine while maintaining a private practice.

Employment

Cook County Children's Hospital

Mercy Hospital

Chicago Department of Health

Cook County Hospital

University of Illinois College of Medicine

Favorite Color

Black, Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1402,11:2130,23:2494,28:3313,38:3859,46:5042,64:5406,69:6589,89:8955,144:12504,177:21594,249:22926,272:25664,316:31436,404:35870,426:36230,431:38660,456:39470,466:40280,478:66190,820:66600,826:67338,838:68978,859:74110,888:79456,982:80023,989:80995,1003:82210,1023:85855,1112:86908,1126:87637,1140:87961,1145:88447,1152:88852,1158:97236,1239:98421,1258:98974,1266:101344,1307:102055,1320:111378,1464:115199,1511:115766,1519:117467,1544:119573,1597:119897,1609:120464,1617:124536,1656:125498,1673:127422,1704:131048,1775:131344,1780:134822,1828:135266,1835:135784,1844:136154,1850:138226,1879:143312,1896:145603,1929:148842,1989:150185,2009:154451,2080:165649,2194:180030,2374:180350,2379:186350,2473:186830,2480:196635,2611:197202,2621:199308,2651:201900,2699:202386,2707:202872,2714:204087,2733:214160,2847$0,0:8460,117:8900,123:15324,180:15676,185:27954,273:28198,282:28503,288:30028,313:30333,319:38990,349:76364,741:78044,766:80564,800:123781,1431:124558,1439:159691,1756:160355,1765:161102,1780:196356,2242:205559,2366:208552,2413:223990,2611:238770,2830
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Billie Wright Adams's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams describes her family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her sister

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her family's educational background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams describes her father's civic activities in Bluefield, West Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams describes her experience in grade school

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Genoa High School in Bluefield, West Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Fisk University and her decision to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about some of the writers and entertainers who visited her childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her childhood experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her missed opportunities at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about raising her son, Frank McClinton Adams, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience in pediatrics

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Cook County Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Billie Wright Adams talks about diversity at Cook County Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Billie Wright Adams talks about the New Cook County Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Billie Wright Adams describes the type of student she treasures

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Billie Wright Adams talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Billie Wright Adams talks about her regrets

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Billie Wright Adams lists her favorites, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Billie Wright Adams lists her favorites, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

6$8

DATitle
Dr. Billie Wright Adams describes her father's civic activities in Bluefield, West Virginia
Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Cook County Hospital
Transcript
So we knew that it was very important that we have training but even more so that we did community service. My dad [William Morris Wright] was very civic minded and was active there in the city and at the college. He likewise became interested in politics so he did not want an elective office but he did serve as chairman of the democratic branch for the Negroes as they called it, living in Southern West Virginia and was very supportive. And also at that time there was a very active Lincoln University [Chester County, Pennsylvania] alumni club. And as you can imagine in that small state because West Virginia is a small state, that there were few alumnists from Lincoln but the lovely thing about it is that we had Langston Hughes who came to our home. Langston Hughes had graduated from Lincoln and came and spent time at our home and read and we have a book that he signed. Somehow another, the other books were lost in moving but we just of course didn't value it as much. Also Thurgood Marshall had been a graduate of Lincoln, Pennsylvania who had come to Bluefield [West Virginia]. It was not that far away from D.C. and some people would come there sort of as a respite, just to get a little rest. But we did have the sponsorship of the Lincoln Alumni like Horace Mann Bond who was the president of Lincoln, the youngest one, [HM] Julian Bond's father who came to our home. And then when my father [William Morris Wright] died, came there to eulogize my dad on the part of his activity at Lincoln University. So they had people from the capital, Charleston [West Virginia], some of the smaller communities who all got together. And because it was a college town and Bluefield was named as the gateway to the billion dollar coal fields, we didn't have coal mines right in Bluefield but within a radius of twenty some odd miles were coal mines. But in our community we had coal operators, coal owners, the railroad was big. In fact Bluefield was the center for the Norfolk and Western Railroad and that the purpose of that mainly was to transport the coal from the coal fields to other parts going east. And so my dad knew all of those, knew a lot of the people in the community. And I was getting ready to say, with it being the billion dollar coal fields, we also had a lot of musicians who would come there. Some of the big bands we remember. Duke Ellington would bring his band because at the college the sororities and fraternities and the alumni groups would sponsor them in addition to the fact they would go to their one night stands and what we called the coal mines. So I just have good memories of having those people who were in and out of our home and then with my father being a physician, some of the band members who would become ill when they would travel that area, my dad would see them as patients.$With your career, so within the context of knowing the condition of these children and here, and you're working with these children every day, that's what I wanted to know how you deal with attaching and detaching?$$The attachment part is very easy because you always hope that the child will be the mechanism by which this will be a better world. That the child will recognize, respect, the child will then go on to explore their possibilities and again to help us, as I said to make this a better world. So it's easy to attach to children and children respond to you. They can certainly see love and respect. Now the detachment you ask about is a bit more difficult because you know that you have to let go because what is that saying that it is a student and children act as teachers to you. That it is the wise teacher who recognizes that their students can teach them. And I try to be a student of medicine. I can be very opinionated and at times my son [Frank McClinton Adams, Jr.] says judgmental. I hope not so much but absolutely, positively I know that I have some very strong beliefs. It takes a whole lot to get me detached from those beliefs. And I do remember when I first went to Cook County [now called John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County] as an intern and of course if you remember that at that time it was one of the largest hospitals in the world at, I think was it Belleview, but it was the largest hospital with like 3,000 beds. I really became attached to that hospital because I saw it as a place where one could give service and one could learn. I learned so much from my patients. I learned on so many levels and I had made a commitment that I wanted to remain a student of medicine. And yet, I felt having attended Howard Medical School [Howard University School of Medicine] which was a wonderful experience for me. But when I first went to County there were only two black interns my year. I was the only black female at that time and there was another gentleman there who was a graduate of one of the local schools who found it a little difficult to bond with other blacks. But there were some who were in their residency but they interned and trust me that was a lot of work, physical work and a lot of emotional work, but so rewarding. And I learned so much that it stayed with me the rest of my life. And when I rotated as an intern through pediatrics that was then I decided that I wanted to specialize in pediatrics. And I was so impressed with the quality of care, it wasn't perfect but the quality of care and all the good that could be done at that community. That time when I first came, many of the black physicians were not permitted to join the staff of a major hospital and it was then in Chicago [Illinois] that we were--they were instituting the lawsuit--