The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon

Search Results

Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Carol Wood Moore

Medical professor Carol Wood Moore was born on September 23, 1943 in Columbus, Ohio. She attended Ohio State University and earned her B.S. degree in comprehensive sciences with a minor in psychology in 1965. Moore went on to receive her M.S. degree in 1969 and her Ph.D. degree in 1970, both in genetics and biochemistry from Pennsylvania State University.

Moore was hired by the University of Rochester’s School of Medicine in Rochester, New York in 1970 to work as a research assistant studying human genetics. In 1971, she was moved to the College of Arts and Sciences, serving as an assistant professor in the biology department until 1981. At the same time, Moore was a postdoctoral research associate studying genetics and radiobiology at the School of Medicine from 1972 to 1974, as well as a research associate in the radiation biology and biophysics department from 1974 to 1981. She remained as an assistant professor in the biology department until 1986. From 1981 to 1983, she served as associate dean of minority affairs at the School of Medicine. Moore also attended the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania during the summer of 1984 and received a certificate in business administration. In 1986, she was hired by the City University of New York Medical School, B.S.-M.D. Program in Biomedical Sciences, and graduate programs in biology and biochemistry as an associate medical professor, before receiving tenure as a medical professor in 1996.

Moore was a member of the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Society for Microbiology, the Genetics Society of America, Phi Epsilon Phi, Gamma Sigma Delta, Sigma Delta Epsilon, and Sigma Xi. She also received many awards for her work, including the Health and Welfare Award, presented by The Mosaic Council, Inc. in 1990, and the 1991 Black Health Research Foundation Award. In 1998, she was recognized in the Top Women in the Sciences and Technology by the National Technical Association; and, in 2003, she received the Outstanding Woman Scientist Award from the New York chapter of the Association of Women in Science. Moore also received the American Association for Cancer Research’s Service Award in 1993, 2004, and 2009.

Major sources of funding for her research included The National Institutes of Health, The National Science Foundation, The American Cancer Society, and The Aaron Diamond Foundation (New York City).

Moore resides in New York.

Carol Wood Moore was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 18, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.094

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/18/2019

Last Name

Moore

Maker Category
Middle Name

Wood

Occupation
Schools

The Ohio State University

Pennsylvania State University

Mt. Vernon Elementary School

Felton Elementary School

Mifflin Middle School

Champion Middle School

First Name

Carol

Birth City, State, Country

Columbus

HM ID

MOO19

Favorite Season

September

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

Don't look back, you're going forward.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/23/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Medical professor Carol Wood Moore (1943- ) was a professor of biology, genetics, radiobiology, radiation biology, and biophysics at the University of Rochester from 1970 to 1986, and at the City University of New York since 1986.

Employment

National Defense Education Act

NSF

NATO

University of Rochester School of Medicine

Harvard University School of Public Health

University of Rochester College of Arts and Sciences

Princeton University

City University of New York School of Biomedical Education

Favorite Color

Turquoise

Clifford Houston

Microbiologist Clifford Wayne Houston was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on December 3, 1949. Houston attended Oklahoma State University where he earned his B.S. degree in microbiology and chemistry in 1972, and his M.S. degree in biology in 1974. He went on to receive his Ph.D. degree in microbiology and immunology from the University of Oklahoma in 1979. Upon completion, Houston was awarded a James W. McLaughlin postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB).

Houston began at UTMB in 1981 as an assistant professor. He was then promoted to associate professor with tenure in 1987, and became Full Professor and Associate Vice President for Educational Outreach in 1991. As a researcher at UTMB, Houston focused on the role that bacterial toxins play in the pathogenesis of disease. His findings have been published in academic journals such as the Journal of Bacteriology, the Journal of Clinical Microbiology and the Journal of Infectious Diseases. As an administrator, Houston participated in the management development program at the Graduate School of Education at Harvard University in 1994. In 1997, Houston was named the Herman Barnett Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Immunology. He also served as deputy associate administrator for education in the Office of Education at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. from 2003 to 2005. At NASA, he provided day-to-day oversight and guidance for three primary divisions: elementary and secondary education, higher education and informal education.

Houston has been active in many professional organizations, including serving as chair of the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students Steering & Planning Committee, and chair of the American Society for Microbiology Education Board. He also sat on the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences External Advisory Council. In 2011, Houston was appointed by the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services to the National Advisory Board for Bio-security.

Throughout his career, Houston has received numerous honors and awards. He received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring in 2000. Houston was elected to the American Academy of Microbiology in 1997; and, in 2006, he became the first African American elected as president of the American Society for Microbiology – the world’s largest professional biological research organization. Houston also continued to devote the time to mentoring and youth outreach. He established many educational programs and activities in the Galveston, Texas community as well as across the country to enhance the interest of young students in mathematics and science.

Clifford W. Houston was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 31, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.030

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/31/2013

Last Name

Houston

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Occupation
Schools

Oklahoma State University

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Clifford

Birth City, State, Country

Oklahoma City

HM ID

HOU02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/3/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Galveston

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Steak, Potatoes (Baked)

Short Description

Microbiologist Clifford Houston (1949 - ) , the first African American elected as president of the American Society for Microbiology, is the Herman Barnett Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at University of Texas Medical Branch.

Employment

Oklahoma State University

Langston University

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

University of Texas Medical Branch

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Favorite Color

Browns, Earth Tones, Grays

Timing Pairs
0,0:2924,27:3582,35:4146,42:4522,47:7436,67:8094,75:8752,83:9974,109:10726,120:14486,170:15050,177:56644,682:62236,698:66232,826:68230,861:69784,895:70154,900:71338,920:71856,928:72374,937:72892,945:74298,964:75926,992:81368,1022:81664,1027:86622,1112:87806,1129:88102,1134:89138,1155:89434,1160:95263,1204:102390,1289:104653,1332:104945,1342:105894,1359:106989,1386:107427,1393:110639,1438:113530,1449$0,0:728,4:3920,55:5972,81:6580,91:7644,108:9316,184:10000,194:25640,396:26280,405:27000,416:27560,424:28200,433:30520,464:31320,481:31800,488:32520,499:33240,511:37661,522:39715,540:40505,551:41769,556:43191,580:43507,587:44929,628:45482,633:46509,649:47062,657:48405,686:48958,697:49353,703:51565,744:58206,791:59146,803:62329,829:64606,855:65497,865:66388,876:66982,883:68665,906:72615,928:74915,952:76525,975:84490,1041:85458,1062:86338,1075:95490,1147:96293,1159:96658,1165:97023,1171:99359,1215:99724,1221:103520,1298:105856,1340:111460,1370:117834,1523:120426,1560:140220,1749:140580,1754:142560,1795:160820,2024:162978,2056:165053,2086:165883,2099:167958,2126:173676,2157:174356,2170:177008,2217:177620,2227:177960,2233:182544,2284:186740,2322:187250,2330:187590,2335:188100,2343:189035,2354:189375,2359:193200,2413:193540,2418:195070,2444:195665,2453:196005,2458:196515,2465:202084,2473:204220,2501:205021,2511:205377,2516:209115,2551:209471,2556:213302,2581:214382,2591:214958,2603:216542,2628:219494,2708:220070,2726:222374,2765:222662,2770:226558,2780:228556,2806:231442,2856:241964,2992:242612,3002:251624,3113:252443,3123:252807,3128:254536,3148:255173,3158:257840,3168:258152,3173:261116,3231:261506,3237:261974,3245:262676,3252:263534,3265:265952,3301:266654,3312:267044,3318:270480,3332:270680,3337:271080,3347:271380,3354:271730,3362:274088,3388:274496,3395:274768,3400:276020,3412
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Clifford Houston's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Clifford Houston lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Clifford Houston describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Clifford Houston talks about his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Clifford Houston describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Clifford Houston talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Clifford Houston talks about his parents' jobs

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Clifford Houston describes his parents and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Clifford Houston talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Clifford Houston describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Clifford Houston describes his childhood homes

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Clifford Houston talks about the Gordon Oaks sub-division of Oklahoma City

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Clifford Houston describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Clifford Houston talks about his growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Clifford Houston describes his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Clifford Houston talks about his elementary and middle schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Clifford Houston talks about his high school and the demographics of Oklahoma City

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Clifford Houston talks about his childhood research lab

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Clifford Houston talks about his interest in medicine while

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Clifford Houston talks about meeting his first role model

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Clifford Houston talks about his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Clifford Houston talks about his science experiment on the behavioral effects of removing adrenal glands from rats

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Clifford Houston talks about his adrenal gland experiment

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Clifford Houston talks about his involvement in the church and his interest in music growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Clifford Houston talks about his high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Clifford Houston talks about scientific breakthroughs and his interest in science fiction during his formative years

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Clifford Houston talks about his childhood jobs and career aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Clifford Houston talks about his extracurricular activities at Northeast High School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Clifford Houston talks about his high school science projects

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Clifford Houston talks about his decision to go to college

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Clifford Houston talks about Oklahoma State University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Clifford Houston talks about his experience teaching at Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Clifford Houston talks about his master's thesis on the isolation of plant enzymes

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Clifford Houston describes his doctoral research on the pathogenicity of bacteria

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Clifford Houston talks about flesh-eating bacteria

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Clifford Houston talks about his post-doctoral mentor and his post-doctoral student

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Clifford Houston talks about Herman Barnett

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Clifford Houston reflects on his experiences with racism in Oklahoma

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Clifford Houston reflects on his experiences with racism

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Clifford Houston talks about his work with NASA

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Clifford Houston talks about the microbiological risks of long-term space travel and NASA's spin-off technologies

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Clifford Houston talks about deficiencies with U.S. primary and secondary education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Clifford Houston talks about his experience as president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Clifford Houston talks about his transition from research into administration

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Clifford Houston talks about his work at the University of Texas Medical Branch

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Clifford Houston talks about his student, Monique Ferguson

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Clifford Houston talks about microbiology

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Clifford Houston talks about the lack of conflict between creationism and evolution

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Clifford Houston talks about his future plans and interests in the field of microbiology

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Clifford Houston talks about receiving the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Clifford Houston reflects upon his life choices

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Clifford Houston talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Clifford Houston reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Clifford Houston talks about his son

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Clifford Houston talks about the T-STEM Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Clifford Houston talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Clifford Houston describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

11$2

DATitle
Clifford Houston talks about his science experiment on the behavioral effects of removing adrenal glands from rats
Clifford Houston talks about his work with NASA
Transcript
Okay. So, now, at John F. Kennedy Junior High School, was there a special teacher there that you remember?$$That's, so that would be, wait a minute, seventh through the eighth grade. I think so, yeah, but I'm blanking on her name. I probably had a crush on her, too (laughter). But she helped me with science. And she helped me with my first science project. I can't call her name right now. But all the guys just thought she was the most beautiful woman they'd ever seen (laughter). Of course, we were just in the seventh grade. But I remember she spent time with me working on a science project, and it was a very sophisticated project. So, you're asking me--so, but at that time I was still doing stuff down in my parents' [Mae Frances Hanley and Edgar Houston] basement at this other house. And that's where I really had the rats and stuff like that. And so, she helped me with this project where I was working with the adrenal glands in rats, to determine, you know, if you remove the adrenal glands, if that will have an impact on them in terms of their behavior. Because the adrenal glands, that's the gland that produces the hormone that tells you when to either run or fight. You know, it makes you stronger than you normally would be. So, when you're challenged, that gland kicks in and produces a hormone that will allow you to run faster and allow you to do things that you normally wouldn't do under peaceful conditions.$You spent a time as Deputy Assistant Administrator for Education Programs in the Office of Education at the National Aeronautical and Space Administration [NASA].$$I was definitely an associate administrator.$$Okay, associate administrator.$$Then that's like two levels below the administrator, which is the highest position at the headquarters. There, I was in charge of all of the educational programs across the country that are implemented at the seven space centers that are spread across the country, as well as in charge of museums associated with space. For example, we have a space center in Houston [Texas] which is just adjacent to the Johnson Space Center. And there are several of these types of museums. We call them informal education venues. And it's a way in which you educate the public. And so, I was in charge of that as well as secondary education, higher education and informal education. And I was also over the Office of Technology and product production at NASA headquarters.$$Okay. So, you did that for two years, right?$$I did that for two years. It was a good experience, from 2003 to basically 2005. And the interesting thing about that was, I was in the middle of packing to leave Texas to move up to Washington, D.C. [District of Columbia]. And on the day that I was packing--the movers were at my house to move me to D.C., and that was the day that the shuttle crashed [Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster, February 1, 2003]. And I can remember, my son and I were sitting on the bed looking at what was going on, and it just exploded. So, my son paused, and he says, "Well, are you still going?" And I said "Yes, I'm going to still go." And so, I went there and the morale was pretty low at headquarters. Sean O'Keefe was the administrator of NASA at that time. And we were in a mode. Immediately, we were in a mode of returning the flight. In other words, getting to the point where we could start flying the shuttle again. As you know, it's currently, it's now retired as a spacecraft. But I got involved with not only doing my job in terms of the Education Office, but also advising NASA in terms of what could be the impact from a microbiological point of view of long-term space travel. As you might imagine, the majority of the workforce at NASA are engineers. And many of them have no idea about what happens if you have long-term human space flight, and what impact that might have in terms of your immune system, which long-term exposure to radiation will cause a immunocompromised state in your body where you lose your function, your immune functions to protect you against infections.$$So, if you don't use them, if they're not being used, they start--$$No. The radiation is killing the antibodies in your body. It causes mutations in genes that would then harm your function of your immune system. Your immune system is what protects you from getting sick, getting infected. So, that's one thing. But at the same time, the long-term exposure to radiation has your immune system, in terms of suppressing your immunity; the long-term exposure to radiation will cause mutations and germs, or bacteria, that will cause them to become more virulent. In other words, cause them to become stronger and tougher organisms, and enhances its ability to cause disease. So, with those two things working together, then that makes people more susceptible.

Agnes Day

Microbiologist Agnes A. Day was born on July 20, 1952 in Plains, Georgia to Annie Lee Laster and David Laster. The youngest of thirteen children, Day was raised by her third-grade teacher, Reverend Mrs. Rose Marie Bryon. Day’s interest in science began when she and her older brother would walk through the woods catching insects and animals. After graduating from Mainland Sr. High School, Day attended Bethune-Cookman College in Florida where she received her B.S. degree in biology. Day then attended Howard University, graduating with her Ph.D. degree in microbiology in 1984.

After obtaining her graduate degree, Day became a research fellow in the Bone Research Branch at the National Institute of Dental Research, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). She left in 1988 to join the faculty at Howard University as an assistant professor. Since 1992, Day has served as a tenured associate professor of microbiology in the College of Medicine at Howard University. She also has held the position of chair of the department of microbiology. In addition to instructing students in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, and coordinating graduate courses, Day is known for her research on drug-resistant fungi and breast cancer health disparities. She serves as a Scientific Reviewer for research grants submitted to the National Institutes of Health, The National Science Foundation and the Department of Defense Cancer Research Initiatives. Day is in demand as a science expert, having been interviewed as part of a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) special and TheGrio’s Black History series. In addition, she has served on numerous panels as a scientific expert in microbiology and breast cancer research.

In 1995, Day was awarded the Outstanding Research Award by the Howard University College of Medicine. She has also received the College’s Kaiser-Permanente Outstanding Teaching Award, and has mentored over forty students. Day is a member of the American Association for Cancer Research and sits on its Minorities in Cancer Research and Women in Cancer Research committees. She is also a member of the American Society for Microbiology where she is a member of the Committee on Microbiological Issues which Impact Minorities (CMIIM). Day received the William A. Hinton Award for outstanding research mentoring from this organization in 2011. She also served as a consultant for the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Black Churches-Black Colleges program. Day lives in Washington, D.C.

Agnes Day was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 4, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.085

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

5/4/2012

Last Name

Day

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

A

Occupation
Schools

Bethune-Cookman University

Mainland Sr. High School.

Campbell Middle School

Bonner Elementary School

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Agnes

Birth City, State, Country

Americus

HM ID

DAY02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to know the difference.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/20/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Mangoes

Short Description

Mycologist Agnes Day (1952 - ) is an expert on drug- resistant fungi and breast cancer health disparities working in Howard University’s College of Medicine.

Employment

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Howard University

Woodward & Lothrop Department Store

Children's Center

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:3028,23:3982,34:4406,39:5678,53:6102,58:6526,63:7480,75:8434,86:9388,97:15572,141:24790,297:32662,462:32990,467:35286,503:44486,609:45238,618:48904,672:57702,770:60292,806:60662,812:61254,822:64464,838:74635,953:75325,961:90860,1068:91343,1076:92171,1091:108849,1272:113412,1320:113868,1327:114172,1332:116528,1374:118048,1406:119264,1422:123368,1499:123748,1505:128950,1543:131984,1595:136002,1677:137560,1708:139938,1742:144820,1759:155260,1865:156860,1900:157180,1905:160960,1931:167037,2036:181470,2207$0,0:6779,99:7314,105:18852,206:21060,242:24504,264:26454,308:31992,406:42618,557:43833,575:48612,645:48936,650:49584,658:50232,667:62865,787:67143,914:71339,956:71837,963:82614,1104:93126,1241:95790,1296:97014,1316:97590,1327:105222,1487:106446,1506:106950,1514:114344,1554:115352,1568:115912,1574:121034,1596:127109,1720:127838,1731:128486,1753:130025,1789:131159,1816:131726,1835:163006,2285:163376,2293:163820,2303:170480,2455:180248,2590:180618,2596:182468,2642:192380,2734:193355,2754:194330,2780:195045,2794:196345,2823:202760,2867:204048,2888:204784,2917:205244,2923:207912,2965:208740,2976:210672,3005:211316,3014:212328,3030:212696,3035:213248,3047:213984,3056:229006,3200:229582,3209:236710,3282:238950,3329:240550,3360:240870,3365:244470,3438:246950,3487:247270,3492:247590,3497:248630,3519:249270,3528:250310,3560:253670,3634:256470,3686:256870,3692:262920,3720:271960,3879:285688,4079:286068,4085:292376,4200:294808,4251:295112,4256:298780,4267:299032,4272:299536,4282:299914,4290:310494,4395:312978,4447:322968,4579:326076,4646:328222,4680:328666,4703:331774,4759:336589,4825:339670,4856:344410,4967:346306,5026:347254,5037:350493,5089:368926,5302:371460,5356:380234,5492:391817,5678:392953,5700:393308,5709:393663,5715:394870,5734:395509,5750:398846,5836:399130,5841:399414,5846:400053,5856:408082,5952:408970,5969:409636,5981:410672,5998:410968,6003:413884,6028:414388,6038:422480,6177:423120,6186:426000,6231:426320,6236:427200,6249:433069,6297:438630,6384:439460,6410:439958,6418:441120,6436:441618,6444:445270,6505:454140,6562:456660,6596:463230,6691:473570,6793
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Agnes Day's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Agnes Day lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Agnes Day describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Agnes Day talks about her family's sharecropping roots in Plains, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Agnes Day describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Agnes Adeline Day explains how her father left the family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Agnes Day talks about her mother's childhood connection with President Jimmy Carter

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Agnes Day recalls a sharecropping story from her brother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Agnes Day talks about relocating to Florida as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Agnes Day lists her siblings and describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Agnes Day describes her early childhood memories of her father

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Agnes Day talks about taking after her mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Agnes Day describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Agnes Day discusses the use of corporal punishment in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Agnes Day recalls her most memorable sight as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Agnes Day talks about kindergarten and first grade in Daytona Beach, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Agnes Day talks about the history of and segregation in Daytona Beach, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Agnes Day remembers meeting her third-grade teacher, Rose Marie Bryan

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Agnes Day talks about her love for reading, instilled by her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Agnes Day talks about being informally adopted by her teacher, Rose Marie Bryan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Agnes Day talks about Rose Marie Bryan and her foster children

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Agnes Day talks about living with Rosie Marie Bryan

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Agnes Day reflects upon being torn between her mother and Rose Marie Bryan

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Agnes Day talks about the Children's Center and vacation bible school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Agnes Day talks about her reputation in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Agnes Day describes the feud between the Laster family and the Persell family

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Agnes Day talks about extracurricular activities and social life in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Agnes Day talks about her memories of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Agnes Day talks about moving from a segregated to an integrated high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Agnes Day describes her decision to attend Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Agnes Day describes her health problems at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Agnes Day talks about transferring to Bethune-Cookman University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Agnes Day talks about meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Agnes Day talks about her graduate program in bacteriology at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Agnes Day talks about obtaining her Ph.D. degree in microbiology at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Agnes Day discusses the differences between scientists and physicians

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Agnes Day describes her doctoral dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Agnes Day talks about how she was encouraged to build confidence during graduate school

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Agnes Day describes the findings of her research on Cryptococcus

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Agnes Day talks about future research on Cryptococcus

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Agnes Day describes her experience at the National Institute for Dental Research

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Agnes Day talks about joining the faculty of Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Agnes Day discusses the implications of the excessive use of antibacterial agents

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Agnes Day describes returning to Howard University as a faculty member

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Agnes Day describes her research on breast cancer

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Agnes Day discusses her study of heritable and acquired skin diseases

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Agnes Day talks about the skin disease Xeroderma Pigmentosa

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Agnes Day talks about breast cancer in black women

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Agnes Day discusses environmental and genetic risk factors for skin cancer and protective measures against the disease

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Agnes Day talks about her coverage of the war against microbes on PBS

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Agnes Day talks about microorganisms in the body

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Agnes Day talks about her scientific publications

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Agnes Day talks about her daughter's diagnosis with breast cancer

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Agnes Day reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Agnes Day describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Agnes Day talks about her family and her brother Larry

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Agnes Day talks about how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Agnes Day describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up
Agnes Day describes her experience at the National Institute for Dental Research
Transcript
All right, so, now, we always ask this question, and what were some of the sights and sounds and smells of growing up?$$Funny you should ask that (laughter). I was just thinking about this the other day, had no idea it was coming. My mother [Annie Lee Harvey] would, 5:00 o'clock every morning, take the broom and just bam on all the doors in the apartment that we lived in, "Rise and shine, make haste while the sun rises". "Get up, get up, get up, clean up this house, go to school", and then 6:00 o'clock, she was on the bus going to her maid's jobs. And in the summertime when school was out, I would actually walk her to the bus stop and just hold onto her dress until she got on the bus. And when the bus took off, I would run alongside and wave to her. And then when the bus was gone, I could still smell the exhaust, and so even now when I've smelled bus exhaust, it triggers that memory of me running beside the bus waving at my mom. So that is definitely a smell that reminds me of childhood. A sound, (chuckle), I haven't heard this in a while, but leather belts smacking against flesh. I was not a bad child. I was an inquisitive child. And that inquisitiveness usually led to, I wonder what would happen if I did this versus that. And my brother, Larry, who when I was born I was told, told the family that this is my sister, and he made himself my personal guard. He and I would always dream up these experiments to do. Or we'd go into the woods and catch snakes, little black snakes or garden snakes or we'd catch grasshoppers and things, and we'd dissect them, for want of a better term, or we would put them on ant hills and let the ants eat the flesh. And then we'd take the skeletons in for show and tell at school. But the sound of just getting spanked for doing something that we should have known was not the thing to do. And back in the day, the neighbors had full permission to spank you. Well, let's call a spade a spade. They could whup us, as we used to say. So one day I remember getting four whippings. And I was inside my house, so thank God the neighbors didn't know about it. But in retrospect, I probably deserved it. But that another story (laughter).$Okay, so you got your PhD, now one of the, I guess, you had, you got a job--I don't know if it was right away, but with the National Institute of Health, right?$$Yes.$$And the National Institute for Dental Research.$$Yes.$$Now, what were you doing there?$$Okay, I worked at the National Institute for Dental Research for two summers prior to my graduation to keep body and soul together and to make enough money so that we can live on the five hundred dollars a month we were getting from our teaching stipends. And my advisor, Dr. Lena Austin, had done a sabbatical at the National Institute for Dental Research. And at the time, she was the only African American professional in the entire building. And that's a whole institute. So once she got in, made a good impression, worked hard, she said, "Well, you know, I have this graduate student. She's looking for a summer job." And the guy said, "Well, you know, if you've trained her, sure." So I worked there for two summers in two different labs. And so when I graduated, I didn't know if I was, indeed, gonna finish up everything in time to graduate in '84 [1984]. So to hedge my bets, I had applied for another summer job out there. And so when I graduated, thank God, I was basically brain dead. I was, I was just wiped out. I needed a break from thinking. Right now, I just want you to give me a protocol and let me go through the motions. I don't want to have to come up with a hypothesis and create a protocol to test it. So I was working with a woman named Marion Young who had just become a staff scientist in the Bone Research branch of the Dental Institute. And so she says, "Okay, so you've worked here before." And she gave me a list of things she wanted me to do and a list of papers she wanted me to get from the library. But she says, "You know my first anniversary is coming up, and my husband is taking me to Rome [Italy] where we spent our honeymoon. So I'll be gone for two weeks." So for the first two weeks of my PhD career, I had nothing to do other than, you know, go to the library and pull these journal articles. But this person turned out, she's like a sister to me now. In fact, I was older than she was when we started out, and I was hired as a microbiologist for the summer. So after a couple of weeks, she gave me a project. She said, you know, "We're trying to isolate the gene for these bone proteins to try to determine if there's a biomarker that we could use to determine if a person is going to develop bone disease like osteoarthritis or osteoporosis. But we have to clone these genes, and we're trying to set up a molecular biology lab. And since you're here, you know, I want you to be a part of it. So I'm gonna give you, you know, this project, and you can work it along with me." So I said, "Sure, great, fine. No problem." So it turns out that at the end, the last, the very, the last two steps that I had to do in this three-month-long project of working on it every day, the last two days, I noticed that people were dropping into the lab off and on all day. I didn't think anything of it. The last day, I'm getting ready to add the final reagent, I look up. There's standing room only in the lab. So I said, "What's going on?" And so everybody's looking, waiting for these little blue dots to show up to indicate that I had been successful in this project. Ten blue dots showed up. Everybody started cheering, and I'm saying, okay, I'm beginning to take this personally 'cause I'm thinking that they're thinking, oh, this little black girl. She can't do nothing. It's not gonna work, you know, because that was my weakness, thinking I'm the only black professional. We have some black janitors, we have two black secretaries, but I'm the only one with a PhD, so the weight of the race is on my shoulders. I gotta do well, so when people started cheering, I said, you know what? Somebody's gonna give me an explanation. So my boss came out, and she said, "Well, you know, Marion, Pam next door grew the osteoblast cells in culture, and Larry isolated the proteins that we're studying and purified them and made antibodies to them. And she said, you're the second person, you're the third person we've given this project to that could not make it work. She said, you made it work. You isolated ten clones of this proteoglycan protein that we want to study as a possible biomarker." And so I said, "So this is a good thing, right?" And she said, (laughter), "Yes, a very good thing, Agnes." So I was supposed to leave at the end of September because it was only supposed to be a summer job. So the boss man, Dr. John Turmine (ph.), always calls me "kid," calls me into his office and he says, "So what are your plans for, you know, when this job ends?" And I said, "Well, you know, I've been brain dead all summer, so I guess I'll start looking for a real job." He said, "What do you wanna do?" And I said, "Well, I don't know. You know, I'm a microbiologist, and here I am working in basically histology anatomy, and biochemistry." He says, "Well, would you consider staying here?" I said, "Of course, if you would consider keeping me," said, "What'll I have to do?" He says, "Well, I have a post-doc" -- not a post-doc -- "I have a staff fellow position open and available. So I'm gonna put you in that slot." I said, "Well, don't you have to do a post-doc first?" He says, "I don't have a post-doc position. I have a staff fellow position. You want it or not, kid?" I said, "Yeah, okay (laughter)." And he says, "Don't say you slept all summer because you didn't. You got this project to work." And so based on that, we cloned about seven or eight different proteins that we thought were only associated with bone. It turns out most of them are all over the body, but they have different functions, depending on where they're found. So that was my start to being, to doing molecular biology. It had nothing and everything to do with microbiology because you could not have molecular biology without having microbiology. Most of the enzymes that are used to cut DNA [deoxyribonucleic acid] and past it onto somebody else's DNA, all of those enzymes are derived from bacteria and viruses. So that's the undergird, and so I was definitely a positive addition to the lab because I was able to give the theory behind what was going on in that little, tiny test tube as well as making experiments work. So, I felt really great, and I was able to get a couple more of my fellow melon and blessed colleagues on out there in summer positions, some kids that I had mentored when I was a graduate student. And I got them summer jobs out there. So it was, it was generations basically, starting with my advisor, Dr. Austin.$$Okay.