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Regina Jollivette Frazier

Pharmacist Regina Jollivette Frazier was born on September 30, 1943, in Miami, Florida to pharmacist Cyrus Martin Jollivette, who founded Liberty City’s Community Drug Store in 1948, and teacher Frances Reeves Jollivette Chambers, the youngest daughter of The Miami Times founder Henry E. S. Reeves. Frazier graduated valedictorian from Northwestern Senior High School in 1961, Frazier received her B.S. degree in pharmacy from Howard University in Washington, D.C., in 1966, and her M.B.A. degree from the University of Miami in 1983.

In 1968, Frazier accepted a pharmacist position at Peoples Drug and the National Association of Retired Teachers & American Association of Retired Persons Drug Service. In 1970, she returned to Miami as senior pharmacist for the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics. Three years later, Frazier was promoted to Director of Pharmacy, a position she held until she retired in 2007. As Director of Pharmacy, Frazier also served as a Preceptor for the University of Florida’s College of Pharmacy as well as a Clinical Field Instructor for Florida A&M University’s College of Pharmacy.

Frazier served on numerous boards, including the United Way of Miami-Dade, New World School of the Arts, National Coalition on Black Voter Participation, the Commonwealth Institute, YWCA of Greater Miami-Dade, of which she is a life member, Miami-Dade County Addiction Services, University of Miami Medical Sciences Subcommittee for the Protection of Human Subjects, and Breakthrough Miami. She was also chairperson of the Girl Scout Council of Tropical Florida, which awarded her the Thanks Badge, and the Miami-Dade County Zoning Appeals Board.

She joined The Links, Incorporated, in 1970, and served as National President from 1986 until 1990, and is the youngest person to hold the position. While National President, she chartered the organization’s first international chapter in Nassau, Bahamas. Frazier also holds membership in Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., the Orange Bowl Committee, and the International Woman’s Forum.

Frazier was also active with the Association of Black Health-Systems Pharmacists, from which she received the Pharmacist of the Year award in 1990, the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists, and the National Pharmaceutical Association.

Frazier received numerous recognitions, including Florida Memorial College’s Sarah A. Blocker Meritorious Community Service Award; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., Beta Beta Lambda Chapter’s Distinguished Community Service Award; Women’s Committee of 100 Trail Blazer Award; Women in Communication’s Community Headliner Award; Bronze Medallion of The National Conference of Christians and Jews; Anti-Defamation League’s Woman of Achievement Award; In the Company of Women Award; United Way Starfish Award; Association of Black Health-System Pharmacists’ Meritorious Service Award; and Red Cross’s Sara Hopkins Woodruff Spectrum Award in Community Service.

She was also cited as one of Ebony magazine’s One Hundred Most Influential Black Americans from 1987 to 1990, and in 1988, as one of Dollars and Sense magazine’s selection of America’s Top 100 Black Business and Professional Women.

Frazier and her husband have three children: Ronald Eugene II, Robert Christophe, and Rozalynn Suzanne.

Regina Jollivette Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.049

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/08/2017

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Middle Name

Jollivette

Occupation
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar Elementary School

Holy Redeemer Catholic School

Miami Northwestern Senior High School

University of Miami

Howard University

First Name

Regina

Birth City, State, Country

Miami

HM ID

FRA13

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere International

Favorite Quote

Service Is The Price You Pay For The Space You Occupy.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

9/30/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Pharmacist Regina Jollivette Frazier (1943 - ) worked at the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics in the pharmacy department for thirty-seven years.

Employment

University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics

Peoples Drug

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:12200,215:15240,273:17800,318:18600,330:20120,353:20440,358:36660,476:46842,612:50245,647:53067,691:74350,891:76534,1159:113320,1456:113790,1463:116672,1477:117274,1485:121328,1524:130621,1614:131929,1628:133564,1645:142206,1720:143421,1737:145358,1751:151343,1816:152729,1841:153125,1846:155105,1873:156590,1890:157382,1899:160910,1912:163160,1941:163610,1947:171388,2008:173490,2018:174489,2028:175488,2042:176598,2055:178041,2070:185405,2117:186500,2133:198424,2227:199313,2236:203162,2254:204658,2269:205098,2278:210671,2323:215036,2409:222380,2458:223190,2478:227690,2557:233074,2580:248760,2770:249849,2781:260000,2813:270970,2902:276778,2958:277808,2970:278529,2978:287906,3073:288282,3078:289316,3091:292888,3147:293546,3155:298716,3203:304948,3289:305276,3294:306014,3304:309130,3376:315201,3387:317811,3415:318159,3420:324350,3466:327340,3505$0,0:609,8:1044,14:5046,125:7308,153:10701,205:11571,216:24040,304:24450,310:32345,382:33107,389:40660,436:50050,494:51990,503:52620,514:52900,519:53670,532:58630,561:59170,568:59800,576:60340,583:61150,595:61780,602:62770,616:63490,626:65200,652:65560,657:66280,667:67900,693:72450,716:80846,769:85948,804:93778,853:94594,862:97015,875:97695,885:100450,903:102452,932:104636,964:105637,981:107275,1000:110096,1054:111097,1067:111552,1073:116540,1100:117310,1108:119620,1132:120060,1137:124928,1162:126164,1175:126576,1180:127091,1186:128739,1201:129563,1210:146759,1369:148176,1384:150029,1408:158680,1461:159535,1472:159915,1477:164449,1496:164933,1501:166143,1514:169652,1562:170257,1568:170862,1574:174250,1622:179482,1659:180186,1673:180626,1679:181066,1685:181418,1690:184058,1726:213790,2032:214690,2042:221960,2085:229158,2185:232914,2243:234812,2285:235104,2290:243560,2422
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Regina Jollivette Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the National Conference of Christians and Jews

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her communities in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her parents' protectiveness

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the Holy Redeemer Catholic School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers Miami Northwestern Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers travelling through the segregated South

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier recalls her teachers at Miami Northwestern Senior High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier recalls her interest in journalism

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her maternal grandfather, Henry E.S. Reeves

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her family's famous guests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her decision to attend Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the activism on campus at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers the riots in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her classmates at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her pharmacy internships

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers her professors at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her graduation from Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier remembers joining the staff of the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her role as the pharmacy director of the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about drug theft prevention

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes the problems with pharmaceutical branding

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the development of robotic prescriptions dispensary systems

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her responsibilities and colleagues

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her membership in The Links

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her national presidency of The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes 'Linkages and Legacies'

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her volunteer work

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her efforts to improve relations between police and the community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about the gentrification of Miami, Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her current volunteer activities

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon her career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon the challenges of a pharmacy career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Regina Jollivette Frazier reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her children

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Regina Jollivette Frazier describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Regina Jollivette Frazier narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Regina Jollivette Frazier describes her role as the pharmacy director of the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics
Regina Jollivette Frazier talks about her national presidency of The Links, Incorporated
Transcript
Okay, now what was your position when you came on in 1970?$$I was a staff pharmacist, I think. I'm saying I think because the university [University of Miami Hospital and Clinics, Miami, Florida] was terrific with titles you know. I think I went from staff pharmacist to senior pharmacist, from senior pharmacist to director of pharmacy and I guess I just wasn't creative enough over the years because at one time I opined to someone, I said, "Maybe if I change my title to grand exulted director of pharmacy, I could get more money."$$So you became--I have here that you became the director in '73 [1973], is that true?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$Right. I mean it was a big deal you know. The Miami Herald covered it. I was in my twenties and so.$$Okay. Okay. Well what were--what was the nature of what you had to do and, and--$$As director?$$Yeah, and the conditions that you worked in.$$Well, what I had to do was make sure the pharmacy [at National Children's Cardiac Hospital; UM Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida] ran smoothly and that it met all of the legal requirements and that the drugs were there when they needed them. So it was, make it work.$$Okay so, so many people who are gonna be watching this have never been a pharmacist, can you just walk us through a typical day as a director of a big pharmacy like this for a hospital (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well you know the thing is that every day is different. It was, when I started I was filling prescriptions when I--or drug orders. When I ended I hadn't been near filling an order in, in years so when I started the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations [Joint Commission] was just a joint commission on accreditation of hospitals and they had one sheet of paper, I think eight and a half by eleven, that wasn't even covered with writing and those were the requirements for hospital pharmacies. When I left there was a book about this thick okay, on the requirements so that's why there was something different every day. I also had the opportunity to serve on the IRB, which is the board, it's the investigational review board [institutional review board] that reviews proposed protocols for the institution that are testing drugs for possible entry into the market. There were just all kinds of things that you did. You know there was designing the pharmacy, there was hiring the staff, monitoring the staff, just whatever, whatever it took.$$So this is a hospital pharmacy--$$Yes.$$--and so the people--$$It had a hospital and it had clinics and it was, it concentrated on cancer therapy after, after a few years.$$Okay. And so how do you best design that, you said part of your job is designing the facility right?$$Well, one of the ways you do that is by attending the mid-year clinical which is held every December. When I went to my first mid-year clinical, I think it was maybe the seventh one they had. There were about maybe twenty five hundred people there. Now, this year was the fifty-first. I stopped going after, after I retired and they probably had twenty, twenty-five thousand people there. So it's the largest meeting in the world and so you get to hear all these speakers. You get to see all these exhibits you know and you get to one of the most important thing for me was the review of the joint commission new requirements so that I was right there knowing exactly what they were going to, to be reviewing when they came by and I never had a problem ever.$Tell us about what are the activities of The Links [The Links, Incorporated] and, and, you know what, what, what did you do, what was your agenda during your term?$$My agenda was to make the, the chain of friendship that encircled the globe not only figurative but literal, and to that end I charted the first international chapter in Nassau, the Bahamas. Subsequently I charted a second international chapter in Frankfurt [Germany]. That did not survive because it was related to the [U.S.] military people who were stationed in Germany and when that ended, people started coming back to the United States and we could not sustain the chap- not we, they could not sustain the chapter there because it was, it was operative for I would say 1990, 2000 at least twenty years I think. And then I had the great pleasure of inducting Leontyne Price as an honorary member. And during my presidency we had four program facets. We now have five, but we had the arts, services to you, national transcend services and international transcend services and our programs are built around those. So we had a program called Project L.E.A.D. High Expectations in which we collaborated with other organizations, national organizations like Sigma Pi Phi, Boule, like Jack and Jill of America [Jack and Jill of America, Inc.] for example and this was to stop--encourage kids not to take drugs you know it was a, it had a just say no component to it and we ran a pilot in, I forget how many cities, and at the time that was the largest grant we had. It would--ended up being about three quarters of a million dollars so those were big programming funds in those days.$$So where did the grant money come from?$$I knew you were gonna ask me that. I wanna think it was NIDA, which is the National Institute for Drug Abuse [sic. National Institute on Drug Abuse] under NIH.$$Okay, National Institute of Health [sic. National Institutes of Health], right okay--$$Um-hm.$$--okay.$$And that program is still going today.$$Okay.$$We call it one of our signature programs.$$Okay. So, now you were--you're president from '86 [1986] until when?$$Ninety [1990].$$Okay. So it's a four year term?$$Yes. Well actually at that--things change, you know the more things change, the more they remain the same, at that time it was a two year term and then I was reelected.$$Okay so it's two, two year terms, okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Um-hm.

Lucy R. Wilson

Educational Administrator Lucy Wilson was born on September 23, 1930 in Hartsville, South Carolina. She received her B.S. degree cum laude from South Carolina State College in Orangeburg in 1951 and her M.S. degree in guidance and counseling from Indiana University in Bloomington in 1954. After completing her M.S. degree, Wilson served as the dean of women at Albany State College in Georgia from 1954 to 1956. While serving as a dean of students, her continuing studies were funded by the Danforth Foundation. Consequently, she received her Ed.D. degree in guidance and counseling in 1960.

She then returned to Orangeburg, South Carolina where she worked as the dean of students at Claflin College from 1956 through 1962. After completing her doctorate, Wilson was hired as the assistant program director for guidance services in the Department of Education and Testing Services at Princeton University from 1962 through 1967. In addition, Wilson was a professor of psychology at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana from 1964 through 1967. She then became the Director of Adult Services at the Tennessee Mental Health Department in Nashville, Tennessee until 1975. Since then, Wilson has served as the Associate Dean for the Darden School of Education at Old Dominion University. Over the years, Wilson has worked as a consultant for Princeton University, the Department of Health, Education, & Welfare and the Portsmouth Public School System in Virginia.

Wilson also serves on a number of community boards and has long been involved in service organizations. From 1975 to 1977, Wilson served as an Area Director for the National March of Dimes. She also served as the Chairperson for the Human Sexuality Task Force and sits on the board of directors for the Planning Council of Tidewater (Virginia).

Wilson is married to former Norfolk State University president Harrison Wilson and they have six children: April, Jennifer, Richard, John, Harrison, and Benjamin.

Lucy Wilson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 11, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.013

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/11/2010

Last Name

Wilson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

R.

Schools

Butler High School

Butler Elementary School

South Carolina State University

Indiana University

First Name

Lucy

Birth City, State, Country

Hartsville

HM ID

WIL52

Favorite Season

None

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

If You Can Keep Your Head When All About You Are Losing Theirs And Blaming It On You, If You Can Trust Yourself When All Men Doubt You, But Make Allowance For Their Doubting Too. - Rudyard Kipling

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

9/23/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chesapeake

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Academic administrator Lucy R. Wilson (1930 - ) served as a dean at Albany State College, Claflin College and Old Dominion University. She was also a professor of psychology at various universities including Tennessee State University and the University of Tennessee at Nashville.

Employment

South Carolina State University

Veteran's Administration

Albany State University

Claflin University

Lincoln High School

Southern University and A&M College System

Tennessee Mental Health Department

Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee

Norfolk State University

Old Dominion University

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:7476,115:8099,123:8989,187:17135,252:21550,307:31686,419:32514,431:33434,444:34078,452:34722,462:35182,468:36194,480:38310,506:38862,513:40426,541:46274,572:46988,581:51993,605:67349,687:67811,695:68119,700:72070,731:72850,738:75930,754:76553,764:77354,775:84800,846:88210,854:91410,876:96630,904:107426,976:113730,1018:127880,1132:131480,1174:132803,1207:151986,1394:154233,1424:159626,1486:176234,1617:183010,1691:188994,1795:197710,1852:198130,1861:198730,1874:202586,1922:202994,1930:203334,1936:205483,1960:205909,1967:213270,2049:226648,2182:227299,2190:227950,2199:231112,2258:231763,2266:241670,2338:242030,2343:242660,2351:243650,2364:245900,2401:246350,2407:259520,2554:260185,2562:260755,2569:267054,2620:270960,2659$0,0:204,8:765,21:15370,111:21160,194:27291,239:27984,248:28380,253:28875,259:44930,413:47352,436:47730,444:48162,454:60730,617:79680,808:95494,931:96456,967:97122,979:97862,990:98824,1004:99416,1013:103350,1119:104260,1138:104680,1145:104960,1150:105240,1155:113716,1249:114190,1257:116639,1294:119325,1336:120036,1346:120905,1359:132326,1422:135670,1436:139282,1503:139884,1512:140228,1517:149874,1603:154334,1615:155182,1626:156348,1635:157408,1647:158468,1663:158892,1668:166020,1708:166320,1713:166770,1721:172350,1795:176363,1824:177842,1853:178451,1863:178799,1868:179234,1874:179756,1883:186502,1970:193528,2057:196818,2117:197288,2123:213114,2330:216810,2341:217410,2347:218010,2353:222330,2403:232230,2483
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lucy R. Wilson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lucy R. Wilson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her maternal aunts and uncles

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls the difficulties of her mother's work

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lucy R. Wilson remembers giving speeches to her mother's employer

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her mother as an abuse survivor

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lucy R. Wilson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lucy R. Wilson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about Eartha Kitt

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls giving speeches as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her older half-brother

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls fighting in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls her decision to attend Colored Normal Industrial Agricultural and Mechanical College of South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls enrolling at Colored Normal Industrial Agricultural and Mechanical College of South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lucy R. Wilson remembers her high school graduation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her first impressions of Colored Normal Industrial Agricultural and Mechanical College of South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her early interest in theater

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls graduating from Colored Normal Industrial Agricultural and Mechanical College of South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her experiences at Colored Normal Industrial Agricultural and Mechanical College of South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls visiting her father in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lucy R. Wilson remembers working in New York City during college

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her post-graduate work activities

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her first husband

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her doctoral dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls her decision to attend Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lucy R. Wilson remembers returning to Claflin University in Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls applying to work at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her etiquette lessons in college

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her experiences working at Princeton University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Lucy R. Wilson remembers meeting her second husband, Harrison B. Wilson

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls facing work discrimination

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lucy R. Wilson remembers being hired at Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lucy R. Wilson describes the beginning of her relationship with Harrison B. Wilson

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about meeting her stepsons for the first time

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls her move to Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her work in Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls her decision to move to Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her experiences at Norfolk State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about the resentment towards her husband's presidency at Norfolk State College

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls becoming the first African American faculty member at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her later years at Old Dominion University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Lucy R. Wilson recalls her greatest accomplishments at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Lucy R. Wilson remembers her duties on various boards

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her protest against busing in Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her protest against busing in Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Lucy R. Wilson describes the reaction in the African American community to her stance on busing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about the disparities in funding for Virginia public schools

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Lucy R. Wilson describes The Links, Incorporated president, Barbara Dixon Simpkins

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about the Links to Success Programs

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Lucy R. Wilson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Lucy R. Wilson reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Lucy R. Wilson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her family, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Lucy R. Wilson talks about her family, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Lucy R. Wilson describes the joys of her marriage

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Lucy R. Wilson describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Lucy R. Wilson describes her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1
Lucy R. Wilson remembers being hired at Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Transcript
Was the Civil Rights Movement boiling up in South Carolina at--?$$Oh, yes. Yes, yes, yes. And because I was at a private school [Claflin University, Orangeburg, South Carolina], then I could participate in the Civil Rights Movement.$$Now explain the dynamic of that, so that people understand it.$$Okay. People who worked at the state could and would be fired if they participated in the Civil Rights Movement. But since I was working at a private school, I could participate without fear. One of the things that I did, we decided, we, meaning those of us who either were not working or did not fear being fired--being hurt or fired, I should say, by the, by our employers--decided that we were going to integrate the federal health service center, which was located in downtown Orangeburg [South Carolina]. Now, here is a federally funded program that had one side for whites and another room for African Americans, or colored. So, my group and I decided that we were going to integrate that place. And I was chosen as the one to go in and ask for service. So I went in, and I asked for something that I knew they did not offer, like a flu shot or something. And they said, "Well, we don't offer that here." So, I said, "All right, well, I'll just wait, because my ride is to pick me up in about an hour." So (laughter) then I went and sat in the white sitting room. And the lady said, "Oh, you're to sit over here in the colored waiting room." And I said, "Oh, I'm very comfortable here," and I sat. And so I could hear them whispering among themselves, the nurses, whispering among themselves. And then a doctor came in, and very nicely said, "Would you mind sitting over here? This is the place that we have especially for you." And I said, "No, I'm comfortable here. But thank you very much." And then the police came in. I'm sure I'm going to get arrested, because that's what I'm there for, so that we would have a case. Well, the police came in, policeman came, just one. He came in and talked with the nurses and the doctor, and looked at me. And I'm waiting for him to come and arrest me. He just went out. So, I'm sitting there wondering, well, what is going to happen? Because I thought maybe he thought that he needed another person, you know. He never came back. I sat for an hour or more. And when nothing happened and they went on back to work, you know, doing whatever they were doing, I just got up and, you know, hailed my ride to come on, and we went back. The next month, we read in the paper that the federal health department was now integrated. So, they didn't do anything to me, but they did integrate.$I can't remember the name of the place, never been there before or since. But anyway, he didn't hire me. And when I got home I said, "Well, I'm just going to ask him." And I called him and I said, "Dr.," whatever his name was, "I'm not going to even think about suing you, because I don't have the money to do it. But I need, just for my own satisfaction, I need to know whether or not you refused to hire me because I am black, or because there was something wrong with the way I looked, or what?" And he said, "Well, I'll be very honest with you, Dr. Cutliff [HistoryMaker Lucy R. Wilson]," was my name, "it's because you are half an American." He said, "If I were to hire you, I would lose half of my clientele within a week." And I said, "Well, I understand that, I understand that." And I began looking for a job in the dime store; I was going to be a clerk. And suddenly the phone rang out of nowhere, and it was Ed Johnson [Edward E. Johnson] who was head of the psychology department at Southern University [Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana]. And he said, "We got your number from your husband." He didn't know I was out there to get a divorce. I said, "Yes?" And he said, "We have an opening at Southern University for a professor," not--either a professor or an associate professor of psychology. I've forgotten which. And he said, "Would you be interested?" Well, I didn't want him to know how hard up I was for a job. So I told him that there was another firm that wanted to interview--that I was interviewing with. And I said, "They want me to consider working for them within the next month. So if Southern wants me, then I will have to come right away. Otherwise, I'll be obligated to this other guy." Well, that was not true. I simply wanted them to move the date back when they would hire me, because I was out of money; I was running out of money. So he said, "Well, I'll check with the dean and I'll call you back." And he did, within the hour. And the dean, he said that the dean told him that it was fine for me to come right away, and I did. And that's how I got to Southern. And of course, I had nowhere to live, so I lived with Ed and his family. Jennifer [Wilson's daughter, Jennifer Wilson] and I took a room with Ed and his family for about three weeks until I could earn a check. Well, no, they paid me upfront, they paid me upfront. And so, I stayed there until '67 [1967].

Gwendolyn Smith Iloani

Investment Executive Gwendolyn Smith Iloani was born in Jamaica. Iloani came to the United States with her family at the age of six. Her family moved to Brooklyn, New York. Iloani received her B.A. degree in sociology from Colgate University and her M.B.A. from the University of Hartford.

Iloani worked in a variety of insurance and financial firms before founding her own investment company. Iloani began her career as a math analyst at New York Life in the late 1970s and then moved to Connecticut Mutual as a management trainee. In 1980, Iloani moved to Aetna, Inc. where she worked for fifteen years. Iloani worked in the investment department as an investment analyst and ultimately rose to the level of a managing director at a very rapid pace. In 1994, she persuaded senior executives at Aetna to invest $2.5 million in Smith Whiley, the Hartford, Connecticut investment firm she founded and owns. After two years, Iloani bought out Aetna’s interest and Smith Whiley is now owned by Iloani. Iloani is the chairwoman, president and CEO of Smith Whiley & Company, a private equity firm that specializes in providing mezzanine debt and private equity for management buyouts, recapitalizations, acquisitions and growth capital. Smith Whiley is among the largest black-owned private equity firm, and has managed in excess of $600 million. Iloani directs the firm’s investment advisory and asset management business, and the investment and portfolio management activities.

In 2000, Iloani's younger sister Jaleith died of leukemia at age thirty-six and left her three children to Iloani, who now makes time for all the demands of motherhood. In addition, Iloani has a long history of civic involvement with a wide variety of organizations and has received numerous community service and business leadership awards. Iloani is a board member of the NAACP Special Contributions Fund and The Crisis magazine. She was named one of the “75 Most Powerful Blacks on Wall Street” and one of the “50 Most Powerful Black Women in Business” by Black Enterprise Magazine. Iloani is a Trustee of the University of Connecticut Foundation and after serving nine years on the Board of Trustees for Colgate University, she is currently an Emeritus Trustee.

Gwendolyn Smith Iloani was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 29, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.009

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/29/2010

Last Name

Iloani

Maker Category
Middle Name

Smith

Schools

Colgate University

University Of Hartford

International High School At Prospect Heights

P.S. 182

P.S. 299, Thomas Warren Field School

Speakers Bureau

Organizations

First Name

Gwendolyn

HM ID

SMI22

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

The Only Helping Hand You Have Is The One At The End Of Your Arm.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Connecticut

Birth Date

11/19/1955

Speakers Bureau Region City

Hartford

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Goat (Curried)

Short Description

Investment executive Gwendolyn Smith Iloani (1955 - ) was the founder, chairwoman, president and CEO of Smith Whiley and Company, the nation's fourth-largest black-owned private equity firm.

Employment

Smith Whiley and Company

Aetna, Inc.

Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Co.

New York Life Insurance Co.

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:1326,21:4072,67:10771,246:11079,251:11387,256:12311,274:15468,339:16623,361:24294,416:25092,421:38715,658:39237,666:40890,697:41934,713:43587,737:44544,752:51840,875:52200,880:53550,900:54450,910:55080,922:55890,932:60480,1018:61560,1033:62280,1043:62910,1053:63630,1062:65250,1086:69360,1112:70205,1135:70790,1146:73390,1202:75340,1228:76965,1275:78330,1300:78980,1314:79305,1320:84575,1406:84965,1413:86135,1443:87890,1493:93415,1648:93805,1656:94845,1673:107565,1868:108003,1876:108295,1881:108733,1888:109828,1907:110923,1944:113186,1993:113697,2002:129041,2210:129563,2217:131825,2265:132260,2271:132608,2276:133043,2282:133478,2288:134348,2305:134696,2310:135305,2318:141730,2391:144796,2466:146621,2516:147205,2525:147716,2561:148081,2567:149249,2609:153732,2656:154152,2662:154992,2668:155412,2674:156420,2702:156840,2709:159948,2757:160788,2771:161208,2777:161796,2785:173038,2956:173418,2962:173798,2968:184200,3114:184600,3120:185080,3127:189220,3166$0,0:3610,81:8861,170:9306,176:11442,210:11887,216:12332,222:20068,312:20572,320:20932,326:21940,356:22300,363:22948,373:24892,405:25180,410:25756,420:26404,430:27052,441:27700,451:31289,465:32534,486:32949,492:35024,523:35439,529:35854,535:36518,547:39672,601:40336,610:43324,642:44154,653:44569,659:46561,696:47474,709:51209,820:60434,899:60944,905:70940,1069:85084,1253:85494,1259:86150,1270:86724,1278:87052,1283:92594,1313:94518,1356:94814,1361:96368,1386:102436,1540:103102,1551:103398,1570:105174,1605:114840,1703:115965,1725:116265,1730:116790,1741:117465,1752:117990,1761:119340,1785:120165,1797:120915,1811:125076,1838:125604,1847:126264,1863:127914,1908:128244,1914:128772,1923:129234,1931:130224,1958:130818,1971:131280,1980:137577,2062:139920,2101:140346,2108:141695,2146:142050,2152:144890,2205:146807,2251:147091,2256:147801,2268:148511,2280:149150,2292:149434,2297:156670,2366
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gwendolyn Smith Iloani's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about her family's migration to New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani remembers the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes the Bushwick neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani remembers her parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about her early awareness of divisions in the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gwendolyn Smith Ilonai recalls her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her early career aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani remembers her family's entrepreneurialism

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her experiences at Prospect Heights High School in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani recalls her decision to attend Colgate University in Hamilton, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her academic experiences at Colgate University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani recalls working for the Aetna Life and Casualty Company

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her start as an investment analyst

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani recalls the Aetna Life and Casualty Company's investment in BET

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes the early business model of BET

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about black business ownership

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani remembers her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about the challenges of her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani recalls the founding of her investment firm

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes the origins of Smith Whiley and Company's name

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about her investment strategy

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her investment clients and specialty

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about her business partners

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about her success at Smith Whiley and Company

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes the challenges of entrepreneurship

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani talks about her nephews

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her charitable board memberships

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani reflects upon her concerns for the University of Connecticut and Colgate University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani recalls her interest in establishing an office in South Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani reflects upon her life, legacy and how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gwendolyn Smith Iloani narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
Gwendolyn Smith Iloani remembers her family's entrepreneurialism
Gwendolyn Smith Iloani recalls the Aetna Life and Casualty Company's investment in BET
Transcript
Sometimes, you know, they had individuals, you know, positioned as role models in those, you know, for different things. I just wondered that--it should be--to go into business in those days it seems like there would be somebody--$$But I didn't know what business meant. I just knew I couldn't be a doctor. So I knew I had--it had to be business but I had no clue as to what that would entail.$$Okay. Were any of your relatives entrepreneurs?$$No.$$That's interesting that I think, you know, a lot of pe- people see Jamaicans and, and people from Barbados as- as entrepreneurs?$$As entrepreneurs. Now my dad [Woodrow Smith], you know, he--we started out with my house, and then he bought like five, six other houses. So you can say that he had an entrepreneurial spirit--$$Yes he did (laughter).$$--and a lot of my relatives did the same thing. But when you think of a true entrepreneur who is running a company and employing people, they didn't go that route, but they knew how to build wealth. And just about every aunt and uncle did that, own multiple homes and in my--in our case, when you have eight children that--that we became the demolition crew (laughter). So we would go in, get the houses ready, when people would move out we would go--like I became a, a excellent painter by the time I was in tenth grade [at Prospect Heights High School, Brooklyn, New York]. I loved to paint and my father taught me to paint. I didn't love to paint before he taught--but I could paint houses, do ceilings, walls, fixtures.$$So you didn't have all free time to ride your bike, you, you did have to do some--$$Well as I got older we began to take on responsibilities like that. So my job was painting. So I would paint the stoops, like in Brooklyn [New York], you know, everybody has a stoop. I'd go paint the stoop, paint all the, the, the metal fencing and then go into houses that we owned when people moved out or if we had little projects to do. He wouldn't hire painters, he'd have the kids, so it was me and my--one of my brothers we'd go in and do painting.$$Okay, now I have neglected to ask you the names of all your brothers and sister, so and, and where you fall in the order so, so?$$My oldest brother is, is Wendell [Wendell Smith] and he's about five years older than me. Then I have another brother Ivanhoe [Ivanhoe Smith], who you met, and he's about--almost two years older than me, and then I--then it's me. Then I have a sister named Princess. She's actually named that--her name is Princess Grace [Princess Smith Sally], she's named after Princess Grace [Grace Kelly], and I have an aunt whose name is Princess Grace, and she's about three years younger than me. And then I have twin brothers--a brother and a sister, and they are four years younger than me. And then I have a sister, Jaleith [Jaleith Smith]--well the twins are Patrick [Patrick Smith] and Yvonne [Yvonne Smith], then I have a sister Jaleith who is se- seven years younger, and then I have the baby brother, his name is Arthur, Whiley Arthur Smith [Arthur Smith] and he's ten years younger than me. So I'm the third oldest child and the oldest girl.$$Okay, okay.$Do you remember where you left off, you wanna pick up from there?$$I think I was talking about--oh you're ready (laughter) okay.$$Yeah, we're rolling, yeah.$$So I worked doing analysis in the utility group for about three years and then I wanted to learn a different sector. So I requested to be moved into the banking group where I would be investing in banks, insurance companies. I was doing solvent risk analysis, basically looking at different countries and investing in, in, in these countries. And I did that for about three years. And then I moved over to run the media group. I became a managing director and I was investing in radio, TV, cable companies, any kind of entertainment companies on behalf of Aetna [Aetna Life and Casualty Company; Aetna, Inc., Hartford, Connecticut]. And I made a very good investment in BET [Black Entertainment Television] at the time. We were their first institutional investor (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So this is--this is what 19?$$Nineteen eighty-eight [1988], '89 [1989]. I invested in BET in '88 [1988] and invested fifteen million [dollars] of Aetna's money--I think it was ten million of Aetna's money in BET, and ended up owning a part of BET--so Aetna owned a part of BET. And then two years later, the company went public.$$Now how did BET, for instance, convince you to invest in them?$$What happened was, I was at a cable show in Dallas [Texas] and I met Bob Johnson [Robert L. Johnson]. He was checking into the hotel, we were staying at the ho- the same hotel and we started to talk. And he said that he had been to every bank and every venture firm and private equity firm in the D.C. [Washington, D.C.], Virginia, and Maryland markets trying to get this money. He needed the money to purchase a satellite--a transponder which is on a satellite and--which would transmit signals through cable headends and ultimately through either fiber optic or coaxial cable down the street into your home so when you turn on your TV you'd get a picture, you'd get the BET show. And the transponder that he had had reached the end of its useful life and he wondered whether or not I would consider such of a transaction. I said I don't know what a transponder is, I don't understand the risk involved in launching a satellite. What happens if you launch it and it goes off course, it's a lot of money.

Vel Phillips

State government appointee Velvalea Hortense Rodgers Phillips was born on February 2, 1924 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Russell Lowell Rodgers and Thelma Etha Payne Rodger. Growing up on Milwaukee’s South Side, she attended Garfield Avenue Elementary School, Roosevelt Junior High School, and North Division High School. There, Phillips won a prize for outstanding oratory for her speech, “The Negro and the Constitution,” which she wrote for the Elks Lodge Competition. She subsequently won a scholarship to Howard University in 1942. She earned her B.A. degree from Howard in 1946. Phillips became the first black woman to earn an L.L.B. degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1952.

Phillips became active in the NAACP and supported a redistricting referendum in 1950. Phillips lost a close race for a seat on the Milwaukee Common Council in 1953, but came back to become the first woman to win a council seat in 1956. Frequently involved in civil rights activities, Phillips introduced Milwaukee’s first open housing ordinance in 1962. In 1967, resistance to civil rights agitation turned violent when the NAACP headquarters was firebombed and the non-violent Phillips was the only city official arrested at a rally the next day. Joined by Catholic Father James Groppi and the NAACP Youth Council, Phillips led marches for fair housing in 1968, while riots swept the black community. Finally, that same year, Milwaukee’s open housing bill passed. In 1971, Phillips was appointed as the first woman to the Milwaukee County Judiciary, but lost the subsequent election to a white candidate. She then taught at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee and became mentor to Black Student Union president and future member of the Common Council, Fred Gordon. In 1978, she became the first woman and first non-white to be elected as Wisconsin’s Secretary of State, making her the highest ranking female Wisconsin official in the 20th century. In 2002, Phillips was appointed “Distinguished Professor of Law” at Marquette University School of Law. She also chaired the successful congressional campaign of Gwen Moore in 2004 at age eighty. In 2006, Phillips founded the Vel Phillips Foundation which supports the work of people who are engaged in projects of social justice and change. She is also active on numerous civic boards in Milwaukee.

Phillips passed away on April 17, 2018.

Vel Phillips was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 2, 2007 and February 25, 2017.

Accession Number

A2007.338

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/2/2007 |and| 2/25/2017

Last Name

Phillips

Maker Category
Schools

North Division High School

Garfield Avenue Elementary School

Roosevelt Creative Arts Middle School

North Division Virtual University High School

University of Wisconsin Law School

First Name

Vel

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

PHI03

Favorite Season

September

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Camping

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

2/18/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

4/17/2018

Short Description

State government appointee Vel Phillips (1924 - 2018 ) was the former Wisconsin Secretary of State, the first woman and first non-white to be elected to the position.

Employment

State of Wisconsin

Milwaukee Common Council

Milwaukee County Judiciary

Favorite Color

Fall Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:1138,23:2084,75:14640,321:20660,453:45628,936:88656,1580:122300,1972$0,0:510,6:8925,197:22225,355:27830,457:34010,480:41570,584:42110,591:48230,723:86083,1141:87093,1250:118686,1614:123292,1710:123782,1717:125448,1899:127996,1942:128388,1968:166265,2318:167630,2332:185710,2577:186985,2611:190210,2682:196620,2744:210988,2971:213844,3015:216868,3079:230458,3273:245282,3536:260000,3762
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Vel Phillips' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips talks about her maternal grandparents, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips talks about her maternal grandparents, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips describes how her mother was sent from Oklahoma to Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips describes her parents' restaurant, Clara's Restaurant

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips describes her mother's education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips talks about her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips describes her parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips remembers thinking her family was poor as a child, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips remembers thinking her family was poor as a child, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Vel Phillips talks about Gwendolynne Moore

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Vel Phillips describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Vel Phillips recalls earning a scholarship to Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips describes her disciplinarian mother

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips remembers her sheltered upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips recalls competing in the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips recalls her mother's reluctance to allow her to attend Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips recalls her mother's rules for attending Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips remembers arriving on campus at Howard University in 1942

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Vel Phillips talks about her friendship with Mamie Hansberry

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Vel Phillips describes her orientation weekend at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Vel Phillips describes her childhood education and activities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips recalls serving as a mentor at Delta Theta Sigma Sorority

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips remembers honoring her third grade teacher, Margaret Borkowski

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips recalls being taught by Margaret Borkowski in the third grade

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips describes how her third grade teacher influenced her career, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips describes how her third grade teacher influenced her career, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips recalls being discouraged from the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Vel Phillips recalls composing her speech, The Negro and the Constitution

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips recalls being eliminated from the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips recalls a petition for her reentry to the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips remembers being readmitted to the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips remembers her winning performance in the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Vel Phillips' interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips recalls being ostracized by the members of the Milwaukee Common Council

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips talks about her experiences on the Common Council of Milwaukee, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips talks about her experiences on the Common Council of Milwaukee, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips remembers the support from the community during her tenure on the Common Council of Milwaukee

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips talks about Lloyd Barbee and Father James Groppi

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Vel Phillips talks about the racial discrimination in the television and film industries

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Vel Phillips reflects upon her political career, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Vel Phillips recalls the employment discrimination at the Common Council of Milwaukee office

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Vel Phillips talks about the governorship of Scott Walker

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips talks about her sons

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips reflects upon her political career, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips remembers her mother's advice on life

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips reflects upon her life

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

9$6

DATitle
Vel Phillips recalls earning a scholarship to Howard University
Vel Phillips remembers arriving on campus at Howard University in 1942
Transcript
When I wanted to go to Howard [Howard University, Washington, D.C.] and my mother [Thelma Payne Rodgers] had promised me, she had said, "You can't go, we can't afford it," and all like that. Then when she said--this is something that sort of shaped my life when, when I said, "Well suppose I win a scholarship?" I said that to my mother and she said, "Oh, if you win a scholarship, well of course if you don't, if I don't have to pay and say we can't afford--." So then I did, I won, I entered an Elk oratorical contest, and I won and John Daniels [HistoryMaker John W. Daniels, Jr.], who you interviewed--once when we were at a law, black lawyers [Wisconsin Association of African American Lawyers] meeting, their fundraiser was named after my husband, it was--their fundraiser was the W. Dale Phillips scholarship--they, you only had fundraiser a year. Two years ago they changed it; it's now called VelanDale Scholarship dinner, which is my husband's name and my name combined. But anyway, John got up and said, "You know I entered the Elk oratorical contest and I wanted to win to get a scholarship," he said, "but I didn't win," he was younger than me, "I didn't win," he said, "but I want you to know that [HistoryMaker] Vel Phillips who will be giving," I give the scholarship every year, "won the very scholarship that I did not win." So when I won this scholarship I said, I said, now can, oh, I, I was just fancying around the kitchen, we had a huge kitchen. I was going to be going to Howard. My mother said, "You're not going to Howard, you're, you're," and I said, "But you promised." Well she didn't care anything about rules like, if you promise a child--I mean Dr. Spock [Benjamin Spock] I guess hadn't even written a book--that you don't disappoint and change your mind. She thought she could change your mind, she was very strong willed and she said, I said well, "Why?" And she said, "Because I said so. It's too far away and this and that."$And I remember, we went to, all the--Truth Hall [Howard University, Washington, D.C.] was this, was the dorm for, for the freshman; and my mother [Thelma Payne Rodgers] took me to college and I'll never forget when we, we--she said, "We do not have enough money to fly, we're going on the train," and she had always told us that when the train stopped in Chicago [Illinois] that I just thought Chicago had, I felt, I actually thought that if you got off in Chicago there'd be men standing there with guns, you know. It was just (laughter) it was: "Do not get off the train ever. If you're going, if you take the train somewhere, don't get off in Chicago because you will be accosted and people will--they're ju- terrible people, a lot of gangsters live in Chicago," and stuff. So I, so we were on the train and this, the train stopped in Chicago and a lot of freshman with (gesture) 1946 Howard [Howard University, Washington, D.C.], 1946, which was--would be our graduating year 'cause this was '42 [1942]; and there were about oh, a bunch of them--five, six of them or so you know and they were just laughing and, and just being, being their age, but they were--Mother said that she saw a bottle being passed around and she said to me, "You see that, that's not--they're going to Howard and you're going to Howard. Just because they're going to Howard doesn't mean that they're not trash; they're trash because they're carousing, they're loud, they're drinking, probably smoking and you do not associate with any of those people who are on that, that." And I remember having to go to the bathroom and had to pass by this group. "Hey!" they said, said, said, "You with your momma, huh?" That's the first time I knew it wasn't so good to be with your momma (laughter). "I see you got your momma with you," you know. "You got big eyes, but you got your momma with you," and so I was just, boy that made me feel pretty good you know, is that I had, they had said that I had big eyes or something; and, but I then thought, oh gee, it wasn't cool to have your momma with you, and so I said, "Does everyone's parents take them to college?" I thought everyone's parents--she said, "But they probably don't have any parents if, some of them are probably drunk or in the tavern," you know (laughter). And I got to be friends, real close to all of them especially Mamie Hansberry, because Mamie Hansberry was--oh, oh when we were, the last day my mother said, "Well we're gonna move--," all the other parents, "and we're gonna visit the rooms." Now she had no pencil or paper with her, and we started from the third floor and the second--all, all the floors and we're going--and I remember Mamie Hansberry because she had on a little, she was smoking a cigarette and when we got back to our room, my mother said, "Now in," and then she named the numbers, "in 214 there was a girl, a young lady there, she was smoking a cigarette; do not associate with her. And such and such a person, the young lady that was from Ohio her name was Zoe Crumpler [ph.]," and the reason my mother said, "do not associate with her," and the reason was, think of this reason, because Zoe--her mother was still there, like my mother was still there, and Zoe, who I loved, from Youngstown, Ohio called her mother by her first name. "Oh, Bernice [ph.] would you hand me such and such," or whatever her name was. My mother--oh! So she was on the list because she called her mother by her first name and her mother said, "Oh, okay baby," you know. That was, that was their little thing. Her mother maybe said, "You can call me Bernice," or whatever her name was, and, and so she called her mother by her first name. My mother thought that was outrageous, and so she was on the list.

Irma Daniels

Educator Irma Daniels was born Irma Dean Hall on April 21, 1949 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Levester Powell Hall and Daisy Lee Hortman Hall. Raised in the Brewer’s Hill section of Milwaukee, Daniels’ family were members of the Bethesda Church of God in Christ. She attended Palmer Elementary School, Twelfth Street School, Robert Fulton Junior High School and graduated as an honor student from North Division High School in 1966. Attending Oshkosh State University, Daniels graduated in 1971 with her B.S. degree in education.

After teaching for a year in Fondulac, Wisconsin, Daniels married John W. Daniels, Jr. in 1972 and accompanied him to Boston, Massachusetts. There, she taught health and coached a championship girls basketball team. In 1974, Daniels returned to Milwaukee and worked in City Hall for a short time. In 1975, she was hired by Milwaukee Public Schools where she taught elementary and middle school. In 1978, Daniels joined Lady Pitts School Age Parent Center which was founded on January 25, 1966, through the efforts of forty black women known as the “Our Concern Committee.” They were concerned about the school policy of requiring pregnant students to drop out of school. The first school was above the Shiloh Tabernacle and was a privately run school with MPS support services, similar to the present-day partnership schools. Lady Pitts became part of MPS in the early 1970s. The school provides comprehensive services to 200 pregnant students, grades six through twelve and a special completion program with job training for forty-five parenting students with twelve or more credits. At Lady Pitts, Daniels taught prenatal health until her retirement.

Daniels is a member of Holy Redeemer Church of God in Chritst, where she is actively involved in the youth ministry. She is a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., the Links and the Bethesda Senior Citizens Board. She and her husband, John, have a son and a daughter.

Daniels was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 26, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.329

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/26/2007

Last Name

Daniels

Maker Category
Schools

North Division High School

Palmer Elementary School

Twelfth Street School

Robert Fulton Junior High School

University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh

First Name

Irma

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

DAN03

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France, New York City

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

4/21/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cake (Red Velvet)

Short Description

High school health teacher Irma Daniels (1949 - ) taught in Milwaukee Public Schools and Lady Pitts School Age Parent Center.

Employment

North Division High School

Clarence R. Edwards Junior High School

Milwaukee City Council

Lady Pitts School

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Irma Daniels' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels describes the Smith Settlement in Gibsland, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels talks about the history of African American dispossession, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels talks about the history of African American dispossession, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels talks about her mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels describes her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Irma Daniels remembers her father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Irma Daniels describes her mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels remembers her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels recalls her neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels recalls her experiences in the Church of God in Christ

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels recalls the entertainment of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Irma Daniels remembers her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Irma Daniels describes her success as a student

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Irma Daniels talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Irma Daniels recalls her decision to attend Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Irma Daniels remembers segregation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels recalls the racial demographics of Milwaukee's high schools

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels remembers her college aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels describes her experiences of discrimination at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels remembers occupying the president's office at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels recalls her temporary expulsion from Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels remembers the support for the Oshkosh 94

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels reflects upon her experiences at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels recalls her parents' support for her activism

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Irma Daniels remembers teaching in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels remembers the desegregation of the Boston Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels recalls coaching basketball at Clarence R. Edwards Junior High School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels recalls her role at the Lady Pitts School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels describes her philosophy of education

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels describes her experiences as a teacher at the Lady Pitts School

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels talks about teenage pregnancy, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels talks about teenage pregnancy, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Irma Daniels reflects upon the parenting practices in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels recalls her students at the Lady Pitts School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels describes the prenatal training at the Lady Pitts School

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels talks about the perceptions of teenage pregnancy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels describes her organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Irma Daniels describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Irma Daniels narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$7

DATitle
Irma Daniels describes her experiences of discrimination at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh
Irma Daniels describes her experiences as a teacher at the Lady Pitts School
Transcript
So I was seventeen going away to college [Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh; University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin] so I guess that was a good thing that I was close to home. And Oshkosh [Wisconsin] was a whole new awakening though because I had never been away from home like that and then to go to a community that was all white and some of the people were not very welcoming so it was like the first time where you would be called out of your name--$$Oh.$$--walking down the streets so.$$So people would, would call you the N word?$$Yes.$$(Unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) So that to me was a whole new, a whole new awakening. And so Oshkosh took a lot of adjusting for me. It was not a, a friendly place. There were some people who were friendly but--$$In retrospect when you look back, back at it--$$Um-hm.$$--and you, you said your brothers [Daniels' older brothers, Samuel Hall and James Hall] had a good experience there.$$My brothers' friends.$$Your brothers' friends.$$Um-hm.$$All right.$$Yeah, so my brothers did not go to college, they started out at MATC [Milwaukee Area Technical College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] but the pull of A.O. Smith [A.O. Smith Corporation, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] and working they decided to take the money and work the jobs so that's what they were doing. And so fellows who had played on the football team with them, who were good friends of theirs were at Oshkosh. And, and again when you're on the football team maybe you have a different experience so maybe they were more welcomed and didn't have to endure much of that but--$$What would you guess, I know you don't know exactly but what was the percentage of black students there would you say roughly?$$At Oshkosh--$$Or how many say--$$--the population was like ten thousand and I think, I can actually tell you that we had maybe about, and it was the record number of blacks at Oshkosh the year that I attended, I think there were ninety-six.$$Okay. Out of ten thousand?$$Um-hm.$$Okay.$$And so that was the highest number of blacks they'd ever had there. And so I think it was an eye-opener and a lot of kids were from rural Wisconsin and so had never even gone to school with blacks, some had never been up close with blacks so we would have girls who would come in the room, we would sit around and talk and they would just out of curiosity want to know things, if you're doing your hair they would just come and sit and (laughter) look at you like okay, "Let me see how you do that." So it was a learning experience. I can remember having a roommate my sophomore year because my freshmen year my, my good friend from high school [North Division High School, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] we roomed together, my sophomore year though a girl from Illinois and they put us together as roommates and I had an early morning class and I can remember coming back and she was telling other girls I was a great roommate if only she could bleach me (laughter). I thought, what (laughter)? So that was the end of us rooming together so after I confronted her on that 'cause I walked in on her saying that, I said, "What do you mean, if only you could bleach me, what does that mean that you wouldn't mind me being your roommate if I was white, I mean, you wanna bleach me?" So she went down and asked to be moved, and I was glad so I got to have a room to myself for the rest of the semester but I just thought that showed her, the way she was thinking coming from Chicago [Illinois] area I would have thought she wouldn't have had those views but I guess prejudice was just there. So there were girls like that and there were other girls who I think just genuinely wanted to know more about me because they just had not been around blacks and so their questions and concerns were just genuine so I just tried to take it for that, to think not everyone was prejudiced but there were definitely some who were.$So you taught physical education at Lady Pitts [Lady Pitts School; Lady Pitts School Age Parent Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] too?$$Well, at Lady Pitts we had prenatal health classes so I taught the prenatal health class and it's a very small school. At one time we may have had an enrollment up to 200 but I think, a 125 may have been the enrollment when I left. So a very small school, very small staff. We have a day care, we have a full-time nurse, full-time social workers, and teaching classes that they would have in a regular school along with parenting and prenatal health classes. And so I enjoyed working with that population. It was a group that you could see changes taking place. Girls who had very poor attendance, girls who very low reading scores but to see them improve. So I think that's one of my fondest teaching experiences would have been at Lady Pitts.$$Okay. And do you have any stories from Lady Pitts you can tell us?$$Oh, lots of stories--but I think how girls were just so naive about things, my girls, because for some of them this was a pattern in their life, their mothers were teen mothers, their grandmothers were teen mothers, so to have that cycle broken was something that I really preached you might say (laughter) that you don't have to continue in this cycle. And, and so having the opportunity to tell them that and to point things out to them. One girl came in one day just upset because a lady on the bus stop was looking at her and asked why she was so young and pregnant and, "It's none of her business." And I said well, you know, "She probably is concerned because it is a little bit of her business because the tax dollars have to pay for people who have babies without insurance and are you in that category?" She said, "Yes. But I don't see why people always throw it up at me because you get your money back anyway." I said, "We do what?" "You get your money back." "What money?" "Your tax money." I said, "How can you say that?" "Well, my sister she got all her money back." I said, "Okay, where did your sister work 'cause I wanna go (laughter) and get all my money back." Well, her sister had a, the first one to have a job in the family really at like a McDonald's so because she made so little--$$She got income tax returned?$$--she got all of her, all of her income tax money back so she thought all of us got all of our money back that she didn't see why we were complaining about our taxes. So I had to give her a lesson that no, people, we don't all get our tax money back, that this is the case with her sister because of the low amount she made just working part time but for most people a lot of us pay more taxes at the end of the year and she just couldn't even believe that. She just thought I was making this up, that it was not true but she had never had anyone in her family who worked and paid taxes, so she had no idea how that whole system worked so we had to actually show her a tax return that said you owe money because she wouldn't have believed me if I hadn't brought it in to say okay, people get tax bills sometimes thousands of dollars, so then she could understand why the lady going to work on the bus stop was upset looking at all of them standing there pregnant. So, so we would talk about issues like that to get them to understand that it wasn't just being nosy or people not liking teenage pregnancy just because they thought it was wrong morally or something but it was also something that was tied to the tax dollar and people were concerned about that also.

Dorothy Harrison

Educator and former president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Dorothy Penman Harrison was born Dorothy Marie Penman on December 8, 1907 in Portsmouth, Ohio. Harrison’s parents were former teacher, Annabelle Layne, and chef, Victor Logan Penman. Harrison grew up in Portsmouth where she learned to read and took piano lessons. Attending all black Eleventh Street Elementary School, Harrison graduated from Portsmouth High School in 1924. At Fisk University, she studied history with A.A. Taylor. When both of her parents passed away in 1926, Harrison returned to Ohio and taught school. She earned her B.A. degree in education from Ohio State University in 1932. That same year, Harrison joined the Epsilon chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. and married educator, Dr. Gerald Lamar Harrison. Her husband earned his Ph.D. in education from Ohio State University in 1936 while he was serving as head of the Education Department at Prairie View A&M College in Texas.

In 1940, Harrison moved to Oklahoma when her husband was named president of the Colored Agricultural and Normal University. The college was renamed Langston University in 1941. As first lady to the president, Harrison hosted distinguished guests like W.E.B. DuBois and Liberia’s Clarence L. Simpson. In 1944, she traveled to Liberia for the inauguration of William V.S. Tubman as Liberia’s president, also attending were Mary McLeod Bethune and Eta Moten Barnett. Tragedy struck as Harrison’s eldest son, Gerald Lamar, passed away at the age of thirteen, in 1948, followed by the younger son, Richard, in 1950. Returning to school, Harrison acquired her M.S. degree in education from Oklahoma State University. She also amassed a record of civic activities, serving as treasurer of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. under president Dorothy Height in 1952 and national officer for The Links, Inc. in 1957. Harrison was elected president of the sorority in 1956 and served through 1958.

In 1960, Harrison relocated to Chicago, Illinois with her husband after spending twenty years at Langston University. She continued her public service as a board member of the Chicago Metropolitan YWCA and as a national board member of the Central Review Team and the Urban League Women’s Board. Harrison is a lifetime member of the NAACP and the National Council of Negro Women. In 1965, Harrison was selected as co-chair of the federal Head Start program. She also served on the board of directors of the City Associates of the Chicago Art Institute. Harrison has traveled numerous times to Europe, Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean.

Awarded an honorary doctorate from Langston University in 2003. Harrison passed away on December 22, 2010.

Harrison was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 18, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.015

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/18/2007

Last Name

Harrison

Maker Category
Middle Name

Marie

Schools

Portsmouth High School

Eleventh Street Elementary School

Fisk University

The Ohio State University

Oklahoma State University

First Name

Dorothy

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

HAR22

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Malaysia

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/8/1907

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Grits

Death Date

12/22/2010

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Dorothy Harrison (1907 - 2010 ) served as a national officer for The Links, Inc., succeeded Dorothy Height as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., and served as a board member of the Chicago Metropolitan YWCA and the National Council of Negro Women. Harrison was also selected as co-chair of the federal Head Start program.

Favorite Color

Red, White

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dorothy Harrison's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her maternal uncle, who passed for white

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her mother permitting her to attend Fisk University

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls teaching elementary school during her college career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison describes her family's historic homestead in Meadville, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes how her family valued education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her father running away from home

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison describes her mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes her brother Frederich Penman

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison describes the sights and tastes of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her hearing problem

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls experiencing discrimination at Portsmouth High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers Portsmouth's Eleventh Street School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison describes her love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her parents' expectations

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison describes the restrictions upon married teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her favorite teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison remembers Allen Chapel A.M.E. Church

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her experiences with church

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison recalls popular pastimes during her teenage years

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her decision to attend a historically black college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her social life at Fisk University in Nashville

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the professors and staff at Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison remembers The Ohio State University in Columbus

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's graduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her classes at The Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's career at Wilberforce University

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison describes her brother's house and practice in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her impressions of Prairie View, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her husband's achievements at Prairie View State Normal & Industrial College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's studies and career

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes the history of Langston University in Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her life in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the Dust Bowl era in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the desegregation of Oklahoma's colleges

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her duties at Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls establishing a work-study program in her home

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her famous houseguests

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her travels abroad

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison remembers William V.S. Tubman, Jr.'s inauguration

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls being in Ghana when Kwame Nkrumah was overthrown

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her travels in Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her impression of Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison remembers notable figures she met in Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison remembers joining Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the deaths of her sons

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her election as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison recalls Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.'s support of civil rights

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes the growth of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls stepping down as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her work on the executive committee of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers moving to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison describes her involvement with The Links, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison describes her work with the Young Women's Christian Association

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her other organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison talks about the 2008 presidential election

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her remaining family

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her favorite sports teams

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers accepting an honorary degree from Langston University

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$4

DAStory

9$7

DATitle
Dorothy Harrison recalls her election as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.
Dorothy Harrison recalls establishing a work-study program in her home
Transcript
I had to be busy. So I decided to go back to school. I had sleep--at first I started going places. Then I--I had to make adjustment. I used to--when I went to bed I always had a book to read because I'd just start dreaming about them. So finally I decided to go to school up at--I drove twenty miles up to Stillwater [Oklahoma] to go to school, and I started and I got my master's [degree], and I stayed one year on the doctorate. By that time, I then began to get involved in Delta [Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.] and I was, was, I was--that was '48 [1948] and '50 [1950] when I lost my sons [Gerald Harrison and Richard Harrison]. So I became involved in Delta on the national level and I became the national treasurer for four years from 1952 to 1956. They had a term, you could be elected for two years and two more, four years was supposed to be the maximum. So they called the person that was vice president. She wanted to be president because Dorothy [HistoryMaker Dorothy Height] by that time had served nine years and that's when they changed--$$This was Dorothy?$$Height, right.$$Dorothy Height, all right.$$My sister [Beatrice Penman] was treasurer during that time. And so--part of that time. So they were meeting and they decided to rule--to put in the rules that you can be elected for two years and reelected. Dorothy had served four years. She says it cannot be retroactive that law, cannot--you putting in it cannot refer to me, so I'm still eligible for two--four more years. So she stayed in and then one year there was a war or something going on to travel, so she stayed in nine years. During that time, I served four of those under--when she was president I was national treasurer. Then they--committee called me, convention committee called me and asked me to run for president. I, I had questions because I was still at Langston [Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma] serving as a hostess for my husband [General Lamar Harrison], you know. And I--and I knew what was involved when you become president, because you had to go out and make speeches and all that, you know. I knew what was involved. I said, "Well let me think about that. I--I--I'll call you back after I think about." They were meeting in Washington [D.C.] getting the slate. And the vice president was called. She had some kind of health problems, would almost fall out during the meetings and so forth. They didn't want her to be president and she wanted to be very much, and she was a friend of mine. So I knew how she felt. And I hesitated about saying I will be president, because I knew also what was involved in travel and so forth. And so finally, I agreed. My husband really wanted me to be president, for the name, you know. So I told him, I said, "I have to make up my mind because I know what's involved." And so I finally told them I would accept. So I served two years. During that time--part of that time when Dorothy was president, we were invited to the Hi- to the capital to the White House [Washington, D.C.] and Mr. Eisenhower [President Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower] was president. Mrs. Eisenhower [Mamie Eisenhower] invited us when we were meeting in--in Washington. They invited us to come to the White House. They had a reception for us. The whole--the whole bird. And so that's where that picture was made with Mrs. Eisenhower.$$And (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And the--those are the officers who was the executive director, Dorothy Height and I was treasurer, and Reba was still, Reba Cann [Reba S. Cann] from Cincinnati [Ohio] was still vice president and we had the officer, so that was where that was taken.$Now before we went there, the president had a housekeeper. Well, my husband [General Lamar Harrison] when he walk- worked--when he went to Howard University [Washington, D.C.] he worked his way through, he had to work some place to go. And he was for us hiring the students to work, not a housekeeper. So, I was the first to have four or five students who got everything paid, they didn't have to pay a dime. They got the room, the tuition, their--their registration, everything was paid. And then during the month, once a month, I gave them five dollars change to spend whatever they might need, you know. So I helped each year, I helped five--four or five students. One worked on the yard, one worked in the house and kept the floors, at the time we had hardwood floors. And then one did the cooking and one waited the table. So when guests came, the person waited the table and they learned. They usually were home ec [home economics] students that knew something about it. But they always said they knew more by actually doing it in--at my house. So, one of the--one of my friends here who taught school, who finished Langston [Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma] by working through because she lived in that old--in that black town wrote and said she had no money at all, but she was determined to get an education. So she came and one of the--her professors she said told her--took her down to my house and asked me to give her a job because she needed it. And so she finished, when she graduated I gave her a summer at summer school at Oklahoma A and M [Oklahoma Territorial Agricultural and Mechanical College; Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma]. Then she went to Indiana [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana] and when she was there, she needed some money and wrote us and I sent it to her. So when she finished and started teaching here, she wanted to pay me back and I said, no you just pass that on to another person who'd help her to go to school too. So during the twenty years, I had almost a hundred students who got their education by working for us in the house and doing and going to school. So some of them still call me. I have one from Oklahoma City [Oklahoma] that called me for my birthday this last, in December. And they, you know, they--they--they referred to--to those kids as Prexy's [ph.] kids on the campus. But they--one mother told her daughter, she said, "If it hadn't been for Mrs. Harrison [HistoryMaker Dorothy Harrison] you would not have an education." And three of her daughters, two of them worked for me in the house, you know, during when she was going to school. And they have asked me when students have had homecoming, they have asked me to come back and be there for their homecoming. You know, it--it made me feel good that, you know, they recognize it. So I enjoyed my--I enjoyed my--I went--as I said, we had service on Sunday in the--in the chapel, you know, for the students and I always went there. And one of the--the dean of the school of the Baptist school, they had a school right outside of the campus on down the road and he taught sociology I think up on the campus and he served as chaplain on Sunday. And he always said, "Mrs. Harrison, you were always a lady on the campus." It was a nice tribute, wasn't it?$$Yeah, I'll say so.

Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey

Reverend Mary Edith Ivey is an accomplished teacher and principal, government manager, and minister. Ivey was born in Vian, Oklahoma on February 9, 1937, the youngest of five children born to Boyd Henry, a barber and construction worker, and Lucy Henry, a domestic and homemaker. She prepared for a career as a teacher, earning her B.A. degree in 1959 from the College of Oklahoma. She taught for several years in Lawton, Oklahoma and then spent twelve years as an educator in the Kansas City, Missouri Public School System - serving as a teacher, student and family home-school coordinator, head teacher and assistant principal. She attended graduate school at the University of Missouri and earned her M.A. degree in education from the University of Oklahoma.

In 1972, Ivey changed careers, becoming the Director of Program Evaluations for the Model Cities Program in the District of Columbia. She next served as Chief of Mental Health Planning for the District with her final government position being Chief of Long Range Planning for the District, before retiring in 1994.

Ivey prepared for the ministry by obtaining her Master’s of Divinity degree in 2001 from Wesley Theological Seminary in Washington and her Ph.D. in divinity from Howard University. She was ordained into the gospel ministry at the historic Shiloh Baptist Church in Washington, D.C. and at the First Missionary Baptist Church in her home town of Vian, Okalahoma. She served as an Associate Minister at Shiloh Baptist before founding her own church—the non-denominational Church of God’s Love. She is also the founder, President and CEO of Maine Avenue Ministries. Her dissertation for her Howard University divinity degree was published in 2006—entitled Care Giving and Love; Let’s Overcome Violence Everywhere. Ivey’s Maine Avenue Ministries, founded in 1999 in Washington, D.C. is an umbrella for the World of Spiritual Service Leadership Scholarship Awards Program, The Institute for Spirituality, Education and Health and Community Fellowship, the LOVE program (Let’s Overcome Violence Everywhere), and the Long Term Advocacy Program.

Ivey is a widow—her husband, Monteria Ivey, who was an economist, passed away in 2002. She resides in Washington, D.C.

Ivey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 9, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.137

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/9/2006

Last Name

Ivey

Schools

The Douglas School

R. T. Coles Vocational/Junior High School

Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

University of Oklahoma

Wesley Theological Seminary

Howard University School of Divinity

First Name

Mary

Birth City, State, Country

Vian

HM ID

IVE01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I Love You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/9/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

City government administrator, elementary school teacher, and minister Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey (1937 - ) founded her own church, Church of God's Love, and is president and CEO of Maine Avenue Ministries.

Employment

Maine Avenue Ministries

Church of God's Love

Dunbar School

Richardson Elementary School

Booker T. Washington School

Model Cities

Department of Human Services

Favorite Color

Powder Blue

Timing Pairs
429,0:8010,108:9030,122:12413,153:18318,222:18778,228:19238,234:25678,341:26046,346:29266,391:39989,472:41067,488:44609,557:45225,568:45610,574:52848,689:53310,696:53849,704:64863,825:70452,926:71181,939:71505,944:72396,957:72720,962:75312,1004:77499,1046:79848,1086:80172,1091:80496,1096:105228,1495:106020,1509:112080,1529:112440,1536:119640,1739:122670,1757$0,0:1694,43:2178,48:5633,64:6344,74:11400,155:19290,230:20291,244:20928,253:21565,262:29040,333:40064,476:40388,481:40874,488:41198,493:43547,536:43871,541:44438,550:47030,601:49622,644:52133,688:56548,695:56860,700:58108,725:63334,828:63646,833:63958,838:64426,845:74220,939:76245,968:76620,974:81795,1103:83370,1129:83670,1134:89862,1190:90118,1195:90630,1208:91718,1244:97626,1287:102282,1317:103184,1330:105152,1390:111840,1438:116415,1516:117015,1525:118065,1543:118590,1552:122779,1620:130852,1761:132577,1818:132853,1823:133129,1828:133474,1834:134095,1845:135820,1876:136234,1883:136717,1892:140970,1906:141570,1917:142395,1931:142845,1939:143145,1944:143670,1954:153570,2114:162380,2199:164123,2222:170149,2262:170551,2269:176538,2347:183218,2398:183799,2406:184961,2422:185293,2427:186123,2441:187368,2457:187700,2462:190024,2496:190688,2507:192265,2531:192597,2536:196482,2553:196778,2558:197148,2564:198184,2586:200626,2637:200922,2642:201218,2647:202550,2671:207276,2712:207552,2717:208035,2726:211278,2810:221988,2939:222541,2947:223331,2959:223647,2964:226096,3005:272182,3759:272721,3768:273337,3777:276340,3824:276725,3831:277110,3837:279882,3891:287054,3953:289022,3985:290006,4001:290580,4009:292138,4032:292466,4037:296156,4093:296566,4100:297304,4110:304250,4160
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her mother's education and employment

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her father's employment and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her childhood home in Vian, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls growing up as the youngest of five children

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the role of religion in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her family's holidays and entertainment

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her elementary school education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her childhood mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her disposition as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls briefly living in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her parents' employment in Kansas City

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls the Oklahoma College for Women

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls obtaining a teaching position in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her career at Richardson Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls her promotions to assistant principal and principal

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls joining the Model Cities program, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls joining the Model Cities program, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls the loss of funding for the Model Cities program

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her career at the Department of Human Services

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey recalls meeting her husband at Shiloh Baptist Church

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey remembers retiring from government in 1994

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her calling to the ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the process of ordination

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her first sermon

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey remembers the Howard University School of Divinity

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about her book, 'Care Giving and Love'

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about founding Maine Avenue Ministries

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her mission at Maine Avenue Ministries

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the Let's Overcome Violence Everywhere program

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about founding the Church of God's Love

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes the National Association of Minority Political Families

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about her organizational involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey talks about The HistoryMakers project

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

11$7

DATitle
Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her earliest childhood memory
Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey describes her calling to the ministry
Transcript
What are your earliest, farthest back memories as a child? How far back can you remember as a child? What incidents and situations do you remember?$$I remember going to school [Douglas School, Vian, Oklahoma] when I was about three years old. My [paternal] grandmother, Mary [Mary Henry], also kept teachers who were--single teachers who were boarding and she had one teacher named Edith Jenkins and my middle name is for her. And Ms. Jenkins was unmarried and so she made her--I was like her little toy girl. So, she taught me to read--to read by the time I was three years old. And she made reading fun to me, and I bless the Lord for her to this day because, because of her, I've always enjoyed reading. It is my passion now. If I could get rid of some of the books I have, I could (laughter)--yeah, but anyway, I remember that. And I always--and I used to like to dance when I got older. And I just like fun and people. I'm very outgoing and very gregarious and so if it was fun--and then when I was a little girl, I used to go--I wanted to go to the fields and work and make some money. And I was perhaps the only girl my age or the youngest in town catching the trucks going to the fields to pick tomatoes, pick strawberries, cut spinach and all of that. And my mother [Lucy Ballard Lacy] would say, "Now, don't you get up there on that truck and get hurt and fall off." And everybody in town were saying, "Why do they let her go?" But I would cry to go. I would beg to go because I was always independent, always wanted my money, always liked shoes and my mother would let me buy a pair of shoes with my money (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) You still like shoes?$$--and go to the fair. Yes, I still like them. I have far too many.$You're known today and we want to begin to talk about the--your religious leadership and your ministries and a number of other organizations that you have founded and, and all related to human services and so on. Tell us how you began to move into the field of ministry. This happened after you retired or before or?$$Yes, after I retired, and I, I shared with you a little earlier that both my mother [Lucy Ballard Lacy] and my husband [Monteria Ivey, Sr.] were ill, and I just didn't know which way to turn, and I would often times come right in this room, in the living room, and get on my knees before the sofa or in front of a chair and just pray. And that's--was during the time that I felt that I was called to the ministry and that's during the time I was telling God, "I don't see how I can do this. I just--," and then some things began to be revealed to me. I went to a person's home who was on her death bed, so to speak, that I took my husband by to visit with her, and her name was Gertie Mae Turner [ph.]. She ended up leaving Shiloh Baptist Church [Washington, D.C.], a lot of her property and the building that they use for the office building, and some units in the same block of the church as well. But she said to me that day, she said, "The Lord wants you to speak for Him," and I had not mentioned to anybody but my mother, and my mother never knew her, and my mother was in Oklahoma and my husband about the ministry call. They both had encouraged me to do it but I hadn't really done anything about it. And so that was shocking to me. I knew my husband had not spoken to her because by that time, he couldn't dial the phone by himself. And I knew she was very sick, and I knew he had--so that shocked me. And I told Reverend Smith [Wallace Charles Smith] when I went to here and he said that often happens in life (unclear). So, different things began to happen to me, that I was asking God to show me some signs and what have you if--and I would say this, don't ask to be shown if you don't know what you're going to be shown because some of the things were frightening to me that happened, but I realized that God was doing what I had asked God to do. And so when my mother died, I said to a minister in Oklahoma, another female minister, that I was called to the ministry but I had not acknowledged it and that I felt empty inside. And, you know, it was a painful feeling and she said that, "You're going to always feel that way if you don't declare God publicly." Because she said, "I've been through it. The same thing happened to me." She said, "And once you declare it and begin, then you will feel different," and she was telling the truth. That was true. So I came back and actually we were at a Lott Carey [Landover, Maryland] meeting and I was co-chairing something for the Lott Carey for Reverend Smith and I just broke down--we were at the Shoreham Hotel and started crying. And he thought someone had said something to me or done something, so he said, "Well, what's wrong?" And we ended up going into a room talking, and I told him what had happened and he, he kids now and he says, publicly, he said, "I nearly fell out when Mary [HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Mary Ivey] told me (laughter)." But, anyway, he told me to come to his office and talk, and I went to his office and talked. And he was teaching a class or two at Wesley Theological Seminary [Washington, D.C.] at the time and so the first thing he said to me, he said, well, "We gotta get you before the board, gotta do a trial sermon, and then also we gotta get you in Wesley." And that's how I happened to go to Wesley Seminary. He just said, "Wesley," and I went to Wesley and I really enjoyed it, but I also was ordained in Oklahoma before I finished Wesley by the same woman's husband who told me that I would feel empty. Her husband was the pastor of the church that my mother attended. And he invited me to be ordained at that church since my mother had been one of his closest friends in there. And he's dead now, but I went there and I was ordained, and then when I graduated from seminary, I was ordained here at Shiloh also.

Leatrice Branch Madison

Civic leader, retired educator, and community activist Leatrice Branch Madison, was born September 5, 1922 in Washington, D.C. to Julia Bailey Branch and Hayes Branch. She was the oldest of three daughters. She attended the racially segregated public schools of Washington, D.C., graduating from Dunbar Senior High in 1939. Madison went on to earn a bachelor’s of science degree (cum laude) from Miner Teachers College in Washington, D.C. in 1943 and a master’s of arts degree in guidance and personnel from the University of Chicago in 1947.

Madison taught in the public schools of Washington, D.C. from 1943 to 1949 and Cleveland, Ohio between 1949-1951 and again later from 1954-1960, before becoming a fulltime wife, mother, homemaker and community volunteer in 1960. During this time, she also worked as an assistant librarian at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design (1951-1952). Madison has served on the boards of numerous educational and human services organizations, including the Bingham Day Nursery, United Way Services, the Federation for Community Planning, Case Western Reserve University Board of Overseers, and Blue Cross of Northeast Ohio. Madison was a founding member of Heights Citizens for Human Rights—forerunner of Heights Community Congress--an organization established to ensure equal rights and fair housing for minorities moving into Cleveland Heights. She was also a founder of and one of the original board members for HARAMBEE: Services to Black Families, an agency designed to provide parenting skills to teenage parents and to recruit permanent adoptive homes for Black youngsters.

Madison’s devotion to community service also inspired committee work with the Urban League of Greater Cleveland, Friends of Karamu, the NAACP Fund Dinner, Case Western Reserve University’s Visiting Committee on the Humanities, the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra Advisory Council, the Planned Parenthood Long Range Planning Committee, and the Juvenile Court Youth Services Advisory Board, among others. In 1963, she helped launch the Cleveland Heights / University Heights Summer School Project, recruiting participants from the Cleveland Public Schools and raising funds to offer financial assistance to those in need. The project, which ended in 1969, helped pave the way for the integration of the Cleveland Heights / University Heights Schools.

Madison is the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including the NAACP’s Distinguished Service Plaque, the Federation for Community Planning’s President’s Award, Who’s Who Among Black Americans, and the University of Chicago Alumni Association’s Public Service Award. In 1999, Mrs. Madison and her husband Robert P. Madison received the Cleveland Opera Award for their visionary support of the arts in Cleveland. In 2004, she was honored by the Golden Age Centers for her many years of community service. Madison is an alumna member and former president of the Links, Incorporated, Cleveland Chapter.

Madison and her husband, Robert, reside in Shaker Heights, Ohio. They are the parents of two adult daughters.

Madison was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 14, 2004.\

Leatrice Madison passed away on March 30, 2012.

Accession Number

A2004.074

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/14/2004

Last Name

Madison

Maker Category
Middle Name

Branch

Occupation
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Miner Teachers College

University of Chicago

Shaw Junior High School

Lucretia Mott Elementary School

First Name

Leatrice

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

MAD03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

9/5/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pudding (Corn)

Death Date

3/30/2012

Short Description

Community activist Leatrice Branch Madison (1922 - 2012 ) is a co-founder of and one of the original board members for HARAMBEE: Services to Black Families, an agency designed to provide parenting skills to teenage parents and to recruit permanent adoptive homes for African American children.

Employment

District of Columbia Public Schools

Cleveland Public Schools

Harvard University Graduate School of Design

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Leatrice Branch Madison's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Leatrice Branch Madison lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her childhood home in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about the schools she and her siblings attended

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Leatrice Branch Madison describes her school years in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Leatrice Branch Madison recalls being in teachers college as the United States entered World War II

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Leatrice Branch Madison recalls how she met and married her husband, HistoryMaker Robert P. Madison

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her husband's experience in the 92nd Infantry during World War II

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Leatrice Branch Madison remembers the 1930s and 1940s

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her grandparents and the death of her grandmothers

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about the political affiliations of Washington, D.C.'s African American community during the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about voting rights for Washington, D.C. residents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her membership in the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her mother's influence on her own civic engagement and her parent's attempt to buy a house

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about living in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Leatrice Branch Madison recalls her time living in Paris, France, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Leatrice Branch Madison recalls her time living in Paris, France, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Leatrice Branch Madison recalls returning to the U.S. and teaching in Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her daughters and Karamu

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Leatrice Branch Madison describes enduring racist terror in Cleveland Heights, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Leatrice Branch Madison describes the racial demographics of Cleveland Heights, Ohio when her family moved there in 1960

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about people who lived in Cleveland Heights, Ohio and her involvement in community organizations

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her neighbors in Cleveland Heights, Ohio and integrating a summer school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her experience with the education system in Cleveland Heights, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Leatrice Branch Madison recalls when she began to see changes in the racial demographics of students in Cleveland Heights, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about a recommendation she made for inner city schools in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about the HARAMBEE adoption program

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her involvement with the Women's Committee of the Cleveland Orchestra

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her volunteer efforts through Jack and Jill and The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about Project Discovery and United Way Services

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about predominantly black organizations The Links, Incorporated and Jack and Jill of America

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about the importance of education reform and her concerns for the 21st century

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about fundraising

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Leatrice Branch Madison talks about her grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Leatrice Branch Madison reflects upon her success and awards she has received

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Leatrice Branch Madison remembers moving to Paris, France and serving on the Cleveland Heights-University Heights Public Library Board

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Leatrice Branch Madison narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

9$7

DATitle
Leatrice Branch Madison describes enduring racist terror in Cleveland Heights, Ohio
Leatrice Branch Madison recalls returning to the U.S. and teaching in Ohio
Transcript
Now Cleveland Heights [Ohio] is a rather exclusive suburb at that point in history isn't it?$$I guess it was. Guess it was.$$Was that a positive experience then integrating the neighborhood?$$Well we had some good neighbors.$$Okay.$$We got threatened before we ever moved. See one thing that happened, the Sun Press had an article, a very inflammatory article because some people had moved--(unclear) those areas. And the Sun Press, you know, in essence, the Negroes are comin'. And we got threatened. Somebody called my husband [HistoryMaker Robert P. Madison] and, you know, asked him why was he movin' and our house was just about complete. As a matter of fact, we were gonna move in the next weekend, the next week, we'd move on the weekend. And he told Monk [Robert P. Madison] he would buy his house, buy our house if we would meet. And Monk said okay I'll meet you at my office and he never showed up. But during that period, and I don't know why, [J.] Newton Hill came as director of Karamu [House, Cleveland, Ohio] and they bombed his house. And then he was gonna buy a house from a family named Garrd, no I got it backwards. The Garrd family, G-A-R-R-D, they said they would sell to Newton Hill, they bombed it. So when they sold to Newton Hill they bombed it again. So I heard both of those. And one of, this is the irony you deal with, and one of those occasions, Robert Madison had left home to get the model of the American Embassy to take to the [U.S.] State Department the next day. And I'm sittin' here with two little kids [Jeanne Madison and Juliette Madison] and the house is shakin'. And, you know, he is getting this kind of recognition and this is what's happening. And then one Mother's Day we heard, it was night, we had been out to dinner and come in, we heard a bomb and they bombed Rodger Saffold's house at one point. So I don't know. We never did find out. And I got a copy of the letter we used to get religiously in that box, the hangman's noose and the letter. And we called the Cleveland Heights police and I called the FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation]. I never heard that they found anybody or that they knew who it was. But it ceased after a while. And we had some good neighbors who looked out for us.$$Okay. So you built the home in Cleveland Heights, is that one that Mr. Madison designed?$$As a matter of fact, there are two Madison design houses side-by-side. We moved, we were supposed to move the same time, we were a week apart. How it all got started, a guy who was a psychiatrist, who has since died, Charles DeLeon, came and said to Monk, "I have two adolescent daughters and I'm livin' in an apartment, I wanna build a house." So his wife, Sydney [ph.], and I, we'd go out and look at land, and we had looked in Bratenahl [Ohio], we'd lookin' out in Mayfield Village [Ohio], we're lookin'. And Robert came home one day and said, "Ya know, I was drivin' down North Park Boulevard and I saw two lots." So we got a white lawyer who bought those two lots for us and gave us a quick claim deed. And then Robert designed the houses, and the City of Cleveland Heights said okay if you go in straight up, you know, with no deception, it's okay. So (unclear) the contractor said the same thing. And so we moved in our house first, October the 27th, 1960. And I will never forget the first night we were there, all of a sudden I see all these people running out in the street, across the street to the ravine. I thought oh my God what has happened now. I didn't hear anything. But nothin' happened. And then one night somebody came up into our circular driveway and the light came down our drape, and Monk ran outside to see what it was and I was pleading with him, "Don't go out, don't go out, stay in here." We had some harrowing times, but we survived.$And so, when you came home in '53 [1953] where did you settle?$$Well, we went back to Washington [D.C.] and he [Madison's husband, HistoryMaker Robert P. Madision] taught a year and announced he was coming back here [Cleveland, Ohio] to open his office. So I said well since we like to eat, I got up and got a job teachin'. So I taught a semester before we came back here, and we came back here in '54 [1954] and he opened his office, you see. When I came here in '49 [1949] I had my master's [degree] and I went down--people told me, "Oh Cleveland board won't hire you, they don't hire colored teachers." What it is, they would only hire colored teachers and put up in an area where there were colored teachers and colored kids. It happens, thank goodness, I wrote to the state first and got my certificate for elementary schools and for guidance counseling, and went down and talked to Dr. Levinson [ph.]. And Miles Standish [Elementary School, Cleveland, Ohio] at that point was in transition. And so he said I'm--we didn't even have a car, so he said I'm gonna appoint you to Miles Standish--no I'm gonna appoint you to a school on a streetcar line. So every day I rode the bus and then I had to walk that long two blocks from 105th street to Miles Standish until we got a car. And so I taught there a year and a half. But while I was down at the board of education, I went to find out about guidance counseling. So I went to information, they said to go to the second floor. I went to the second floor and they said, oh no go to the sixth floor, this was 1949. And I went to the sixth floor, they said go to the second floor. I said, I just left the second floor and we just stood and looked at each other. Slowly it dawned on me I was getting the run around, and I don't have good sense. We came back in '54 [1954] and I went through the same thing again (laughter).$$But you got hired?$$Well I got hired to teach, but I got a degree to do some counseling, I think I could do some counseling as well as some of these other people.$$Did you ever get a position counseling?$$No, 'cause I came home, eventually.

Ann Cooper

Ann Louise Nixon Cooper was born on January 9, 1902 in Shelbyville, Tennessee and attended school in that rural community. After the death of their mother, she and her six siblings were separated, and an aunt raised Ann. In 1922, Ann Nixon married Albert Berry Cooper, a young dentist in Nashville, Tennessee. Soon after, the Coopers moved to Atlanta, Georgia, where Dr. Cooper established a highly successful dental practice, and the young couple started their family of four children. Cooper served as a homemaker for most of her life, working briefly in 1923 as a policy writer for the Atlanta Life Insurance Company, which had been established in 1905 by African American barber Alonzo Herndon.

Cooper was a vibrant member of Atlanta’s African American elite for more than eighty years. During the first half of the 20th century, she and her husband counted as friends or acquaintances such luminaries as educators W.E.B. Du Bois, Lugenia Burns Hope and John Hope Franklin, Benjamin E. Mays and E. Franklin Frazier. She was an adult eyewitness to life in Georgia during two world wars, the Great Depression, and the efforts of whites to maintain segregation.

Cooper has worked to improve conditions in the African American community for much of her adult life. For more than fifty years, she has served on the board of directors of the Gate City Nursery Association. She was a founder of a Girls Club for African American youth in Atlanta, and in the 1970s, she taught people to read in a tutoring program at the historic Ebenezer Baptist Church.

In 1980, Cooper received a community service award for her activism from Atlanta’s WXIA-TV. In 2002, she was awarded the Annie L. McPheeters Medallion for community service from the Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History.

The centenarian was the oldest living member of the Atlanta Chapter of the Links, Inc. and had been a member of the Utopian Literary Club since 1948.

On the evening of November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected the first African American president of the United States. That night, in his acceptance speech, President-elect Obama mentioned Ann Cooper and stated that her life exemplified the struggle and hope of the African American experience of the 20th and 21st centuries. She saw the changing times from the Depression and the Jim Crow South to new technologies and the election of the first African American United States president.

Cooper passed away on December 21, 2009 at the age of 107.

Cooper was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 24, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.035

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/24/2004 |and| 12/8/2005

Last Name

Cooper

Maker Category
Middle Name

Louise

Occupation
First Name

Ann

Birth City, State, Country

Shelbyville

HM ID

COO06

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

To Thine Own Self Be True.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

1/9/1902

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

12/21/2009

Short Description

Civic activist Ann Cooper (1902 - 2009 ) served on the board of directors of the Gate City Nursery Association for more than fifty years, was a founder of a Girls Club in Atlanta and was the oldest member of the Atlanta Chapter of the Links, Inc.

Employment

Atlanta Life Insurance Company

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ann Cooper's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper describes her husband's roots in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ann Cooper describes the fragmentation of her extended family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ann Cooper describes her father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper describes her experiences at fairs in Tennessee and movie theaters in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper talks about changing her name as a child, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper talks about her memories of Gallatin, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper talks about her family's experiences at Langley Hall in Gallatin, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper talks about childhood mischief with her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper describes her brother, James Henry Nixon, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ann Cooper describes the original namesake of her husband, Albert Berry Cooper, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ann Cooper talks about the lives of her sisters

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ann Cooper describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper recalls her father's talent as a shoemaker

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper describes the relationship between whites and blacks in Gallatin, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper talks about leaving home after the death of her mother in 1913

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper describes her experiences with organized schooling

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper describes her first meeting with her husband, Albert Berry Cooper, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper describes her courtship with her future husband, Albert Berry Cooper, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ann Cooper describes her courtship with her future husband, Albert Berry Cooper, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper talks about moving to Atlanta, Georgia with her husband in the early 1920s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper talks about the homes where she has lived in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper describes visits from famous African American singers to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper talks about Charlotte Hawkins Brown of the Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper talks about her friendship with sociologist E. Franklin Frazier

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper talks about her interactions with W.E.B. Du Bois

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ann Cooper talks about the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1940s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper talks about her friendship with Jessie Herndon

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper describes the dance halls in Atlanta, Georgia during the mid-20th century

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper describes her relationship with the Rucker family of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper talks about her membership in the Utopian Literary Club

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper talks about John and Lugenia Burns Hope

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper talks about Benjamin E. Mays and Sadie Mays

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ann Cooper describes her experiences with racial discrimination on public transit in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ann Cooper describes her experiences with racial discrimination on public transit in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper describes her volunteer activities at the Gate City Day Nursery

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper describes her volunteer activities with the Girls' Club of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper describes her tenure as a den mother with the Cub Scouts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper talks about why history is important

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ann Cooper describes nearly drowning as a small child

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper narrates her photographs

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Ann Cooper's interview, session two

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper reflects on her process for running meetings

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper talks about her mother's origins, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper talks about her mother's origins, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper describes her family life during childhood in Bedford County, Tennessee

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper describes her mother's death in 1913

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper talks about her father's death in 1915, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper talks about changing her name as a child, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper talks about changing her name as a child, pt. 3

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper shares memories of her childhood in Tennessee

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper talks about her father's death in 1915, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper lists her siblings

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Ann Cooper describes her father's extended family

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Ann Cooper talks about her aunt, Joyce Nixon

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper describes her grade school experiences

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper describes the family background of her aunt, Joyce Nixon

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper describes her social surroundings in Nashville, Tennessee during World War I

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper describes the romantic drama from her early relationship with her husband

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper talks about moving to Atlanta, Georgia with her husband

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Ann Cooper describes her father-in-law, a preacher in the A.M.E. church in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Ann Cooper describes her marriage to her husband, Albert Berry Cooper, Jr., in 1922

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Ann Cooper talks about her involvement with the A.M.E. church in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Ann Cooper describes looking for her first job in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Ann Cooper talks about working at the Atlanta Life Insurance Company

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Ann Cooper describes her experiences with the Herndon family

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

7$2

DATitle
Ann Cooper describes her experiences with racial discrimination on public transit in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1
Ann Cooper describes her volunteer activities with the Girls' Club of Atlanta, Georgia
Transcript
If you don't mind moving forward a little bit in time to--back perhaps to the 1950s and the incident on the bus.$$Oh yeah (laughter), yeah, let's see that might have even been after the '50s [1950s]. I was living here [Atlanta, Georgia], and you see there's a trestle right up the street there, and as far as the buses would go would be at that trestle and we were at that time having trolleys, you know the thing controlled by the trolley up there you had to get out and change that trolley to go back in the other direction, so by the time it got out here I would be the last one on there and usually I'd been sitting, when I got on it was crowded and I'm sitting on that side seat, and but when the old trolley man got off to change his trolley and jumped out the front door and I jumped right out behind him. And I was always going to town on--a friend and I caught ourselves having a day off, so I think Tuesday was our day off and I'd just go, and we just go 'cause our day off--and we bought, we'd buy things you know. And my husband [Albert Berry Cooper, Jr.] would always try to kind of keep up with what I'm buying, and by the time we got down here if he beat me home he's down there to see whether I got off, walked up with (laughter), and so I was gonna beat him home that day and I jumped off the trolley right behind the wrong man, though my old man wasn't on there that day, there was a young man on there and so he looked up and said, "Nigger get back on that bus and go out that back door!" (Laughter) See you got on the front, but all black folks had to get out the back door no matter how crowded, you gotta find your way to get out that back door. I thought, what, I'm down on the ground, feet headed this way. I thought, you and who else gonna make me get back on (laughter) you get on that--oh no, I got my feet headed this way, I'm, and I'm trying to beat my husband home (laughter). Anyway, you know any other lady, any lady would have just walked on, but I'm walking on home, now he telling me, "You get!" I thought, I said, "Look, my husband be driving along here in a few minutes." I said, "He catch you meddling with me he'll beat your head to a pulp." (Laughter) He jumped on that (unclear) (laughter). So you felt better doing something like that than you did walking on home after he done told you twice, "Get back on that bus, go out that back door" (laughter), and the next incident that got me, we had about--they tell me now we weren't paying but a nickel I think. You get on there and you could ride all the way down to Rich's [Atlanta, Georgia?] from Davison's [Atlanta, Georgia]. I don't remember how much it was, but when I got on, it was all full. There was that one seat there and the man sitting this way, you know, right behind the driver and there was that seat there. He's sitting there with his feet up on that seat, that side seat. So, I'm looking all around everywhere and didn't see any place, so I thought when I sat down he'd just move his feet, but I sat down and he said, "Nigger don't sit down in front of me." I said, "Oh you great white man," (laughter) and I got up and I said, "you sit there," you know, then he'd be sitting in front of me. "Oh, baby come on back here you can have my seat," all the colored folks you know sitting all the way back, "you can have my seat." I said, "No, let him move. He don't want me sitting in front of--" (laughter), so no he ain't gonna move.$That [Gate City Day Nursery Association, Atlanta, Georgia] went on and on and did well, and then they asked me to come on the committee to make plans for a black Girls Club. And the man who was head of the YMCA [Young Men's Christian Association] called us together for that. So one friend who was on this board of Gate City with me, we answered that call and they--all these projects were getting up, apartments were just getting started, so there was a Grady Homes [Atlanta, Georgia] place over there. We took on a--the girls, you know, being left at home alone and getting attacked and all that sort of thing, we took on, I took on this auxiliary and we organized and finally got things going. We were into the United Way, not, that what used to be the, what did we call it first, not United Way, but it was--what was the organization that you could get all these help from? Community Chest, maybe (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Community Chest.$$Well anyway we got in touch with different people and a Mr. [Walter H.] Kessler who ran the Kessler department store [Kessler's, Atlanta, Georgia], was one of our board members. He gave us the first one thousand, I believe he gave us eleven hundred dollars to qualify to get into the United Way, and then he and his son served, we all would be on that board and we did everything. I'd bring the little girls out here and have graduation parties for 'em and they went from--first out of elementary school. We didn't have all of these middle schools and everything then. And my chapter of The Links [Incorporated] would give me gifts for--and make gifts for them as they graduated. That went well for the longest, then they decided they'd make us integrate. White women built a club out there on Donnelly Avenue. So, when they made us integrate and we went out there, well they took all their white girls away, you know, so (laughter), and they had--the women always said when they got all these things going if it got going and we took in men or white women and all that, they'd take it away from them, they'd lose all the credit, so sure enough they got in there and somebody would have the--a president of a bank or something, president of the Grady Homes [Community] Girls Club [Atlanta, Georgia]. Well, when they made us integrate they fussed, now who gonna be the executive director, should it be white or colored. We fought and fought and we finally got a lady to come down here from Chicago [Illinois] to be president. She didn't know anything about what all that was about, so of course they had to let her go on back about her business, so then we had no fight any longer, the white woman would take it and we learned after it was all settled that it was--the woman who took it was the wife of the man who'd been running the Boys Club all the time. So, you know that was a national thing, Girls and Boys Clubs [sic. Boys & Girls Clubs of America]. It wasn't the Girls Club, a black girls' club. So, when we knew anything, they had joined. It's not Boys Club and Girls Club, it's Boys and Girls Club, so of course then they, nobody was using this building out here on Donnelly, they had us going over to a little place over there on Edgewood Avenue, so tight over there, no parking and I thought well--and then we had a white man president of all of it, so I gave that up, but we had put on some wonderful programs for those girls. But, I gave that up, and the other woman who had worked with me, I had brought her in, she worked for the gas company, Gladys Powell was her name. I think she's out there, and she came in, you know we taught those girls a lot 'cause we were in one to one with them, and I'd say I'd bring 'em out here, bring 'em out here to Mozley Park [Atlanta, Georgia] and we'd put on carnivals and I, well we did everything to raise a little money. That's when my husband [Albert Berry Cooper, Jr.] would fuss about I wouldn't be at home at night. I'd go have a party and I got to chaperone that and so (laughter), but those are the things that I'd spent my time doing.

Frances T. Matlock

Honored teacher and advisor, Frances Matlock was born in Chicago on January 6, 1907. She attended Proviso East High School, where she was the only black student in her 1924 graduating class. While a student, several exceptional teachers inspired Matlock to pursue a career in education. She earned an associate's degree from Chicago Normal College (now Chicago State University) and a bachelor's degree in Education from Northwestern University in 1928.

Matlock's prolific career has included work in elementary education as well as civic and community activism. She taught Social Studies for the Chicago Public School system at Hayes Elementary School and Forestville Elementary School from 1933-1972, and served on the Chicago Public School's Board of Education. She acted as an advisor to the NAACP's Youth Leadership Council from 1935-1941, overseeing the early efforts of such notables as Dr. Margaret Burroughs, founder of the African American Museum of Black History; Gwendolyn Brooks, Pulitzer Prize winning poet; and John Johnson, publisher of Ebony and Jet magazines. The council fostered the growth of these future leaders by participating in marches and demonstrations in protest of lynching. Shortly thereafter, Matlock put her public relations talents to work to help raise the funds to establish the Southside Community Art Center, which was dedicated by Eleanor Roosevelt in 1941. Matlock worked on a national level as a public relations and publicity assistant for the original March-On-Washington, in which demonstrators demanded that President Roosevelt provide jobs for Blacks in the World War II defense plants. From 1953-1993 she served as publicity chairman and archivist for the Chicago Chapter of The Links, Inc., an organization that provides financial support to college-bound youth.

Her interests and activities are international in scope. For her years of support and dedication to the Jamaican community, Matlock received Special Recognition from the Consul of Jamaica. In addition, Matlock was granted a Golden Alumnus Award from Chicago State University in 1999. The following year, Operation Uplift honored her with their Golden Heritage Award. In acknowledgment of her role as a teacher and mentor, and her unyielding work for her community, Matlock has been inducted into the Chicago Senior Citizen's Hall of Fame.

Accession Number

A2002.083

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/3/2002

Last Name

Matlock

Maker Category
Middle Name

T.

Schools

Emerson Elem School

Proviso East High School

Washington Elem School

Chicago State University

Northwestern University

First Name

Frances

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

MAT01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

1/6/1907

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Chocolate, Steak, Ice Cream

Death Date

11/21/2002

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Frances T. Matlock (1907 - 2002 ) taught in Chicago Public Schools for three decades, and served as an adviser to the NAACP's Youth Leadership Council. She served as a public relations and publicity assistant for the 1932 March on Washington, and from 1953 to 1993 acted as publicity chairman and archivist for the Chicago Chapter of The Links, Inc.

Employment

Chicago Public Schools

Favorite Color

Turquoise

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances T. Matlock's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frances T. Matlock lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frances T. Matlock talks about her family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frances T. Matlock talks about her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frances T. Matlock describes her grandmother, Lydia Baird Bundy

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frances T. Matlock describes moving from Chicago, Illinois to Maywood in 1912

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frances T. Matlock describes her childhood in Maywood, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Frances T. Matlock describes her mother's civic involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Frances T. Matlock describes visiting the wreckage of the SS Eastland in 1915

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Frances T. Matlock remembers meeting a stranger at the Decoration Day parade in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Frances T. Matlock remembers meeting a doctor on a streetcar near Mary Thompson Hospital in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frances T. Matlock remembers her childhood experience at Mary Thompson Hospital in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frances T. Matlock describes seeing the bandleader James Reese Europe perform in a parade

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frances T. Matlock describes her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experience working while attending college

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experience at Proviso High School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frances T. Matlock describes a teacher who helped her

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frances T. Matlock remembers being asked by a classmate when she had no dance partner at Proviso High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frances T. Matlock describes a racist comment made by a high school classmate

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experiences with discrimination at Proviso High School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experience at Chicago Normal School and Northwestern University, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experience at Chicago Normal School and Northwestern University, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frances T. Matlock describes her early experiences as a teacher, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frances T. Matlock describes her early experiences as a teacher, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experience with the NAACP Youth Council, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experience with the NAACP Youth Council, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frances T. Matlock describes planning a dance for the NAACP Youth Council

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frances T. Matlock describes supervising the selection of social studies textbooks for Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frances T. Matlock talks about the historical subjects that she thought important to to black students

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frances T. Matlock talks about buying books from black historian Frederick H. Hammurabi Robb

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frances T. Matlock talks about mentoring Gwendolyn Brooks and HistoryMakers John H. Johnson and Dr. Margaret Burroughs as youth in the NAACP Youth Council

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frances T. Matlock describes the fundraising activities of her friend Gloria Wailes

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experience with the Children's Theatre Group of Chicago

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frances T. Matlock describes her experience training hostesses at Servicemen's Center Number Three during World War II

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frances T. Matlock describes the founding of the South Side Community Art Center

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frances T. Matlock talks about her travels to Trinidad and Jamaica

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frances T. Matlock talks about her two marriages

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frances T. Matlock talks about some of the royalty that she met from Jamaica and Trinidad

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frances T. Matlock talks about Haiti

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frances T. Matlock talks about her experience teaching at Forestville Elementary School

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Frances T. Matlock reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Frances T. Matlock describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Frances T. Matlock reflects upon her parents

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Frances T. Matlock talks about the younger people who treat her like a mother

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Frances T. Matlock describes her concerns for youth facing addiction

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Frances T. Matlock shares her opinion about The HistoryMakers

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Frances T. Matlock narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Frances T. Matlock narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Frances T. Matlock remembers being asked by a classmate when she had no dance partner at Proviso High School
Frances T. Matlock describes her experience with the NAACP Youth Council, pt. 2
Transcript
Oh, the worst situation of all was a boy who lived right across the street from school and his sister, Caroline, Caroline Smith, was the most popular girl in the school. She was, she was blond and blue-eyed and everybody loved her. Everybody just admired her and the day that she came in to school to register as a freshman, all the kids-"Oh, here comes Caroline, here comes Caroline. Caroline was this and Caroline was that." Everybody loved her and I heard about her but she didn't come until about the third day and I wanted to see who she was. Well, anyway, when I saw her, I could see everybody did love her but when we went to gym, I was in the gym class with her, and we took up dancing, we volunteered, we didn't have to, but we volunteered to learn dancing. And we did our little one, two three, one, two, three, one, two, three, and then about the third day, it was time to change to get partners and dance together. Well, you know what happened to me? I had nobody to dance with and I surely wasn't going to ask anybody to be my partner and they weren't going to ask me to be their partner. So there I stood. The other girls all had partners, standing there, waiting to start the dance and I stood there without a partner. My arms were empty and I was just agonized just--at that age, you know, you're sensitive to anything that goes wrong and I didn't know what to do. I hadn't thought about having to get a partner. That didn't dawn on me. All I thought about was learning how to dance but learning how to dance meant you had to have a white--a partner and it could not be a white person, of course, not in those days. So, I just stood there but suddenly, who came to my rescue? Beautiful, blue-eyed, blond, Caroline Smith. Caroline dropped her friend's hands and walked across the gym to me and asked me to be her partner. Now that child--the teacher didn't do it. The teacher should have done it. Should have saved my agonizing embarrassment but the teacher--but the teacher just stood there and--but Caroline came to the rescue and "would you be my partner?" She was so sweet and the incident was over, okay. The music went on and we all, from then on, all of Caroline's friends came to--one by one--she set the pattern and her friends came to me, one by one, and saw to it that I was involved in every dance, I had a partner, so that I didn't have to worry about that agonizing embarrassment any more.$There were several that I was very proud that we could get people on that caliber to come in and teach our kids how to do their committee work. If they're on the publicity committee, show them how to do publicity. If they're on this committee, show them how to do that. Show them--give them your professional experience to do the job. So that's how we made such success of what they were doing 'cause they took it seriously and they did pay attention and they did develop leadership but I thought it was for the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], for the future of the branch. I thought they were going to turn around and help the NAACP but never. I haven't seen anybody. I know [HM] John [H. Johnson] --I've never heard of John being on the board or [HM Dr.] Margaret [Burroughs] being on the board or Gwendolyn [Brooks]. I haven't heard of any of them being on the board.$$But you were talking about--we're rolling again, I just wanted to let you know the camera's rolling again. You were talking about the--your "training trek," you know--$$Yeah.$$--those you train, just so whoever's, you know, when we mention this tape in the future, they'll understand what we're talking about here.$$Yeah.$$So you have something called the "training trek" and you bring in people to train--$$Yeah, we call it the "training trek."$$Okay.$$And we'd start out with Friday night and we'd have a dinner, a nice big dinner Saturday night and it was the weekend and everyone--every October we had this training for future leadership. That's what I called it, for future leadership. But--$$For NAACP?$$But then--for leadership for themselves but not for the NAACP. Margaret led--sure she put the museum [DuSable Museum of African American History] there but once it got--the NAACP had nothing to do with it. See it--Margaret didn't build and it isn't Margaret's fault, it's the leadership. They knew what I was trying to do. I was training them for future leadership and back in those days they had the lynching down in Sikeston, Missouri, the lynching, and they would--we had--we'd march around the streets at night, holding up flags and whatnot and signs, "stop lynching," stop this, stop that, you know. These young kids, these high school kids, marchin' around the neighborhood, protesting against lynching. Now that was NAACP work. That's the kind of work the NAACP should fight against lynching. We met--our kid met Walter [Francis] White, all the other big ones, Roy Wilkins, all those great guys from the--my kids met all of them.$$Just for the record, who's Walter White and Roy Wilkins?$$Who is Walter White?$$Just for the record here.$$Walter White was the Mr. One, Mr. NAACP. He was a little short, blue-eyed, blond hair, you didn't know he was colored. He went--he attended and sat in on a lot of those lynchings. He was in the audience watching them hang that black man, this white-skinned fella, Walter White. He was a great guy. He was the head of the NAACP. When I came in, then there was A. C.--$$Wait a minute, now. He would watch the lynching and then what would he do?$$Yeah, he'd be in the audience.$$Then what would he do?$$And he would testify in court against them. He could do that, see, he was there to observe. If he'd been brown skinned, he would have been killed and he wouldn't have dared be in that audience but see, since he was fair, he could just stand there, just watch them, hang that black man. He couldn't stop them so he might as well watch them and be there as a--to testify--to be there to testify against and see who did it. I saw, he was there, she was there, you know, he could testify.$$So--$$And so I--that's what I thought I was training him to be angry and to be mad and to--to be, you know, head up and work about--against civil rights--against, what is it, the lynching.