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Sekazi Mtingwa

Research physicist and physics professor Sekazi K. Mtingwa was born on October 20, 1949 in Atlanta, Georgia. After receiving his B.S. degrees in physics and pure mathematics (Phi Beta Kappa) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1971, Mtingwa enrolled at Princeton University and graduated from there with his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in theoretical high energy physics in 1976. Mtingwa was awarded doctoral fellowships from the National Fellowships Fund and the Ford Foundation. Upon graduation, he was awarded post-doctoral fellowships and research assistantships at the University of Rochester, the University of Maryland at College Park, and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab).

In 1981, Mtingwa joined Fermilab as a research physicist where he, along with James Bjorken, developed a theory of particle beam dynamics, “intrabeam scattering,” which standardized the performance limitations on a wide class of modern accelerators. Mtingwa also played an important role in the design and construction of two of the Antiproton Source accelerator systems at Fermilab that were used in the discovery of the top quark and other particles. During 1988-1991, Mtingwa joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory where he performed research on a futuristic accelerator concept called wakefield acceleration. In 1991, Mtingwa joined the faculty at North Carolina A & T State University as Chair and Professor of physics. Mtingwa was named J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Physics at Morgan State University in 1997 and then returned to North Carolina A & T State University in 1999. He served as the Martin Luther King, Jr. Visiting Professor of Physics at MIT from 2001 to 2003. He joined the faculty at Harvard University in 2003, where he served as Visiting Professor of Physics for two years. Returning to MIT in 2006, Mtingwa was named Lead Physics Lecturer in the Concourse Program in the Office of the Dean for Undergraduate Education. He was also appointed as the Faculty Director of Academic Programs in the Office of Minority Education. In 2011, he became Principal Partner of Triangle Science, Education & Economic Development, LLC and he was appointed Senior Physics Consultant at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

In addition to his research activities, Mtingwa is involved in a number of national and international initiatives. He is a founder of the African Laser Centre (ALC) and was the principal author of the Strategy and Business Plan upon which the ALC is based. In 1977, Mtingwa was a co-founder of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and served as NSBP President from 1992 to 1994.

Mtingwa has been recognized by national and international organizations for his contributions to science. In 1996, he received the Outstanding Service Award for Contributions to the African American Physics Community from the National Society of Black Physicists. The National Council of Ghanaian Associations honored Mtingwa with the Science Education Award in 2007 for advancing science education among African peoples. Mtingwa was inducted into the African American Biographies Hall of Fame in 1994, and he was elected as a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2008.

Sekazi Mtingwa is married to W. Estella Johnson; they have two daughters.

Research physicist and physics professor Sekazi K. Mtingwa was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 6, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.076

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/6/2013

Last Name

Mtingwa

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Kauze

Occupation
Schools

Princeton University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Henry McNeal Turner High School

Alonzo F. Herndon Elementary

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sekazi

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

MTI01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Town, South Africa

Favorite Quote

Stay yourself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

10/20/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hillsborough

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sea Bass (Mediterranean)

Short Description

Nuclear physicist Sekazi Mtingwa (1949 - ) contributed to the design and construction of the accelerator systems used in the discovery of the top quark at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Mtingwa is a founder of the National Society of Black Physicists and the National Society of Hispanic Physicists, and he has made significant contributions to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education.

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Harvard University

North Carolina A&T State University

Morgan State University

Argonne National Laboratory

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

University of Rochester

University of Maryland, College Park

Favorite Color

Salmon

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sekazi Mtingwa's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his stepfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his schools

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes when he first decided to become a physicist

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his high school mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about transitioning from high school to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about the formation of the black student union at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about the black student union at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about why he chose physics as his field

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his mentors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Princeton University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about Alexander Pushkin pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about Alexander Pushkin pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his time at Princeton University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his doctoral dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about changing his name

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes assisting in the establishment of a university in Tanzania

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes what he did after receiving his doctoral degree from Princeton University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his work at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa explains the Higgs boson, dark matter, and dark energy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement in the Harold Washington Campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes why he joined the group at Argonne National Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about being featured in several magazines

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement in various African organizations

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his physics research as an exchange scholar in the Soviet Union

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about racial prejudice in the field of physics

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about the International Linear Collider

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his time as the Chair of the Physics Department at North Carolina A & T University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement in the African Laser Centre

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes how the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has changed since he was a student

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about visiting Russia for a nuclear waste disposal examination

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa reflects on his awards and recognitions

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his study 'Readiness of the U.S. Nuclear Workforce for Twenty-first Century Problems'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his involvement in President Barack Obama's campaigns

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about being the chair of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Study

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his visit to Tanzania

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement with organization that provide access to scientific instruments

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his involvement in the African Physical Society

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his work on textbooks

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sekazi Mtingwa describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sekazi Mtingwa reflects on his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sekazi Mtingwa reflects on his life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sekazi Mtingwa talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Sekazi Mtingwa talks about the black student union at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sekazi Mtingwa describes his study 'Readiness of the U.S. Nuclear Workforce for Twenty-first Century Problems'
Transcript
Tell us about the beginnings of the black student union at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts]?$$Okay. So we had a group, maybe about ten students, who would get together informally to meet. And you have to understand that the context of that period, with the Vietnam War, protests going on all over the place, you know, the Black Liberation Movement was in full swing. So, some of us, you know, were a part of that type of way of thinking, and we wanted to try to move MIT ahead. So we formed around 1968, probably the fall of '68 [1968]. The first co-chairs were Shirley Jackson, and I think The HistoryMakers did an interview of her. She's now president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [Troy, New York]. And James Turner, who was a graduate student--in fact, at that time, they were both graduate students. Shirley was three years ahead of me. So my sophomore year, she was a first-year graduate student. James Turner, I think he must have been about a third or fourth-year graduate student in physics; they were both in physics. And James Turner actually most--he went on to become a top official at the Department of Energy, and most recently, I think, he's been at the Department of Commerce. But he had quite a career at the top levels of federal government. But, yeah, we basically met and we decided, "Hey let's just do this." And so we formed. And we tried to--one of the biggest initiatives was to get more black students into MIT. So we worked hard on that. And so, at the end of my sophomore year going into the junior year, that entering class went from the typical five-ish to fifty-three. And so the numbers have been big ever since. And, in fact, to this day MIT, again, admits only out of a thousand, eleven hundred students; about 20 percent of those are African Americans; and another 20 percent or so are Latino-Americans. So that we've (simultaneous)--$$(Unclear)--$$--come a long ways. Yeah. But it's interesting. One of the interesting things that helped the African American presence is the students who are immigrants or who are children of African Caribbean immigrants, because that's one thing that you note from the names when you meet many of the students. So that has really helped us intellectually. The black community in this country intellectually has been tremendously enhanced by immigrant students. They come here with a parent wanting a better life for their children, and so they come with that, you know, "Go to college, get your degree," and all that. And you can see the pay off. I don't think we could hit 20 percent of the students, African American students, if we didn't have the immigrants.$$They have a good observation.$$Yeah. It's a great thing. I tend to be a Pan-African, is to me, whether you're from the Caribbean, the continental of the U.S., we're all African peoples.$$Is this something you learned at home or something that you--$$No. I got so much at home, but just as I developed as a graduate student--really as a graduate student, I really became, you know, convinced that, you know, we're all the same. And then having traveled to Africa, you know, so many times. I think that the way people colonize, it's just--it's very similar to--the stories you hear are very similar to the stories of people like me out of Jim Crow South.$$Okay. Just in a different location.$$Just in a different location.$$Similar situations.$$Similar situations, yeah. Yeah.$$And--now. All right. So, the BSU [black student union] really made some gains (unclear).$$Oh, yeah. Definitely. Definitely.$$And I know it still exists actually.$$It still exists. It still exists.$$Shot a picture of it when I was there (simultaneous) (unclear)--$$Oh, you did? All right. That was great.$$--I was walking down the hallway and I saw it. And I said, "Oh, this is the famous BSU at MIT." And I thought--I shot it on my phone (simultaneous) (unclear)--$$Oh, really. Okay.$$--as to--yeah.$$(unclear), you know, it's still alive and well.$$Yeah. Yeah. So many of the people we met were a part--$$It was a part of that, yes.$Now, you were on the Nuc-- the 'Readiness of the U.S. Nuclear Workforce.'$$Okay, yeah. So that was a study I did because I'm--we have a real problem with training, you know, the next generation of nuclear scientists and engineers. And at one point, the Department of Energy, DOE, was cutting back funding the university programs, so I was concerned. You know, if you start cutting back, who is going to operate? Who's going to design the next generation of nuclear reactors if the people are not being educated? So we did this study, and we pointed out to them, you know, how many people are graduating, how much money is going into the university programs. And this report turned out to be extremely important in convincing DOE to turn its attitude around toward university education. And so since this report, their 20 percent of the nuclear fuel--Research and Development Budget--nuclear fuel cycle, Research and Development Budget is going to universities. So, I mean, that's like a big flip from not wanting to give in until now, 20 percent of your funding is going to universities. And that's important. Most of the money goes to the National Laboratories to work on the big problems of nuclear waste storage and so forth. But you need to have university professors and students working on new ideas. You know, turn them loose and let them dream and pursue blue-sky research, because you don't know what major revolution they may start up; what major breakthrough. And so that was the point of that whole story, to try to get more money going to universities to promote students and new ideas.

Stephen McGuire

Nuclear physicist and physics professor Stephen C. McGuire was born on September 17, 1948 in New Orleans, Louisiana. McGuire was the first generation of his family to attend high school and college. McGuire’s parents were supportive of his education and inspired him to high achievements. By the time that McGuire graduated as valedictorian of his class at Joseph S. Clark Senior High in New Orleans, Louisiana, he knew that he wanted to pursue a career in physics. McGuire went on to attend Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical (A&M) College on a four-year academic scholarship. He received his B.S. degree in physics, magna cum laude, in 1970. McGuire then continued his education at the University of Rochester where he studied under Professor Harry W. Fulbright and graduated with his M.S. degree in nuclear physics in 1974. In 1979, McGuire obtained his Ph.D. degree from Cornell University in nuclear science with a focus on low energy neutron physics under the guidance of Professor David D. Clark.

Between 1979 and 1982, McGuire conducted research as a staff scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In 1982, McGuire joined the faculty at Alabama A&M University in the department of physics and applied physics, and he began research with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). McGuire was honored by NASA in 1987 with its Office of Technology Utilization Research Citation Award. While at Alabama A&M, he also served as a consultant to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Department of Energy, and spent time as a physics researcher at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In 1989, he became the first African American faculty member at the endowed College of Engineering at Cornell University. In 1992, he became a charter fellow of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). With research focusing on experimental nuclear physics and nuclear radiation and microelectronics, McGuire was appointed to be a visiting scientist at the Center for Neutron Research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 1998.

Since 1999, McGuire has served as professor and chair of the department of physics at Southern University and A&M College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. McGuire has pursued his interest in optical materials as part of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). During his tenure with the university, McGuire has led the establishment of the partnership between LIGO and Southern University and A&M College, and he served as the LIGO Scientific Collaboration Principal Investigator (PI). He considers this his greatest achievement. McGuire is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He is married to the former Saundra E. Yancy. They have two adult daughters, Carla and Stephanie.

Stephen McGuire was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 18, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.187

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/18/2012

Last Name

McGuire

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Craig

Occupation
Schools

Joseph S. Clark Preparatory High School

Columbia University

University of California, Los Angeles

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

University of Rochester

Cornell University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Stephen

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

MCG04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida Keys

Favorite Quote

It is better to put your trust in God than to put confidence in men.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

9/17/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baton Rouge

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tilapia (Grilled), Rice (Brown), Vegetables

Short Description

Nuclear physicist Stephen McGuire (1948 - ) led the establishment of the partnership in materials research and science education between the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Southern University. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society.

Employment

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Alabama A&M State University

Cornell University

Southern University Baton Rouge

California Institute of Technology

Favorite Color

Gray

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Stephen McGuire's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire describes how his parents met, and their early life in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire talks about his mother's life in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Stephen McGuire talks about his father's hard work, and his parents' emphasis on education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Stephen McGuire describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Stephen McGuire talks about his siblings and describes his childhood home in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire talks about attending Mt. Zion Baptist Church as a child in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire talks about his elementary school and the strong African American community in New Orleans

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire talks about the quality of African American teachers found in the segregated schools in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire talks about the teachers who influenced him in school in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire talks about race relations, schools, libraries and how New Orleans differed from other Southern cities in terms of its segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Stephen McGuire talks about the desegregation of high school sports in the New Orleans school system in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes his childhood interests and how his introduction to NASA and space shuttles encouraged his interest in science and physics

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire talks about his decision to study physics instead of playing college basketball

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire talks about playing basketball in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire talks about how he was influenced by his high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire describes why he chose Southern University for college

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire talks about Felton Clark, the president of Southern University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes how he met his wife at Southern University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire talks about Dr. King's assassination and the moon landing

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire talks about graduating from from Southern University and the prominent academicians and athletes who graduated from there

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire describes his experience at the University of Rochester

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire describes his decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree in nuclear science at Cornell University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire describes his master's degree research on f-p shell nuclides

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Stephen McGuire describes his Ph.D. dissertation research on spin-forbidden isomers in Uranium-236

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Stephen McGuire talks about Ithaca, New York, and describes his research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Stephen McGuire describes his experience at Alabama A&M University and at Marshall Space Flight Center

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes his research at Cornell University on neutrons and x-rays, to understand the physics of materials

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire describes his involvement in science education and minority education at Cornell University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire describes his experience as a visiting professor at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire describes his decision to return to Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana to chair the physics department - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire describes his decision to return to Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana to chair the physics department - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire describes his decision to leave Cornell University in order to chair the physics department at Southern University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire explains the significance of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Stephen McGuire describes student involvement with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Stephen McGuire describes his involvement with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and other professional organizations

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Stephen McGuire talks about his goals for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Stephen McGuire talks about the graduate program in physics at Southern University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Stephen McGuire reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Stephen McGuire describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Stephen McGuire reflects upon his choices

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Stephen McGuire talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Stephen McGuire describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Stephen McGuire talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Stephen McGuire describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Stephen McGuire talks about the desegregation of high school sports in the New Orleans school system in the 1960s
Stephen McGuire explains the significance of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)
Transcript
High school [Joseph S. Clark Senior High School, New Orleans, Louisiana]. Now, I don't want to get too far away from what your question is. In high school, I'll just give another example, I played basketball (clears throat). Now, you know, basketball is played out in the open on the playground courts in the city. So after while, you know, we go down to St. Aloysius [school] and we're playing basketball with just, you know, the white guys who were there. We're just playing just to have fun. Somebody saw this. We showed up one day and the basketball goal was taken away, cut off at the concrete and concreted over so we couldn't play basketball there anymore. Let me give you another example of just where we were in time. Today you take for granted interscholastic--interscholastic sports, okay, and Louisiana being integrated, no problem, okay. During that time, there were two schools in New Orleans. One was Jesuit and the other one was St. Augusta. St. Augusta was known for being a very strong school, even to this day, okay, academically and also athletically. Well the principals at these schools decided, "Look, we have to do something to break down this barrier of segregation in our schools. Let's do it by just simply playing a basketball game between our two schools, and making that a demonstration of what can happen without incident." St. Augusta at that time was the number one ranked school in the black league. Jesuit was the number one ranked school in the white league. They played that game behind closed doors successfully. St. Augusta won the game, okay. But they played it successfully--successfully. The parents of the players didn't come in and stage a protest. They had to play it behind closed doors because you couldn't just open it up it up--something like that to the public. But it demonstrated the basic principle, that two groups of kids, you know, with these similar interests, could get together, play a competitive basketball game appropriately refereed, and you not have an incident.$What's the significance of the research with LIGO [Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, in Livingston, Louisiana]? I mean, what are hoping we will find out about the, you know--I mean, there's a lot--lots of things we don't know or need to find out about, but what's the significance?$$But the idea behind LIGO is that, if we can in fact see this, when we see this gravitational radiation, you will see a new type of radiation. It's not electromagnetic, and it doesn't require its source to be hot and luminous. It can be cold and dark. So given the idea that the vast majority of the matter in the universe, 95 percent of it is cold and dark, then you have a chance of opening up a whole new window on this universe that we live in, if you can--when you make these detections. So you're bound to see, I believe, phenomena that we just don't know about right now. The other aspect of it that's extremely important is that, if you see the stochastic remnants of the big bang in your data, then you will have looked back further towards creation, that's never been done before in the history of mankind, and we anticipate that that in itself will yield valuable information in terms of our understanding of the evolution of the universe, as it turns out. So those two ideas that we're opening up a whole new window on the universe, I think--I think make for a strong or either a very compelling argument for this particular experiment. There's direct evidence that gravitational radiation exists and [Albert] Einstein was right. But we want make routine and direct measurements of this so as to just generate a body of data and knowledge that will help us move toward a deeper understanding of this universe that we live in. Right.