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Demetrius Venable

Physicist and physics professor Demetrius D. Venable was born on October 11, 1947 in Powhatan, Virginia to Josephine Viola Bell Venable and James Bernard Venable. He attended Pocahontas High School where Venable’s father, who was his high school math teacher, helped spark Venable’s interest in math and science. He received his B.S. degree in physics from Virginia State College in 1970. Continuing with his studies, he earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from American University in 1972 and 1974, respectively.

Upon completion of his Ph.D. program, Venable was hired by IBM-East Fishkill where he studied semi-conductor measurement technology as a senior associate engineer. After two years with the company, Venable returned to academia at Saint Paul’s College as an assistant professor of physics and director of the Cooperative Physics Program. In 1978, he joined the faculty of Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) as an assistant professor of physics. One of Venable’s major accomplishments at Hampton was his instrumental role in founding the doctorate program in physics. He held numerous positions at Hampton, ultimately becoming executive vice president and provost in 1994. When he moved to Howard University in 1995, he was named the chairman of the department of physics and astronomy, a post that he held until 2007. During his tenure at Howard University, Venable helped create the interdisciplinary doctorate program in atmospheric sciences. He also was instrumental in establishing atmospheric physics research at the Howard University Beltsville Research Campus and the Raman Lidar Program. With a specialty in optical physics, Venable has studied water vapor mixing ratios and atmospheric dynamics to further his group’s goal of weather and climate predictability.

Throughout his career, Venable has received numerous recognitions including the National Aeronautic and Space Administration’s Distinguished Public Service Medal and the White House Initiative Science and Technology Advisory Committee’s Faculty Award for Excellence in Science and Technology. Venable served as chairman of the American Institute of Physics’ Advisory Committee on Education from 1998 to 2001 and he is a charter fellow of the National Society of Black Physicists. He has served on various boards and committees at the state and national levels including on the U. S. Department of Energy's Fusion Energy Advisory Committee, The American Association of Physics Teachers, The Virginia Academy of Science, The Southeastern Universities Research Association, The Virginia Aerospace Business Roundtable and The National Physical Sciences Consortium. Venable is married Geri Turner. They have raised two children, Juanita and Jessica.

Demetrius Venable was interviewed by on June 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.133

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/14/2012

Last Name

Venable

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

D

Schools

Virginia State University

American University

Columbia University

First Name

Demetrius

Birth City, State, Country

Powhatan

HM ID

VEN01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Knowledge Is A Value In Itself, It Need Serve No Other Purpose In The World.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

10/11/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Physicist and physics professor Demetrius Venable (1947 - ) was instrumental in the founding of the doctorate program in physics at Hampton University. He was also influential in establishing the atmospheric physics research at the Howard University Beltsville Research Campus and the Raman Lidar Program.

Employment

IBM

Saint Paul's College

Hampton University

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Demetrius Venable's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Demetrius Venable lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Demetrius Venable describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Demetrius Venable describes his family's hometown in Powhatan, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Demetrius Venable talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Demetrius Venable describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Demetrius Venable talks about his father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Demetrius Venable talks about his father's service in World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Demetrius Venable talks about his parents and his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Demetrius Venable describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Demetrius Venable describes his childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Demetrius Venable describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Demetrius Venable talks about his family's involvement in church

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Demetrius Venable describes his childhood interest in math and science

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Demetrius Venable describes his experience in school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Demetrius Venable talks about his growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Demetrius Venable describes the integration of schools in Powhatan, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Demetrius Venable talks about his experience at St. Frances de Sales Girls School and St. Emma Military Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Demetrius Venable describes his experiences at Virginia State College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Demetrius Venable talks about his decision to major in physics at Virginia State University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Demetrius Venable describes his activities at Virginia State University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Demetrius Venable talks about Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Demetrius Venable describes his employment opportunities as a physics major

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Demetrius Venable describes his choice of American University for graduate school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Demetrius Venable talks about his African American mentors in physics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Demetrius Venable describes his Ph.D. dissertation research at American University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Demetrius Venable describes how he met his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Demetrius Venable discusses African Americans in physics

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Demetrius Venable describes his experience at IBM and his decision to transition into teaching

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Demetrius Venable describes his experience at St. Paul's College in Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Demetrius Venable describes his research at Brooks Air Force Base and NASA Langley Research Center

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Demetrius Venable describes his experience at Hampton University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Demetrius Venable describes his efforts to establish a Ph.D. program in physics at Hampton University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Demetrius Venable describes his research at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Demetrius Venable talks about the success of minority students in Howard University's atmospheric sciences program

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Demetrius Venable discusses the scientific evidence for global warming

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Demetrius Venable talks about the Ph.D. program in physics at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Demetrius Venable describes his research contributions in optical physics

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Demetrius Venable describes his goals for future research

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Demetrius Venable reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Demetrius Venable describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Demetrius Venable describes his family and his personal life

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Demetrius Venable describes what it takes to become a physicist

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Demetrius Venable describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Demetrius Venable talks about his African American mentors in physics
Demetrius Venable describes his research at Howard University
Transcript
Tell us, first of all, before we go into American University, who is your mentor at Howard? Who is the--$$Arthur Thorpe. And Arthur Thorpe is still on the faculty here today, okay. So this is 1966, I mean 1970, right. My, Dr. [James] Davenport, who I spoke about earlier, was a graduate of Howard [Howard University in Washington, District of Columbia], and he and Dr. Thorpe were colleagues here. So Dr. Thorpe actually would come down to Virginia State [Virginia State University in Petersburg, Virginia] and served as my senior thesis advisor when I was at Virginia State. So he helped out a lot with developing and strengthening the program down there. You may have heard of John Hunter. John Hunter was one of, probably the third African American to get a Ph.D. in physics. And John Hunter established the program in physics at Virginia State. And that program went on to produce a lot of well-known people who became physicists later on. Dr. Branson was a graduate of that program. And Dr. Branson was here as chairman of the physics department at Howard.$$That's Herman Branson.$$Herman Branson, uh-huh, was a student of John Hunter's.$$He was president of Central State [Central State University, Wilberforce, Ohio].$$President of Central State, right. I sometimes tell a story about, you know, those connections there. You go from John Hunter to Herman Branson to Arthur Thorpe and then to me, you know, so I can draw lines between us, right. And I tell my students that, you know, you need to put your name on there and put a line there and go to work at a, at a nice institution and, you know, send some folks along as well, make the line longer. But in any case, Arthur Thorpe was my mentor here at Howard. And he's been a real strong supporter of my entire career. He was instrumental in my coming back to work here, in fact. So, yeah, quite a good supporter.$Okay, so, now, so were you actually, were you seeking another spot or how did the Howard [University in Washington, District of Columbia] position--$$Well, you know, as I said, you know, I really didn't wanna be continuing to go up in administration. So Arthur Thorpe, again, came to me and said, look, you know, we need a chairman. This is an opportunity. Would you apply for it? And I said, yes, I'll apply for it, you know, as long as it means I can get back to doing research because I really couldn't do research and be vice president. It's just, just impossible to do that. So I said, yes, as long as I can get back to doing research, it's something that I would consider. So I put an application in, and they made me an offer.$$Okay, so you came over to Howard [University] in '95 [1995]?$$Ninety five [1995].$$Okay, all right.$$So I was at Hampton for seventeen years, and I was chairman and administrator there, and then I was, been at Howard, this is my seventeenth year at Howard.$$Okay, now, what have been--what have the years at Howard been like? Have you engaged basically in research?$$Yeah, well, I served as department chairman for, for twelve years here. Being a chairman is very different from being a vice president. I wanna say that first of all. That's like being a, just a regular part of the faculty, right. So, I spent a good fraction of my time developing research programs. My, my personal research has been focused around the, the laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. Dr. Walter Lowe had done a lot, he spent a lot of time at (unclear) developing the facility out there--this is a facility that the university owned since the early '90s [1990s], I mean the early '70s [1970s]. And it was not a lot going on out there. Walter went out there and sort of renovated everything and got the lab back up and running for a project that he was doing in accelerator physics, synchrotron radiation with the Argonne Lab. So he spent a lot of time and effort and money and got the place back up and running. When Walter's project completed, he was building an accelerator that was gonna be moved to Chicago [Illinois]. So when it would move to Chicago, his activities at Beltsville were essentially completed. We started phasing in at about the time he was phasing out with the understanding of developing some laser physics activities. So we started by developing what's called a LIDAR [Light Detection and Ranging] facility. And that was primarily an effort on my part and Dr. Thorpe's part.$$Now, what was that? What was LIDAR--$$LIDAR is a technique where you use laser and you shine the laser into the atmosphere, and you study the light that is backscattered from the atmosphere, you know the laser light interact with particles and the molecules in the air. And some of the lights backscattered so you can detect it with a telescope. And you analyze the light that comes back into the telescope, and by analyzing the light that you collect, you are able to say what is in the atmosphere, and we were focusing on water vapor, although you can measure a lot of things. We were focusing on how much water vapor is in the atmosphere for us and how rapidly that water vapor concentration changed as a function of time and how that water vapor concentration changed as a function of altitude. So that's what we're using LIDAR for. So it had to do with efforts to do atmospheric studies. So I played a major role in developing--.$$And how do you spell the, that again--$$L-I-D-A-R. It's an acronym. It stands for light detection and ranging.$$Okay, light detection and ranging. Okay. So you've been, so this was established out at Beltsville.$$Um-hum, I started that in maybe '97 [1997], and, you know, maybe phasing over time. And as, in addition to that, the physics department was very much involved, the physics department here at Howard was very much involved in developing an interdisciplinary Ph.D. program in atmospheric science. So physics, chemistry and mechanical engineering were all involved in developing this interdisciplinary Ph.D. program in atmospheric science. So my work was one of the research components of that interdisciplinary job. We hired Dr. Alvert--Everett, I'm sorry, I'm getting a little tired, Everett Joseph here in physics, and Dr. Gregory Jenkins here in physics to work with that effort, Dr. Vernon Morris in chemistry and I think Dr. Sonya Smith, all of these were people involved in developing that effort. She was in mechanical engineering. So, so my part was a research component within that overall picture, and I was developing that at Beltsville. Beltsville, since then, from an atmospheric physics standpoint, has grown extensively. We now have a full array of measurement capabilities out there with respect to atmospheric measurements. And we're using this data to go into models for, primarily for climatology, looking at climate change.

Col. James Stith

Physicist and Retired U.S. Army Colonel James Stith was born on July 17, 1941, to Ruth Stith in Brunswick County, Virginia. Stith had three step-sisters—Wilma, Aldrena, and Joyce—and one half-sister, Juanita. Stith attended Oak Grove Elementary School and he graduated from James Solomon Russell High School in 1959. It was in high school that Stith decided he wanted to pursue a career in physics.

Stith went on to graduate from Virginia State College to earn his B.S. and M.S. degrees, both in physics, in the years 1963 and 1965, respectively. During his time at Virginia State College, Stith joined the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, and worked as an instructor. In 1965, he was called to active duty in the U.S. Army for two years. Then, after a two-year term working with the Radio Corporation of America, Stith continued his education at Pennsylvania State University, where he earned his D.Ed. degree in physics in 1972. Following his graduation, Stith was recalled to active duty, and so he joined the faculty at the United States Military Academy at West Point. In 1976, Stith became the first tenured African American professor at the United States Military Academy, where he continued to work until he retired from his post in 1993. Stith retired from the United States Military Academy as a full professor of physics and from the military at the grade of Colonel. Stith then worked as a full professor of physics at Ohio State University until 1998. Following his time at Ohio State University, Stith was hired as the vice president of the Physics Resource Center of the American Institute of Physics, a position he would hold for ten years. Stith also served on the board of the Triangle Coalition from 1999 to 2006, and he joined the advisory board for Project Kaleidoscope in 1990. Additionally, Stith has served on several advisory committees of the National Research Council throughout his career.

Stith has played an important role in increasing the role of African Americans in the physical sciences and has been recognized by the Academy for his work. In 1990, he was elected Vice President of the American Association of Physics Teachers, and in 2004 he was recognized as one of the “50 Most Important Blacks in Research Science.”

Stith is married to Alberta Hill, and they have three adult daughters: Adrienne Yvette, Andrea Lynn, and Alyssa Joy.

James Stith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.083

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/14/2010

Last Name

Stith

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

H.

Schools

Oak Grove Elementary School

James Solomon Russell Middle School

Virginia State University

Pennsylvania State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Alberta

HM ID

STI04

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

Bad News Doesn't Get Better With Age.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/17/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Physicist, academic administrator, and colonel (ret.) Col. James Stith (1941 - ) was the first tenured black professor at the United States Military Academy in 1976, and served as the vice president of the Physics Resources Center at the American Institute of Physics from 1998 to 2008.

Employment

American Institute of Physics

Ohio State University, Department of Physics

United States Military Academy

Radio Corporation of America

University of Maryland, Far East Division

United States Army

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue, Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:12961,127:13769,137:27662,293:32980,360:34740,403:36950,524:68984,873:71776,886:72112,891:73036,906:76419,999:81240,1048:81540,1053:83806,1074:84186,1080:85706,1112:87074,1145:92326,1179:92638,1184:96410,1267:96800,1277:100822,1299:101982,1312:108840,1398:115440,1485:128570,1659$0,0:1580,9:2120,17:4460,47:4820,56:5450,64:7340,123:15290,237:18665,310:37066,502:37858,511:40286,527:41354,541:43846,582:47050,638:49186,677:49720,684:59610,767:61928,789:69614,874:77174,956:77502,961:80864,1010:81602,1020:83324,1052:86750,1065:87998,1076:97046,1191:97982,1202:101830,1210:103831,1243:106441,1280:106963,1287:109138,1311:109573,1317:110095,1325:113080,1334:114695,1360:115265,1367:122485,1474:128090,1578:128660,1585:133330,1618:133670,1623:134350,1651:134690,1656:136645,1709:146930,2009:152036,2027:153950,2077:155370,2088
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Col. James Stith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Col. James Stith shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Col. James Stith shares his mother's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Col. James Stith describes his mother's extended family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Col. James Stith describes his family's farm

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Col. James Stith describes the lack of a father figure in his life

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Col. James Stith describes his relationship with his stepsisters

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Col. James Stith recalls his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Col. James Stith reflects on his mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Col. James Stith recalls the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Col. James Stith describes his childhood home and chores

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Col. James Stith discusses the Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Col. James Stith describes his inquisitive nature as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Col. James Stith talks about his elementary school, part 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Col. James Stith talks about his elementary school, part 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Col. James Stith describes his love for reading

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Col. James Stith remembers taking apart his family's clock

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Col. James Stith discusses the lack of exposure to science as a youth

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Col. James Stith recalls the effect of segregation in Brunswick County, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Col. James Stith describes James Solomon Russell High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Col. James Stith describes his high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Col. James Stith remembers his uncle, Theodore Stith

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Col. James Stith describes his transition into high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Col. James Stith recalls his high school physics teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Col. James Stith recalls his teacher's advice to attend Virginia State College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Col. James Stith recalls his college transition

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Col. James Stith describes his college professors and pledging for Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity at Virginia State College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Col. James Stith discusses the presidential election of 1960

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Col. James Stith recalls the loss of his family home and half-sister

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Col. James Stith describes his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Col. James Stith discusses his graduate studies at Virginia State College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Col. James Stith describes his teaching experiences after college

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Col. James Stith talks about his military service in Korea

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Col. James Stith talks about his military service in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Col. James Stith describes his transition from the United States Army to civilian work and graduate studies

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Col. James Stith describes his graduate studies at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Col. James Stith describes his graduate dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Col. James Stith discusses his relationship with his graduate advisor, David Rank

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Col. James Stith talks about his search for a job after receiving his D.Ed. degree

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Col. James Stith describes minority population at the United States Military Academy in the 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Col. James Stith discusses the United States Military Academy's support of minorities

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Col. James Stith describes the "Black Officers at West Point"

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Col. James Stith describes how he became tenured at the United States Military Academy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Col. James Stith discusses the transition of the United States Military Academy to a co-educational institution

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Col. James Stith recalls his time at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Col. James Stith remembers his interactions with Daniel "Chappie" James

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Col. James Stith recalls his decision to leave the United States Military Academy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Col. James Stith describes his involvement with the American Association of Physics Teachers

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Col. James Stith describes the growing interest and concerns in physics education

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Col. James Stith discusses his work with The American Institute of Physics

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Col. James Stith recalls his time in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Col. James Stith describes his philosophy for physics education

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Col. James Stith discusses his hopes and concerns for the black community in physics education, part 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Col. James Stith discusses his hopes and concerns for the black community in physics education, part 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Col. James Stith discusses the founding of the National Society of Black Physicists

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Col. James Stith reminisces over his life decisions

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Col. James Stith shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Col. James Stith reflects on his personal legacy in physics education

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Col. James Stith describes his family

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Col. James Stith reflects on his regrets and how he wants to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

7$7

DATitle
Col. James Stith describes how he became tenured at the United States Military Academy
Col. James Stith discusses his work with The American Institute of Physics
Transcript
Well, was it difficult to get tenured?$$Well--(pause) Well, put it this way, I was invited to dinner at this superintendent's house one night, and I went to dinner, and military protocol says when a general invites you to dinner, you arrive in a window of five minutes before or five minutes after. And so, at the appointed hour, I stepped on this general's porch and I looked around and there was no else coming. And my invitation said this was for cadets and other officers. And I was on time, right night, but no one else was coming. And so, I was a little bit, you know. Then I said, "What's going on?" I rang the doorbell and the sup's aide comes in and says, "Captain Stith [HistoryMaker Col. James Stith], the general has been waiting for you." I go into the living room, and General Beringer [ph.] is standing by his fireplace, and we talked for forty-five minutes, and then people started arriving. I got home that night and my wife [Alberta Hill] said, "Well, how was it?" And I said, "I was interviewed for something. I don't know what." So about two weeks later, my boss called me in and said, "The academy would like to offer you a permanent position at West Point [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York], and if it is offered would you accept?" And then we started that process.$$Okay. Okay.$$So then I became a tenured professor at West Point.$$Now, how long did--$$This was 1976.$$1976. Okay.$$So I had been there--this was my fourth year there, and I was a Captain, which was--it was highly unusual for a--because typically they were lieutenant colonels.$$Okay. We have to pause here.$$Okay.$$That's interesting.$So, now, when we shot the photos, the pictures with you Stephen Hawking--$$Yes.$$--and other people, I guess that's in the capacity of head of the--$$Of, of the American Institute of Physics. Not the head, but as the vice president for resources at the American Institute of Physics.$$Okay.$$And I had--I was responsible for all of the--well, all of the educational programs; the Center for the History of Physics, where we archived the history of the physics community; the research--the Statistical Research Group, where we collected the statistics on the physics community, how many Ph.D.s do we offer every year, how many B.S.s, how many master's [degrees], what were the annual salaries. Any, you know, all those kinds of things. So, the media and government relations, we did the lobbying that non-profits were allowed to do. And we tried to make known to the lay public and to all folks out there what was going on in physics. So we interacted with Congress. We interacted with--I mean, I started producing three, ninety-second TV clips a week that we sold to TV stations to try to get a steady dose of good peer-reviewed science on local TV And we ended up a hundred stations across the nation, with a 60 million audience reach with that effort. So those were the things that I did. And people would give us money to give prizes, and we would select people who were the--who had done the most to advance the science, and that's what Stephen Hawking got his award for. Yeah.$$I would guess in the last--this is a layman watching this and, you know, tuning into public radio and TV every now and then, more than any other time there's more physics education going on-$$Yes.$$--than, you know, from Carl Sagan--$$Yes.$$--to Stephen Hawkings--$$Yes.$$--to now Neil deGrasse Tyson (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) To Neil deGrasse Tyson.$$Tyson, he's a media superstar now, you know.$$Right, yes.$$Talking about physics.$$And so, people are beginning to think about that. And so, we're making an effort. We still have a lot of work to do, but that's what they're working on.