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Marita Rivero

Media and nonprofit executive Marita Rivero was born on November 25, 1943 in West Grove, Pennsylvania to Grace Beresford Hughes Rivero and Manuel Rivero. Her parents worked at Lincoln University in Chester County, Pennsylvania, where her mother taught English and Latin, and her father was the founding chairman of the university’s physical education department, as well as a coach for nearly four decades. Rivero attended Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, earning her B.S. degree in psychology in 1964.

In 1970, Rivero became a producer at WGBH, a National Public Radio member station in Boston, Massachusetts. She moved to Washington, D.C. in 1976 to work as a consultant for PBS, the National Science Foundation, and the Communications Task Force of the United States Congressional Black Caucus. Rivero returned to radio production in 1981 as general manager of WPFW Pacifica in Washington, D.C., where she was later promoted to vice president. She remained there until 1988, when she returned to Boston as general manager of WGBH Radio. In 1998, Rivero was hired as executive-in-charge of Africans in America: America’s Journey Through Slavery. She then served as executive-in-charge of This Far By Faith, which aired in 2003. Rivero was promoted to general manager of radio and television at WGBH in 2005, a position she held until 2013. In 2015, Rivero was named executive director of the Museum of African American History, Boston and Nantucket, where she had volunteered since the late 1980s.

Rivero was honored with several awards including a 2007 Pinnacle Award for Achievement in Arts & Education from the Greater Boston Chamber of Commerce; the first Image Award for Vision and Excellence from Women in Film and Video/New England; and induction into the YWCA's Academy of Women Achievers. She served as board chair of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, chair of the National Black Programming Consortium (NBPC), and chair of the National Association of Community Broadcasters. She also served on the boards of NPR, The Partnership, the Kokrobitey School of Ghana, and the Urban League of Eastern Massachusetts, as well as the boards of the Dimock Community Health Center, the Institute of Contemporary Art, Partners Healthcare and the YWCA.

Marita Rivero was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 19, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.072

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/19/2016

Last Name

Rivero

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

Oxford Area Hgh School

Lincoln University

Tufts University

Harvard Graduate School of Education

First Name

Marita

Birth City, State, Country

Lincoln University

HM ID

RIV02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Review.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

11/25/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti

Short Description

Media and nonprofit executive Marita Rivero (1943 - ) served as general manager for radio and television for WGBH for nearly a decade. She became the executive director of the Museum of African American History, Boston and Nantucket in 2015.

Employment

Museum of African American History

WGBH

WDFW-FM DC

Favorite Color

None

Dorothy Harrison

Educator and former president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Dorothy Penman Harrison was born Dorothy Marie Penman on December 8, 1907 in Portsmouth, Ohio. Harrison’s parents were former teacher, Annabelle Layne, and chef, Victor Logan Penman. Harrison grew up in Portsmouth where she learned to read and took piano lessons. Attending all black Eleventh Street Elementary School, Harrison graduated from Portsmouth High School in 1924. At Fisk University, she studied history with A.A. Taylor. When both of her parents passed away in 1926, Harrison returned to Ohio and taught school. She earned her B.A. degree in education from Ohio State University in 1932. That same year, Harrison joined the Epsilon chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. and married educator, Dr. Gerald Lamar Harrison. Her husband earned his Ph.D. in education from Ohio State University in 1936 while he was serving as head of the Education Department at Prairie View A&M College in Texas.

In 1940, Harrison moved to Oklahoma when her husband was named president of the Colored Agricultural and Normal University. The college was renamed Langston University in 1941. As first lady to the president, Harrison hosted distinguished guests like W.E.B. DuBois and Liberia’s Clarence L. Simpson. In 1944, she traveled to Liberia for the inauguration of William V.S. Tubman as Liberia’s president, also attending were Mary McLeod Bethune and Eta Moten Barnett. Tragedy struck as Harrison’s eldest son, Gerald Lamar, passed away at the age of thirteen, in 1948, followed by the younger son, Richard, in 1950. Returning to school, Harrison acquired her M.S. degree in education from Oklahoma State University. She also amassed a record of civic activities, serving as treasurer of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. under president Dorothy Height in 1952 and national officer for The Links, Inc. in 1957. Harrison was elected president of the sorority in 1956 and served through 1958.

In 1960, Harrison relocated to Chicago, Illinois with her husband after spending twenty years at Langston University. She continued her public service as a board member of the Chicago Metropolitan YWCA and as a national board member of the Central Review Team and the Urban League Women’s Board. Harrison is a lifetime member of the NAACP and the National Council of Negro Women. In 1965, Harrison was selected as co-chair of the federal Head Start program. She also served on the board of directors of the City Associates of the Chicago Art Institute. Harrison has traveled numerous times to Europe, Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean.

Awarded an honorary doctorate from Langston University in 2003. Harrison passed away on December 22, 2010.

Harrison was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 18, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.015

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/18/2007

Last Name

Harrison

Maker Category
Middle Name

Marie

Schools

Portsmouth High School

Eleventh Street Elementary School

Fisk University

The Ohio State University

Oklahoma State University

First Name

Dorothy

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

HAR22

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Malaysia

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/8/1907

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Grits

Death Date

12/22/2010

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Dorothy Harrison (1907 - 2010 ) served as a national officer for The Links, Inc., succeeded Dorothy Height as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., and served as a board member of the Chicago Metropolitan YWCA and the National Council of Negro Women. Harrison was also selected as co-chair of the federal Head Start program.

Favorite Color

Red, White

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dorothy Harrison's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her maternal uncle, who passed for white

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her mother permitting her to attend Fisk University

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls teaching elementary school during her college career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison describes her family's historic homestead in Meadville, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes how her family valued education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her father running away from home

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison describes her mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes her brother Frederich Penman

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison describes the sights and tastes of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her hearing problem

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls experiencing discrimination at Portsmouth High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers Portsmouth's Eleventh Street School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison describes her love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her parents' expectations

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison describes the restrictions upon married teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her favorite teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison remembers Allen Chapel A.M.E. Church

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her experiences with church

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison recalls popular pastimes during her teenage years

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her decision to attend a historically black college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her social life at Fisk University in Nashville

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the professors and staff at Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison remembers The Ohio State University in Columbus

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's graduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her classes at The Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's career at Wilberforce University

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison describes her brother's house and practice in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her impressions of Prairie View, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her husband's achievements at Prairie View State Normal & Industrial College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's studies and career

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes the history of Langston University in Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her life in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the Dust Bowl era in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the desegregation of Oklahoma's colleges

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her duties at Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls establishing a work-study program in her home

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her famous houseguests

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her travels abroad

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison remembers William V.S. Tubman, Jr.'s inauguration

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls being in Ghana when Kwame Nkrumah was overthrown

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her travels in Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her impression of Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison remembers notable figures she met in Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison remembers joining Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the deaths of her sons

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her election as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison recalls Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.'s support of civil rights

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes the growth of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls stepping down as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her work on the executive committee of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers moving to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison describes her involvement with The Links, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison describes her work with the Young Women's Christian Association

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her other organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison talks about the 2008 presidential election

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her remaining family

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her favorite sports teams

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers accepting an honorary degree from Langston University

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$4

DAStory

9$7

DATitle
Dorothy Harrison recalls her election as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.
Dorothy Harrison recalls establishing a work-study program in her home
Transcript
I had to be busy. So I decided to go back to school. I had sleep--at first I started going places. Then I--I had to make adjustment. I used to--when I went to bed I always had a book to read because I'd just start dreaming about them. So finally I decided to go to school up at--I drove twenty miles up to Stillwater [Oklahoma] to go to school, and I started and I got my master's [degree], and I stayed one year on the doctorate. By that time, I then began to get involved in Delta [Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.] and I was, was, I was--that was '48 [1948] and '50 [1950] when I lost my sons [Gerald Harrison and Richard Harrison]. So I became involved in Delta on the national level and I became the national treasurer for four years from 1952 to 1956. They had a term, you could be elected for two years and two more, four years was supposed to be the maximum. So they called the person that was vice president. She wanted to be president because Dorothy [HistoryMaker Dorothy Height] by that time had served nine years and that's when they changed--$$This was Dorothy?$$Height, right.$$Dorothy Height, all right.$$My sister [Beatrice Penman] was treasurer during that time. And so--part of that time. So they were meeting and they decided to rule--to put in the rules that you can be elected for two years and reelected. Dorothy had served four years. She says it cannot be retroactive that law, cannot--you putting in it cannot refer to me, so I'm still eligible for two--four more years. So she stayed in and then one year there was a war or something going on to travel, so she stayed in nine years. During that time, I served four of those under--when she was president I was national treasurer. Then they--committee called me, convention committee called me and asked me to run for president. I, I had questions because I was still at Langston [Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma] serving as a hostess for my husband [General Lamar Harrison], you know. And I--and I knew what was involved when you become president, because you had to go out and make speeches and all that, you know. I knew what was involved. I said, "Well let me think about that. I--I--I'll call you back after I think about." They were meeting in Washington [D.C.] getting the slate. And the vice president was called. She had some kind of health problems, would almost fall out during the meetings and so forth. They didn't want her to be president and she wanted to be very much, and she was a friend of mine. So I knew how she felt. And I hesitated about saying I will be president, because I knew also what was involved in travel and so forth. And so finally, I agreed. My husband really wanted me to be president, for the name, you know. So I told him, I said, "I have to make up my mind because I know what's involved." And so I finally told them I would accept. So I served two years. During that time--part of that time when Dorothy was president, we were invited to the Hi- to the capital to the White House [Washington, D.C.] and Mr. Eisenhower [President Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower] was president. Mrs. Eisenhower [Mamie Eisenhower] invited us when we were meeting in--in Washington. They invited us to come to the White House. They had a reception for us. The whole--the whole bird. And so that's where that picture was made with Mrs. Eisenhower.$$And (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And the--those are the officers who was the executive director, Dorothy Height and I was treasurer, and Reba was still, Reba Cann [Reba S. Cann] from Cincinnati [Ohio] was still vice president and we had the officer, so that was where that was taken.$Now before we went there, the president had a housekeeper. Well, my husband [General Lamar Harrison] when he walk- worked--when he went to Howard University [Washington, D.C.] he worked his way through, he had to work some place to go. And he was for us hiring the students to work, not a housekeeper. So, I was the first to have four or five students who got everything paid, they didn't have to pay a dime. They got the room, the tuition, their--their registration, everything was paid. And then during the month, once a month, I gave them five dollars change to spend whatever they might need, you know. So I helped each year, I helped five--four or five students. One worked on the yard, one worked in the house and kept the floors, at the time we had hardwood floors. And then one did the cooking and one waited the table. So when guests came, the person waited the table and they learned. They usually were home ec [home economics] students that knew something about it. But they always said they knew more by actually doing it in--at my house. So, one of the--one of my friends here who taught school, who finished Langston [Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma] by working through because she lived in that old--in that black town wrote and said she had no money at all, but she was determined to get an education. So she came and one of the--her professors she said told her--took her down to my house and asked me to give her a job because she needed it. And so she finished, when she graduated I gave her a summer at summer school at Oklahoma A and M [Oklahoma Territorial Agricultural and Mechanical College; Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma]. Then she went to Indiana [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana] and when she was there, she needed some money and wrote us and I sent it to her. So when she finished and started teaching here, she wanted to pay me back and I said, no you just pass that on to another person who'd help her to go to school too. So during the twenty years, I had almost a hundred students who got their education by working for us in the house and doing and going to school. So some of them still call me. I have one from Oklahoma City [Oklahoma] that called me for my birthday this last, in December. And they, you know, they--they--they referred to--to those kids as Prexy's [ph.] kids on the campus. But they--one mother told her daughter, she said, "If it hadn't been for Mrs. Harrison [HistoryMaker Dorothy Harrison] you would not have an education." And three of her daughters, two of them worked for me in the house, you know, during when she was going to school. And they have asked me when students have had homecoming, they have asked me to come back and be there for their homecoming. You know, it--it made me feel good that, you know, they recognize it. So I enjoyed my--I enjoyed my--I went--as I said, we had service on Sunday in the--in the chapel, you know, for the students and I always went there. And one of the--the dean of the school of the Baptist school, they had a school right outside of the campus on down the road and he taught sociology I think up on the campus and he served as chaplain on Sunday. And he always said, "Mrs. Harrison, you were always a lady on the campus." It was a nice tribute, wasn't it?$$Yeah, I'll say so.

Shirley James

Shirley James was born in Georgetown, South Carolina on September 5, 1946. Her mother, Camille Barber, was a schoolteacher and her father, Eli Baxter Barber, was a mail porter. In 1964, James graduated from Howard High School. She continued her education at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, where she received her B.A. degree in psychology in 1968. She went on to receive her M.A. degree in education from Harvard University in 1970.

In 1971, James became a counselor and administrator for Savannah State University. She also held positions as Director of Testing, Vice President of Student Affairs and Counselor Orientation Director. During her tenure, James developed Peer Counselors, a committee to support the students of Savannah State University.

James also became a publisher and editor for The Tribune, a weekly newspaper founded by James’ husband, Robert Earl James, that focuses on the issues of African Americans.

In 2002, James left her position at Savannah State University to become the Coordinator of the Savannah Black Heritage Festival. Between 2004 and 2005, she served on the Board of Directors of the Savannah Area Convention and Visitors Bureau, and in 2005, she was appointed to a five year term for Savannah’s Airport Commission. James is a member of several professional organizations as well as owner of the Education Testing Services in Savannah.

James and her husband Robert live in Savannah, Georgia. They have three adult children.

James was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 17, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.013

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/17/2007

Last Name

James

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Howard High School

Howard Adult Center & Optional School

Spelman College

Harvard Graduate School of Education

J.B. Beck Middle School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Shirley

Birth City, State, Country

Georgetown

HM ID

JAM02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

You Live, You Learn, And You Pass It On.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/5/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Bread

Short Description

Academic administrator and newspaper publishing chief executive Shirley James (1946 - ) was the owner and former publisher and editor of the Savannah Tribune. As a Licensed Professional Counselor, James held positions as Director of Testing, Vice President of Student Affairs and Counselor-Orientation Director at Savannah State University.

Employment

Savannah State University

The Savannah Tribune

Favorite Color

Winter White

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Shirley James' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Shirley James lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Shirley James describes her maternal grandmother, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Shirley James describes her maternal grandmother, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Shirley James describes the history of her family's home

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Shirley James remembers her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Shirley James describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Shirley James describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Shirley James remembers her father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Shirley James describes her older brother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Shirley James talks about her brother's U.S. Army career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Shirley James remembers her younger brother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Shirley James describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Shirley James remembers her community in Georgetown, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Shirley James describes her grade school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Shirley James describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Shirley James recalls her activities during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Shirley James remembers President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Shirley James describes her early work experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Shirley James remembers applying to Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Shirley James describes her experiences at Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Shirley James recalls her influences at Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Shirley James remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Shirley James recalls participating in a student exchange program

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Shirley James describes her experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Shirley James describes her social activities at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Shirley James recalls her activities after graduation from Spelman College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Shirley James recalls becoming a counselor at Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Shirley James describes the peer counseling program at Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Shirley James remembers retiring from Savannah State College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Shirley James describes the history of The Savannah Tribune

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Shirley James talks about her presidency of The Savannah Tribune

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Shirley James talks about Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Shirley James describes her organizational involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Shirley James talks about her activities during retirement

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Shirley James shares a message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Shirley James describes her children and their professions

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Shirley James talks about her husband and grandchildren

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Shirley James recalls becoming a counselor at Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia
Shirley James describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood
Transcript
Both you and your husband [HistoryMaker Robert James] graduate in 1970 from Harvard [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts] and you moved to Atlanta [Georgia], is that right?$$Yes.$$Okay. And how long did you stay in Atlanta?$$We were in Atlanta approximately a year. Right after graduation in June we moved here and he worked for a year at Citizens and Southern Bank [The Citizens and Southern National Bank of Georgia]. I got to be a housewife and a mom, and then we moved to Savannah [Georgia] in August of '71 [1971].$$Okay. And you took a position, administrative counseling position at Savannah State University [Savannah State College; Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia] (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, I did.$$So, tell me about that position.$$Well, something that I loved, because that counseling, you know, was my area, my field, and Dr. Prince A. Jackson [HistoryMaker Prince Jackson, Jr.] was president at Savannah State University at the time, and he actually hired me. During that period I was probably the first trained counselor that they had on the campus, and as a result of that, he kind of challenged me within about a year or, within the first year, and it was twofold. One was to look at establishing or getting a grant together to establish a counseling center, because that was not anything that we had had. I worked initially out of what you call a student affairs office with the dean. His name was Nelson Freeman, so student affairs you know, encompasses everything that's outside of the academic area, and, but we didn't have anything specifically to address, like a center for counselors, so that was one of the challenges, and he paired me with Hinton Thomas [ph.], a person who was working in one of the, a federal funded program that had been housed at Savannah State University at the time, and the two of us got together and wrote the grant through Title III, so by 1972, we were able to get the counseling center started, and the second challenge that he had given me was to start an organization where students could be almost like paraprofessional peer counselors, because there was Dr. Lucy Cutlive [ph.]. I'm not sure what her married name is, her name now, but at the time it was Lucy Cutlive, and she was at Tennessee State University [Nashville, Tennessee].$$Cutlive? How do you spell that (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Cutlive. I think it's C-U-T-L-I-V-E.$$Okay.$$But I'll have to check that to be sure.$$Okay.$$But she did an address at Savannah State and talked about the students helping students at Tennessee State, and Dr. Jackson heard and he said, "Oh, this is something I'd like to have happen at Savannah State," so as a result of that, I was able to put together what we call a peer counseling program, which they served as student leaders during orientation, but they also served as peers and student-to-student counselors like throughout the year, so you selected upper classmen and we paired them, well not paired them, they would work with groups of new students coming in, so they may have two or twenty-five students that they were kind of responsible for, assisting through that first year of college to help them become acclimated to what college was about, so they would help him academically from a social side just all the way around. So, to this day and it is now 19--2007, the peer counseling program is still thriving at Savannah State University.$When you think about growing up, what sounds, sights, and smells come to your mind?$$(Laughter) The smells would be the smell of the International Paper Company; (laughter) the odor from that. I don't know if you've grown around, grown up in a town where you get this odor from pulp and from paper being made, so that is a pungent kind of sound, smell, and even to this day if you're driving into Georgetown [South Carolina], you know, even with all the new things with the environment and trying to control the atmosphere and all that, there's still that little thing that's there, so that's one of them. The other is like Christmastime; the kind of smells, you know, from making fruitcake and hog head cheese, turkey and dressing, you know, those kinds of smells, just from the kitchen, are things that I still can relate to or reminisce about and seemingly can still, you know, kind of smell chitlins (laughter), which I do love. Okay. You talk about sights. One of them is the beach, because we went to Pawleys Island [South Carolina] and to Atlantic Beach [South Carolina], but on Pawleys there was a beach called Frank's beach [McKenzie Beach], which was specifically for African Americans, and so it was kind of very well developed for that period of time and in the summers we would go to Frank's Beach for swimming. After we got older my Uncle Freddie [Fredrick Bessellieu], who grew up on Pawleys Island and from that area, would take us crabbing and clam hunting, and whatever we caught, you know, a lot of times we would eat it at the creek, eat a certain amount of it at the creek and then the rest of it we had to take back to the block to the neighborhood, because then we had this crab boil at night. Whatever, you know, we got we shared it with the neighbors, and so just the sight of the beach was one thing, and just the neighborhood, really. You know, just the sight of my neighborhood, really, was a good thing. Sound? That's kind of difficult, but what comes to mind right now that I'm thinking of is high school with the band and the orchestra, because I was able to participate in both; in the marching band, and we also had an orchestra. I played clarinet and I was able to ascend to first clarinet, so I'm listening to some of the things that we played as an orchestra, and going, like to state band competitions and actually winning. You know, a little school in Georgetown, South Carolina, Howard High School, but the band instructor that we had there, Mr. Ephraim [ph.], really just did so much for us and carried us so far and helped us to appreciate a lot of classical music. I still remember some of the symphonies and some of the parts that the clarinet would play in the symphonies and when I hear them now, I said, oh, you know, it's a good thing (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And remember.$$Um-hm.

Marie Louise Greenwood

Educator Marie Louise Greenwood was born on November 24, 1912 in Los Angeles, California. Her parents, a railroad chef and a domestic worker, moved the family to Denver, Colorado in 1925 searching for better opportunities. Having parents who stressed education, Greenwood decided to pursue teaching as a career. Upon graduating from West High School, her academic record as one of Colorado’s top students earned her a scholarship. This enabled her to enroll in Colorado Teacher’s College in Greeley where she was confronted with blatant racism. She was prevented from living on campus or joining any student organizations. In 1935, Greenwood was encouraged by the minister of her church to take the Colorado State Teacher’s Examination. She successfully passed the written examination and oral interview. Upon receiving a letter of assignment entitling her to teach at Whittier Elementary School in 1935, Greenwood became one of the first African American school teachers in Denver.

In 1943, Greenwood married, and two years later, in 1945, she took a hiatus from teaching in order to raise a family. One of her four children became the first African American student to attend Newlon Elementary School. In 1953, Greenwood returned to teaching part-time as a substitute also at Newlon Elementary School. At this time, African American teachers were assigned only to schools in the predominantly African American northeast neighborhood of Denver. However, the parents of Newlon students realized Greenwood’s proficiency at teaching, and in 1955, she was accepted as a full-time teacher.

Greenwood has donated The Marie Greenwood Papers to the Blair-Caldwell African American Research Library in Denver. This bequest contains materials spanning from the 1930s and 1940s and from the 1980s to 2001. She accumulated these documents during her years as a teacher and community volunteer.

Greenwood lives in Denver, Colorado where she wrote Every Child Can Learn which is being used by teachers in many schools. As a result of her book, she has been a commencement speaker at the University of Northern Colorado, Martin Luther King Day speaker, student awards speaker and held meetings of professors and education students who have read the book. Every Child Can Learn is now in its second edition.

In 2001, the Marie L. Greenwood Academy in Denver, Colorado was named in her honor. On January 15, 2010, she received the Martin Luther King Trailblazer Award, honored by Representative Diana DiGette with a letter of congratulations which is registered in the Congressional Record. On May 7, 2010, the University of Northern Colorado honored her with the Degree of Doctor of Humane Letters. In 2013, Greenwood's autobiography entitled By The Grace of God was published.

Greenwood was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 19, 2007.

Accession Number

A2006.078

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/19/2006

Last Name

Greenwood

Maker Category
Middle Name

Louise

Schools

West High School

Lincoln Elementary School

Morey Middle School

East High School

University of Northern Colorado

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Marie

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

GRE08

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

11/24/1912

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spicy Mexican, Chinese Food

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Marie Louise Greenwood (1912 - ) was one of the first African American school teachers in Denver, Colorado, and donated The Marie Greenwood Papers to the Blair-Caldwell African American Research Library in Denver, Colorado.

Employment

Whittier Elementary School

Newlon Elementary School

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1700,25:3300,47:3700,52:4400,66:5000,73:6700,94:9900,131:13600,176:14000,181:20300,252:20900,259:27496,268:28054,299:36052,417:36703,425:41774,450:42130,455:42486,460:51475,575:53789,610:54323,617:54768,623:55213,629:55569,634:57438,658:60738,696:62360,721:62720,726:66660,781:67213,792:67687,799:75314,864:78020,910:78348,915:80726,956:81628,972:84580,1030:88730,1046:89332,1054:90708,1074:91998,1092:92514,1099:94922,1145:95438,1153:96040,1162:101200,1207:102050,1220:104630,1241:110212,1326:110740,1338:112236,1366:112588,1371:124060,1500:124718,1509:125564,1521:129314,1549:129638,1554:131780,1561:137216,1625:140324,1661:144225,1710:144675,1717:144975,1722:154742,1872:155578,1889:158694,1938:161734,2021:165178,2033:171909,2088:172414,2094:172919,2101:176280,2110:184562,2174:184897,2180:189482,2203:189834,2208:190362,2216:191682,2255:192034,2260:194564,2277:195524,2290:196164,2308:202678,2402:203710,2416:204054,2421:204828,2443:208526,2515:209042,2522:209386,2527:216054,2579:217714,2612:218129,2618:218793,2628:219208,2634:219955,2645:239139,2895:242076,2931:242788,2940:244160,2945$0,0:2622,156:15464,279:19305,310:19755,317:20055,322:20505,329:24180,366:24705,372:25650,384:27330,416:29150,443:32090,485:32762,494:36038,553:39650,601:40574,618:54800,736:55402,745:56778,767:60354,812:60970,823:61432,830:63511,865:65590,911:82780,1084:83260,1091:85628,1111:86160,1120:95604,1230:98184,1268:100592,1300:101280,1309:106140,1354:106820,1363:110305,1403:111325,1416:115171,1438:115657,1445:116710,1462:118087,1488:118654,1496:122990,1521:145158,1829:147366,1845:148826,1865:150067,1894:150797,1907:151746,1928:153498,1965:153863,1974:161223,2080:166152,2173:171081,2294:176710,2337:177710,2350:181042,2422:181609,2433:183373,2472:186156,2501:189276,2629:192942,2705:198551,2754:201781,2774:202663,2781:207414,2834:212067,2891:214080,2896:214944,2907:215376,2912:221195,2996:221762,3004:222410,3014:223625,3039:226437,3075:227532,3097:229211,3130:229722,3138:230306,3148:231474,3168:231839,3174:232131,3179:233340,3186
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marie Louise Greenwood's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her great grandfather's farm

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood explains why her father changed his name

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her father's occupation and how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her earliest memories of Los Angeles, California, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her earliest memories of Los Angeles, California, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls attending People A.M.E. Zion Church in Prescott, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls songs from World War I

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls falling ill during the 1918 influenza pandemic

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls beginning kindergarten

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls her promotion to the first grade

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes Prescott, Arizona's elementary schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls her experience of racial discrimination in the fourth grade

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls moving to Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls attending Denver's Morey Junior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes the racial demographic of her neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes Denver's Five Points neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her childhood activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls her experiences at the movie theaters in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls the desegregation of Denver's restaurants

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls her parents' encouragement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her early teaching ambitions

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood remembers her high school advisor

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls transferring to West High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls being awarded a college scholarship

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls attending Colorado State Teachers College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls pledging Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her interest in physical education

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her course load at Colorado State Teachers College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls completing her college education, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls completing her college education, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls starting her teaching career with Denver Public School

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her first teaching experiences

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls parents' reactions to an African American teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood remembers how she met her husband

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes her early relationship with her husband

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls marrying her husband

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Marie Louise Greenwood remembers being hired as a substitute teacher

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Marie Louise Greenwood recalls integrating Jesse H. Newlon Elementary School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes reading to children after her retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Marie Louise Greenwood describes the school named in her honor

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Marie Louise Greenwood shares her advice to children

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Marie Louise Greenwood reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Marie Louise Greenwood narrates her photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DATitle
Marie Louise Greenwood recalls falling ill during the 1918 influenza pandemic
Marie Louise Greenwood recalls starting her teaching career with Denver Public School
Transcript
Do you remember starting school?$$Yes.$$Around this time?$$Yes, I wanted desperately to go to school, being an only child I--but I just wanted to get to school and normally at five years old, of course you go onto kindergarten, well now in 1917, I had turned five, my mother [Sarah Garret Anderson] would not let me go. Her little darling was, "She was to, too little to be going yet," and I was, I was smaller than anybody else, you know. So, she said that when I got six years old, I could go, which of course would have been 1918, well in the spring of 1918, when I was still five, I caught the flu, you, you've heard about that worldwide flu epidemic, after the war [World War I, WWI]? My father [Joseph Anderson] came back home in the middle of it, he had it, I got it and that's the second time that I just about died. I don't know how long I was in bed unconscious most of the time, my fever was so high that I was wringing wet all the time and finally, and my mother was by my bed constantly, I don't know when in the world she slept because when I would become conscious she was always there and I would go again. And finally, she told me that the doctor gave up on me, she said he absolutely could not do anything more for me unless he's got some whiskey. And back in those days you know, you didn't go to the doctor, the doctor came to you, came to your house and, now what the whiskey would do, I don't know but it was as scarce as hen's teeth because everybody was using it and of course I guess I was just gone. There's another time that I went up and could see me lying there and I never know how I got back in my, it, it's just blank but somehow that spirit got back into my body and my mother said that in the middle of the night the doctor came pounding on the door, he had found some whiskey and, isn't it wonderful doctors were like that then? They aren't like that now, but anyway, he found this whiskey, now what he did and what he mixed it with and gave it to me, poured it in me, I do not know, all I know is that eventually I became conscious and for the first time I actually said, "Momma," and my mother just wept, I was and I was, my, my fever broke and I, but I had been sick so long, you know I couldn't walk? I was five years old. I'll never forget that and I was so small, I was still asleep in my crib because I was just a little kid, usually then she'd just have the crib side down you know? And I could climb in and out, but while I was sick it was up and so finally I became well enough that I could get up and my legs folded right under me. Scared me to death, I still remember, going through my mind, I've got, I won't be walking anymore, I'm gonna have to crawl the rest of my life (laughter). So, I had to crawl, I had to get back and crawl just like I did as a baby and then gradually would pull myself up on things, you know as my legs got stronger and I was fed, I'll always remember that.$That was the way I got started and when I graduated [from Colorado State Teachers College; University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado], naturally I graduated in the upper part of the class, and I was, this was the, oh I'd only grad- been graduated about a week and I was devastated, I couldn't send, I didn't have enough money to buy stationery, stamps were three cents and I didn't have enough money to buy three cent stamp to try to send out for the, the, the possibility of teaching somewhere and I had just given up on, on Denver [Colorado] because I was sure that that one, that one had, when I turned it down in '34 [1934], that was the end of my chances. And do you know, it, I was sitting--it'd only been a week or so, that the mail came and I would just, I didn't know what I was gonna do, and here was a letter from Denver Public Schools and you know? I was scared to open it. I was almost sure it would say, you know, the rejection. And finally, I sat and I waited and I waited, then I decided I'd better open it and it was just what you saw in my, there, that letter telling me that the Board of Education [Denver Board of Education] had, was offering me the job in 1935, as a teacher in the Denver Public Schools and I had my little pink card that was my contract to--it was actually making me, it wasn't a permanent substitute, actually making me, giving me a contract to be a probationary teacher in the Denver Public Schools with the fabulous salary of twelve hundred dollars a year. I just, well, I let out a yell, I started to cry, my poor mother [Sarah Garret Anderson] came rushing through the kitchen to see what was going on and all I could tell her, I am going to be a teacher in the Denver Public Schools. And now, I had vowed, when I got a job, didn't know where I was gonna get it, but no matter what, my folks were gonna be taken out of that little old basement, my mother was not gonna work again unless she just wanted to work. I immediately, I hadn't, didn't even have the job yet, I immediately started hunting for a house to rent, I found a house to rent, we moved into it, my dad [Joseph Anderson] and, well continued as the janitor down at the Daniels and Fisher [Daniels and Fisher Company, Denver, Colorado], and we sha- I said we would share expenses and I got my folks out and into a house and my mother didn't have to do anything unless she wanted too. Of course, my mother did find odd jobs that she liked to do but that was up to her and I was assigned, of course to Whittier School [Whittier Elementary School; Whittier ECE-8 School, Denver, Colorado], a first grade. I wanted kindergarten at first, but you know, I'm awful glad I was put in the first grade. I got into that first grade and it became mine for fi- thirty years, I wasn't always at Whittier, I was on, I only actually taught in two, two schools, that was, and but I also made up my mind that I had to keep my job in the middle of the Depression [Great Depression], a one hundred dollars a month, that was a lot of money, you just don't know how, how things were like back there in that big depression. A hundred dollars a month was just like manna from heaven.

Barbara L. Thomas

Barbara Louise Thomas was the president and CEO of the Chicago based National Black Master of Business Administration Association (NBMBAA). Thomas was born on December 5, 1947, in Dublin, Georgia, one of Jerrie Lee Tart and Horace Sanders’s thirteen children. Thomas was raised by foster parents Georgia and George Monroe in Dublin, where she attended segregated public schools and graduated from Oconee High School. In 1965, Thomas moved to New York City with her birth mother and took a job at Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited - Associated Community Teams (HARYOU-ACT) where she met her husband. Thomas went on to receive her B.A. degree from New York's Bernard Baruch College in 1970 and her M.B.A. degree from Columbia University in 1973.

While a university student, Thomas clerked at CBS’s Radio Division. After completing her education, Thomas moved into the CBS television division and managed network cut-ins, a position she credits with opening the door to her twenty-five year career at CBS. Eventually Thomas was the first African American woman to attend CBS’s School of Management. Thomas later became director of finance and administration for CBS, and left the network in 1989 after serving as the first African American woman to act as a senior vice-president.

Moving on from CBS to function as chief financial officer for various health care organizations and other non-profit groups, Thomas moved to Chicago in 2001 and spent two years as the chief financial officer for the NBMBAA. The board of directors of the NBMBAA appointed Thomas as president in 2003.

Citing her faith as a major sustaining force in her life, Thomas remained active in her church. Thomas raised two daughters and had five grandchildren.

Accession Number

A2005.169

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/21/2005

Last Name

Thomas

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Schools

Oconee High School

City University of New York

Baruch College

Columbia University

Susie Dasher Elementary School

CBS School of Management

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Barbara

Birth City, State, Country

Dublin

HM ID

THO09

Favorite Season

All Seasons

Sponsor

The Jay Pritzker Foundation

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

I'm Blessed.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/5/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Donuts (Krispy Kreme)

Short Description

Association executive and broadcast executive Barbara L. Thomas (1947 - ) was appointed president of the National Black Master of Business Administration Association in 2003.

Employment

National Black MBA Association

Harlem United Activists for Community

CBS Radio

CBS Television Division

CBS Television Finance Division

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:1144,11:2728,30:3080,35:9504,161:13376,225:13816,230:14168,236:15312,253:16104,264:24130,319:25850,343:26796,359:27398,368:33645,429:34375,440:35251,458:35616,464:37076,496:40221,524:41094,534:44370,564:47450,614:47978,621:52202,719:53698,744:54578,755:55458,769:56338,780:57482,797:63210,841:67185,929:67560,935:78164,1101:81042,1117:81862,1128:83092,1150:83830,1161:91935,1284:93660,1306:93960,1311:95985,1358:100767,1417:105240,1526:109704,1585:110644,1598:111490,1609:111960,1615:112806,1632:115234,1653:120994,1792:127618,1959:128122,1968:133700,2031:137832,2084:138180,2089:138963,2101:146097,2230:151737,2273:152664,2285:153282,2292:156475,2370:157093,2378:161218,2394:165310,2428$0,0:736,13:8224,214:9004,226:10174,243:10486,248:14542,319:14854,324:15166,329:16180,350:17740,380:18520,395:24134,422:26420,442:27122,452:28136,463:29306,484:31022,511:31568,520:32894,549:33518,559:38888,593:39455,604:39707,609:40085,616:40526,627:40778,632:42542,668:43172,680:44558,704:45629,731:46385,748:50417,844:50669,849:51236,861:51488,866:52433,892:52874,901:62054,983:62678,992:62990,997:67124,1076:82140,1159:83850,1180:84420,1187:90595,1279:95373,1301:95870,1311:96722,1325:97006,1330:98142,1353:98710,1362:99278,1372:113246,1498:114311,1517:121624,1657:122121,1665:122831,1680:123967,1708:124393,1715:125600,1734:126097,1743:126807,1756:127091,1761:127801,1776:128440,1788:129079,1798:130073,1815:134590,1828:134998,1835:135406,1842:136086,1858:137514,1883:140266,1919:140994,1929:142268,1961:146523,1975:147020,1984:147446,1991:151990,2048:153130,2073:153662,2082:153966,2087:158222,2192:158526,2197:160046,2232:160578,2240:161414,2263:161794,2276:168163,2317:168678,2323:182633,2494:183712,2591:184376,2601:188674,2614:189514,2628:196250,2705:199860,2740
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Barbara L. Thomas' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Barbara L. Thomas lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her father and how she resembles him

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Barbara L. Thomas describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls Susie Dasher Elementary School and Oconee High School, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls Susie Dasher Elementary School and Oconee High School, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls her experiences at Oconee High School

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Barbara L. Thomas recounts her civil rights activity in Dublin, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls her favorite television shows growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Barbara L. Thomas talks about attending college and moving to New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls working for HARYOU-ACT

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls meeting her husband and their marriage in 1967

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls studying finance and obtaining her M.B.A. degree from Columbia University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls her various promotions at CBS

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Barbara L. Thomas recounts her experiences at the CBS School of Management

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her retirement from CBS and subsequent roles

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Barbara L. Thomas recounts the history of the National Black MBA Association

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Barbara L. Thomas describes the activities of the National Black MBA Association

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Barbara L. Thomas describes the current climate for young black people with M.B.A.s

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Barbara L. Thomas details the National Black MBA Association's future plans

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her involvement with her church

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Barbara L. Thomas reflects upon her life

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Barbara L. Thomas reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Barbara L. Thomas reflects upon her family

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Barbara L. Thomas describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Barbara L. Thomas describes how she would like to be remembered

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Barbara L. Thomas recounts her civil rights activity in Dublin, Georgia
Barbara L. Thomas recounts her experiences at the CBS School of Management
Transcript
Okay. And when you, well, in that part of Georgia was there any civil rights activity going on there?$$Oh, yeah, I was a naughty little girl (laughter). I did have one experience and it was really an accident. And Georgia gets very, very hot and you walk every place. I mean, you know, teenagers didn't drive their parents' cars, you, you walked. And we were not allowed to go into any of the white restaurants. And in the department stores there is a water fountain and it would say what, white and colored. But our water was always hot and it would never come up to high but the white fountains water was always high and icy cold.$$In the cooler--$$And, yeah.$$--or water cooler.$$Oh, yeah. And so one day we were cutting through the department store, Belk's Department Store on our way home and it was hot and I wanted a drink of water and I just figured no one was watching so I thought I'd steal some water from the white fountain and next thing I know the sheriff had me by the shoulders (laughter).$$The, the sheriff himself?$$The sheriff, right. He just happened to be in the, in the store. Like, I really got quite a lashing. But because he knew my father [Horace Sanders] I didn't get thrown in jail but I probably would have. So I thought since I got away with that I could get away with something else. So then there was, we used to have a drugstore and it had a soda fountain but we weren't allowed, I mean, we could go in and order if we wanted to but you had to stand over in the back, you weren't allowed to sit. And I decided one day to sit down. Well, that was the time I got taken down to the jail house. I didn't get locked up but it frightened me enough to know that I dare not do those things again. But there was a lot of picketing, you know, a lot of protesting and it started back in the '60s [1960s].$$Now did you keep up--$$In Dublin [Georgia].$$--with civil rights activity?$$Yeah, you know, as far as reading and what was going on. And I was, of course, very anxious to, you know, to participate in it but, you know. You didn't have as much going on in Dublin as you did in Atlanta [Georgia] or Macon [Georgia], the larger cities that surrounded us, you know. But our voices were, their voices were heard, you know. But my parents and foster parents [George Monroe and Georgia Monroe], you know, at that time I was back with my parents, didn't allow us to participate, you know.$Well tell us about the CBS School of Management [New York, New York]. You know, is CBS the only network to have its own school of management?$$I, I don't know. I don't know if other networks had it. But I, I, I remember us going to the old Ford mansion up in upstate New York, I can't even remember where, but I was just very surprised that I was selected and again it was the same gentleman Donald Bryan [ph.] who had watched me. And he basically said to me that he saw a lot of potential in me and he was going to help me, you know, learn the ropes and make my way up the ladder. And I received a memo saying that I had been selected to go to the CBS School of Management, which was a total shock because first of all I was black, and to me that was a very prestigious place and you didn't, you know, you didn't get to go in there. But what they did is they selected people that they felt had potential and the company wanted to invest in because they saw you as a long term employee that they could truly see the return on their investment. CBS School of Management basically taught you how to dress, how to speak, which pieces of silverware to use when you're out on a client meeting, you know. We did simulations, but with the simulations then back, if you were the president of CBS, you know, how would you run this company. So you had a full day where you were the president. These are things people are doing now that CBS was doing way back, you know, in the '60s [1960s]. It, I guess, in its, one could say that it brainwashed you because I went out and bought more pinstripe, black and blue pinstriped suits than I ever knew in my life because that was what, that was the dress. But it really prepared you to be ready to step out and meet with their key clients and negotiate business for the company. So that's really what it was all about, preparing you for that.$$Okay. So, so an emphasis on style and culture and how to--$$Exactly. Exactly. But very few people were selected to attend this, go through this. So I was very, very privileged to have had that opportunity. And it was a, you know, it was much, much more intense and I'm sort of giving you the, the high level of it but there was a lot of intense time. We were up very early in the morning, you know, to very late at night going through trainings that they had provided for us.$$How long did it last?$$I think it was about two and a half weeks of--$$And--$$--just intense. And you didn't go home to your family.$$And about what, what year was this (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) That's what I'm trying to remember. I believe, if I remember it was in 1973, I have to look at my, my award, my, that I received from them.$$All right.$$My diploma.