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The Honorable Richard Mays, Sr.

Lawyer and judge Richard Mays, Sr. was born on August 5, 1943 in Little Rock, Arkansas to Dorothy Mae Greenlee and Barnett G. Mays, a restaurant owner and real estate developer. Mays graduated from Horace Mann High School in 1961, and earned his B.A. degree in political science and business administration from Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1965. Mays then received his LL.B. degree from the University of Arkansas School of Law at Fayetteville in 1968, where he was the only African American in his graduating class.

In 1968, Mays worked as a trial attorney in the organized crime division of the U.S. Justice Department in Washington, D.C. He soon returned to Little Rock to work as a deputy prosecutor for the sixth judicial district in Pulaski County, making him the first full time African American prosecutor in the district’s history. In 1971, he joined the law firm of Walker, Kaplan, and Lavey, the first racially integrated law firm in Arkansas. From 1973 to 1977, Mays also served in the Arkansas General Assembly. He was among the first group of African Americans to serve in the Arkansas General Assembly in the twentieth century.In 1977, he co-founded the law offices of Mays, Byrd & Associates. Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton appointed Mays to the Arkansas Supreme Court as an associate justice in 1980, and that same year, he became an adjunct law professor at the University of Arkansas Little Rock William H. Bowen School of Law. From 1992 to 1996, Mays was the national co-chairman of the Clinton-Gore Presidential Inauguration Committee, raising over $1 million as a fundraiser. In 1993, Mays became the senior vice president of Cassidy & Associates. Mays also served as a consultant at CMS Energy and facilitated a contract with Ghana to develop a power plant. From 2005 to 2015, he served as vice chairman and chairman of the Arkansas Claims Commission. In 2013, Mays became the chairman of the board of directors of Soul of the South, a television network focused on African Americans and Southern culture.

Mays served on the Arkansas Economic Development Commission, The Arkansas Ethics Commission, and the Arkansas Banking Board. He also served on the U.S. South African Business Development Committee, and on the board of directors of the American Judicature Society. Mays was honored by the Arkansas Civil Rights Heritage Trail in 2015, and inducted into the Arkansas Black Hall of Fame in 2016.

Mays is married to Supha Xayprasith-Mays, and has four children, Richard Jr. and Tiffany, who are also practicing attorneys in the Little Rock area as well as Dr. Kimberly Smith, an orthodonist in Chicago, and Dr. Latisse Stovall, an emergency room physician in New Jersey.

Judge Richard Mays, Sr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 13, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.044

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/13/2018

Last Name

Mays

Maker Category
Schools

Bush Elementary School

Dunbar Magnet Middle School

Horace Mann High School

University of Arkansas Law School

First Name

Richard

Birth City, State, Country

Little Rock

HM ID

MAY09

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cabo, Mexico

Favorite Quote

Man, It’s Tough Out Here.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arkansas

Birth Date

8/5/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Little Rock

Favorite Food

Spaghetti And Meatballs

Short Description

Lawyer and judge Richard Mays, Sr. (1943 - ) served as an Arkansas Supreme Court Judge in 1980, a deputy prosecutor for the sixth judicial district in Pulaski County. He was also a founding partner of Mays, Byrd & Associates in Little Rock.

Employment

Mays, Byrd and Associates

Arkansas Claims Committee

Cassidy and Associates

Arkansas Supreme Court

Bowen School of Law

Arkansas General Assembly

Walker, Kaplan and Mays

U.S. Department of Justice

LR Prosecuting Attorney

Favorite Color

Green

Curtis H. Tearte

Business executive and consultant Curtis H. Tearte was born on September 18, 1951 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Gwendolyn Tearte and Curtis Tearte Sr. Tearte graduated from South Philadelphia High School in 1969, and received his B.A degree in African and African American Studies from Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1973. He went on to earn his J.D. degree from the University of Connecticut School of Law in 1978. Tearte also studied political science and international affairs at Howard University and the University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School.

Tearte began his career in sales and marketing at International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in 1979. From 2001 to 2004, Tearte served as the general manager of global public sector industries at IBM in Bethesda, Maryland. He was promoted to general manager of industry and systems growth initiatives in Somers, New York in 2005. In 2007, Tearte managed the sale of IBM Printing Systems to the Ricoh Company. Tearte became IBM’s worldwide general manager for the storage systems unit in 2009, where he led the sales team responsible for the success of IBM’s XIV disk system design. The following year, Tearte served as IBM’s managing director for the State of Georgia. In this role, he managed the largest infrastructure technology transformation in the United States, and oversaw the integration of IBM’s storage development and global sales teams. In 2012, Tearte and his wife, Jylla Moore Tearte, co-founded the Tearte Family Foundation, a nonprofit that provided scholarships, coaching, and mentoring to promising high school and college student. He served as its chief executive officer. In 2013, Tearte founded Tearte Associates, Inc., a firm that provided investment management and business consulting through the Tearte Family Foundation.

Tearte served on numerous boards, including the board of the University of Connecticut School of Law Foundation, the Brandeis Alumni Association board, as well as the board of trustees at Brandeis University, which he joined in 2014. Tearte also chaired the Southeast Advisory Committee of the Jackie Robinson Foundation.

Teatre is married to Jylla Moore Tearte. He has two daughters, Cherice Barr and Anjylla Foster.

Curtis H. Tearte was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 6, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.032

Sex

Male

Interview Date
3/6/2018
Last Name

Tearte

Maker Category
Middle Name

H.

Schools
South Philadelphia High School
Brandeis University
University of Connecticut School of Law
First Name

Curtis

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

TEA02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Laguna Beach, California

Favorite Quote

You See Things And You Say Why? I Dream Things That Never Were And Say Why Not?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/18/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Favorite Food

Salmon and Grouper

Short Description

Business executive and consultant Curtis H. Tearte (1951 - ) was a senior executive at IBM for over thirty years, and the co-founder of the Tearte Family Foundation and Tearte Associates.

Employment
IBM
Tearte Family Foundation
Tearte Association Inc.
Favorite Color

Purple & Blue

Art Norman

Broadcast journalist Art Norman was born in New York City, New York. Norman graduated with his B.S. degree in math and physics from Johnson C. Smith University, where he was a member of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. He has also received a first class F.C.C. engineer’s license.

Norman began his broadcasting career in 1969 when he was hired as a television engineer at WCCB-TV in Charlotte, North Carolina. Throughout the 1970s, he worked as a reporter at WPCQ-TV and WSOC-TV, both located in Charlotte; and, in 1976, he served as a writer and photographer on the George Foster Peabody Award winning edition of NBC's "Weekend Magazine." Norman was then hired as a reporter and weekend anchor for Baltimore, Maryland’s WMAR-TV in 1979. In July of 1982, he joined WMAQ-TV NBC5 in Chicago, Illinois as a general assignment reporter. At WMAQ, Norman went on to cover breaking news, anchor broadcasts and cultivate community-oriented feature segments, including the popular “Art Norman’s Chicago.” He retired from WMAQ in 2009, but returned on a part-time basis as a special contributor in 2012.

Norman has received many awards throughout his career. He won North Carolina's RTNDA Award for his coverage of a fatal air balloon crash in 1975, and his documentary on the plight of poor children won a 1978 School Bell Award from the National Association of Educators. He received a 1984 International Radio and Television News Directors Award and a 1987 Wilbur Award; his hosted series, "Cops and Robbers," was honored with two prestigious awards: a national Investigative Reporters and Editors Award and an Associated Press Award for "Best Investigative Reporting." Norman was an integral part of NBC5's coverage of the Beirut hostage crisis, which earned him a 1986 Emmy Award. He also received Emmys for his contributions to NBC5's coverage of the Laurie Dann spot news story; his spot news coverage of the Fox River Grove Bus Crash; and his contribution to NBC5's coverage of the Chicago Auto Show. In all, Norman has earned six Emmy Awards.

Norman's involvement with the Chicago community has also been extensive. In addition to hosting numerous community events each year, he is a spokesman for the United Negro College Fund and serves as an on-air host of their telethon. He is also a frequent NBC 5 News ambassador.

Norman is married and lives in Evanston, Illinois.

Art Norman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 21, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.258

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/21/2014

Last Name

Norman

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Johnson C. Smith University

P.S. 186 Harlem

Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. School,

J.H.S. 43

Brooklyn Technical High School

Samuel Gompers Career and Technical Education High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Art

Birth City, State, Country

Harlem

HM ID

NOR07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Precious Lord Take My Hand

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

9/6/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Green Bean Casserole, Sweet Potatoes, Collard Greens

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Art Norman (1947 - ) worked as a reporter, anchor and special contributor for Chicago’s WMAQ-TV station for over thirty years. He received six Emmy Awards for his news coverage.

Employment

WCCB-TV

WPCQ-TV

WSOC-TV

NBC

WMAR-TV

WMAQ-TV

Favorite Color

Blue, Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Art Norman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Art Norman lists his favorites, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Art Norman lists his favorites, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Art Norman describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Art Norman talks about his parents' move to New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Art Norman describes his mother's life in New York City's Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Art Norman remembers growing up in the Harlem community in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Art Norman describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Art Norman remembers his father's combat injuries from World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Art Norman remembers visiting relatives after his parents' separation

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Art Norman describes his half-brother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Art Norman remembers his twin brother, Lionel Norman

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Art Norman talks about his likeness to his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Art Norman describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Art Norman remembers his father's mindset about his war injuries

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Art Norman remembers his interests during grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Art Norman talks about the influence of his mentors at Camp Minisink

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Art Norman describes his experiences at Samuel Gompers Vocational and Technical High School in Bronx, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Art Norman talks about his time as a television repairman

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Art Norman remembers building the WJCS Radio station at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Art Norman remembers the criticism of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Art Norman recalls the aftermath of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Art Norman remembers his first professional broadcasting experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Art Norman talks about changing his accent

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Art Norman talks about Steve Jobs' approach to interface design

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Art Norman describes how he became a reporter at WSOC-TV in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Art Norman remembers declining Ted Turner's offer to work at CNN

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Art Norman recalls covering a fatal air balloon crash in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Art Norman remembers his investigative coverage of a nuclear power plant in North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Art Norman remembers his experiences at WMAR-TV in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Art Norman talks about the founding of the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Art Norman remembers joining WMAQ-TV in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Art Norman describes how Oprah Winfrey came to WLS-TV in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Art Norman remembers the election of Mayor Harold Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Art Norman talks about Mayor Harold Washington's relationship with the press

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Art Norman remembers the aftermath of Mayor Harold Washington's death

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Art Norman reflects upon the connections between Harold Washington and President Barack Obama

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Art Norman recalls the National Association of Black Journalists' research on the media representation of African Americans

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Art Norman remembers covering a shooting at a family court in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Art Norman remembers his journalistic mentors

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Art Norman talks about his coverage of Andrew Wilson's trial

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Art Norman recalls covering the Laurie Dann shooting

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Art Norman remembers his interactions with Mr. T

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Art Norman talks about covering unlawful searches by Cook County sheriff's deputies

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Art Norman remembers an investigation of racial profiling in the Highland Park Police Department

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Art Norman reflects upon his journalistic philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Art Norman remembers Barack Obama's first campaign for the U.S. Senate

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Art Norman remembers the proposal to hire Jerry Springer at WMAQ-TV

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Art Norman talks about his news segment, 'Art Norman's Chicago'

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Art Norman remembers John H. Johnson

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Art Norman remembers the death of his first wife

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Art Norman talks about his friendship with President Barack Obama

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Art Norman talks about his relationships with his mentees

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Art Norman remembers covering a Ku Klux Klan rally in Concord, North Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Art Norman reflects upon his experiences as a black reporter in the South

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Art Norman reflects upon his experiences of racism in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Art Norman talks about his favorite news stories

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Art Norman reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Art Norman talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Art Norman remembers meeting Terri Diggs Norman

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Art Norman reflects upon his mentorship of young journalists

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Art Norman describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$7

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Art Norman talks about covering unlawful searches by Cook County sheriff's deputies
Art Norman remembers covering a Ku Klux Klan rally in Concord, North Carolina
Transcript
Let's, let's talk about the Cook County [Illinois] sheriff's deputy story--$$Yeah--$$--department story, rather.$$Yeah that's in Dixmoor, Illinois and one of the things that, every year I used to emcee the NOBLE [National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives] banquets, which is a black police officers organization, and I got a call from a group of police officers, sheriff's police officers, and they said, "Something is going on, is rotten in Denmark." "What do you mean?" And he says, "We're having raids in communities and they are strip searching women inside clubs for no apparent reason." I said, "What?" So what we did we got our camera crews out there and we started following the Cook County Sheriff's Office and I was no big fan of Sheriff O'Grady [James O'Grady] for doing this, but they went into a club in Dixmoor with a warrant for--marijuana warrant for someone who was in there, and they strip searched everybody in there including the sister of the mayor [David Johnson] of Harvey [Illinois] who was in there watching the Bulls [Chicago Bulls] game. And the point we were trying to make in our story is the fact that if you had marijuana cigarette in Schaumburg [Illinois], should everybody in that nightclub get strip searched? That only happened in the black community and here's another thing that was very upsetting according to the black police officer that approached me about it he said all the white officers were inside this club, the black police officers were on the perimeter, why? And these police officers were mad and they started leaking documents, I'm not going to use names but they started leaking documents to me showing everything. I got a copy of the warrant, I got everything. They're looking for an outstanding warrant for a guy named John Doe for marijuana, why are you strip searching in plain view of everybody in the nightclub in Dixmoor? Ah, that crossed the line. It was at the time when--$$So they did this in public? People were strip searched--$$Right in public. And at the time O'Grady was running for office and I was on the radio talking about it on WGCI [WGCI Radio, Chicago, Illinois] and V103 [WVAZ Radio, Chicago, Illinois] talking about my story, "Be sure and watch it that night," and who should I get a call--calls in Sheriff Michael Sheahan calls in and he says, "O'Grady ought to be ashamed." I said, "Mr. Sheriff Candidate I can't have this conversation with you. You have to be a listener like everybody else because you're running for office, and let the community talk this out." That's what I said on the air to him. I said, "Listen Michael Sheahan I appreciate you calling in, that means a lot but I need you to back off," (laughter) and he did. He did because it was--he was trying to politicize it. I think it was a fact of life that you can't strip search everybody in a nightclub. And they--they had everybody up against the wall then they started taking mug shots of everybody there in this black club watching the Bulls game that night. You couldn't do that in Schaumburg, no. So I did the investigative report on that with a lot of documents and won the investigative reporter of the year award for that series of reports. It was not just one report, it was over five straight days of these reports. And so it won a lot of accolades from IRE [Investigative Reporters and Editors], the investigative reporters organization (simultaneous).$When you look back on everything you've done to this point in your career is there anything major you would do differently?$$No because even your mistakes you learn from your mistakes. I remember going to a Klan rally--yeah I can't believe that either, but it was one of those things that--I'm in North Carolina and I'm going to a Klan rally and the speaker is David Duke the grand wizard of the Ku Klux Klan [KKK]. So I'm a wise bud and I said, "I'm going to call the Klan and say, can I do an interview, I'm not going to tell them I'm black." So I say, "Hello David Duke." "Yeah how you doing," he's coming in from Louisiana. I say, "Okay I'm in Charlotte, North Carolina. We are going to come over and meet you Concord [North Carolina] and we'll do a sit down interview where you're going to have the rally." He said, "Oh great, great, what time are you going to get there?" I said, "Two o'clock." "Beautiful." I said, "Oh man," I hang up the phone and said, "Whew what have I done?" See these are the kind of stories I put on my video tape resume that in the next bigger market--love. "What the hell did this Negro--?" Anyway I get, I'm getting to go to their rally and so my camera lady is a camera lady and she's white female. So I said, "Listen Marsha [ph.] when we get up there let me carry the bag." "No, no, that's not your job," and I said, "It's going to look kind of weird." "I don't care, my job is to be a camerawoman." She was trying to make a statement that she didn't want anybody to take--I said, "All right, okay, okay." So I'm getting ready to leave the station then I get a call from the FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation]. They said, "Mr. Norman [HistoryMaker Art Norman]," I say, "Yes," he says, "You're going to be out there at the Klan rally today, we got a--this is the FBI and we got a feeling that your civil rights are going to violated." I said, "For real?" He said, "Yeah I just want to let you know if you hear any gun shots immediately fall to the ground, immediately, and tell your camera lady the same thing. We have agents and they've infiltrated the Klan and the Klan rally." So I said, "Okay." "So you just go out there and do the interview like you're going to do it but if you hear shots immediately go to the ground." I said, "Okay." He said, "We'll be out there but you won't see us." I said, "Okay," I hung up the phone I said, "Marsha that was the damn FBI." "Get out." So I called the station manager over there and he said, "Well should we do anything?" And I said, "No, they're going to be out there." So I get out there and as soon as I walk out there, get to the car everybody is like--it's a Klan rally. Everybody's got their sheets on and stuff like that and they're like, "Hey nigger." So I said, "Water on a duck's back, I'm not going to let it bother me," said, "I'm going to walk through this." I walked through all those name calling things and I felt like Jackie Robinson, I know what he felt like all right. So I went through it, got to David Duke he said, "I didn't know you was colored." I said, "Yeah you got me; I'm the same guy you talked to on the phone. You didn't ask me what color I was." He said, "You know what you're absolutely right, and you've got balls to come in here," I said, "Absolutely." So we sat down and did the interview. We did an interview for about a twenty minute interview. They gave me all kinds of awards for that interview but the point is I walked right into the lion's den and wasn't afraid and he had a lot of respect for me. We did a good job--good interview and no easy questions, no powder puff questions. I think I felt a little brave 'cause the FBI--I knew the FBI was somewhere nearby (laughter). But these guys they were drinking, they were drinking liquor, they were getting liquored up and it was getting late. I wanted to get out of there before it got night but the point is it was a hostile environment and I got out of there and I said, "Whew." There are other times--I've seen some (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Did Duke provide any escort for you to leave or (unclear)?$$No just, "Thanks for coming by to see me, can we walk you to the car?" And I said, "No I'm fine I know where, I know where it is." He took a picture with Marsha the lady, he wanted to take a picture of all three of us together, we took a picture of them together, they took a picture and I said, "Fine." I'm still alive (laughter) just one of those things you have to go through you know, it's North Carolina. Wow, it's--things are different in North Carolina, so--but you bring that to the table to your next city or your next town, to your next assignment that you can do that--that you can do that, you can talk to anybody.

Ted Childs, Jr.

Diversity strategist J.T. (Ted) Childs, Jr. was born on November 26, 1944 in Springfield, Massachusetts to John and Clara Childs. He graduated from Classical High School in 1962, and received his B.A. degree in psychology from West Virginia State University in 1967.

Upon graduation, Childs joined IBM as a personnel administration trainee. He went on to work in several staff and managerial positions at IBM, including program manager of personnel operations. He was subsequently appointed IBM's vice president of global workforce diversity, where he oversaw the company's diversity programs and policies. From March of 1983 to September of 1984, Childs served as executive assistant to Dr. Benjamin L. Hooks, executive director of the NAACP, on an IBM Social Service Leave. In 1989, he was appointed by Governor Mario Cuomo to the New York State Governor’s Advisory Council on Child Care; and, in 1995, Childs was appointed as an official delegate to the White House Conference on Aging. In 1997, U.S. Treasury Secretary, Robert E. Rubin, appointed Childs as an advisor to the Secretary’s Working Group on Child Care. In 2006, Childs retired from IBM and founded the consulting firm, Ted Childs, LLC, where he serves as a strategic diversity advisor.

Childs is a member of the board of trustees, and past chair of the West Virginia State University Foundation. He is a member of the Executive Leadership Council (ELC); The Families and Work Institute board of directors; was installed as a Fellow of The National Academy of Human Resources in 2001; and has served as co-chair of the National Council of Jewish Women’s Work Family Advisory Board. Childs holds life memberships in the National Association of African Americans in Human Resources, The National Council of Negro Women, Inc., The National Organization of Women (NOW), Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., the NAACP, the Sierra Club, and the Bass Anglers Sportsmen Society.

In 1997, Childs was named by Working Mother magazine as one of the 25 Men Friends of the Family who have made it easier for working parents to raise and nurture children. In 1998, the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies presented Joan Lombardi, U.S. Senators Ted Kennedy and Orrin Hatch, and Childs with its Lifetime Achievement Award. Childs also received the Corporate Leadership Award from the Human Rights Campaign in 2003, the Work/Life Legacy Award from the Families and Work Institute in 2004, and the Trailblazers in Diversity Award from the Chief Diversity Officer’s Forum in 2006. In addition, Working Mother Media announced The Ted Childs Life / Work Excellence Award to be given annually to the individual who by their distinctive performance has contributed to the field of Life / Work in the business community. Childs has received Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters degrees from Pace University, West Virginia State University and Our Lady of the Elms College.

Ted Childs was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 20, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.115

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/20/2014

Last Name

Childs

Maker Category
Middle Name

Theodore

Schools

Eastern Avenue Elementary Public School

Buckingham Junior High School

Springfield Central High School

Lincoln University

West Virginia State University

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

CHI03

State

Massachusetts

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/26/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

South Salem

Country

United States

Short Description

Diversity strategist Ted Childs, Jr. (1944 - ) was founder of Ted Childs, LLC. He retired as IBM’s vice president of global workforce diversity in 2006 after thirty-nine years of employment at the company.

Employment

IBM

NAACP

Cullen L. Dubose

Construction Executive Cullen L. Dubose was born on July 5, 1935 in Moss Point, Mississippi. Dubose attended Tougaloo College in Jackson, Mississippi and received his B.S. in Civil Engineering from Tri-State University in Angola, Indiana in 1958. Dubose also attended graduate school in housing and finance at Michigan State University.

From 1958 to 1969, Dubose worked as a Bridge Design Engineer, Civil Engineer, Structural Draftsman, and Highway Draftsman for the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation in Lansing, Michigan. During much of that time, Dubose also worked as a Civil Engineer for the Michigan State Housing Development Authority. From 1977 to 2008, Dubose was the Chief Operating Officer for Painia Development Corporation, a minority-owned company that provides comprehensive site selection advice and evaluates sites along with design builds for corporations looking to locate or relocate their facilities such as distribution centers, call and data centers, warehouses and manufacturing facilities. Dubose was featured in several articles on urban renewal and housing markets, including an article in Reader’s Digest entitled, “Tales of Two Cities: Renewal in Detroit and Jersey City.”

Dubose sits on numerous boards including the Michigan Economic Growth Authority, to which Michigan Governor Jennifer Granholm appointed him in 2003. He is also a board member of the National City Corporation for Michigan Multi-Cities, the secretary for the Michigan Housing Council, a member of the Board of Directors for the Detroit Investment Fund, a member of the Michigan Minority Business Development Council, and a member of the African American Association of Businesses and Contractors. Dubose sits on the Board of Directors for the University Cultural Center Association and for Tougaloo College, and he is the recipient of several awards, including the Omega Psi Phi Citizens Award and the NAACP Citizens Award. Dubose is married to Helena Joyce and has three children: Cheri, Cullen, and Freddie.

Cullen Dubose was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 8, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.046

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/10/2010

Last Name

Dubose

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Schools

Magnolia Elementary School

Magnolia High School

Tougaloo College

Trine University

Michigan State University

First Name

Cullen

Birth City, State, Country

Moss Point

HM ID

DUB01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

There's No Mysteries If You Have The Facts.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

7/5/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Lansing

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Construction executive Cullen L. Dubose (1935 - ) was the chief operating officer for Painia Development Corporation from 1977 to 2008, and was appointed to the Michigan Economic Growth Authority in 2003 by Governor Jennifer Granholm.

Employment

Michigan Department of State Highways

Painia Development Corporation

Michigan State Housing Development Authority

Favorite Color

Blue, Gray

Timing Pairs
0,0:1296,34:2268,49:3240,64:15655,246:19135,295:20353,313:20875,320:39574,612:42234,645:42614,651:44134,676:44590,683:49986,790:50670,808:57890,845:58265,851:59165,860:59465,865:60665,878:87192,1351:89136,1390:93024,1453:93672,1465:93960,1470:95040,1487:95544,1498:102744,1639:103032,1644:109010,1650:109298,1662:119540,1830:120560,1853:122855,1898:123620,1916:125235,1948:125830,1957:133190,2031:134030,2062:135206,2077:135542,2082:146148,2200:175480,2646:184596,2771:186660,2803:187434,2820:199300,2995:204168,3044:204528,3050:210562,3129:211392,3140:212305,3154:220518,3335:223253,3363:223787,3370:225834,3402:232003,3458:232375,3463:253622,3799:254278,3808:262640,3938$0,0:990,106:8712,296:9900,311:10494,318:11484,331:16162,356:16588,363:19144,409:25310,511:40576,712:41242,723:43832,778:44350,783:48568,848:54858,985:56486,1015:57374,1027:59816,1075:66288,1085:71388,1171:78042,1242:81474,1292:81786,1297:84126,1332:91946,1426:92274,1431:106395,1645:122528,1979:122863,1985:123198,1991:126414,2061:126682,2066:133676,2175:159838,2542:160944,2564:168926,2695:175364,2917:185754,3085:189276,3105:191940,3185:193198,3213:195714,3313:199636,3393:207468,3466:215820,3562:218620,3716:221100,3746:224780,3829:232970,3975:242285,4195:243044,4211:243320,4216:244976,4250:250635,4273:252084,4305:252636,4314:257182,4408:258236,4427:265366,4611:265676,4620:270965,4706:275255,4794:281490,4857:282480,4867:292177,4995:294389,5050:299791,5138:306217,5283:306658,5291:315090,5404:320552,5483:320908,5488:321531,5499:327940,5592
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Cullen L. Dubose's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Cullen L. Dubose lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Cullen L. Dubose remembers his father's entrepreneurship, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Cullen L. Dubose remembers his father's entrepreneurship, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Cullen L. Dubose lists his siblings, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Cullen L. Dubose lists his siblings, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Cullen L. Dubose lists his siblings, pt. 3

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his father's personality and his likeness to him

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Cullen L. Dubose recalls lessons from his father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Cullen L. Dubose describes the role of religion in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Cullen L. Dubose describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his experiences with racial discrimination at Magnolia Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Cullen L. Dubose describes how he came to attend the Tougaloo Southern Christian College in Tougaloo, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Cullen L. Dubose remembers his teachers at Magnolia High School in Moss Point, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his decision to study engineering

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Cullen L. Dubose remembers his interest in Brown University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Cullen L. Dubose describes how he came to work for the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Cullen L. Dubose remembers the housing discrimination in Lansing, Michigan, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Cullen L. Dubose remembers the housing discrimination in Lansing, Michigan, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his role at the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about the NAACP's opposition to the construction of Interstate 496

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his decision to leave the Michigan Department for State Highways and Transportation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his role at the Michigan State Housing Development Authority, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his role at the Michigan State Housing Development Authority, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about the Michigan State Housing Development Authority's Project Rehab

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his reasons for leaving the Michigan State Housing Development Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Cullen L. Dubose recalls the Painia Development Corporation's first project

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Cullen L. Dubose recalls his experiences of discrimination as the founder of the Painia Development Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about the Farmers Home Administration project in Gaylord, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about the disadvantages of certification as a minority owned business

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about the Federal National Mortgage Association

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his role on the Michigan Economic Growth Authority

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Cullen L. Dubose reflects upon the success of the Painia Development Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Cullen L. Dubose reflects upon his career

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his role on the board of Tougaloo College

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his partnership with A. Alfred Taubman, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his partnership with A. Alfred Taubman, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about his work during the mayoralty of Dennis Archer

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about business development under Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Cullen L. Dubose recalls his tenure on the board of the Detroit Investment Fund

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Cullen L. Dubose describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Cullen L. Dubose reflects upon his life, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Cullen L. Dubose reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about his parents' response to his success

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Cullen L. Dubose talks about his children

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Cullen L. Dubose reflects upon his life, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Cullen L. Dubose describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
Cullen L. Dubose talks about the disadvantages of certification as a minority owned business
Cullen L. Dubose describes his partnership with A. Alfred Taubman, pt. 1
Transcript
What is the significance of being certified as a minority owned business?$$I don't think it's any significance, you're supposed to get points in the county and to me, my son got that certification, I had it early in business and I found out that people, as soon as they discovered that you were minority, you got pushed back and harmed and nitpicked. So for years I let mine's expire and I didn't get it. My son has--since he came with the company [Painia Development Corporation, Detroit, Michigan], he's now rejoined then and had put it there. I don't think it's, I don't think it's been significant at all. I think the only thing that I know where we've got points, we got points with the county for being a county based business on one contract. But we don't do a lot of work for other people, you know, most of our stuff is there. But I, I think it's, in many cases it's a disadvantage because it quickly points out you may have a, it's similar to what I said about the mortgage, twice in my life, the Farmers Home [Farmers Home Administration] I told you about, the first house I built, Prudential Insurance Company [Prudential Insurance Company of America; Prudential Financial, Inc.] had agreed to finance it with never seeing me, when me and my wife [Helena DuBose] showed up to close, they wouldn't close the loan. So I, obviously my son is with the company and, and in fact, the table, he's, he's taken charge of a lot of stuff. And he feels that it was some significance but I've never seen any advantage, me and a person that work in the Lansing [Michigan] office who happened to be white, but I think she's a fair person, we both agree that in the cases when I tried to use it very early, it was a negative, not a positive.$$So you've kind of tried to fly under the radar of, of identification?$$I flew, yes, yes. I tried to fly under the radar and when I came out, thought I had the education and the money I got slapped pretty hard three or four times okay, or several times. And it's happened in the last, in this governor's [Jennifer Granholm] administration even though I had three, participated in two fundraisers for her and had one, there was staff who did it this time, 'cause they knew who we was and knew (unclear) there and, and I got very little support. And the rules was written that all you could do, I guess we could have filed a lawsuit but I, you know, you just go on and find a way to get around this. But no, so the, I, we are certified, I think Freddie [Dubose's son, Freddie DuBose] is certified as, and it cost us like fifteen--$1800 or $3,000 a year to go through the process. But I think it's, it's, it's, it's, it's useless. So yeah, you try to fly under the radar. And I shared with somebody who had been a major (unclear) a few weeks ago that I flew under the radar and when I came out, and I don't think it's that you can come out openly now, now obviously some of it you can get (unclear). It's a guy up in Lansing, Joel Ferguson [Joel I. Ferguson], black, he's, just forced a contract but he got a joint venture white partner, this $40 million deal. But he had the influence and the Democratic congress, the state house [Michigan House of Representatives]. And the white partner had friends in, in the Republican side. So the governor wanted to slow this down and she wasn't gonna get her budget until they got their police station, okay. So if you get at that level, you know, you know, where, you know, he was very close to the Clintons [Hillary Rodham Clinton and President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton], he got two TV license but at our level it, it, it's, it's better to get as far as you can before they know who you are, you know, even if you're gonna confront it, if you don't get down the pipe it, it's still difficult. And then you make a economic decision, do I wanna argue with this or do I wanna go somewhere else. So, yes, I, I have ducked of, of them not knowing who I was.$I just wanted to ask you--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) a quick question like--$$Yeah.$$--what difference has, you, you were describing off, off camera, you know, the, this development [Lester Morgan Cultural Gardens, Detroit Michigan] and how it came into being and how Coleman Young fought for low income housing, and housing for the, the low income residents here and medium income residents in this development that we're sitting at right now which was, you know, projected as a high income, you know, living facility by some of the directors at the DIA--$$Yeah.$$--Detroit Institute for the Arts [sic. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan], so.$$Well, Coleman was, was strong in both low income and minority participation. If you were gonna do something that required a lot of city approval, participation, he wanted you to take in a black partner and, and, and if the black partner didn't know the game, learn him the game. If the architecture firm wasn't big enough to do it, he'd put two black firms together or he put the black firm with a white. That was, that was Coleman's thing is that, you know, our experience. So on this particular job here, Alfred Taubman [A. Alfred Taubman] didn't like what the city had requested for proposal. Alfred Taubman is a large real estate developer and, and has made some news. But anyway he owns shopping centers and so forth, one of the big and, and he had a real interest in the city, in the DIA and Coleman's administration. So when we got the proposal for this development it was to be a senior citizen low income. And he called and said that he wanted to meet with me. So I said fine. At first I thought it was a joke when the secretary told me, and she thought it was a joke that, "Alfred Taubman's on the phone. They wanna meet with you." I had done no business with him and didn't know any reason why he would call me, but at the time he called me. When I met with him, he told me he had talked to two or three other people and they said I was a difficult person and I probably wouldn't meet with him and some of 'em had said that, you know, they could get a meeting with me for a fee or something to that effect. And he called Coleman and Coleman said, "No," I was always a boy to Coleman, a young man, so he said, "No, call the boy, he'll meet with you, he, he ain't got no problem, just, just pick up the phone, you don't need to go through XYZ for him to meet you." So he called and I met with him. And in the first meeting we got a little aggravated at times. He said that him and Max Fisher and some of the people was tired of us building all this low income stuff in the city. And I said, "Well, you know, if your banks, you and Max Fisher are the largest stockholder in Chase Bank [Chase Manhattan Bank; JPMorgan Chase and Co.] and y'all own Manufacturers Bank [Manufacturers Bank, N.A., Detroit, Michigan] here. If y'all lend us some money we'd do it." And then, you know, we got pretty husky and he says, "Well, set- settle down, settle down, we can work, work together." And in the final analysis he said, "Can the city support a market rate development?" I said, "Yeah, but we can't get, borrow, no money from no place but the state housing authority [Michigan State Housing Development Authority], and they don't allow you to spend but fifty-five thousand dollars a unit. And you can't build a market rate unit with that, you can't get a nice unit." He said, "Well, come back in with the numbers and tell me what you need and I'll get you the mortgage." I said, "I don't--no recourse mortgage [nonrecourse mortgage]--." I said, "Do you understand, I'm not signing personally for nothing?" He said (laughter), he laughed and say, said, "Yeah, I know what a no recourse mortgage is," you know, we just got through talking about something, $300 million or something--he had just talked to somebody on the phone about a, a $30 million or something, but anyway, some big numbers. He said, "So that conversation is so--you know who I am. And I own A and W Root Beer [A and W Restaurants, Inc.] but anyway, I know what a no recourse mortgage is." So I said, "Okay, I could be back in here Thursday and give you the numbers." And I came back and told him that we needed, what we needed. And he said, "Fine, I'll have Michigan National Bank [Lansing, Michigan] deliver a, a commitment over to you." And then, and then he asked me about my financial statement. And I said, "Well, now I done told you I ain't gone personally guarantee nothing." He said, "No, I just wanna see the history of your financial statement since I'm going to make the commitment for the loan, the bank's gonna depend on me." I said, "Well, I don't wanna show no cosigner." He says, "We ain't gonna cosign. They gonna just give you one on the fact that I tell them to give you one." And so I showed him my financial statements and he looked at it and said, "You know, this is accurate." I said, "Yeah, it's accurate." He said, "Well, okay. I'm satisfied that you ought to be able to get the loan on your own." And I said, "Well, we didn't get it and I ain't gonna waste no time, wasting money with architects and so forth." So he arranged for Michigan National to bring me a letter with a $5 million commitment. So then when I told Coleman Young what happened, he said, "No, we gonna have some low income people in there." He, "Low income blank, blank, people in there. We ain't gonna let y'all come in here and just do this." So I went back and I told him, you know, what the new numbers was, he said, "Okay. We can, we can work with that."

Dr. Charles Whitten

Pediatrician and sickle cell anemia expert Dr. Charles Francis Whitten was born on February 2, 1922 in Wilmington, Delaware to school teachers Emma Clorinda Carr Whitten and Tobias Emmanuel Whitten. He grew up on Wilmington’s East Side next door to future jazz trumpeter Clifford Brown. Whitten attended Number 5 Elementary School and graduated fourth in his class from Howard High School in 1940. In 1942, he earned his B.S. degree in zoology from the University of Pennsylvania. Whitten then studied medicine at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee and earned his M.D. degree in 1945 at age twenty-three.

After his internship at Harlem Hospital, Whitten worked as a general practitioner in Lackawanna, New York from 1946 to 1951.Whitten then served two years as a captain in the United States Medical Corps before returning to the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Medicine for a year of advanced study in pediatrics. In 1953, Whitten began a two-year residency in pediatrics at Children’s Hospital in Buffalo, New York. In 1955, he moved to Detroit, Michigan for a one year fellowship to study pediatric hematology under Dr. Wolf Zeltzer. Whitten became the first and only African American to head a department in a Detroit hospital when he was selected clinical director of pediatrics at Detroit Receiving Hospital in 1956. Whitten worked as an attending pediatrician at Children’s Hospital of Michigan from 1962 to 1999. He started teaching medicine as an instructor in pediatrics at Wayne State University in 1956. Whitten was named assistant professor in 1959, served as full professor of pediatrics from 1970 to 1990, and became associate dean of curricular affairs in 1976 and of special programs in 1992.

Whitten joined Dr. Charles Wright in establishing the African Medical Education Fund in 1960. In 1969, Whitten instituted Wayne State University’s Post Baccalaureate Enrichment Program to better prepare black students for medical school. In 1971, Whitten with Dorothy Boswell spearheaded the National Association for Sickle Cell Disease, now the Sickle Cell Disease Association of America. He also formed the Sickle Cell Detection and Information Center. Whitten became program director for the Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center at Wayne State University in 1973. In 2002, Whitten was named Michiganian of the Year, and in 2004, was named distinguished professor of pediatrics, emeritus at Wayne State University.

Whitten passed away on August 14, 2008 at the age of 86. He is survived by his wife, Eloise Culmer Whitten, an expert on pre-school reading. Together, they supported a number of worthy causes, including a clinic in Haiti.

Whitten was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.079

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/8/2007

Last Name

Whitten

Maker Category
Middle Name

Francis

Occupation
Schools

University of Pennsylvania

Meharry Medical College

Howard High School of Technology

No. 5 School

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Wilmington

HM ID

WHI13

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Delaware

Favorite Vacation Destination

Nassau, Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Do The Best You Can.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

2/2/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Detroit

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Paella

Death Date

8/14/2008

Short Description

Pediatrician Dr. Charles Whitten (1922 - 2008 ) was an expert on sickle cell anemia.

Employment

Wayne State University School of Medicine

Detroit Receiving Hospital

General Practice

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:896,31:1728,45:2048,51:2560,61:5238,139:5814,194:12726,301:17687,341:20297,390:22559,421:22907,426:24038,440:26120,448:26722,457:27152,463:27754,471:29818,509:30592,524:33774,577:46692,887:47706,901:48096,907:53742,948:58062,1004:58710,1011:60006,1049:79059,1244:82482,1286:85602,1345:86070,1352:103844,1729:104740,1738:108987,1794:109375,1799:113643,1859:114031,1864:121328,1918:121768,1924:125112,1988:128192,2047:128896,2056:131624,2108:137207,2161:139261,2212:141236,2254:141789,2262:142421,2271:142816,2278:143369,2288:146371,2333:152390,2387:155600,2415$0,0:1706,83:2402,92:10319,341:11015,350:13560,368:22804,572:23189,578:23882,590:29635,663:37392,807:41578,821:42262,831:50168,891:53259,909:54326,922:59555,972:65974,1044:73633,1165:74851,1181:76504,1206:76939,1212:85438,1300:85956,1308:86622,1321:87214,1330:88768,1363:89064,1368:89508,1376:95264,1442:95540,1447:98093,1502:98576,1511:99197,1521:99749,1530:101710,1550:109755,1671:110607,1684:118800,1783:119580,1832:121620,1871:122160,1885:122880,1899:123300,1907:126632,1940:127070,1947:128238,1965:129771,1995:133640,2069:140900,2139:141292,2144:142076,2155:142762,2164:143448,2172:143938,2178:150896,2287:154240,2304:163871,2454:169110,2524
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Charles Whitten's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his maternal grandfather's farm, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his maternal grandfather's farm, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about his father's teaching career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his mother and paternal aunt

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his neighborhood in Wilmington, Delaware

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers Clifford Brown

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his childhood hip injuries

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers delivering African American newspapers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his early educational experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his early religious experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers the radio programs of his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes Howard High School in Wilmington, Delaware

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his family's boarders

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his decision to attend the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his experiences at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls the establishment of his medical practice in Lackawanna, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his medical practice in Lackawanna, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his residency at The Children's Hospital of Buffalo in Buffalo, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his courtship with his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his move to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers the sickle cell disease clinic at the Children's Hospital of Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about sickle cell diseases

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers the African Medical Education Fund

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers the all-black hospitals in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his challenges at the Detroit Receiving Hospital in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Charles Whitten reflects upon his career in medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his advocacy for sickle cell patients

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about the evolution of the sickle cell trait

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the National Association for Sickle Cell Diseases

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his partnership with the March of Dimes Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act of 1972

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the advancements in sickle cell research

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about the incidence of sickle cell disease among African Americans

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his diversity initiative at the Wayne State University School of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the post baccalaureate program at the Wayne State University School of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about sickle cell education in Africa and the Caribbean

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his preschool literacy program

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the findings from his preschool literacy program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his motivation for researching literacy

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the success of the post baccalaureate program at the Wayne State University School of Medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about sickle cell disease awareness

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about the closure of all-black hospitals

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about his medical clinic in Haiti

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Dr. Charles Whitten describes the National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act of 1972
Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his diversity initiative at the Wayne State University School of Medicine
Transcript
What was your interaction with Congressional Black Caucus in terms of the sickle cell program (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh, that was later over some funding issues where we needed, needed some, some help. And Lou Stokes [HistoryMaker Louis Stokes] was very, very helpful with that. But it's a question of--one of the things that was happening was that since sickle cell had been so successful as in getting some, some congressional support that the other genetic diseases wanted to have the same. So they wanted to have a law, we have a law now, a sickle cell--called Control Act [National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act of 1972] that Nixon [President Richard Milhous Nixon] put in place. And they wanted to have something similar to this and that's what we were considered about, this (unclear) of funding if everybody had it had a act in the, in the picture that's where the Congressional Black Caucus was very helpful.$$Okay, now, now what was--what did the--what were the previsions of the sickle cell act?$$Well basically now it says that [U.S.] Congress is mandated to have ten comprehensive sickle cell centers, didn't say how much funding. But they mandated to have ten comprehensive sickle cell--that's unique, a mandate of Congress. So we've come a long way with, with the congressional--the governmental regulation of the sickle cell problem, what needs to be done about it.$$So are these--$$That's one of the big, the big advances.$$Okay, so are--there are ten centers now?$$Ten, yes.$$All right.$$There were--we had fifteen. I, I was program director for one of the centers [Sickle Cell Detection and Information Center] at Wayne State [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan] for nineteen years. And we started with, with fifteen and then they went down to ten. And at the last--when I was still active--the last application was after I was active we no longer had a solid research program. We weren't competitive for nineteen years we were, so we di- weren't funded from that time on. But for nineteen years and during the course that time we had of $17 million to come in for the comprehensive sickle cell centers. And we were very proud national- locally that Wayne State University, that was the largest research funds, that ever come to a university in any one, for any one program, for the whole university, was my sickle cell program.$$That is something.$You were director of the center [Sickle Cell Detection and Information Center] for nineteen years and then?$$Yeah, I was dire- yes I directed the center for nineteen years, I was president of the, of the sickle cell association of America [National Association for Sickle Cell Diseases; Sickle Cell Disease Association of America, Inc.] for nineteen years, the leader there.$$Okay, now you also have a academic career at Wayne State [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan]--$$Yes.$$--in the meantime? You began to teach, you were teaching at Wayne State back in the early '60s [1960s] right?$$(Nods head).$$And then, so tell us about your career at, at Wayne State, your teaching (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well the thing that--the only thing significant I've done at Wayne is that I became concerned about the fact that we have very few black physicians. And that we needed to increase the number. And to do so it didn't seem likely that, that we had enough qualified applicants of individuals who qualify, not just applicants, but qualified applicants. And I developed a pra- program at Wayne based on the premise that there were individuals who have the native ability, basic intelligence, so forth to become successful physicians. But they--when they applied to medical school their academic credentials did not suggest that they will be successful. And hence they were denied admission. But I believe that they had the potential and the reason that they didn't have the necessary academic credentials is that that they had been disadvantaged, educationally disadvantaged, emotionally disadvantaged, physiologically disadvantaged, economically disadvantaged. Many had to work through the four years of school and hence didn't have the grades that--. And if these individuals were given the opportunity for another year's program they could be successful in medical school. I convinced the medical school administration of this, and we started off with five black students. Eventually ten then fourteen; we had to increase it because we couldn't have a program exclusively for blacks. And as of last year we're over two hundred black doctors now, who graduate from med- Wayne med school who had originally been denied admission to the medical school and about sixty others--racial groups. And it's based upon the premise that they had the ability but had been disadvantaged and hence had not been (unclear). This was an outstanding--it's a unique program that I started in 1961.

Herbert U. Fielding

Politician Herbert U. Fielding was born on July 6, 1923 in Charleston, South Carolina to Julius and Sadie Fielding. Fielding served in the United States Army during World War II prior to attending and receiving his B.S. degree from West Virginia State College in 1948.

In 1952, Fielding took charge of the day-to-day operations of the family funeral home business, becoming President and CEO of Fielding Home for Funeral Services. Founded in 1912 by Fielding’s father, Fielding Home for Funeral Services was the largest African American-owned and operated funeral home in the state of South Carolina.

Fielding became involved in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. He often paid for the bail of civil rights activists, picketers and demonstrators. Fielding encouraged African Americans to vote and mobilized them to memorize the constitution in order to gain voting rights.

In 1970, Fielding became the first African American to be elected a representative in South Carolina since Reconstruction. He served for three years, then returned to the South Carolina State House in 1983. In 1985, Fielding was elected to South Carolina’s State Senate, where he served until 1992. In 1990, he became the chairperson of the South Carolina Legislative Black Caucus.

Fielding is a member of several organizations including the South Carolina Commission on Vocational Rehabilitation, the University of South Carolina Budget Board and the South Carolina Human Affairs Commission. He is also a vestry member at Calvary Episcopal Church in Charleston.

The Department of Transportation named Highway 61 from James Island Expressway to South Carolina Route 61 in Charleston County as the Herbert U. Fielding Connector.

Fielding was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 2, 2007.

Fielding passed away on August 10, 2015.

Accession Number

A2007.042

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/2/2007

Last Name

Fielding

Maker Category
Middle Name

U.

Schools

Avery Normal Institute

Lincoln Academy

West Virginia State University

First Name

Herbert

Birth City, State, Country

Charleston

HM ID

FIE03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

Dad Blame It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

7/6/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charleston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork, Beans, Sausage

Death Date

8/10/2015

Short Description

Politician Herbert U. Fielding (1923 - 2015 ) was the first black representative elected to the South Carolina legislature since Reconstruction. He later served as the chairperson of the South Carolina Legislative Black Caucus.

Employment

Fielding Home for Funeral Services

South Carolina Senate

South Carolina House of Representatives

Favorite Color

Beige, Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:1244,7:5028,124:5630,132:13026,320:13542,328:27612,466:30048,490:43996,637:44828,646:50340,679:51068,687:51588,693:60400,744:61280,760:61920,769:62240,774:62800,780:69600,920:72420,926:73725,944:74334,952:76770,979:77640,990:88396,1089:89052,1098:95720,1157:100565,1210:102265,1234:102945,1243:110475,1310:116765,1407:129447,1561:130068,1571:131241,1586:138810,1727:139450,1736:143450,1782:144410,1799:158425,1904:159190,1914:159700,1921:169880,2026:170456,2033:181880,2147:207344,2345:207890,2353:211166,2400:215809,2424:216733,2453:218427,2486:239012,2667:243380,2753:251332,2791:252658,2796:257452,2857:261350,2887:261705,2893:271219,3062:271574,3068:272639,3081:279500,3136$0,0:658,7:1128,14:5734,124:10228,155:10898,161:13846,185:24156,291:28251,376:30162,402:30799,410:36216,444:37162,456:40774,536:46122,592:57290,706:57850,714:78810,1078:79986,1098:80672,1106:81848,1118:100660,1362:129382,1637:129817,1643:159856,1996:160186,2002:162640,2027:166684,2055:169324,2106:175608,2164:180150,2223:182828,2248:183549,2262:183961,2267:196468,2477:196778,2483:197212,2491:209500,2681:213800,2768:219400,2872:227755,2953:239798,3085:240186,3090:242745,3110:243069,3115:243393,3120:251331,3236:251655,3242:259160,3323
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Herbert U. Fielding's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding lists his maternal relatives

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his mother's upbringing in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding talks about his mother's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Herbert U. Fielding remembers his paternal step-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his family's roots in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his neighborhood in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls his paternal family's religious and business activities

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his paternal family's store in Summerville, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding describes the Avery Normal Institute in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding remembers Lincoln Academy in Kings Mountain, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls class distinctions at Avery Normal Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Herbert U. Fielding remembers his activities at Lincoln Academy

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls joining the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls racial discrimination in the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls serving overseas in the U.S. Army in World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding remembers returning to college after World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls his return to Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his paternal grandmother's community service

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls his political activity in the late 1940s and early 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Herbert U. Fielding describes the funeral customs of Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls joining Fielding Home for Funeral Services

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls the civil rights involvement of Charleston's black business community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his civil rights activities in Charleston

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his interactions with Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls the violence during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls his election to the South Carolina House of Representatives

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls serving in the South Carolina House of Representatives

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding recalls resigning from the South Carolina legislature

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his political career in the 1980s and 1990s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Herbert U. Fielding talks about his retirement from politics

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his successors at Fielding Home for Funeral Services

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his marriage

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Herbert U. Fielding reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Herbert U. Fielding describes his advice for future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Herbert U. Fielding offers advice for those seeking a career in politics

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Herbert U. Fielding narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
Herbert U. Fielding recalls his political activity in the late 1940s and early 1950s
Herbert U. Fielding describes his interactions with Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
Transcript
So you started with the NAAC [sic. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)] as one of your first service organizations and you began to work with your sister [Emily Fielding] here at the funeral home [Fielding Home for Funeral Services, Charleston, South Carolina].$$Yeah.$$Okay.$$Um-hm.$$So, tell me what happens next? 'Cause it's 1946 and then we go on to the--into the '50s [1950s].$$I started working here at the funeral home, and at that time, I got really involved with Esau Jenkins and the Citizens Committee [Citizens Committee of Charleston County]. And what--Esau had a nonpartisan charter for the Citizens Committee, and our basic aim was getting black folks registered to vote. It was right after 1948 when the Waring decision came down, Judge J. Waties Waring [Julius Waties Waring]. I guess you've heard of him?$$Okay, tell, tell us about that.$$Judge J. Waties Waring was a white aristocrat, but a federal judge, and he broke up the segregated Democratic Party and forced the party to, to let us in. And at, at the time, Esau was running the Citizens Committee and it had a nonpartisan charter, so we couldn't directly involve in partisan politics. So what Esau used to do, he'd call a Citizens Committee meeting and we'd go through the routine in--usually in a church and about a half an hour, forty-five minutes, and then Esau would adjourn the meeting and then call me up front and say, now--tell me to run the meeting--run the meeting and we'd turn it into a political meeting. And that's how we started the political action com- in fact, Esau taught me how to form the Political Action Committee [Political Action Committee of Charleston County]. It came right out of the Citizens Committee. And, then we started fighting for positions in the Democratic Party. And that went from one thing to the other, and we built up--in fact, at one time, the Political Action Committee of Charleston County was the strongest political organization in the State of South Carolina. Nobody could get elected without the endorsement from PAC and, and that's how we built--we started running folks for the house [South Carolina House of Representatives]. In fact, I was in the first group to run for the house in 1952. I ran with J. Arthur Brown and Frank Veal and myself. And we knew we couldn't get elected because in those days, you ran at-large in the county and they had two things in there. You had to have a full slate--they had this full slate law. The eleven members to be elected from Charleston County [South Carolina], you had to vote for all eleven, and if you didn't, your vote didn't count at all. And so when you go in there and you cast--say you got a thousand black votes and you got ten thousand white votes, you got to take your thousand black votes and put them on the black folks and you also got to put them on eight white folks, do you see what I mean? So there's no way in the world you can catch up. So we ran in 1952 really knowing that we couldn't get elected, but we ran to encourage black folks to get registered, and we got a whole lot of folks registered.$That's when I first met Martin Luther [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] myself 'cause Esau [Esau Jenkins] had a little Volkswagen bus, and we used to drive from here to Monteagle, Tennessee. And Martin Luther would come there I think from Atlanta [Georgia], and we used to have little conferences and all up there in Tennessee. And Miss Clark [Septima Poinsette Clark] joined that group and she started teaching, and then she formed the educational schools. In fact, there's one on Johns Island [South Carolina] named after her right now. But all, all of that came out of Monteagle, Tennessee, with Martin Luther King and Myles, Myles Horton. Myles Horton was the name of the fellow that ran the camp in Tennessee [Highlander Folk School; Highlander Research and Education Center, New Market, Tennessee].$$Do you remember any conversations you had with Martin Luther King?$$Yeah, at that time?$$Um-hm.$$Well, I had a lot of conversations with Martin Luther at Myles Standish, and then Esau and I got tied in with SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference] and at that time, it was a rivalry between the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] and SCLC. And we stuck--Esau and I stuck mostly with SCLC, and we'd go on conferences all over--mostly all over the South with Martin Luther. I remember one time we were in a conference with Martin Luther at, I think it was Memphis [Tennessee]. I think it was Memphis, Tennessee, and Martin Luther was up on the stage and speaking, and this white guy--Esau and I were sitting on the front seat in this big auditorium, and this white guy was sitting right next to me, and all of the sudden, he jumped up and ran up the steps and got up on the--and had on brass knuckles, and started beating on Martin Luther, and boy, Martin Luther had guards all the time, and those guards grabbed him and they were fitting to tear him up. And, and Martin Luther himself came. They--he wouldn't let them. He took the darn brass knuckles off the guy. I think that was in Memphis.$$That's something. Were you a part of the March on Washington?$$Yeah (laughter).$$Tell me about that day.$$I woke up--I don't know how in the devil I did it, but I was tired. We had gone on a train. They, they started a train way down in Florida and it stopped on the way and we picked up the train here, went straight on up and went into Grand Central Station [sic. Union Station, Washington, D.C.]. And--I think it's Grand Central Station.$$In D.C. [Washington, D.C.]?$$In D.C.$$Okay. I don't know the name of the (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The big station.$$--train station.$$And, and I think we walked from that station to the Mall [National Mall, Washington, D.C.] and there was a bunch of us here from Charleston [South Carolina], and I got lost from my crowd. And I was tired and I laid down on the grass and put my coat under my head and went to sleep (laughter). And I--when I woke up, Martin Luther started speaking. When--that's what woke me up and I'll never forget that as long as I live.$$There were so many people.$$Oh, it was just like that. It was jam-packed.$$But how were the people treating one another?$$Oh, it was--it was like a love feast, you know, everybody. And it didn't matter who you were or what color you were or anything.

Robert James

Bank president and entrepreneur Robert Earl James was born on November 21, 1946, in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, to Annie Mae and Jimmie James, Sr. James graduated from L.J. Rowan High School in 1964, after which he received his B.A. degree in accounting from Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1968, James became one of the first African Americans to be accepted into Harvard Business School.

After obtaining his M.B.A. in 1970, James became President of Carver State Bank in Savannah, Georgia, one of the oldest African American-owned commercial banks. During his thirty-year tenure as President and CEO of Carver State Bank, James pioneered the re-development of Atlanta’s inner city as well as helped avert the financial crisis of Morris Brown College. In addition, James acted as Chairman of the National Bankers Association in 1978 and 1990. From 1981 to 2002, James served on the board of the Georgia Telecommunication Authority; he also purchased and revived The Savannah Tribune (now known as The Tribune). In 1989, James became the owner and publisher of The Fort Valley Herald; both are publications dedicated to the African American community.

James was recognized for his work with various honors and awards, including being named one of the 100 Most Influential Black Americans by Ebony Magazine in 2003, and being awarded the Distinguished Service Award by the National Bankers Association.

James and his wife, Shirley James, who is the editor of The Tribune, lived in Savannah, Georgia; they raised three children.

Accession Number

A2007.024

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/22/2007

Last Name

James

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Occupation
Schools

L. J. Rowan High School

Grace Love Elementary School

Morris Brown College

Harvard Business School

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Hattiesburg

HM ID

JAM03

Favorite Season

January

Sponsor

Robert James II

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I'd Rather Be A Could-be If I Cannot Be An Are; Because A Could-be Is A Maybe Who Is Reaching For A Star. I'd Rather Be A Has-been Than A Might-Have-been, By Far; For A Might Have-been Has Never Been, But A Has Was Once An Are.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/21/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Okra

Short Description

Bank chief executive Robert James (1946 - ) served for over thirty years as the president and CEO of Carver State Bank.

Employment

Citizen and Southern National Bank

Carver State Bank

Armco Steel Corporation

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:528,11:8008,146:10120,168:13850,183:15950,218:33425,566:34025,575:41808,596:45702,671:48078,720:58176,1013:59166,1028:64182,1144:80600,1298:82840,1354:83800,1375:87480,1448:89320,1471:97974,1575:99906,1612:103839,1703:104460,1713:104943,1723:112809,1862:131724,2102:132132,2109:133900,2156:134512,2164:134784,2169:135192,2176:146684,2514:147092,2522:147636,2533:148248,2544:148724,2552:160134,2672:161520,2687:161828,2692:163060,2714:165293,2750:169528,2861:170144,2870:170452,2879:172300,2899:174841,2935:175611,2947:176227,2959:176535,2966:182950,2985$0,0:1182,15:1884,26:6720,119:15300,359:15768,367:24224,432:24768,441:26672,481:27420,494:29528,562:33812,647:34560,661:36260,695:42610,720:62746,1017:63450,1029:66650,1104:67802,1124:76980,1249:79200,1286:79866,1297:81716,1334:83788,1364:84602,1372:87858,1443:88228,1449:89486,1472:104750,1680:111362,1845:117576,1892:121672,1977:122440,1992:123656,2019:124168,2033:124552,2041:124872,2047:125128,2052:125704,2063:126024,2075:126280,2080:126664,2088:126920,2094:128200,2125:128456,2130:128840,2138:136012,2213:138151,2248:140014,2284:142429,2338:150916,2534:157896,2572:161293,2657:176242,2880:176674,2887:177538,2901:178114,2914:188848,3085:189124,3090:191263,3150:194713,3213:194989,3218:195472,3226:196783,3252:206820,3332:207188,3337:218090,3483:226640,3566:230510,3644:243559,3742:244098,3756:250104,3843:256649,3963:259036,4008:261269,4057:262578,4081:263425,4108:263733,4113:264888,4133:271688,4165:273280,4185
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert James' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert James lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert James describes his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert James describes his mother's personality and community involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert James describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert James describes his mother's educational background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert James describes his father and the parent he takes after most

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert James lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert James describes his childhood homes

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Robert James describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Robert James describes his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Robert James describes his experiences at Grace Love Elementary School

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Robert James describes his childhood extracurricular activities

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Robert James describes his mother's cooking for holiday celebrations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert James recalls his involvement in the African Methodist Episcopal church

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert James remembers learning to play the saxophone

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert James recalls listening to baseball games on the radio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert James recalls playing in the high school band

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert James remembers his involvement in national student council meetings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert James describes his organizational activities in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert James describes his teachers at L.J. Rowan High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert James remembers his high school friends

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert James describes his high school jobs

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Robert James recalls his decision to attend Morris Brown College

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Robert James recalls his family's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Robert James describes his reaction to President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert James recalls his family's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert James recalls cross burnings and the bombing of Vernon Dahmer's home

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert James recalls attending Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert James explains why he attended a historically black college

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert James describes his experiences at Morris Brown College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert James recalls avoiding the Vietnam War draft

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert James recalls his brothers' U.S. military service

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert James remembers his friend, Paul C. Bland

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Robert James recalls his accounting training at Armco Steel Corporation

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Robert James remembers meeting his wife, Shirley James

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Robert James recalls his experiences at Harvard Business School

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert James remembers his classmates at the Harvard Business School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert James reflects upon the importance of community involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert James recalls recruiting black students to the Harvard Business School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert James recalls his internship at The Citizens and Southern National Bank of Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert James remembers moving to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert James recalls attending Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s funeral

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert James remembers the birth of his son

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Robert James describes his family's legacy at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Robert James recalls the political involvement of The Citizens and Southern National Bank of Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Robert James recalls becoming the president of Carver State Bank

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert James describes his involvement in fraternities, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert James describes his involvement in fraternities, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert James recounts the history of Savannah's Carver State Bank

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert James talks about Carver State Bank's financial growth

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert James talks about the importance of African American owned businesses

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert James talks about the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert James talks about government minority finance programs

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert James describes his book, 'The Mississippi Black Bankers and Their Institutions,' pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert James describes his book, 'The Mississippi Black Bankers and Their Institutions,' pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert James talks about his son, Robert E. James, II

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert James describes his older daughter, Anne James Gennaio

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Robert James describes his younger daughter, Rachelle James Gregory

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Robert James talks about his honorary degrees

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Robert James describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Robert James shares his message to future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Robert James describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Robert James reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert James narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

2$10

DATitle
Robert James remembers learning to play the saxophone
Robert James recalls becoming the president of Carver State Bank
Transcript
What about music in the home?$$Oh, we were, we loved music. My mother [Annie Gee James] loved music and so did my father [Jim James], in his own quiet way, but he, my mother made it possible for all of us to learn to play a musical instrument. We were poor. She could only afford one instrument and, well, originally she could only afford one. She bought a saxophone and so all of the boys, starting with my oldest brother [Jimmie James, Jr.], who is a musician, who was actually a trained musician, learned how to play saxophone, so one of the highlights of my mother's life was at a church program and four of us, who could play the various saxophones, played 'How Great Thou Art,' on saxophone for my mother, and that was, you know, I learned how to play and my mother bought an alto saxophone. I understand that my brother has actually got that saxophone and has had it refurbished, my oldest brother, who was at Jackson State [Jackson State College; Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi], but they, and then when my sister [Elease James Lindsey] came along, she bought a clarinet, so we had two musical instruments that the family owned and my sister learned how to play the clarinet. Well, if you have five boys and one girl and all of 'em playing saxophone, the only one, my youngest brother, Bobby Ray [Bobby Ray James], probably never learned how to play a musical instrument but, you know, things change when the youngest child comes. But, we, we've had to learn how to play an instrument that the school would furnish, so after you learned how to play the saxophone, if you wanted to stay involved in the high school band, and stay involved in music, you had to learn how to something that they school would supply, so all of us were kind of large-sized. My oldest brother became a tuba player and so his major instrument throughout college and throughout all of his music education, is a tuba. He did his senior recital at Jackson State on the tuba, and so I learned, then Arthur [Arthur James] learned how to play the tuba, of course, and he played the tuba in the high school band. John [John L. James] went into, started playing high school football, so he never really continued his music, even though he learned how to play the saxophone because my mother insisted all of us learn how to play saxophone and, of course, I learned how to play the saxophone and when I got to high school [L.J. Rowan High School, Hattiesburg, Mississippi], I gave up the saxophone because I would have to give it up because my younger brother, Bobby Ray, would have had to take the saxophone, but he never really learned how to play it if I recall, but I played tuba in high school. I played the French horn, I played baritone, and then when I got to college, of course I played at Morris Brown [Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Georgia] in the marching band. I played tuba for two years. So, everybody in the house, just about, knew how to play a musical instrument.$So, how do you become the president of Carver State Bank [Savannah, Georgia] in '71 [1971]?$$Well, in 1969 while I was working for C&S Bank [The Citizens and Southern National Bank of Georgia], I came, I was working on my graduate research report for the Harvard Business School [Boston, Massachusetts]. This was the summer of '69 [1969], and I was gonna go back to finish my final year at Harvard Business School. I was doing my research report on the C&S community development corporation, which had started here in Savannah [Georgia], and so in order to do that research, I had to travel to Savannah, and so I came to Savannah to talk to the people at the local office of C&S Bank. During that time, I met a young lady named Betty Ellington [Betty W. Ellington], who was the wife of Coach Russell Ellington, who was a noted basketball coach around here, and also a Morris Brown [Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Georgia] graduate and so is Betty. She was an administrative assistant to the head of the community development corporation of C&S Bank. Well, she told me, she asked me if I had met the people at the black bank in Savannah, and I had not, I don't think I even knew that there was a black-owned bank in Savannah, but she took me to meet the president of this bank, and during the course of that conversation I was so intrigued by the, what looked like an opportunity (laughter) and so I met him and then I, so I talked to him later after that meeting and told him if he would offer me a job when I finished my master's degree from Harvard, I'd take the job, you know, and I wouldn't argue about salary or anything, because those were simpler times when we had no bills (laughter) because the only bill I would have had would have been a student loan or something, so I actually told him I would take a job because I never heard from him. But, I continued to research, to do research on the bank. While I was in Boston [Massachusetts], I would pull the legal reports on the bank and look at it and so forth. So, I kept in touch with people and then when I came back to work, after I finished my master's I came back to work in Atlanta [Georgia] at C&S Bank, I, C&S Bank was what was called the major correspondent bank of Carver State Bank in Savannah, which means that at C&S Bank, we had a file on Carver State Bank, which means I could go to central files and just pull the file and read what was going on and see the legal reports of the bank and so forth, and could understand the relationship between the two banks, and so I actually was aware of this bank and when I found out that their Mr. Perry [Lawrence D. Perry], who was the president, had announced his retirement and that this bank would be looking for a president, I started getting interested in the job. So, I started, I contacted them immediately, I contacted the people at C&S and so, so I became interested in becoming the president and so they had an interview process. I think Mr. J.B. Clemmons [HistoryMaker John B. Clemmons, Sr.] would have been the chairman of the committee and he, so I came down and had my interview, and I think there were two other people that they were considering who, neither of them had any real banking experience, but they were local leaders here in the community, and so I was able to get that job and so I came here as president of the bank. One of the things I asked as a condition of my accepting the job was that immediate upon my acceptance of the job that they announce that I'm the president. And, that's just my Harvard education, that somebody might change their mind (laughter) after, you know, they have a quiet conversation with me, the president might decide he's not gonna retire. And so, in June or July of 1971, there was an announcement that I would be president of Carver State Bank, so I came to work at Carver in July. I actually became president December 1, and so Mr. Perry, who was the president, stayed in the bank for a few months while I was there, and that gave me a chance to assess the staff and to make my decisions as to what I wanted to do when I took over, and so I took over on December 1. One of the first things I did--

David A. Smith

Real estate entrepreneur David A. Smith was born on August 29, 1915 in Clinton, Louisiana. Smith has the distinction of being one of the first African American real estate brokers in Denver, Colorado. His paternal grandfather, Walter Smith, was a contractor and built most of the homes, churches and schools in Clinton, Louisiana. As a child, Smith moved with his mother to New Orleans, Louisiana where he attended a private school, Gilbert Academy, before moving to Denver, Colorado and graduating in 1933 from Manual High School. Continuing his education, Smith attended Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical and Normal College in Pine Bluff, Arkansas until 1935 before receiving his B.A. degree in economics from West Virginia State College in 1938. Completing his studies at the University of Denver in 1940, Smith received his M.A. degree in economics.

Smith began his professional career as an office assistant to Governor Neely of West Virginia. In the 1940s, he enlisted into the segregated United States Army. Here, he served as an officer in the 477th Bomber Group in Tuskegee, Alabama. He was one of the officers who fought against the discrimination that existed at Freeman Field and was arrested. After an honorable discharge, Smith returned to Denver and started several small entrepreneurial businesses including a liquor store and a real estate agency. He became one of the first African American real estate appraisers and brokers for the city of Denver. During his time, he became one of the most successful African American real estate brokers in Denver.

Smith retired in the late 1990s, and his daughter has continued to maintain his real estate practice. Smith has received several awards for being an outstanding businessman and is a member of several organizations including the Urban League and the NAACP. Smith passed away on January 24, 2010.

Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 19, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.079

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/19/2006

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Middle Name

A.

Schools

Manual High School

University of Arkansas-Pine Bluff

West Virginia State University

University of Denver

Gilbert Academy

First Name

David

Birth City, State, Country

Clinton

HM ID

SMI13

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Phoenix, Arizona

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

8/29/1915

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Death Date

1/24/2010

Short Description

Real estate entrepreneur David A. Smith (1915 - 2010 ) was one of the first successful African American real estate brokers in Denver, Colorado.

Employment

Dave Smith Realty

Federal Housing Administration

Veteran's Administration

Brown Palace Hotel and Spa

Union Pacific

Favorite Color

Green

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of David A. Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - David A. Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - David A. Smith describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - David A. Smith describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - David A. Smith recalls visiting his maternal grandparents in Clinton, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - David A. Smith describes his childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - David A. Smith describes his mother's decision to move to Denver, Colorado

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - David A. Smith describes his neighborhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - David A. Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - David A. Smith describes his experiences of segregation in New Orleans

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - David A. Smith remembers his role models as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - David A. Smith describes his mother's professions

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - David A. Smith recalls his early impressions of Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - David A. Smith describes his experiences of racial discrimination in Clinton, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - David A. Smith describes his homes in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - David A. Smith recalls his decision to attend Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical and Normal College

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - David A. Smith remembers his college roommate, Adolphus Smith

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - David A. Smith describes his mother's aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - David A. Smith describes his undergraduate education

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - David A. Smith describes his experiences during the Great Depression

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - David A. Smith describes his move to West Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - David A. Smith recalls his work in the office of Governor Matthew M. Neely

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - David A. Smith describes his positions in West Virginia and Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - David A. Smith recalls his enlistment to the U.S. Army Air Force

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - David A. Smith describes the U.S. Army bases where he was stationed

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - David A. Smith describes the Freeman Field mutiny, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - David A. Smith describes the Freeman Field mutiny, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - David A. Smith describes the Freeman Field mutiny, pt. 3

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - David A. Smith recalls obtaining a liquor license and opening a store

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - David A. Smith remembers becoming a real estate appraiser

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - David A. Smith recalls founding his real estate business

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - David A. Smith describes the practice of restrictive covenants

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - David A. Smith remembers civil rights leaders and events

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - David A. Smith recalls the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - David A. Smith reflects upon his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - David A. Smith describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - David A. Smith describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - David A. Smith reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - David A. Smith narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - David A. Smith narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Reverend Charles Richard Stith

Reverend Charles R. Stith, who serves as the director of the African Presidential Archives and Research Center at Boston University, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on August 26, 1949. Stith attended public schools in St. Louis, graduating from Charles Sumner High School in 1966. After two years at a junior college, Stith attended Baker University in Baldwin, Kansas, graduating in 1973. Two years later, Stith received his master’s of divinity degree from the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta, Georgia. Stith earned his master’s degree in theology from the Harvard University Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1977.

By the time he was thirty, Stith was the senior minister at Union United Methodist Church in Boston; the youngest person ever appointed senior minister at the church. In 1985, while still serving as pastor at Union United, Stith founded the Organization for the New Equality (ONE), a non-profit organization with the goal of generating economic opportunity for women and people of color. Stith’s efforts led to the first comprehensive community reinvestment agreement in the country, a $500 million package for communities in Massachusetts. Stith was also involved with restructuring the Community Reinvestment Act, resulting in additional credit and capital for low and moderate-income communities of color.

After leading ONE for thirteen years, Stith was appointed by President Clinton as ambassador to Tanzania; his tenure as ambassador starting one month after the August 1998 bombing of the United States embassy in Dar es Salaam. Stith is credited with leading the embassy through its recovery; after his time in Tanzania, he founded the African Presidential Archives and Research Center (APARC) at Boston University.

Stith has received a number of awards and special appointments during the course of his career, including an honorary doctorate from his alma mater, Baker University. Also, in 1994, President Clinton appointed Stith to the official delegation to monitor the South African election. In 2001 former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle appointed Stith to the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom.

Stith and his wife, researcher and administrator at the Harvard School of Public Health, Dr. Deborah Prothrow-Stith, have raised two children: Percy and Mary.

Accession Number

A2005.076

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/23/2005

Last Name

Stith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Richard

Occupation
Schools

Turner Elementary School

St. Louis Community College

Turner Middle School

Soldan International Studies High School

Baker University

Gammon Theological Seminary

Harvard University

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

STI03

Favorite Season

Fall In Boston; February Thru May In Johannesburg, South Africa; April In Paris, France; June Thru August Tunisia

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

The Lord Does Provide.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

8/26/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo, Orange Juice

Short Description

Minister Reverend Charles Richard Stith (1949 - ) founded the Organization for the New Equality, served as ambassador to Tanzania under President Clinton, and founded the African Presidential Archives and Research Center at Boston University.

Employment

Stix Baer & Fuller

Wesley United Methodist Church

United Methodist Church

United States Government

African Presidential Archives and Resouce Center

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Charles Richard Stith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his mother's occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his extended family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith reminisces about Turner Elementary School, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith reminisces about Turner Elementary School, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverand Charles Richard Stith reflects upon his desire to be a leader

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recalls Sundays at church and at his grandmother's

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recalls his mission project to Kenya

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recalls being shot in the eighth grade

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recalls his experience at Soldan High School, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recalls his experience at Soldan High School, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his undergraduate education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith remembers deciding attend Atlanta's Gammon Theological Seminary

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith talks about his civil rights activities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith talks about the student government at Baker University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recalls moving to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recalls working on Maynard Jackson's mayoral campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith details his work with Boston's Black Ecumenical Commission

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith talks about his ministerial appointments

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recounts the creation of the Organization for a New Equality

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his work with the Community Reinvestment Act

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recounts becoming ambassador to Tanzania, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recounts becoming ambassador to Tanzania, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his achievements as ambassador

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his family's time in Tanzania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith recounts the creation of the African Presidential Archives and Resource Center

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes APARC's programs

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith details the collaboration between APARC and universities

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Charles Richard Stith narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

3$8

DATitle
Reverend Charles Richard Stith recalls being shot in the eighth grade
Reverend Charles Richard Stith recounts becoming ambassador to Tanzania, pt. 1
Transcript
You in college [St. Louis Community College, St. Louis, Missouri], you go to Kenya, let me just back up quickly, briefly to your high school [Soldan High School; Soldan International Studies High School, St. Louis, Missouri] years. What do you remember about your high school years? What high school did you go to?$$Well let me back up a little further--$$Sure.$$--'cause I mean one of the seminal events before high school, my eighth grade year [at Turner Elementary School, St. Louis, Missouri], I had just gotten elected president of the student body, hung around school celebrating. Left school, was walking home and a, a friend of mine called me into the alley and he was with another fella whom I knew, didn't have much association with and the other fella had a pistol, a .38 caliber handgun and they wanted to show me a pistol and I said you know you guys you don't wanna play with guns, people can get hurt. And this fella raised the gun, point blank as close to me as I am to you and said it's not loaded, pulled the trigger and shot me in the chest. And I was in the hospital for, for a while. And one of the things that I remember in addition to the, you know the significant pain that I felt, is that night at the hospital it was actually a couple of things happened at the hospital that were pretty striking. One was retrospectively kind of humorous. When we got in the hospital, I was bleeding rather profusely. And they attempted to apply some pressure to stop the bleeding but the doctor was quite emphatic, we need to rush him up to x-ray to see you know to what extent there is internal bleeding, of if there is organ damage and the guy wheeling me up to the, to the operating room, young brother, along the way this sister walked past worked in the hospital, she had on some kind of uniform, and he started talking to her. And we stopping, I'm in the hall, I'm bleeding, this guy is trying to hit on this chick and I finally said, "Excuse me brother, can you take me upstairs?" He said, "Oh, excuse me. Let me run him upstairs and I'll be right back." Now retrospectively, you know I've always had the chuckle at that I thought about it, but thank God I was you know conscious, I mean 'cause I could have died. The second thing was much more substantive and it was, it was literally hearing the doctor tell my mother [Dorothy Thompson Stith] that he was not certain that I would make it through the night, that the bullet came one sixteenth of an inch to my heart and was deflected just barely by a rib in my chest, went in the front came out the back. And it you know I mean you would think in one sense something like that would be you know an epiphany and you know, you know this thirteen year old kid, it wasn't quite that dramatic but I do recall as I said the pain, a lot of the, the, the humorous note and then more seriously this conversation between my mother and the doctor, but also that I recall you know a point of hearing him say that I might not make it through the night, feeling rather peaceful, facing the prospect of, of, of death. And you know maybe within the context of what I've come to be as a preacher and you know thinking about life you know outside the boundaries of the temple was probably to some extent informed by that experience.$You know that was ONE [Organization for a New Equality, Boston, Massachusetts] and during Clinton's [President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton] second term, I, I won't tell you the whole story which is we'll save for another occasion, but I mean the long and short of it is he, he said look I want you to go to Tanzania. I'm serious about this African growth and opportunity initiative. Most folks think it's only South Africa. I need to put several of you all in strategic spots on the continent and given what you know about dealing with undercapitalized communities some of those same principals have got to be relevant to undercapitalized countries. And so he asked me to go to Tanzania and that was the reason why little did we know when he initially asked me to go, that something else more profound would happen, which gave it even more of a providential air, and that being the bombing of the embassy [in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania].$$When he offered you the ambassadorship to Tanzania, I guess maybe just the two of you I don't know, how did you feel about that at that time? How did you feel about that offer?$$Well--$$How, how do you remember how you felt personally?$$Well, well, several things. I mean one the initial phone call came and you know my talking to the White House was nothing new or my people in the office by this time I had opened an office matter of fact in Washington [D.C.].$$For ONE organization?$$For ONE. We had an ONE office in Washington, one in Kansas City [Kansas] and quite frankly we're negotiating to open an office out in San Francisco [California]. And actually a couple of friends had said would you submit our our names for a potential ambassadorships during the second term? And I said well that's not on my radar screen 'cause I told Clinton when he got elected that I'd never ask him for anything personally and I never did. Never did. So I submitted their name they called--must have called about they want to talk to you about the ambassadorships. I assume it was the two people that I had set up right? And I'm being playful when I answer the phone, okay so what do you wanna offer me, the Court of Saint James or Paris [France]? And the response came back after a moment of the pregnant silence, both of those are open. So I say okay let's start this conversation over. What is this about? Well the president and Vice President [Al Gore] were talking about folks that they wanted a part of the team to represent this country and your name came up and they wanted to know are you interested in at least having a conversation about it. I had a bishop once who told me always keep your options open. I said yeah let's talk. And then about a week or so later, the president called me at home and you know said look I know you need to think about this but this is why I want you to come and I been talking to Deborah [HistoryMaker Deborah Prothrow-Stith] about it. I mean there were issues relative to her career, there were issues relative to the kids [Percy Stith and Mary Stith]. My mother-in-law [Mildred Boutin Prothrow] was living with us. You know how did she fit into this mix? You know our work with O&E [Organization for a New Equality (ONE)] was going fantastically. As I said we were negotiating in opening office out in San Francisco and so it was, it was, it was a difficult decision and, and I actually the thing that, that, that turned the tide on this at least emotionally for me I was down in Washington at the White House for this apology to the Tuskegee, the, the experiment [Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male], and it's actually a picture, I'm not sure if it's in the office or at home, but there's a picture of me and Al Gore talking to each other and it seems as if it's a part of the ceremony, but the picture was actually snapped at exact moment when he had pulled me to the side and he said you know I want you to know that I'm as hot on you doing this Tanzania thing as the president and we need you to do this.