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Johnnetta B. Cole

College president and civic leader Johnnetta B. Cole was born on October 19, 1936 in Jacksonville, Florida to John and Mary Francis. She was admitted to Fisk University at the age of fifteen, and later transferred to Oberlin College where she received her B.A. degree in sociology in 1957. Cole subsequently earned her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in anthropology from Northwestern University in 1959 and 1967.

In 1970, Cole accepted a faculty position at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, where she served as a professor of anthropology and Afro-American studies. Her first book, Free and Equal: the End of Racial Discrimination in Cuba, was published in 1978. In 1982, Cole became the director of the Latin American and Caribbean Studies program at Hunter College in New York City. She was then named the first black female president of Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia in 1987. During her tenure as president, she increased Spelman’s endowment to over $113 million, attracted higher student enrollment, and improved Spelman’s overall ranking. In 1992, Cole served on President Bill Clinton’s transition team as cluster coordinator for Education, Labor, and the Arts. After leaving Spelman in 1997, Cole was hired as a professor of anthropology, women’s studies, and African American Studies at Emory University; and, in 2002, she became the sixth president of Bennett College. There, she increased endowment, raised funds for an on-campus art museum, and initiated the women’s studies and global studies programs. She stepped down as president of Bennett College in 2007 and was named director of the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art in Washington D.C. in 2009.

Cole authored numerous books including All American Women: Lines That Divide,Ties That Bind (ed.) in 1986, Anthropology for the Ninties (ed.) in 1988, Conversations: Straight Talk with America’s Sister President in 1994, Dream the Boldest Dream and Other Lessons of Life in 2001, and Gender Talk – the Struggle for Women’s Equality in African American’s Communities in 2003.

Cole has served on the board of directors of the Coca-Cola Company, the Rockefeller Foundation, Merck & Co., United Way of America, and Home Depot. She also served as chair of the Johnnetta B. Cole Global Diversity and Inclusion Institute at Bennett College, and has worked with the Ford and the Andrew W. Mellon foundations to encourage greater diversity and inclusive practices in American art museums.

She has received numerous awards for her work, including the 1988 Candace Award from the National Coalition of 100 Black Women, the 2013 Alston-Jones International Civil and Human Rights Award, an Alumnae Award from Northwestern, the Reginald Wilson Diversity Leadership Award from the American Council on Education, and the BET Honors Award for Education in 2015. Cole has also been awarded sixty-eight honorary degrees and is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society.

Cole has three sons, one step-son, and three grandchildren.

Johnnetta B. Cole was interviewed by TheHistoryMakers on February 11, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.016

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/11/2019

Last Name

Cole

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Betsch

Schools

Fisk University

Oberlin College

Northwestern University

Boylan-Haven School

First Name

Johnnetta

Birth City, State, Country

Jacksonville

HM ID

COL37

Favorite Season

Autumn

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

American Beach near Amelia Island

Favorite Quote

When Women Lead, Streams Run Uphill

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

10/19/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Favorite Food

Seafood, Peanut Butter

Short Description

College president and civic leader Johnnetta B. Cole (1936 - ) became the first African American female president of Spelman College in 1987 and was named director of the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art in 2009.

Employment

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Hunter College

Spelman College

Emory University

Bennett College

National Museum of African Art

Washington State University

Bill Clinton Administration

Favorite Color

Red and Black

The Honorable Jennifer L. McClellan

State representative Jennifer L. McClellan was born on December 28, 1972 in Petersburg, Virginia. McClellan graduated as valedictorian of her class at Matoaca High School in Chesterfield, Virginia in 1990. She then earned her B.A. degree from the University of Richmond in 1994, and her J.D. degree from the University of Virginia in 1997.

In 1996, McClellan served as a page at the Democratic National Convention. After graduating from the University of Virginia, she was hired at the law firm of Hunton & Williams. In 2005, McClellan ran for her first political office in the Virginia House of Delegates. From 2006 to 2017, McClellan served as the representative for the 71st District in the House of Delegates of Virginia, where she served on the House Education, Commerce and Labor, and Courts of Justice Committees, and the Virginia Conflicts of Interest and Ethics Advisory Council. She also served as a super-delegate at the 2009 Democratic National Convention, and served as vice chair of the Democratic Party of Virginia. In 2017, McClellan was elected to the Virginia State Senate, where she served on the Agriculture, Conservation & Natural Resources, Local Government, and Transportation Committees. McClellan also chaired the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Commission, and served on the Virginia Indian Commemorative Commission and the Task Force on the Preservation of the History of Former Enslaved African Americans.  She co-chaired the Capital Region Caucus, served as vice chair of the Virginia Legislative Black Caucus, and was a member of the Rural Caucus and the Women’s Health Care Caucus. In addition to her position in the Virginia State Senate, McClellan also served as an assistant general counsel at Verizon Communications.

McClellan received numerous awards, including the Freedom Fund Banquet Award from the Richmond NAACP in 2008, the Leadership Award from the Virginia Housing Coalition in 2009, the Older Virginians Champions Award from the Virginia AARP in 2011, the Health Policy Award from the Virginia Commonwealth University Student National Medical Association in 2012, the Exceptional Dedication and Public Service Award from the Fan Free Clinic in 2014, the Trailblazer Award from the Virginia Leadership Institute in 2015, and many more. McClellan was also a member of the Virginia Bar Association (VBA) Board of Governors, the Virginia State Bar, the Metropolitan Women’s Bar Association, the Richmond Bar Association, and the Oliver Hill/Samuel Tucker Bar Association as well as the Junior League of Richmond, the Fan District Association, the Fan Women’s Club, the League of Women Voters, and the Richmond Crusade for Voters. In 2017, McClellan was selected as a Hunt-Kean Leadership Fellow.

McClellan and her husband, David Mills, have two children, Jackson and Samantha.

Jennifer L. McClellan was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 7, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.147

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/07/2016 |and| 1/19/2018

Last Name

McClellan

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Schools

University of Richmond

University of Virginia School of Law

First Name

Jennifer

Birth City, State, Country

Pettersburg

HM ID

MCC20

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Highly illogical

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

12/28/1972

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Italian

Short Description

State Representative Jennifer L. McClellan (1972 - ) served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 2006 to 2017, when she was elected to the Virginia State Senate. She also served as the vice chair of the Democratic Party of Virginia.

Employment

Virginia House of Delegates

Verizon

Hunton and Williams

Favorite Color

Blue

Billye Aaron

Nonprofit executive and television personality Billye Aaron was born on October 16, 1936 in Anderson County, Texas to Nathan Suber and Annie Mae Smith Suber. She attended Clemons School in Neches, Texas and later graduated from Lincoln High School in Dallas, Texas in 1954. In 1958, she graduated from Texas College in Tyler, Texas with her B.A. degree in English. She received a fellowship to attend Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia and graduated with her M.A. degree in 1960. Aaron continued her post-graduate studies at the University of California at Berkeley.

Aaron taught English in the Atlanta public school system, at Spelman College, Morehouse College, South Carolina State College and Morris Brown College. In 1968, she was hired as a co-host for WSB-TV’s ‘Today in Georgia,’ becoming the first African American woman in the southeast to co-host a daily, hour-long talk show. In 1973, she married baseball legend Hank Aaron and began hosting her weekly talk show, ‘Billye,’ for WTMJ-TV. In 1980, she served as the development director for the Atlanta branch of the United Negro College Fund. Throughout her fourteen-year tenure with the organization, she co-hosted the annual telethon, ‘Lou Rawls Parade of Stars,’ co-founded the Mayor’s MASKED Ball and became the second woman in the organization to serve as vice president of the southern region. After retiring in 1994, she and her husband started the Hank Aaron Chasing the Dream Foundation to award scholarships to assist the education of low-income children.

A longtime member of the NAACP, Aaron chaired its premiere fundraiser, the annual Freedom Fund Dinner, for five years. She was named director emeritus of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund and has been honored with numerous awards for her service, including the 2003 Martin Luther King, Jr. “Salute to Greatness” and the YWCA Woman of Achievement award.

Aaron and her husband, Hank Aaron's children include Ceci Haydel, Aaron’s daughter from her first marriage, and Gaile, Hank, Jr., Lary and Dorinda, from Hank Aaron’s first marriage. They also have two grandchildren, Emily Jewel and Victor Aaron Haydel.

Billye Aaron was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 1, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.065

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/1/2016

Last Name

Aaron

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Suber

Schools

Lincoln High School

Texas College

Clark Atlanta University

University of California, Berkeley

Clemons High School

Mound Prairie Institute

First Name

Billye

Birth City, State, Country

Anderson County

HM ID

AAR02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas, Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Help Me To Do Unto Others As I Would Have Them Do Unto Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/16/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Nonprofit executive and television personality Billye Aaron (1936 - ) hosted 'Today in Georgia' and 'Billye,' and served as a regional vice president of the United Negro College Fund.

Employment

Atlanta Public Schools

Spelman College

Morehouse College

South Carolina State College

Morris Brown College

WSB-TV Atlanta

WTMJ-TV Milwaukee

United Negro College Fund

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Billye Aaron's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Billye Aaron lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Billye Aaron describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Billye Aaron describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Billye Aaron talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Billye Aaron lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Billye Aaron describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Billye Aaron describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Billye Aaron remembers her paternal grandmother's farm

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Billye Aaron describes her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Billye Aaron recalls her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Billye Aaron describes her early interest in television

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Billye Aaron remembers her classmates at Lincoln High School in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Billye Aaron recalls attending Texas College in Tyler, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Billye Aaron remembers enrolling at Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Billye Aaron talks about her first husband

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Billye Aaron recalls her teaching experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Billye Aaron remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Billye Aaron recalls commuting to Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Billye Aaron describes the civil rights activities of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Billye Aaron recalls her first husband's relationship with Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Billye Aaron remembers the night of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Billye Aaron remembers the night of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Billye Aaron talks about the aftermath of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Billye Aaron remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Billye Aaron talks about the contention between the black church leaders in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Billye Aaron remembers the challenges of desegregating Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Billye Aaron talks about her first husband's religious affiliations

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Billye Aaron remembers joining WSB-TV in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Billye Aaron describes her experiences as co-host of 'Today in Georgia'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Billye Aaron remembers the death of her first husband

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Billye Aaron recalls her early relationship with Hank Aaron

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Billye Aaron talks about her life after marrying Hank Aaron

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Billye Aaron talks about her involvement with the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Billye Aaron describes her experiences in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Billye Aaron remembers working for the United Negro College Fund

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Billye Aaron describes her work with the United Negro College Fund

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Billye Aaron talks about Hank Aaron's philanthropy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Billye Aaron describes the Hank Aaron Chasing the Dream Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Billye Aaron talks about her scholarship endowments

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Billye Aaron describes her and husband's business ventures

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Billye Aaron describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Billye Aaron talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Billye Aaron describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$3

DATitle
Billye Aaron remembers the night of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 2
Billye Aaron describes the Hank Aaron Chasing the Dream Foundation
Transcript
So anyway, Coretta [Coretta Scott King] was preparing to get the, get a flight to Memphis [Tennessee] and she invited us back, as I said. We talked. She said that Mayor Allen [Ivan Allen, Jr.] was on his way to pick her up and that he had called to get the--see if he could get the plane delayed because otherwise she would never make the flight. It was a rainy, nasty kind of night, drizzly night and she--well we stayed back there with her while she packed. Maybe, maybe ten minutes. It may not have been that long. When we were told that the mayor was there. So we went out. Mayor Allen came to me to ask if I would mind--if I knew the city. Of course I know the city. Said, "Would you mind riding with Louise [Louise Allen] to the airport [Atlanta Municipal Airport; Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia] because she doesn't know the city," and the police cars they would be going as fast as they could go so of course I agreed. So I left my car there. I got in the car with Mrs. Allen who drove and we followed to a degree the police car. Of course they lost us and we about fifteen or so minutes maybe twenty minutes later, we got to the airport and when we got to the airport we found I mean we were told at the desk what am I saying? You know what I'm trying to say where the people were to put, to check in on the flight, we were told that they were in a bathroom. I can't remember whether it was a male bathroom or a female bathroom but when we got, when we opened the door to go into the bathroom and they were standing there in a huddle obviously crying because it was Coretta, Dora McDonald [Dora E. McDonald] who had gotten, who had arrived, Christine [HistoryMaker Christine King Farris], the mayor and, and I believe a policeman was in there but I'm not 100 percent sure. I might have that wrong. But anyway they were standing there in a huddle and Mayor Allen looked up at us and did kind of you know message, he didn't make it was the message that we got and surely enough he [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] had passed. So he asked Coretta after a while what she wanted to do. Because they had held the plane and she said, "Well I'll go back home and see about my children." So that was that. And we went back. I went back again and with Ms.--she went in the police car, I followed with Mrs. Allen in her car and I stayed for a while and I went on home too. But people had begun to arrive at her house so I don't, I don't know who they were. And I can't even tell you how many there were, but--there weren't many but they were there to, you know, to do whatever I guess they could do.$Now Chasing the--the Chasing the Dream Foundation that was founded by you and your husband, [HistoryMaker] Hank Aaron, tell us about it? In fact I asked him about it and he said ask you (laughter). He said you know everything about it and can explain it a lot better so we're depending on you.$$Well, I, I just had a conversation with him and, and asked him if he would consider doing a foundation that would help youngsters. I had seen the documentary that Mike Tollin [Michael Tollin] did on him and it was called or is called 'Hank Aaron: Chasing the Dream' and that was what really gave me the idea. After seeing him in his early days running across the, whatever some kind of patch across from his home with bottle tops and a stick trying to hit a baseball and it just sort of brought home to me how many of us and particularly our kids come up with little or nothing but who somehow make something out of little of nothing. And I realized as I did when I was growing up, well having the desire to participate in various activities at school but they almost always require that you have some money. You even had to have money at least to buy clothes or to go to an event to showcase what little talent you might have. So we came up with the idea why not use the same name that Mike used for the documentary and just turn it into a foundation. So we call it the Hank Aaron Chasing the Dream Foundation [Atlanta, Georgia] and we started raising money so we could help kids who just needed a hand really who needed in some instances they needed somebody to pay for the piano lessons. Their parents couldn't pay for piano lessons or they needed somebody to pay for tennis lessons or whatever their interest might be. So we agreed that we would start this little foundation and try to serve as that middleman to help get the kid to the person that can do the most for them to develop, help them to develop their talent. So that's it just kind of grew from that and we proudly recognized the talents of a few of our kids who are really, really outstanding now. We have a young man now who is, well I'll start with Mason. Mason went from Brown elementary school [Brown Middle School, Atlanta, Georgia] down here a few miles away from us and started taking harp lessons. There's a lady here who Roselyn Lewis who just has done marvelous things with a lot of our kids because you don't expect kids from the inner city to be playing the harp or the cello or whatever, whatever but she, she gets them involved, specifically the harp is her area of interest and she has started a foundation, but Mason Morton was one of her students and he of course started taking harp. Then when he got out of high school he went on to he got a scholarship to Michigan [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan]. He followed his, his music teacher from Michigan to Rice University in Houston [Texas], graduated in Houston and we were helping him all along the way. Not--helping him is the key word here. We weren't--I don't wanna think want you to think that we were footing the bill because we couldn't possibly, we were not that large an organization or foundation but we were there to help him with those things that he really desperately needed that scholarship money and other funds did not take care of. Mason--today Mason, he's a member. I don't know if I--of a group called Serendip [Sons of Serendip] and they were on 'America's Got Talent' and they have cut two or three records now, he and a little group, but he also teaches harp in the public school system in Boston [Boston Public Schools]. So we are so, so proud of him. Then we have a young man who's working toward his Ph.D. at Juilliard [The Juilliard School] in New York [New York] and he's been, been in our program since he was ten or twelve or something like that so these are just two of the really, really outstanding ones and others some of we just made good, good citizens. We have a young lady who went to Fisk [Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee] who was a Phi Beta Kappa [Phi Beta Kappa Society] who is--who went to Yale [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut] and got her master's degree. We stay in close touch with her and she is now in some field of healthcare. I can't remember what precisely but they come home generally at Christmas and we have them over for our big New Year's Eve and they perform for us and we, we just have a wonderful relationship with several of the kids who have had very good high school and college careers and who are now in the broader community and doing well.

Robin Stone

Journalist Robin D. Stone was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1964. Her mother, Ora L. Hughes, worked for the U.S. Postal Service in Detroit. Her father, Lawrence R. Stone, was a building contractor. Stone graduated from Michigan State University with her B.A. degree in journalism in 1986. She is completing her M.A. degree in health arts and sciences at Goddard College in Vermont.

Stone first worked as a copy editor for The Oakland Press and the Detroit Free Press. She then served as layout-makeup/slot editor at The Boston Globe for one year, and then as a copy editor for The New York Times from 1990 to 1993. After briefly serving as special projects editor for Family Circle Magazine, Stone was named deputy living editor at The New York Times in 1994. As deputy living editor, she was integral in developing the prototype for the paper’s current Dining In/Dining Out section. In 1997, Stone joined Essence magazine, where she was first hired as a senior editor and eventually promoted to executive editor. Under her stewardship, the magazine earned awards from Folio, the National Association of Black Journalists, the New York Association of Black Journalists, and the Congressional Black Caucus, among other organizations. Stone became founding editor-in-chief of Essence.com in 2000, and, from 2005 to 2007, she served as deputy editor at Health magazine. After leaving Health in 2007, Stone worked as a freelance writer and editor, focusing primarily on issues related to health, parenting, and families. Her thesis work explores Black women, body image, weight, and self-care in the face of racism, sexism and other stressors.

Stone is the author of No Secrets, No Lies: How Black Families Can Heal from Sexual Abuse, which was published in 2004. She also edited and contributed the afterword to My Times in Black and White: Race and Power at the New York Times, the memoir by her late husband, Gerald M. Boyd, who was former managing editor of The New York Times. Stone’s writing has appeared in The New York Times, Essence magazine, Glamour magazine, The Boston Globe, and other publications.

From 2002 to 2003, Stone was a Kaiser Media Fellow, where she researched and reported on sexual abuse in Black families and other health issues. She has taught magazine editing and production at New York University, and advanced reporting at the City College of New York. She is a board member of Greenhope Services for Women, a residential drug treatment center for formerly incarcerated women, and a New York Alumnae member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Stone served as vice-president/print for the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ), and as president of NABJ's New York chapter. Her career and contributions to journalism garnered her an Outstanding Alumni Award from her alma mater, Michigan State University, in 2004.

Stone and her fiance, Rodney Pope, live in New York, New York. She has a teenage son, Zachary Boyd.

Robin Stone was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 6, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.220

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/6/2014 |and| 08/11/2016

Last Name

Stone

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Deneane

Occupation
Schools

Goddard College

Michigan State University

Renaissance High School

Luddington Magnet Middle School

Edgar A. Guest Elementary

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Robin

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

STO07

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/19/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chilean Seabass Over spinach

Short Description

Journalist Robin Stone (1964 - ) served as an editor for The Boston Globe, The New York Times, Health magazine and Essence magazine. She was founding editor-in-chief of Essence.com and the author of No Secrets, No Lies: How Black Families Can Heal from Sexual Abuse.

Employment

HealthJones LLC

Health Magazine

Essence Communications, Inc.

Essence Magazine

New York Times

Family Counseling

Favorite Color

Green and Coral

Cheryl Smith

Journalist and publisher Cheryl Lynn Smith was born on June 20, 1958 in Newark, New Jersey to Joseph Smith and Earline Gadson. Smith attended public elementary schools in Newark and East Orange, New Jersey, and graduated from East Orange High School in 1976. She received her B.S. degree in journalism from Florida A&M University in 1980, and her M.S. degree in human relations and business from Amberton University in Dallas, Texas in 1986.

In 1980, Smith was hired as editor for Capital Outlook News in Tallahassee, Florida. From 1981 to 1984, she worked as a production coordinator for TV Watch in Dallas, Texas and JC Penney Life Insurance Company in Richardson, Texas. In 1987, Smith was hired at The Dallas Weekly, where she served as a staff writer, executive editor, editor-in-chief and columnist. Smith also worked for five years for Dallas County Commissioner John Wiley Price. From 1997 to 2000, she served as executive editor of Future Speak, a weekly newspaper produced by Dallas area high school and college students for the Dallas Examiner newspaper.

Smith worked as a producer and talk show host at KKDA-AM from 1990 until 2012, and as a show host of PAX-TV’s “The Ester Davis Show” from 2010 to 2012. She was also the host of Blog Talk Radio’s “Cheryl’s World,” and cable television’s “On the Dotted Line.” In 2011, Smith founded I Messenger Enterprises, where she serves as publisher and editor of I Messenger, The Garland Journal and Texas Metro News. In addition, she was an associate professor at Paul Quinn College from 1999 to 2010, and an adjunct professor at the University of North Texas from 2002 to 2009.

Smith has served as the president of the Dallas-Fort Worth Association of Black Journalists and the Dallas-Fort Worth Florida A&M University National Alumni Association. She was a two-term National Association of Black Journalists regional director, and has served as president of the Dallas-Metroplex Council of Black Alumni Associations. In 1994, she became the first African American and female to chair the North Texas Health Facilities Corporation. Smith has also served on the boards of the Dallas Alumnae Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Irving Cares and the Leslie K. Bedford Foundation. In 1995, she established the Don’t Believe the Hype Foundation.

Smith has won numerous awards, including the Messenger Award from National Newspaper Publishers Association, the Journalism Excellence Award from The Dallas Examiner, the Outstanding Journalist Award from Elite News, the Barry Bingham Sr. Award from the National Conference of Editorial Writers, as well as multiple awards from the Texas Publishers Association, the NNPA, the NAACP, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, and the Dallas-Fort Worth Association of Black Communicators. The National Civil Rights Museum awarded her the “Invisible Giant” Award, and in 2005, the Omicron Mu Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. presented her with the “Image Award.” In 2009, Smith was honored by the Journalism Educator’s Association. She also received the Outstanding Alumni Award from the Dallas-Metroplex Council of Black Alumni Associations and Woman of the Year award from the Women Empowering Women Foundation.

Since 1992, Smith has been raising her nephew and three nieces: Andre, Alayna, Annya and Ayanna.  

Cheryl Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 7, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.096

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/7/2014

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Occupation
Schools

Chancellor Ave

Whitney E. Houston Acad

G. Washington Carver Institute

East Orange Campus High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Amberton University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Cheryl

Birth City, State, Country

Newark

HM ID

SMI30

State

New Jersey

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

6/20/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Short Description

Journalist and publisher Cheryl Smith (1958 - ) was the publisher of I Messenger, The Garland Journal and Texas Metro News. She also worked for The Dallas Weekly for over twenty-five years as a staff writer, executive editor, editor-in-chief and columnist.

Employment

IMessenger

Dallas Weekly

KKDA-AM

Ester Davis Show

University of North Texas

Paul Quinn College

Carolyn Glenn

Publisher and entrepreneur Carolyn Jernigan Glenn was born on June 28, 1947 in Greenesboro, Georgia to parents Flossie Hill and Albert Jernigan. In 1963, Glenn graduated from Carver High School at the age of sixteen. She went on to receive her B.S. degree in business education from Albany State University in Albany, Georgia in 1967. She then received two M.S. degrees from Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia, one in business and vocational education in 1972, and one in in educational administration in 1985. She is also licensed to practice real estate in Georgia and Florida.

Glenn spent twenty years working in public education, as a secretary, business teacher, vocational coordinator, and high school administrator. In 1991, Glenn and her husband, Dr. Earl Glenn, established ACE III Communications and founded The Champion Newspaper with Glenn as publisher. The Champion is Georgia’s largest African American-owned newspaper, and, since 1996, has been the most award-winning weekly among all newspapers in The Georgia Press Association. In 1999, they launched Atlanta Goodlife, a magazine focused on the lifestyles of African Americans in the Atlanta metropolitan area. In 2008, Glenn became the president of the Earl and Carolyn Glenn Foundation. Under the auspices of that foundation, she and her husband created Unconditional Love for Children, which provides opportunities for disadvantaged children to become empowered through educational enrichment programs, life skills training, athletics, and access to health services. She has been a log-time Foundation Board trustee and past chair at Georgia Perimeter College, and has endowed a perpetual scholarship for students at Albany State University.

Glenn has also been the recipient of numerous awards and honors. In 1994, she received the Benjamin Hooks Business Award from the DeKalb branch of the NAACP. In 1995, her newspaper won two Business of the Year Awards, one from the South DeKalb YMCA and another from 100 Black Men of DeKalb. That same year, Glenn was named Outstanding Entrepreneur by Success Guide. In 1996, she was named Businesswoman of the Year by the South DeKalb Business Association. The Atlanta Business League named her Businesswoman of the Year in 1997, and one of the 100 Top Black Woman of Influence from 1996 to 2014. She has also been named a Woman of Distinction by Living Word COGIC and listed among six influential Georgia women in Women Looking Ahead magazine. She won a Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Humanitarian Award from Georgia Perimeter College in 2006, and a Trail Blazer Award from Congressman Hank Johnson in 2013.

Glenn lives in Stone Mountain, Georgia with her husband. They have one grown son, Christian.

Carolyn Jernigan Glenn was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 20, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.017

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/20/2014

Last Name

Glenn

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Jernigan

Occupation
Schools

George Washington Carver Middle School

Albany State University

Georgia State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Carolyn

Birth City, State, Country

Greensboro

HM ID

GLE03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

This Little Light Of Mine, I’m Going To Let It Shine.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

6/28/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Publisher Carolyn Glenn (1947 - ) founded Georgia’s largest African American-owned newspaper, The Champion, which became the state's most award-winning weekly publication.

Employment

ACE III Communications, Inc.

The Champion Newspaper

Earl D, Glenn, DDS

DeKalb Schools, Gordon High

DeKalb Schools, Cedar Grove

Atlanta Schools, Murphy High

Dalton GA Schools, Dalton High

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:2494,37:3096,46:5418,76:6020,85:13840,200:14665,215:15565,228:15940,234:17290,280:17740,287:23476,359:23752,364:24856,390:33896,517:34376,523:36296,549:36680,554:37448,564:41546,614:42059,625:43028,651:43484,661:45384,676:45724,682:46608,696:46948,702:50198,733:51350,754:55166,833:55454,838:55742,843:56102,851:59198,914:75421,1036:88832,1268:89208,1273:93760,1294:103180,1388:107188,1453:108364,1474:109540,1496:110226,1504:113950,1546:115318,1574:119723,1607:123924,1658:127128,1695:127785,1710:128953,1735:132092,1805:137719,1897:138146,1906:139793,1946:140830,1969:142843,2023:148560,2059:149400,2080:150210,2090$0,0:328,7:1230,25:2560,33:3088,43:3418,49:5295,64:5781,71:7725,151:10722,216:11370,227:16635,361:20624,375:21014,381:21482,388:24134,453:24836,466:25304,473:26942,523:31595,543:32195,555:33545,582:36545,651:39920,731:40670,742:47645,991:48095,998:50570,1047:50945,1053:61398,1167:61722,1172:62694,1180:63342,1197:64476,1214:65286,1226:66339,1242:66987,1251:69822,1335:70308,1342:76932,1391:79660,1423:80425,1439:81275,1455:81700,1461:83485,1491:84505,1506:84845,1511:92210,1595:92802,1604:93542,1616:95688,1672:96354,1678:98574,1718:99536,1735:100128,1744:103458,1811:105012,1848:105530,1857:105974,1864:119540,2019:120030,2028:120590,2038:121990,2068:130470,2283:130870,2288:131670,2298:135070,2346:143410,2439:143870,2445:146262,2482:155072,2599:155909,2613:161685,2675:165570,2743:173069,2835:173505,2840:174486,2862:175031,2868:175467,2873:178390,2883:180568,2909:182795,2938:183485,2955:184244,2970:184589,2976:195600,3146:198620,3165:199120,3172
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carolyn Glenn's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carolyn Glenn lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carolyn Glenn describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carolyn Glenn describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her maternal grandfather's work to rebuild the family wealth

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carolyn Glenn recalls her maternal grandfather's charity to black sharecroppers

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carolyn Glenn describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her parents' early relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carolyn Glenn describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carolyn Glenn lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carolyn Glenn describes the challenges of integration

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carolyn Glenn describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her neighborhood in Monroe, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carolyn Glenn describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her elementary school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carolyn Glenn remembers her influential teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carolyn Glenn remembers her activities at George Washington Carver Elementary and High School in Monroe, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her parents' fears of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Carolyn Glenn recalls her decision to attend Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carolyn Glenn describes her experiences at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her transfer from Spelman College to Albany State College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carolyn Glenn recalls witnessing President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's motorcade

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carolyn Glenn recalls protesting against segregation at Rich's Department Store

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carolyn Glenn describes segregation in Albany, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carolyn Glenn remembers joining the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carolyn Glenn recalls her mentors at Albany State College in Albany, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carolyn Glenn remembers teaching at Dalton High School in Dalton, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Carolyn Glenn describes the black community in Dalton, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her success at Dalton High School in Dalton, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Carolyn Glenn recalls teaching at J.C. Murphy High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carolyn Glenn remembers mentoring a gay student at Murphy High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her promotion to vocational coordinator at Murphy High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her educational philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carolyn Glenn remembers the growth of the black community in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carolyn Glenn describes her experiences as a graduate student at Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her transition to vocational coordinator at Cedar Grove High School in Ellenwood, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carolyn Glenn recalls the highlights of her time at Cedar Grove High School in Ellenwood, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Carolyn Glenn remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Carolyn Glenn describes her decision to leave the education profession

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Carolyn Glenn talks about founding The Champion

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carolyn Glenn describes the founding of The Champion newspaper

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carolyn Glenn remembers the first issue of The Champion

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carolyn Glenn recalls founding ACE III Communications, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carolyn Glenn remembers The Champion newspaper's financial challenges

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carolyn Glenn recalls preparing The Champion to become the newspaper of record for DeKalb County, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carolyn Glenn talks about The Champion's designation as the newspaper of record for DeKalb County, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carolyn Glenn recalls the legal battle over The Champion's designation as the newspaper of record for DeKalb County, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carolyn Glenn remembers creating The Champion Free Press

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carolyn Glenn talks about Atlanta Goodlife magazine

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carolyn Glenn talks about the name of The Champion newspaper

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carolyn Glenn describes the news coverage in The Champion

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her civic activities

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carolyn Glenn remembers the O.J. Simpson trial

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carolyn Glenn recalls the coverage of President Barack Obama's election in The Champion

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Carolyn Glenn talks about The Champion's digital platform

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Carolyn Glenn remembers founding the Earl and Carolyn Glenn Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Carolyn Glenn describes her philanthropy in Jamaica

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Carolyn Glenn talks about the funding of the Earl and Carolyn Glenn Foundation

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her plans for the future of The Champion newspaper

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Carolyn Glenn describes her concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Carolyn Glenn describes her concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Carolyn Glenn reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Carolyn Glenn reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Carolyn Glenn talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Carolyn Glenn describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Carolyn Glenn narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Carolyn Glenn narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$3

DAStory

10$2

DATitle
Carolyn Glenn talks about founding The Champion
Carolyn Glenn talks about her transfer from Spelman College to Albany State College
Transcript
So between '88 [1988] and '91 [1991] when you found The Champion newspaper, what was going on? What was informing this process by which you established the, the newspaper?$$Remember, now this is the migration, you know, of all these people coming to Atlanta [Georgia]. A lot of people said, you know, "Yeah, I live in Atlanta now." Well, you know, you--we talk about, we really said--in terms of metro. But at that time, most of the people moving here were moving to DeKalb County [Georgia]. Because you had the great location, and you had the best values in homes. So in my husband's dental office, we were working in there, you know, all day, every day together. And we're seeing all of these people, all of these important people, accomplished people, moving to DeKalb County and living in DeKalb County, and we don't even know each other. Because when I used to, when I grew up in Monroe, Georgia, the only way to get to Atlanta was to come through DeKalb County because there were no expressways or what have you. We knew that it was 95 percent white. So, now you've got a Tuskegee Airman as a patient. You've got a gentleman who designed an official stamp for the UN [United Nations]. You've got movie stars, you've got top entertainers. You've got news anchors, you've got, just all kinds of people. Who was the president at that time? The gentleman who handled the security for the president of the United States. You've got top educators, you know, retirees. You've got college presidents. Just wonderful, accomplished people. But we didn't know each other. So in my family, my husband [Earl D. Glenn] is the visionary. He sees things way, way, way ahead. I'm the worker bee. I know how to--he does the research and he puts it together and then he--I figure it out. So he said, "Carol [HistoryMaker Carolyn Glenn]," we said to each other, "we need a way to get to know one another." And eventually after lots of talks and whatever, we came up with the idea that we needed a forum, and the newspaper may be that forum. So we started The Champion newspaper.$When I went home for the summer, after the first year, I was--a letter came from Spelman [Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia]. So, you know, now in my house you don't open other folk's mail. But in that it was from Spelman, I just figured it was okay. So I opened it, and I saw where my mother [Flossie Etchison Hill] had paid on the tuition, but she had not completed the first year's tuition. So, now it's, you know, time for me to get ready to go back for the second year. And I'm looking--I've got five sisters and brothers. And, you know, she's working really hard. So I decided my--this aunt, my favorite aunt [Azalie Etchison Richardson] that I was telling you about--she was a--are you familiar, familiar with Jeanes curriculum directors?$$Yes.$$She was one (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) She was a Jeanes supervisor--$$She was a Jeanes super- she was just real special.$$James Jeanes funds [sic. Anna T. Jeanes Foundation], right?$$Yes, Anna Jeanes [Anna T. Jeanes], she was really special. So she was a Jeanes supervisor down in South Georgia. And, you know, I went to stay with her during the summer or something, a week or two. And we were just very close.$$They worked on a special grant to improve the teaching in the South in small, rural schools, right?$$Absolutely.$$So they were sent down into--$$They were almost like the black superintendent. They were called supervisors, but they were like regarded on the level of a--the black superintendent, even over the principals, in most cases. So she, and she was one, she and my aunt were one of the first to get their master's degrees way back, you know, in my hometown [Monroe, Georgia]. So I guess that was a part of her acceleration, in that she had her master's degree. But she was a Jeanes curriculum director down in Cordele, Georgia then in Sylvester [Georgia], which is thirty miles from Albany [Georgia]. And I called her, and I told her what I saw. And, so she and I strategized. And I went--she took me over--I went to visit, went out secretly, clandestinely, went to Albany State [Albany State College; Albany State University, Albany, Georgia]. The dean of students, she and the dean of students had been in, had gone to co- had gone to college together, so she knew everybody. And she just walked me through, and I'm now enrolled, you know, in two hours. And, so the dean said, "Well, you know, if this is your niece, I know what stock she comes from. So she's--she has a job in my office." And that was the plum job of the campus. I worked for him the whole time I was there. And, so I told my mother and my stepfather [Julius Hill, Sr.], I'm going to Albany State. My father cursed the whole way to Albany State. "I don't know why you want to go to the country, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah." And my mother cried. And it was only about, I think it was about five years ago that I told her why I did that. And she said, "I'm so glad you told me because I have never understood why you changed from Spelman to Albany State."$$That was certainly a sign of maturity, I guess and--$$Yeah.$$--to be that considerate.$$Well, again, it was--I always, I loved my mother.

The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard

Mayor Patsy Jo Hilliard was born on August 20, 1937 in Denver, Colorado. Her father, Elmer Dudley Morrison II, was a chair car attendant, while her mother, Jessie Morrison, was a model. In 1955, Hilliard graduated from Manual High School in Denver, which she attended with her future husband, Asa Hilliard, III. She took classes at Los Angeles State College and worked as a playground supervisor for the Los Angeles public schools in 1956. Hilliard received her B.A. degree in interdisciplinary social sciences from San Francisco State University in 1976. In 2008, Sojourner-Douglass College in Baltimore, Maryland presented her with an honorary doctorate of humane letters.

Hilliard has a decades-long career working in schools. From 1956 to 1961, she was a summer playground supervisor for the Denver Public School System. In 1964, Hilliard taught first grade at Bright Functions School in Monrovia, Liberia. While in Liberia, she also served as volunteer coordinator for the organization American Women in Liberia. In 1975, Hilliard became the first African American and the first woman board member of the South San Francisco Unified School District, a position she filled until 1980. Hilliard made history again in 1993 when she was elected mayor of East Point, Georgia. She was both the first woman and the first African American ever elected to that position. Hilliard remained mayor until 2006, longer than any other East Point mayor. In 2007, Hilliard hosted a television talk show entitled “In the Know with Patsy Jo.” She now serves as CEO of Waset Educational Production Company, which she founded in collaboration with her husband, and leads educational tours to Egypt with the organization Ancient African Study Tours.

Throughout her career, Hilliard has worked with many organizations, including the East Point Business Association, the Fulton County School District’s Superintendents Advisory Board, the Atlanta Airport Rotary Club, the Atlanta High Museum of Art, and the DeYoung Museum of Art. She has served on the Executive Board for the Atlanta chapter of the NAACP, and has served as President for the Atlanta chapter of Links, Inc. and the Atlanta Alumnae Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Hilliard has received dozens of awards, including the Drum Major for Justice Award from the SCLC, the Torch Award from the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, and a Public Service Award from Alpha Kappa Alpha. In addition to being counted one of the 100 Most Influential Black Women for six years, she has been inducted into the Atlanta Business League Women’s Hall of Fame.

Hilliard has four children and is the widow of famous historian and EducationMaker Asa G. Hilliard III.

Patsy Jo Hilliard was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 15, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.085

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/15/2010

Last Name

Hilliard

Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Jo

Schools

Whittier ECE-8 School

Cole Junior High School

Manual High School

San Francisco State University

Colorado State University

California State University, Los Angeles

First Name

Patsy

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

HIL13

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa, Ghana, Liberia

Favorite Quote

Be True To Thyself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/20/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Ice Cream

Short Description

Education administrator and mayor The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard (1937 - ) was the first African American and the first female mayor of East Point, Georgia. She served on the Executive Board of the Atlanta NAACP and as President of the Atlanta chapters of The Links, Inc. and Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Employment

Denver Public Schools

Los Angeles Public Schools

Bright Functions School

South San Francisco Unified School District

City of East Point, Georgia

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
231,0:616,6:1078,13:2002,24:2541,33:3619,45:4235,54:5082,72:5698,85:6237,90:7931,167:8316,173:8855,181:9548,193:12859,257:13475,266:14861,288:22321,335:22747,342:23812,360:24948,395:29208,504:31338,554:31835,563:32190,569:33823,619:36947,683:45813,783:46736,799:53339,959:53623,964:53907,969:56463,1022:58522,1072:59303,1085:59800,1093:62640,1158:63208,1171:68236,1184:68780,1195:69664,1213:69936,1218:71840,1271:72112,1276:73540,1301:74084,1311:74356,1316:74696,1322:74968,1327:75512,1338:75920,1346:76260,1353:77212,1371:77620,1379:77892,1384:78232,1390:79116,1410:79388,1415:86900,1484:87530,1494:92640,1603:93060,1610:95860,1655:96420,1670:96980,1679:98100,1700:98380,1705:99640,1734:103592,1745:111331,1909:111615,1914:112609,1933:112964,1939:115165,1978:116017,1992:118928,2059:129892,2185:130348,2192:130880,2200:131564,2210:134680,2270:134984,2275:135364,2281:135820,2294:137492,2323:138176,2335:140304,2363:140912,2373:147165,2399:149825,2435:151630,2469:152295,2478:153340,2492:154005,2500:155050,2547:155810,2556:161110,2586:162020,2606:162370,2613:162790,2620:192092,3145:196644,3199:197750,3216:199409,3246:199883,3253:200278,3260:204702,3319:205018,3324:205966,3338:206282,3343:207999,3373:208267,3378:218532,3535:220207,3569:220743,3578:232540,3748:232885,3754:233437,3764:236542,3828:236956,3835:237508,3847:237853,3853:238198,3859:238750,3868:241924,3923:247230,3956:247570,3961:249355,3994:250035,4000:250715,4010:251310,4019:251735,4025:255659,4114:256307,4124:260600,4191:260924,4196:261572,4206:262463,4219:264974,4306:273948,4435:275544,4519:283455,4605:283715,4610:283975,4615:284755,4630:285730,4648:286315,4662:286770,4671:287030,4676:287290,4681:287940,4693:296410,4763$0,0:1095,26:1533,33:2774,55:3066,60:4599,124:5183,135:5913,148:6424,198:9052,248:9490,255:9855,260:14224,332:14742,341:16740,385:20810,485:21698,499:30179,593:30926,604:38728,751:40222,776:44012,792:44427,798:44842,804:45672,815:48328,862:50071,896:50984,910:51814,924:53474,955:54055,963:55798,989:60588,1017:60912,1022:63452,1058:64562,1082:65302,1094:65894,1103:66412,1111:68854,1200:71518,1262:77142,1367:77734,1378:78104,1384:78548,1391:87994,1470:88426,1477:88714,1482:91018,1540:91306,1545:96994,1639:98002,1655:98362,1661:102935,1675:105923,1719:107417,1746:107915,1753:108330,1759:109077,1771:112480,1838:114140,1859:114804,1889:115385,1900:120202,1922:120634,1929:123154,1970:124882,2015:128986,2104:130210,2137:130642,2149:131146,2158:131794,2169:138058,2302:144700,2359:145393,2370:147087,2402:149936,2449:154248,2524:155172,2540:159484,2612:167044,2675:168700,2710:169045,2716:169666,2728:174358,2920:180628,2968:182716,3005:183220,3013:185020,3049:185452,3057:186964,3084:187252,3089:189844,3169:190420,3179:192004,3220:197570,3256:202328,3368:204220,3374
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her paternal grandmother and step-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her paternal grandfather and step-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her mother

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her mother's personality and profession, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her mother's personality and profession, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about playing bridge

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her mother's charm school in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her mother's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her early religious experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her experiences at Whittier Elementary School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers Cole Junior High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her neighborhood in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about integration in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers the death of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her classmates and teachers at Manual High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her college and professional aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls meeting her husband, Asa Hilliard, III

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her experiences at Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her introduction to Denver's city politics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her husband's teaching career and research

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her family life in San Francisco, California

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her experiences in Liberia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her civic involvement in Liberia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls founding the Liberian chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her election to the South San Francisco Unified School District board

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her involvement with The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard describes her civic activities upon moving to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her mayoral campaign in East Point, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her accomplishments as mayor of East Point, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her accomplishments as mayor of East Point, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about the development of the Camp Creek Marketplace in East Point, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her travels with the U.S. Conference of Mayors, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her travels with the U.S. Conference of Mayors, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her work with the National Conference of Black Mayors

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard recalls her trips to Egypt

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her radio show, 'In the Know with Patsy Jo'

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her husband's death

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard shares her advice for future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her involvement with the NAACP

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard talks about her civic involvement in Liberia
The Honorable Patsy Jo Hilliard remembers her accomplishments as mayor of East Point, Georgia, pt. 1
Transcript
While you're there, you become a part of the American Women in Liberia. What is that that organization does (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) (Laughter) I had to laugh about that. I just did it because they asked me to. But I thought you know why do we need American Women in Liberia? But what happened--I would go to these parties and people would say, "Well, when I was in London [England], we used to do so and so." "When I was in Paris [France], we did so and so." So their whole idea is that there's nothing to do in Liberia. I mean you know there's nothing. These people don't know what they're doing and we can't help out at all. So I thought okay. And that's why I joined the American Women in Liberia 'cause I thought this is what I can add, this whole volunteer thing. So I went to several agencies in Monrovia [Liberia]. And I said, "There's a possibility that you'll get a volunteer," I said, "because you know there are a lot of Americans who are here with their husbands, and they're here for like one or two years. And they're professional. So they wanna do something to enhance their profession, and they want it to be stimulating, and at the same time to help you. So what is it that we can do in your agency that will be helpful to you?" And I wanted to make sure it was their choice because I also found that many of us will go into a situation and say this is what we're going to do whether they want you to do it or not. And I had observed that. So I had lists of things of what agencies wanted us to do. So then I made up the list and I took it back to the organization and so they agreed that we'd circulate this list. So then I was happy to go to cocktail parties and I'd hear that conversation, I'd say, "Well here, it's something right here. Why don't you check on--let me know what you wanna do and I'll get in touch with them." That was really rewarding to me because I didn't have many people complaining about what there was not--what they were not able to do in Liberia. 'Cause I think one of the first things I did is work at a hospital. And I was filling mayonnaise jars with St. Joseph baby aspirins. Now you know I mean I'm sure that's necessary, but surely there's something else I can do that, you know and that's kind--so we changed that whole thing, and I think it was really good and many of the people in Liberia were very happy for that.$$Now--how, how many years did you stay in Liberia?$$Six years, just before I came home, I became a member of the Eastern Star [Order of the Eastern Star]. And that was exciting because I--well I, yeah I was able to go to--they have a temple there. I was in the Queen Esther Chapter [Queen Esther Chapter No. 1] of Eastern Star, and so the temple in Liberia we actually met in. And I think it's been destroyed now you know because of the war [Liberian Civil War]. But it just happened that Mrs. Tubman [Antoinette Tubman] was in our same chapter. And so I had a couple of opportunities to actually go to the mansion and speak with her personally, and that was just a thrill. I tell you it was a thrill of a lifetime.$$Tell me who Mrs. Tubman is.$$She was the wife of President W.V.S. Tubman [William Tubman], who was the president of the country when we got there. He passed away I think in 1970, either '70 [1970] or '71 [1971], but he had been president for some time. And you know they often talk about, you know, how African government should be. But it was in a sen- it was not a totalitarian government, but he had a way with his paramount chiefs. If there was a dispute, he would get together with all the chiefs and they'd settle it. Now how, how they did it, they did it. But it may not be our way, but it was their way. And we need to be respectful of the way other people do things and not insist that they do it our way 'cause it doesn't always work. And I think we're learning that now with some of the confrontations that we're in presently. But it was, it was--I went back for the inauguration two or three years ago with the first president [first female president], Ellen [Ellen Johnson Sirleaf], and that was exciting because I remember President Sirleaf used to come to our house a lot and say what should be happening in Liberia. And she and my husband [HistoryMaker Asa Hilliard, III] would have these long conversations. So when I got a chance to see her when I went back for the inauguration, I said, "Okay, remember all those things that you said? Okay it's your turn to do it." 'Course it's, you know, certainly not that easy and it's difficult as a woman to do things. And she's had to really kind of make some changes in the government. And I think they're having a hard time accepting a female. But I just love that country. We're--I'm an honorary Liberian.$And what were some of the things that you accomplished your first term [as mayor of East Point, Georgia]?$$Well I feel good about, one thing is the library [East Point Branch, East Point, Georgia]. Because we've always had a library, it sits right behind city hall [East Point City Hall, East Point, Georgia], but it really did not have the kind of books that we needed. And we didn't have like where you can go in and read the newspaper or read Ebony magazine or something. It didn't represent the community as it had changed. And so I found out when I first moved here that the county put a library in every city. There were six, six cities in Fulton County [Georgia]. And the, the--and so but on the headlines of the newspaper it said, "East Point says no to Fulton County library." And I could never understand that. So one of the first things I did is meet with the county manager. We had a meeting at my office. And I said, "What can we do to get a library here?" So we started that process. And you know I had some people who didn't want it--but--and that just shows you how people work together because there was a minister, Reverend Fordsman [ph.] at an A.M.E. [African Methodist Episcopal] church came to my office one day and had a big pack of flyers because we had to get people to vote. See what I, what I did is I said let the citizens decide then, you know if we can't decide among ourselves, let's vote. We put--let everybody vote. So then we had to let people know about it. And so you know I had no money, the city didn't have money for this. And he brought this big box of flyers. Then I--there's another man who had an organization of young people in the projects. And I--he had this big bus. And I said, "Reverend, if you'll please bring some of the parents to the board meeting, the board of trustees meeting at the library." 'Cause see they had a board of trustees, both those members were wives of former council members. Nobody even really knew about the meetings, you know they just gonna have their little--and decide what was gone happen with the library. So of course I knew when the meeting was. I said, "I want you to take the people and make a presentation." And they said they, they were so surprised (laughter) when those people got off the bus and went in. So I mean that just shows you, you know if there's some direction, people are willing to do. You know they're willing to do. I mean that's--that was just so gratifying to me. And so we got out the vote and I mean like three to one, people wanted a library. And so they built the library. And we have a--they built a new library. So we were even able to keep the old building, and we have a brand new library. Then the other thing I was able to do is we have a clinic, Grady clinic [East Point Grady Health Center, East Point, Georgia], which--now that's the first time I ever--myself saw people picketing because there was some people who did not want the clinic. They didn't want it there and they were actually walking around the city hall. And I thought what is going on? But you know for some reason or another they didn't want the clinic. And I knew that clinics were now coming to communities rather than you having to go downtown or try to find 'em, and we needed it. So we built it, and it's there. And it just makes me--every time I see it (laughter), I'm happy it's there.

Irma Daniels

Educator Irma Daniels was born Irma Dean Hall on April 21, 1949 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Levester Powell Hall and Daisy Lee Hortman Hall. Raised in the Brewer’s Hill section of Milwaukee, Daniels’ family were members of the Bethesda Church of God in Christ. She attended Palmer Elementary School, Twelfth Street School, Robert Fulton Junior High School and graduated as an honor student from North Division High School in 1966. Attending Oshkosh State University, Daniels graduated in 1971 with her B.S. degree in education.

After teaching for a year in Fondulac, Wisconsin, Daniels married John W. Daniels, Jr. in 1972 and accompanied him to Boston, Massachusetts. There, she taught health and coached a championship girls basketball team. In 1974, Daniels returned to Milwaukee and worked in City Hall for a short time. In 1975, she was hired by Milwaukee Public Schools where she taught elementary and middle school. In 1978, Daniels joined Lady Pitts School Age Parent Center which was founded on January 25, 1966, through the efforts of forty black women known as the “Our Concern Committee.” They were concerned about the school policy of requiring pregnant students to drop out of school. The first school was above the Shiloh Tabernacle and was a privately run school with MPS support services, similar to the present-day partnership schools. Lady Pitts became part of MPS in the early 1970s. The school provides comprehensive services to 200 pregnant students, grades six through twelve and a special completion program with job training for forty-five parenting students with twelve or more credits. At Lady Pitts, Daniels taught prenatal health until her retirement.

Daniels is a member of Holy Redeemer Church of God in Chritst, where she is actively involved in the youth ministry. She is a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., the Links and the Bethesda Senior Citizens Board. She and her husband, John, have a son and a daughter.

Daniels was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 26, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.329

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/26/2007

Last Name

Daniels

Maker Category
Schools

North Division High School

Palmer Elementary School

Twelfth Street School

Robert Fulton Junior High School

University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh

First Name

Irma

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

DAN03

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France, New York City

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

4/21/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cake (Red Velvet)

Short Description

High school health teacher Irma Daniels (1949 - ) taught in Milwaukee Public Schools and Lady Pitts School Age Parent Center.

Employment

North Division High School

Clarence R. Edwards Junior High School

Milwaukee City Council

Lady Pitts School

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Irma Daniels' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels describes the Smith Settlement in Gibsland, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels talks about the history of African American dispossession, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels talks about the history of African American dispossession, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels talks about her mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels describes her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Irma Daniels remembers her father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Irma Daniels describes her mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels remembers her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels recalls her neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels recalls her experiences in the Church of God in Christ

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels recalls the entertainment of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Irma Daniels remembers her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Irma Daniels describes her success as a student

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Irma Daniels talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Irma Daniels recalls her decision to attend Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Irma Daniels remembers segregation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels recalls the racial demographics of Milwaukee's high schools

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels remembers her college aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels describes her experiences of discrimination at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels remembers occupying the president's office at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels recalls her temporary expulsion from Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels remembers the support for the Oshkosh 94

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels reflects upon her experiences at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels recalls her parents' support for her activism

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Irma Daniels remembers teaching in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels remembers the desegregation of the Boston Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels recalls coaching basketball at Clarence R. Edwards Junior High School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels recalls her role at the Lady Pitts School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels describes her philosophy of education

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels describes her experiences as a teacher at the Lady Pitts School

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels talks about teenage pregnancy, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels talks about teenage pregnancy, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Irma Daniels reflects upon the parenting practices in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Irma Daniels recalls her students at the Lady Pitts School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Irma Daniels describes the prenatal training at the Lady Pitts School

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Irma Daniels talks about the perceptions of teenage pregnancy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Irma Daniels describes her organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Irma Daniels describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Irma Daniels reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Irma Daniels reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Irma Daniels talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Irma Daniels describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Irma Daniels narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$7

DATitle
Irma Daniels describes her experiences of discrimination at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh
Irma Daniels describes her experiences as a teacher at the Lady Pitts School
Transcript
So I was seventeen going away to college [Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh; University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin] so I guess that was a good thing that I was close to home. And Oshkosh [Wisconsin] was a whole new awakening though because I had never been away from home like that and then to go to a community that was all white and some of the people were not very welcoming so it was like the first time where you would be called out of your name--$$Oh.$$--walking down the streets so.$$So people would, would call you the N word?$$Yes.$$(Unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) So that to me was a whole new, a whole new awakening. And so Oshkosh took a lot of adjusting for me. It was not a, a friendly place. There were some people who were friendly but--$$In retrospect when you look back, back at it--$$Um-hm.$$--and you, you said your brothers [Daniels' older brothers, Samuel Hall and James Hall] had a good experience there.$$My brothers' friends.$$Your brothers' friends.$$Um-hm.$$All right.$$Yeah, so my brothers did not go to college, they started out at MATC [Milwaukee Area Technical College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] but the pull of A.O. Smith [A.O. Smith Corporation, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] and working they decided to take the money and work the jobs so that's what they were doing. And so fellows who had played on the football team with them, who were good friends of theirs were at Oshkosh. And, and again when you're on the football team maybe you have a different experience so maybe they were more welcomed and didn't have to endure much of that but--$$What would you guess, I know you don't know exactly but what was the percentage of black students there would you say roughly?$$At Oshkosh--$$Or how many say--$$--the population was like ten thousand and I think, I can actually tell you that we had maybe about, and it was the record number of blacks at Oshkosh the year that I attended, I think there were ninety-six.$$Okay. Out of ten thousand?$$Um-hm.$$Okay.$$And so that was the highest number of blacks they'd ever had there. And so I think it was an eye-opener and a lot of kids were from rural Wisconsin and so had never even gone to school with blacks, some had never been up close with blacks so we would have girls who would come in the room, we would sit around and talk and they would just out of curiosity want to know things, if you're doing your hair they would just come and sit and (laughter) look at you like okay, "Let me see how you do that." So it was a learning experience. I can remember having a roommate my sophomore year because my freshmen year my, my good friend from high school [North Division High School, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] we roomed together, my sophomore year though a girl from Illinois and they put us together as roommates and I had an early morning class and I can remember coming back and she was telling other girls I was a great roommate if only she could bleach me (laughter). I thought, what (laughter)? So that was the end of us rooming together so after I confronted her on that 'cause I walked in on her saying that, I said, "What do you mean, if only you could bleach me, what does that mean that you wouldn't mind me being your roommate if I was white, I mean, you wanna bleach me?" So she went down and asked to be moved, and I was glad so I got to have a room to myself for the rest of the semester but I just thought that showed her, the way she was thinking coming from Chicago [Illinois] area I would have thought she wouldn't have had those views but I guess prejudice was just there. So there were girls like that and there were other girls who I think just genuinely wanted to know more about me because they just had not been around blacks and so their questions and concerns were just genuine so I just tried to take it for that, to think not everyone was prejudiced but there were definitely some who were.$So you taught physical education at Lady Pitts [Lady Pitts School; Lady Pitts School Age Parent Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] too?$$Well, at Lady Pitts we had prenatal health classes so I taught the prenatal health class and it's a very small school. At one time we may have had an enrollment up to 200 but I think, a 125 may have been the enrollment when I left. So a very small school, very small staff. We have a day care, we have a full-time nurse, full-time social workers, and teaching classes that they would have in a regular school along with parenting and prenatal health classes. And so I enjoyed working with that population. It was a group that you could see changes taking place. Girls who had very poor attendance, girls who very low reading scores but to see them improve. So I think that's one of my fondest teaching experiences would have been at Lady Pitts.$$Okay. And do you have any stories from Lady Pitts you can tell us?$$Oh, lots of stories--but I think how girls were just so naive about things, my girls, because for some of them this was a pattern in their life, their mothers were teen mothers, their grandmothers were teen mothers, so to have that cycle broken was something that I really preached you might say (laughter) that you don't have to continue in this cycle. And, and so having the opportunity to tell them that and to point things out to them. One girl came in one day just upset because a lady on the bus stop was looking at her and asked why she was so young and pregnant and, "It's none of her business." And I said well, you know, "She probably is concerned because it is a little bit of her business because the tax dollars have to pay for people who have babies without insurance and are you in that category?" She said, "Yes. But I don't see why people always throw it up at me because you get your money back anyway." I said, "We do what?" "You get your money back." "What money?" "Your tax money." I said, "How can you say that?" "Well, my sister she got all her money back." I said, "Okay, where did your sister work 'cause I wanna go (laughter) and get all my money back." Well, her sister had a, the first one to have a job in the family really at like a McDonald's so because she made so little--$$She got income tax returned?$$--she got all of her, all of her income tax money back so she thought all of us got all of our money back that she didn't see why we were complaining about our taxes. So I had to give her a lesson that no, people, we don't all get our tax money back, that this is the case with her sister because of the low amount she made just working part time but for most people a lot of us pay more taxes at the end of the year and she just couldn't even believe that. She just thought I was making this up, that it was not true but she had never had anyone in her family who worked and paid taxes, so she had no idea how that whole system worked so we had to actually show her a tax return that said you owe money because she wouldn't have believed me if I hadn't brought it in to say okay, people get tax bills sometimes thousands of dollars, so then she could understand why the lady going to work on the bus stop was upset looking at all of them standing there pregnant. So, so we would talk about issues like that to get them to understand that it wasn't just being nosy or people not liking teenage pregnancy just because they thought it was wrong morally or something but it was also something that was tied to the tax dollar and people were concerned about that also.

Henrietta Smith

Library science professor and school media librarian Henrietta Mays Smith was born on May 2, 1922, in Harlem, a neighborhood in New York. Smith is the daughter of Nettie Johnson Mays, a domestic worker, and Henry Lucas Mays, a chef who worked on riverboats on the Hudson. Smith attended Hunter College, studying English and history. She earned her B.A. degree from Hunter College in 1943 and in 1946, she received her B.S.L.S. degree from Columbia University. Smith then moved to Tallahassee, Florida, where she served as a cataloguer at Florida A&M University for the next two years. Dr. Smith received her M.S.L.S. degree from Columbia University in 1959.

Smith started her career working for Florida A&M University's Library as a cataloger and later returned to New York to complete her M.S.L.S. degree. She also worked at the Countee Cullen Branch of the New York Public Library as a children's librarian where she become interested in storytelling and the power of oral traditions. In 1949, she married Isaiah Courtney Smith, a young civil rights lawyer. Returning once again to Florida, Smith worked for Broward County Public Schools, as a school media specialist. In 1975, at the age of fifty three, she received her Ph. D. degree from the University of Miami and joined the faculty of the Florida Atlantic University's School of Education. After ten years at Florida Atlantic, she left the institution and joined the faculty of the University of South Florida's School of Library Science where she was the first and only African American faculty member on campus. She specialized in children's librarianship and the art of storytelling.

Since retiring in 1993, Smith has been remained active in the library science field. She has sat on many American Library Association (ALA) selection committees for several literary awards such as the Coretta Scott King Awards, the Caldecott Award, and the Newbery Award. In 1994, she edited the book The Coretta Scott King Book Awards: From Vision to Reality. She has been a board member of the Florida Association of Media in Education (FAME) and the Florida Library Association (FLA) and has continued her general membership. She has also been involved with Storytellers Association, an association which teaches and develops multicultural storytelling and the oral tradition. In 2000, she wrote the introduction to Lift Every Voice and Sing: A Pictorial Tribute to the Negro National Anthem.

Smith lives in Florida with her husband, I.C. Smith, now a retired judge. She has two adult children, Cynthia Smith Jackson and Robin Smith. In 2008, she was honored by the American Library Association (ALA) as the recipient of the Association for Library Service to Children's (ASCL) Distinguished Service Award for Smith's accomplishments and contributions to children's librarianship.

Henrietta Mays Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 13, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.235

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/13/2007

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Hunter College

Columbia University

University of Miami

Morris High School

P.S. 139 Frederick Douglass School

Julia Ward Howe Junior High School 81

First Name

Henrietta

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

SMI19

Favorite Season

Christmas, Easter

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere New

Favorite Quote

Take Time To Smell The Roses.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

5/2/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tampa

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken Wings

Short Description

Library science professor and school media librarian Henrietta Smith (1922 - ) became the first African American faculty member at the University of South Florida’s School of Library and Information Science.

Employment

University of South Florida, School of Library Science

Florida Atlantic University, College of Education

Broward County Public Schools

Countee Cullen Branch, New York Public Library

Florida A&M University

New York Public Library

Favorite Color

Blue, Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Henrietta Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith describes her upbringing in New York City's Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith remembers her parents' cooking

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith remembers her relationship with her father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith describes her family's holiday traditions

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Henrietta Smith describes her mother's emphasis on etiquette

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Henrietta Smith remembers her lessons in elocution

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Henrietta Smith talks about her sister

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Henrietta Smith describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Henrietta Smith describes her neighborhood in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Henrietta Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Henrietta Smith remembers the Grace Congregational Church of Harlem

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Henrietta Smith recalls her experiences at P.S. 81 in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Henrietta Smith describes her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Henrietta Smith describes her mother's parenting

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith remembers Morris High School in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith describes her experiences at New York City's Hunter College

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith remembers attending Hunter College with Ruby Dee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith remembers volunteering at the 135th Street Library in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith talks about the 135th Street Library

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith recalls attending library school at Columbia University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith recalls working as a cataloguer at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Henrietta Smith recalls her return to the New York Public Library system

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Henrietta Smith describes the work of Augusta Braxton Baker

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Henrietta Smith recalls the discrimination faced by African American authors

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Henrietta Smith remembers the notable African American librarians

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Henrietta Smith recalls her storytelling lessons from Augusta Braxton Baker

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith recalls the Hans Christian Andersen storytelling hour

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith remembers Jean Blackwell Hutson

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith describes her duties as a children's librarian

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith remembers meeting and marrying her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith remembers the birth of her first daughter

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith describes her husband's law practice

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith remembers moving to Delray Beach, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Henrietta Smith describes her work for the public schools of Broward County, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Henrietta Smith talks about her doctoral studies at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Henrietta Smith remembers her tenure at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Henrietta Smith describes working at University of South Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith remembers E.J. Josey

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith recalls the creation of the Coretta Scott King Award

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith describes the John Steptoe New Talent Award

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith talks about the Coretta Scott King Awards Book

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith talks about illustrator Ashley Bryan

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith describes the African American Research Library and Cultural Center

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith remembers Doris Clark

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Henrietta Smith remembers Lucille Thomas

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Henrietta Smith remembers Charlemae Rollins

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Henrietta Smith remembers Virginia Lacy Jones

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Henrietta Smith remembers Effie Lee Morris

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Henrietta Smith describes her involvement in Storytellers International

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Henrietta Smith remembers telling stories with Blue Water

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - Henrietta Smith recalls the creation of the Pura Belpre Award

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Henrietta Smith shares her philosophy of storytelling

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith talks about access to African American children's literature

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith describes her concerns for children's literature

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith shares her concerns for public libraries

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith talks about the Negro National Anthem

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

1$1

DATitle
Henrietta Smith recalls her storytelling lessons from Augusta Braxton Baker
Henrietta Smith shares her philosophy of storytelling
Transcript
So let's talk a little, let's talk some more about Augusta Baker [Augusta Braxton Baker]. Do you--can you tell us, can you describe her for us and tell us maybe about some of your personal interactions with her?$$Okay, Augusta Baker, a tiny woman, but big. You know what I mean, big in what she could and as I told you she said, "You're gonna tell stories." Well they had told us that before but she really reinforced--"You're gonna tell--and remember when you're telling you are sharing this event and you are not the primary character therefore you dress down." "Do what?" "You dress down. You wear dark colors, no jewelry that jangles and you don't have a lot of stuff around you because you are just sharing an event." And then they would come around and you had to do a practice or practicum story while you know she's sitting there looking at you and you're saying okay am I doing this right? Am I gonna remember the events? And you're scared to death until she relax--you relax when you finish and she smiles at you and you know that you did okay. When I moved to Florida--moved--well, we're get to that more later, but when I moved to Florida I would come up in the summer, I was going back to Columbia [Columbia University, New York, New York] to get my master's in library science and I told Augusta I said, "I'm gonna be up for the summer, maybe I can do some part-time storytelling," and she would say, "I can give you ten hours a week if you do that much for me." And that's when I use to go down in the parks but remembering what she had taught you went out to the park. You might carry a book or two, but you really--she said your book is your Linus blanket. You're not reading to the children, you're telling them this story, and that what we really--I don't think the people much of that now. They use visuals and stuff like that but--$$So can you talk a little bit about that telling of a story? What's involved in telling a story versus reading a story?$$When you tell it, it you say, "This is the event at which I was present. And Adrienne [Adrienne Jones] for some reason you missed it but here's what happened," and then you tell this story, you tell the Anansi stories or you tell the Peter Rabbit story or you tell how the cat made the--got to make the sound that it does. The book may be over here, but you're telling and you know when you've done it okay because at one I have a favorite story and I tell 'The Cat's Purr' which was illustrated by Ashley Bryan, one of my favorite storytellers, and when I finished a little kid came up to me and she said, "You know what my cat didn't look like your cat." In her head she had a cat and, and that's, that's the thing that Augusta and all the early storytellers embedded in your head that you were going to tell so that your audience visualize in their own heads what was happening, and the pacing and the diction I mean they, they were strict on how you did it.$$So tell us a bit about that, what did Ms. Baker instruct you in terms of the framework of the nuts and bolts of telling a story?$$The first place you learn the story, you don't say, "Today I'm gonna tell 'The Cat's Purr,'" pick it up today and go tell it. You've read it and you've read it again and you read it again. You've told it in front of a mirror, you've told it on tape. You put the book way aside and then tell it again until it's down to where you want it to be. The pacing, the diction, the motion and she would say, "Now remember, motion is not--if you're running up a hill you don't run across the floor, you let them see you by your motion run up that hill. If you fall down, don't fall down because if you fall down you're gonna have trouble getting up." And she would you know give you those, those kind of things. You don't go in with any chewing gum in your mouth, she would just--and if you had long hair enough of these distractions or things you know getting your hair out--none of that. Every motion you make had to be important to that story or you don't make it, and every--even if you told the story yesterday you don't go tomorrow and tell it again without refreshing the story. It makes it look easy but it's because you worked--worked on it to get it done, and as I said she would pop up sometime and just be there when you were, when you telling just to make sure you were doing what, what should be done. We had a storytelling season that started, what is it, September and it went through the first Friday in May and then the first Friday in May all the storytellers got on the ferry boat and went over to Staten Island [New York] for the storytelling symposium and--each--the chosen storytellers would tell (laugher)--and Augusta said, "And they never let me be one of the chosen storytellers but when I became supervisor of children's work I became a storyteller and I told it." (Laughter) She was so funny, she was very, she was very interesting at that.$Is that the end of the story? Perez falls into the porridge?$$Well if you fall into a pot of hot porridge what?$$You're dead.$$You're dead. Well one of the things we have to help children learn is death is a part of life. I remember once when I was teaching at FAU [Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida] I got a book on--it's called the 'Unbuilding' [David Macaulay] it's the story of the dismantling of the Empire State Building [New York, New York]. It's done by a very wonderful illustrator. So one of colleagues was teaching children's literature that night, and I gave him a copy of the book, I said, "Take this up to your class, it's a wonderful new book and maybe they wanna see it." He took it to his office and in about fifteen minutes he brought it back and he said, "I can't use this book." I said, "Why not?" He says, "It's doesn't have a happy ending, and I don't teach any literature that doesn't have a happy ending." That's not life, when you're working with children you have to give them life and death is a part of life, and it isn't only animals that die, and that's part of what I do. I do it with the teachers that I'm teaching and I do it with the children when I'm working with them and there's some wonderful stories that handle death beautifully for children.$$I saw a quote by you that indicated that you do not as a storyteller preach about the moral of the story or discuss that in anyway. You're simply laying the story out for the listener. Can you talk a little bit about that?$$People underestimate what children understand. You don't need to preach the moral, if the story ends with the moral and you say, "Well when you think about it the best way for this is sometimes is to say no to your very best friends," that's the end of the story. If they're following the story along, you don't need to tell them that. Now if I say to you today, "We're gonna analyze this story in terms of structure and vocabulary," you're going to listen a certain way. If I say to you, "Today is story hour day, we're just gonna share stories. That's what we came to do and you go home with whatever you go home with." With some it may be nothing, with some it's a lot. I remember once years ago I was in a restaurant and this waiter came up to me and said, "You told us stories when we were in elementary school." Here's this guy about six feet tall who remembered something that I told him, so you know you don't have to belabor children with what the moral is, that's, that's my belief anyway as a storyteller.

Bunnie Jackson-Ransom

Bunnie Jackson-Ransom was born on November 16, 1940 in Louisburg, North Carolina to Burnell James Hayes and Elizabeth Day Hayes. She attended North Carolina College in Durham, North Carolina, graduating magna cum laude with a B.S. degree in business and a minor in education. Jackson-Ransom then received her M.S. degree in business from North Carolina Central University School of Business and Economics in 1969.

Jackson-Ransom was hired as an instructor of business and supervisor of secretarial services at Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina. She then joined Economic Opportunity Atlanta, Inc., where she was a contract specialist, program coordinator, director of planning and program development during her five-year tenure. In 1965, she met and married Maynard Jackson, who went on to become the first black mayor of Atlanta in 1973; Jackson-Ransom and Jackson divorced in 1976.

In 1975, Jackson-Ransom founded firstClass, Inc., a company specializing in marketing, community affairs, communications and public relations. With firstClass, Inc., she has worked with many clients including The National Conference of Black Mayors, Waste Management, Inc. and the Burger King Corporation. Jackson-Ransom is responsible for designing and implementing many on-going community action projects for her clients, working to include the goals of the urban community that benefit and enhance the lives of the least fortunate. In 1978, Jackson-Ransom worked with Bernadette Carey, publicity director of Fashion Fair Cosmetics, on a line of black cosmetics. She would later marry Raymond Ransom, a bass player for the musical group, Brick. From 1979 to 1983, Jackson-Ransom was owner and operator of Airport Amusement Concessions at Hartsfield International Airport in Atlanta. She also managed the careers of several performing artists between 1978 and 1988 when she served as Chief Administrative Officer of a conglomerate company under the umbrella of Atlanta Artists. For Atlanta Artists Management, Jackson-Ransom served as president. She managed multi-million dollar record sales, toured the world with performances and promotions, negotiated production deals for her artists (which included CAMEO and Larry Blackmon, The SOS Band and Cashflow) and carried her artists to gold and platinum record status. She also served as an instructor at Georgia State University teaching a course called “Artist Representation” from 1981 to 1990 and in 1995.

Jackson-Ransom is a member of the Atlanta League of Women Voters (organizer of the Cascade Heights Branch), Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Executive Committee member of the Atlanta branch of the NAACP, the Azalea Chapter of The Links, Inc., the Metropolitan Atlanta Coalition of 100 Black Women and the National Council of Negro Women. Her awards include Outstanding Young Women in America (1970-1980). Jackson-Ransom has been listed in Who’s Who in American Women, Who’s Who in Georgia and Who’s Who in Black America from 1981 to the present. She was listed in Dollars and Sense Magazine as one of “America’s Top 100 Black Business and Professional Women” in 1985. She was also listed among Atlanta’s “Top 100 Women of Influence” by the Atlanta Business League from 1997 to 2005 and received a community service award from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in January of 2008.

Jackson-Ransom is the proud mother of four (Beth Jackson Hodges, Brooke Jackson Edmond, Rae Yvonne Ransom and Maynard H. Jackson, III), grandmother of five (Isabella Daisy Jackson, Luke Benjamin Jackson, Hayes Jackson Edmond, Brooke Lee Irene Edmond and Cassandra Elizabeth Edmond) and is an active member of Cascade United Methodist Church.

Jackson-Ransom was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 27, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.113

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/27/2007 |and| 7/13/2010

Last Name

Jackson-Ransom

Maker Category
Schools

Franklin Country Training School

North Carolina College

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Bunnie

Birth City, State, Country

Louisburg

HM ID

JAC24

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Adults, seniors, women's groups.

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Adults, seniors, women's groups.

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Any City

Favorite Quote

Say What You Mean And Mean What You Say.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/16/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster

Short Description

Marketing entrepreneur and music manager Bunnie Jackson-Ransom (1940 - ) owned and operated Atlanta's Airport Amusement Concessions and managed the musical groups, The SOS Band and Cameo.

Employment

firstClass, Inc.

Bennett College

Economic Opportunity Atlanta

Georgia State University

The North Carolina Fund

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Bunnie Jackson-Ransom's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her community in Louisburg, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers harvesting tobacco

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her relationships with her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers the Franklin County Training School in North Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes the South Main Street Baptist Church in Louisburg, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers the Franklin County Training School in North Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls the television programs and music of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls the teachers at the Franklin County Training School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls North Carolina Central University at Durham in North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls her marriage to Donald Burke

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers returning to school after her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls her work at the James E. Shepard Memorial Foundation, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers earning her M.B.A. degree

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls teaching at Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers the sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls her introduction to the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers her move to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers Julian Bond

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her work at Economic Opportunity Atlanta, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her work at Economic Opportunity Atlanta, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes the planning department of Economic Opportunity Atlanta

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes Maynard Jackson's political career, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes Maynard Jackson's political career, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls Maynard Jackson's election to Atlanta vice-mayor

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her career

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls her volunteer work in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers Maynard Jackson's first mayoral campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her work with formerly incarcerated women, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her work with formerly incarcerated women, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about representing artist Ernie Barnes

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers founding firstClass, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls becoming the sole owner of firstClass, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes the development of her clientele at firstClass, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers her celebrity clients at firstClass, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her divorce from Maynard Jackson

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers meeting Ray Ransom

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her work in the music industry

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her marriage to Ray Ransom

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her community engagement at firstClass, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her organizational affiliations, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her organizational affiliations, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes the Cascade United Methodist Church in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her board memberships

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her retirement

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Slating of Bunnie Jackson-Ransom's interview, session 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls joining the sit-in movement in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers the sit-ins in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls meeting Reverend Jesse L. Jackson

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her marriage to Maynard Jackson

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers the events of 1968

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls Maynard Jackson's U.S. Senate campaign

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls Maynard Jackson's vice mayoralty of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers the law firm of Jackson, Patterson, and Parks

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her work in the entertainment industry

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom reflects upon the death of Michael Jackson

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers Lena Horne

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her marriage to Ray Ransom

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers managing The S.O.S. Band and Cameo

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls leaving the entertainment industry

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom recalls developing her corporate clientele

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her venture into public transit advertisement

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers her venture into airport hospitality

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her daughter, Rae Ransom

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her grandchildren

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom talks about her book, 'Getting the Word Out'

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom describes her plans for the future

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Bunnie Jackson-Ransom narrates her photographs

DASession

1$2

DATape

1$7

DAStory

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DATitle
Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers harvesting tobacco
Bunnie Jackson-Ransom remembers the sit-ins in Durham, North Carolina
Transcript
Then, during the summer, in another area of, of property that my father [Burnell Hayes] owned, he would plant tobacco and cotton, and during the summer, he would harvest the cotton and the tobacco. And he would get people to go out and pick cotton and, and, and pull tobacco, where you would pull it from the bottom of the stalks. As the stalks would grow, you'd pull the tobacco out, off, and get them cured. And there would be thick worms, oh, and the worms would frighten me, obviously. But my mother [Elizabeth Day Hayes]--this is a story--my mother had some white leather glove, and my father wanted me to work with him in the summertime. So I discovered that working in, in the tobacco part would keep me out of the sun because there was a big shade tree, and they would wrap the tobacco. In other words, they would harvest the tobacco, bring it to this particular area in a manmade tobacco truck, which they pulled. And the peo- and the people, the workers would take the tobacco leaves out of the truck, and wrap them around a stick. You call that wrapping tobacco, so I discovered that if I wrapped the tobacco around the stick, getting it ready to put it in the barn, so it would cure, that I could do that in the shade, rather than in the sun, where they were really pulling it. So I got my mother's white leather gloves, put them on, because when you handle tobacco, there was sticky stuff that would get all over your hands. It would turn your hands black. It, it would coat your hands. So, I'd gotten my mother's white leather gloves (laughter), put them on, and wrapped tobacco (laughter). Obviously, my mother was furious. She never had another pair of black leather, black, I'm sorry, white--$$White--$$--white leather gloves because I ruined them wrapping tobacco. But I remember her telling me, "Sug, you know, you should not have done that." But my mother was very loving and very kind. She didn't spank me. I wonder why--I would have spanked me (laughter).$Well, what happened during the sit-in, when you went in to sit-in, tell me what ha- what transpired while you were there.$$We were coached on why we were going, and we were coached on what not to do, you know.$$What were some of the things you were taught, or told to do or not do (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) We were told not to get angry. We were told not to talk back. We were told to just sit-in, be calm, be quiet primarily, and be pleasant, not to be rude, and to behave (laughter). And so, we did that. Now, you know, there were a lot of us, so we were, we were typical eighteen year olds, seventeen year olds. I was seventeen at the time, and I think I was just as concerned about who I was sitting next to, as I was about why I was sitting there, because that was what was on our minds. And they took Mr. McKissick [Floyd McKissick], and somebody whose name was--he was president of our student body, and his name will come to me, but he was also a, a student leader who galvanized us together and, and sent us there.$$When you say a lot of students, was it a hundred?$$Fifty.$$Fifty?$$Um-hm.$$Okay. And the police came in. Tell me what happened after the sit-in (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) The police came in, and herded us all out, and we were told to, to move, and we were told, oh, we were told to, to be still when we were asked to move. We knew that we were going to be asked to leave. And we were told to just sit there. So we sat there, and then we were told that we were going to be arrested if we didn't leave. And we continued to sit, and so we were, we were all asked to leave, and we walked outside of the store. And then, there was the vehicle there to put us in the back of a van, and take us to the jail. Well, that never happened. That's when the negotiations must have happened because we were all told to go back to the campus.$$And the outcome of the sit-in? Did they do any good?$$Oh, well ob- yes, it (laughter), it, it did, but at that point, we didn't go--I did not go back to sit-in again. Once again, I, I had a child [Elizabeth Jackson Hodges]. My oldest daughter was born, and so I had some different responsibilities that led me to go to class, and I had jobs and so forth. So, I didn't never go back to sit-in. My experience was that one time.$$Okay. So, and tell me what year your daughter was born.$$She was born in '59 [1959].$$All right. So, the next--$$This was in February, February or March of '60 [1960] when we were sitting in.