The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Dr. Julius W. Garvey

Surgeon and medical professor Dr. Julius W. Garvey was born on September 17, 1933 in Kingston, Jamaica to United Negro Improvement Association founder Marcus Garvey and activist Amy Jacques Garvey. The younger of two sons, Garvey was raised in Jamaica. He graduated from Wolmer's Trust High School for Boys in Kingston in 1950; and then earned his B.S. degree from McGill University in Montréal, Canada in 1957, and his M.D., C.M. degree from McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 1961.

Garvey began his medical career by interning at The Royal Victoria Hospital in Montréal in 1961. In 1962, he began his first residency in surgery at The Mount Sinai Hospital of New York, completing his residency in 1965. Garvey also completed residencies in surgery at the Harlem Hospital Center in 1968, and in thoracic & cardiovascular surgery at the University of Maryland Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland in 1970.Garvey became an instructor in surgery at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1971. The following year, he joined the Albert Einstein College of Medicine as an instructor in surgery, later becoming an assistant professor of surgery. While teaching at Columbia University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Garvey also served as an attending surgeon in cardiothoracic surgery at the Harlem Hospital Center and Montefiore Hospital, as well as associate attending and head of thoracic surgery at the Montefiore Morrisania Affiliate. In 1974, Garvey was named attending-in-charge of thoracic surgery at Queens Hospital Center, in addition to serving as an attending surgeon in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center. Garvey became the Long Island Jewish Medical Center’s acting program director for the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery from 1980 to 1982, and assistant professor of surgery at State University of New York at Stony Brook from 1978 to 1988. Garvey also started his own private practice in 1983. Garvey served as chief of thoracic and vascular surgery at Queens Hospital Center from 1993 to 2006, and chief of vascular and thoracic surgery at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center from 2000 to 2004. In addition to his other medical appointments, Garvey served as an attending surgeon at North Shore University Hospital, Franklin General Hospital, Massapequa General Hospital, Catholic Medical Centers, and Little Neck Community Hospital.

Garvey was a certified fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, the American College of Surgeons, the International College of Surgeons, and the American College of Chest Physicians, as well as a diplomate of the Board of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery, the American Board of Surgery, the American Academy of Wound Management, and the American College of Phlebology.

Garvey and his wife, Constance Lynch Garvey, have three children: Nzinga, Makeda, and Paul.

Dr. Julius W. Garvey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 8, 2016 and March 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2016.108

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/08/2016 |and| 04/13/2017

Last Name

Garvey

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Winston

Schools

Jonathan Robinson High School

McGill University

First Name

Julius

Birth City, State, Country

Kingston

HM ID

GAR04

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica, Europe

Favorite Quote

No problem mon. (with Jamaican accent)

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/16/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Aki and sawfish

Short Description

Surgeon and medical professor Dr. Julius W. Garvey (1933 - ), son of Marcus Garvey, practiced thoracic and vascular surgery in greater New York, and was chief of thoracic and vascular surgery at Queens Hospital Center and at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center.

Employment

Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

State University of New York

University of Maryland Hospital

Harlem Hospital Center

The Mount Sinai Hospital of New York

Montefiore Hospital

Montefiore Morrisania Affiliate

Long Island Jewish Medical Center

Queens Hospital Center

Little Neck Community Hospital

Catholic Medical Centers

Massapequa General Hospital

Franklin General Hospital

Wyckoff Heights Medical Center

North Shore University Hospital

Garvey Vascular Specialists

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. Vivian Pinn

Medical director Vivian W. Pinn was born in 1941 in Halifax, Virginia. She grew up in Lynchburg, Virginia. Pinn received her B.A. degree from Wellesley College in 1963. She earned her M.D. degree from the University of Virginia School of Medicine in 1967 where she was the only woman and only minority in her class. Pinn completed her residency in pathology at the Massachusetts General Hospital in 1970 while also serving as a teaching fellow at the Harvard Medical School

In 1970, Pinn joined Tufts University as assistant professor of pathology in the School of Medicine and the Tufts New England Medical Center Hospital, with a concurrent appointment as the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs. In 1982, she moved to Washington, D.C. where she served as a professor as well as the third woman and first African American woman appointed to chair a department of pathology in the U.S. while at Howard University College of Medicine. Pinn became the first director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) in the Office of the Director at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991. In February of 1994, she was named associate director for Research on Women’s Health at NIH. While there, Pinn completed a national initiative to reexamine priorities for the women’s health research agenda, as well as areas in need of research. This new strategic plan for the coming decade, Moving into the Future with New Dimensions and Strategies: a Vision for 2020 for Women’s Health Research, was presented publicly at the 2010 NIH Scientific Symposium and the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the ORWH. She also served as co-chair of the NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers.

In 1989, Pinn was elected as president of the National Medical Association after serving in many other capacities including as Speaker of the House of Delegates and Trustee. The UVA School of Medicine established the Vivian W. Pinn Distinguished Lecture in Health Disparities, and further honored her in 2010 by naming one of its advisory colleges for medical students in her name, the Vivian Pinn College of UVA. In 2011, she received the Tufts University School of Medicine Dean’s Medal. Pinn was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Institute of Medicine. Pinn has also been elected as an Honorary Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, and received the Academy Medal for Distinguished Contributions in Health Policy.

Dr. Vivian W. Pinn was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 22, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.197

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/22/2013

Last Name

Pinn

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

W.

Occupation
Schools

Robert S. Payne Elementary School

Dunbar High School

Wellesley College

University of Virginia School of Medicine

First Name

Vivian

Birth City, State, Country

Halifax

HM ID

PIN06

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Martin

Favorite Quote

I appreciate and encourage self confidence, but I despise arrogance.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/21/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster, Fried Clams, Chocolate

Short Description

Medical director Dr. Vivian Pinn (1941 - ) the third woman and first African American woman appointed to chair a department of pathology in the U.S. while at Howard University College of Medicine, served as founding director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health in the Office of the Director at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and as associate director for Research on Women’s Health at NIH.

Employment

Tufts University New England Medical Hospitral

Howard University Hospital and Howard University College of Medicine

Chlease Soldier's Home

Boston Veterans' Administration Hospital

Hadley Memorial Hospital

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Favorite Color

Blue

Carol Cutting

Radio station owner Carol Moore Cutting was born on April 24, 1948 in Livingston, Alabama. She was raised in an educational family and a close-knit community. Cutting enrolled at Tuskegee University in 1965 and graduated from there in 1969 with her B.A. degree in secondary education. She went on to attend graduate school at Springfield Community College and graduated from there in 1971 with her M.A. degree in community leadership.

Upon graduation, Cutting moved to New England. In September of 1971, she received her official license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In 1984, Cutting applied for a construction permit for 106.3 but was challenged by an existing broadcaster who applied to operate on the same frequency. She then became the owner and general manager of Cutting Edge Broadcasting, Inc., making her the first African American woman in Massachusetts to operate a radio station. After eight years of litigation and several technical delays, Cutting was granted the construction permit and her station, WEIB - 106.3 Smooth FM, tested for broadcast with the FCC in 1999. Cutting was also appointed as an independent director of United Financial BanCorp. in 2001. She is a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. (AKA) and she has served on many committees and boards including the Food Bank of Western Massachusetts, WGBY, the University of Massachusetts-Amherst Amherst Fine Arts Center, the American Heart Association, and National Association of Black Owned Broadcasters (NABOB) where served as the Northeastern Regional Representative.

Cutting has been recognized for her community service and her entrepreneurship with many honors, such as the “Woman of the Year,” “Businesswoman of the Year,” and other similar awards. She was inducted into the Springfield Technical Community College’s Entrepreneurship Hall of Fame; and, in 2000, she received the Business Woman of Distinction award.

Cutting has been married for forty-three years to Dr. Gerald B. Cutting. They have two children, Alysia Cutting and Darrel Cutting, and six grandchildren.

Carol Moore Cutting was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 28, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.161

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/28/2013

Last Name

Cutting

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Tuskegee University

Springfield Technical Community College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Carol

Birth City, State, Country

Lexington

HM ID

CUT02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

I can do all things through Christ that strengthens me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

4/24/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Northampton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Radio station owner Carol Cutting (1948 - ) , President and CEO of Cutting Edge Broadcasting, Inc. and WEIB 106.3 Smooth F.M., is the first female in Massachusetts and the first African American in New England to have been granted a FCC-FM radio station construction permit.

Employment

WEIB Radio

United Financial BanCorp.

Favorite Color

Green, Pink

Timing Pairs
0,0:346,3:2396,44:7890,167:8546,176:18828,290:19752,322:20544,329:23052,345:34804,493:35192,498:36938,519:39945,559:41594,584:51821,682:52778,710:53909,737:56954,809:57476,832:59390,866:68430,943:72561,1025:108980,1511:109568,1518:110940,1535:112410,1558:117062,1621:131106,1781:136734,1841:139315,1861:140008,1870:144344,1893:145380,1910:145750,1916:149848,1963:150904,1998:151696,2010:152840,2035:153280,2042:153720,2048:154952,2075:155480,2082:156536,2096:156888,2101:159264,2146:161024,2173:161904,2184:167100,2205:171880,2239:172420,2246:173050,2276:173500,2282:175570,2303:177460,2325:178000,2332:179620,2356:180340,2366:180790,2372:191460,2448:193240,2479:195910,2501:197067,2519:198046,2534:198580,2541:202410,2550$0,0:3116,58:4182,80:5084,94:7298,125:7872,133:13080,191:14368,213:15104,224:15656,232:30054,330:30410,335:36907,435:41410,467:43538,487:44868,499:46198,511:48060,526:61275,626:63060,642:66872,670:67200,675:70480,717:70864,722:71824,743:77584,857:78064,863:78448,868:79120,877:88451,980:90362,1005:91272,1016:94093,1053:95640,1073:104610,1176:105680,1188:110560,1217:115060,1262:115940,1275:122020,1368:123620,1392:127259,1419:139300,1533:140600,1548:145332,1565:147500,1588:150065,1624:150445,1629:151775,1645:152345,1652:155964,1669:156700,1679:158540,1698:162036,1762:165927,1804:166245,1812:166457,1820:166722,1829:168290,1839:168830,1847:177500,1899:178545,1913:179970,1931:191875,2085:192379,2096:192694,2102:193135,2110:201880,2201:204403,2238:204925,2246:205795,2259:212698,2314:215382,2348:216383,2354:216838,2360:219750,2401:220569,2420:221024,2426:222025,2439:228514,2516:229130,2524:230714,2552:235025,2603:241178,2671:241724,2679:244454,2726:248510,2805:248900,2811:254778,2876:255183,2882:257289,2920:257937,2933:259314,2958:260367,2977:265160,3037:265670,3044:273477,3106:273849,3111:274872,3124:275244,3129:276174,3141:276546,3146:276918,3151:281800,3214:283758,3230:284172,3242:289025,3309:300165,3462:301270,3477:305945,3533:311680,3591:313170,3612
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carol Cutting's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting describes her mother's family background, pt. 3

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting describes her father's background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carol Cutting describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carol Cutting talks about her sister

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting talks about her mother's desire to have a college education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting talks about living with her grandparents on their farm

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting describes her childhood experience attending a country Baptist church

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting describes her experiences attending school, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting describes her experiences attending school, pt 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carol Cutting talks about her childhood desire to learn

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carol Cutting talks about her childhood experience with the radio

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Carol Cutting describes her childhood aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting talks about her high school mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting describes the Civil Rights Movement in Alabama, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting talks about the Civil Rights Movement in Alabama, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting talks about the Civil Rights Movement in Alabama, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting describes her experience at Tuskegee University, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting describes her experience at Tuskegee University, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting describes her experience at Tuskegee University, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carol Cutting talks describes her experience at Tuskegee University and Tom Joyner who also attended there

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting talks about her initial reaction to Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting describes the black community in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting talks about her initial experience with radio in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting describes her search for her own FM frequency and broadcasting license, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting describes her search for her own FM frequency and broadcasting license, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting talks about the legal battle over her radio frequency, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting talks about the legal battle over her radio frequency, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting talks about the construction of her radio station, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting talks about the construction of her radio station, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting talks about the adult jazz format of her radio station

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting talks about the adult jazz format of her radio station, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting talks about the deregulation of radio, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting talks about the deregulation of radio, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting reflects upon the importance of perseverance, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carol Cutting reflects upon the importance of perseverance, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Carol Cutting describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting reviews her life and whether she would have done anything differently

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting describes her responsibilities at the radio station

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting talks about her radio station's listeners

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting talks about her employees at the radio station

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting talks about how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Carol Cutting talks about her initial reaction to Springfield, Massachusetts
Carol Cutting talks about the legal battle over her radio frequency, pt. 2
Transcript
So when you were on the verge of graduating from Tuskegee [University], what were your thoughts? You were gonna go and teach in high school, you were gonna apply for teaching positions, or had you thought about going to graduate school or--$$No. By that time, my husb--well, I married my husband [Dr. Gerald B. Cutting] during Christmas break December, 1968--$$Okay, so (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--and we graduated together in 1969--$$Okay.$$--and so it wasn't about me at that point; it's where he got his job which was Springfield--East Longmeadow, Massachusetts, and he in fact had the job, and so I--we came up here together.$$Okay, so that's how you get up here to the Springfield [Massachusetts] area.$$That's how I got up into the Springfield [Massachusetts] area. I had spent some summers in Boston [Massachusetts] working; I had relatives there in Boston and so I worked there several summers and so I--but that was Roxbury, this was Springfield, Massachusetts and when we moved here, we didn't know anyone here; we didn't (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--'Cause your husband is from Roxbury [Boston, Massachusetts], right?$$Yes, he, he was born in Boston [Massachusetts] and grew up in New Haven, Connecticut so he was familiar with New England; I was to a little extent from the summer time spending the summers here, but I--we didn't know Springfield [Massachusetts]. We, we had no idea where anything was, and so when we moved here in June of 1969, it was like, 'okay, so where are we? What's happening in the community? How do you connect to the churches?' You know, how does one who comes to this area find out about the, the social life or--here? You know. Where do you get your collard greens? Where do you get your hair done? Where do you go to church? We didn't know, and we didn't know anyone who knew because his primary frame of reference was not--was primarily in the white community, from the edge of Longmeadow to East Longmeadow [Massachusetts]; that's what it was about. And so we didn't have a radio station and we didn't have public television at that time; we didn't know (unclear) maybe had two radio stations--I mean two television stations at the time here.$$Emm hmm.$$And so I thought coming from Tuskegee [University], a place where you've got all kinds of commerce and things going on, and you could listen to radio station even if it wasn't owned by African Americans, I found it very--very depressing. I thought we were coming to liberal New England, and so I found it to be rather separate.$So it was basically because of the opposition of this one person?$$Yes. He, in fact, took me through the entire comparative hearing process; he appealed all the way to the [Washington] D.C. Court of Appeals--the final one, where I also prevailed. But by that time, it was years later and, you know, no resources. And I can say that there was a broadcaster--an existing broadcaster by the name of Ed Perry, who I would not have this station had it not been for him because he went, he assisted me through the process. When there was a need to argue, he came to [Washington] D.C. in our favor, so I can just say that he was responsible for helping, helping me through this process. Now there was time when--during this time, you know, we'd have to pack up the kids and put 'em in the car, and my husband would drive us to [Washington] D.C., he would, he would then take the kids off sightseeing; they're thinking they're on a field trip, and I'm going to the, you know, to the courts, and being called everything except a child of God because it was that strong--I mean they wanted that frequency so badly that whatever it took to try to litigate me financially out of the process was being done, and so I can say that Ed [Perry] was there and he was--and he owns a radio station in Marshfield, Massachusetts--WATD; and he's still a friend to this day. He went to college in, in Amherst, Massachusetts and knew the area.$$What's his last name again?$$Ed Perry.$$Perry, okay.$$Emm hmm.$$He's the owner of WATD?$$WATD, in--here in Massachusetts, Marshfield. Not only did he, did he do that, but he also--finally, when we were able to, to get things going he, he was there and helping to oversee things, 'cause he was all--not only was he an owner, but he was also an engineer--$$Emm hmm.$$--so he was able to help me with the technical part of things.$$Okay.$$And so it was during those years of trying to get this station, and having to go to [Washington] D.C., that--there was no one in this Springfield [Massachusetts] area that I could talk to that I could--who could relate to what I was going through because no one in the Springfield area knew what I was doing. It was very quiet, and so I knew that it was taking a toll on my family, terms of the resources, and so it became--well, is it, it is, is it worth it? And so that was one of those times when I called--out of the clear blue sky called Gayle King; she's probably not even aware of the fact of the impact that she made, but she was an anchor at Channel Three, and I called her and said, 'You don't know me at all,' I said, 'but I'd like to know if I can meet you.' And--'because I have--I'd like to discuss something with you.' And I shared wi--and she said, 'Oh yes, come on down to the studio.' And I did, and she--I was able to share with her some of the things that I was going--and my--what I was going through; my dilemma. Is it fair? My children are growing up, we're taking resources from the family, and you know, is that, is that fair? Should I just forget about this and move on to some other thing? And--but she was very encouraging, very supportive, knew that there was a need, and encouraged me to, to stick with it. And that was a word that I need because I couldn't--it's hard to go to your husband when you're--I needed someone who was neutral, someone outside, who could look at it and give me advice, and she, and she did; I've never been able to or never had the opportunity to really let her know what, what her words meant, and how much she encouraged me and--to move forward, and what has happened to even now.

John Watson

Biochemist and biochemistry professor John A. Watson was born on May 21, 1940 in Chicago, Illinois, the first of eight children. His mother, Catherine P. Berkley-Watson, was a homemaker and his father Hosea Watson, worked as a U.S. Postal Service supervisor. Watson grew up in Chicago’s south side, attending Oakland Public Elementary School and graduating from Parker High School in 1957. After studying at the University of Illinois Navy Pier, he was hired by the American Institute of Baking, where he worked as a research assistant in nutrition research. It was there that his interest in biochemical studies truly crystallized. Watson returned to college to receive his B.A. degree in biology with an option in biochemistry from Illinois Institute of Technology in 1964. After receiving a pre-doctoral USPH Fellowship from the University of Illinois, Chicago Medical Center, Watson earned his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1967. With a post-Doctoral USPH Fellowship, Watson continued his two-year postdoctoral training at Brandeis University.

In 1969, Watson was hired by the University of California, San Francisco as an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Medical school Assistant Dean for Student Affairs. Watson’s research focused on the regulation of metabolic pathways, particularly on the regulation of cholesterol and isopentenoid biosynthesis. He demonstrated that the apparent lack of control of cholesterol synthesis is not a marker for cancer cells, that essential non-sterol isopentenoid synthesis is a post-transcriptionally regulated process, and that excess mevalonic acid production in fruit fly cells is shunted through a novel degradation pathway. Watson became a full Professor of Biochemistry in 1984 and Professor Emeritus of the University of California, San Francisco in 2001.

Watson holds memberships in numerous renowned professional societies, including the American Association of Oil Chemists, the National Institute of Science, and the American Heart Association. He is also a founding member of the Coalition for the Advancement of Blacks in Biomedical Sciences. Winner of the 1985 Henry McBay Outstanding Teacher Award from the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers (NOBCChE) and the 1994 Lifetime Mentor Award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Watson has been recognized for his work as a research scientist as well as an educator.

John Watson is married to Valerie M. Watson, and they are the parents of four adult children: Lisa, Susan, Katherine, and John.

John Watson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 7, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.004

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/7/2011

Last Name

Watson

Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

A.

Schools

University of Illinois College of Medicine

Illinois Institute of Technology

University of Illinois at Chicago

Parker High School

North Kenwood/Oakland Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

WAT12

Favorite Season

Mid-May, Mid-June

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Zihuatanejo, Playa Del Carmen, Cozumel

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

5/21/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spicy Food

Short Description

Biochemistry professor and biochemist John Watson (1940 - ) researched the regulation of cholesterol and other sterols in metabolic pathways as a professor at the University of California, San Francisco for more than thirty years.

Employment

University of California, San Francisco

Brandeis University

American Institue Banking

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Lavender, Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:648,4:2592,55:3240,64:3564,69:9870,98:10266,106:10596,112:13025,125:13700,137:20900,328:22325,363:23525,383:29748,436:30113,442:31646,469:32960,518:36391,576:36683,581:37632,598:38070,605:38800,616:39749,637:40041,642:40333,647:45570,686:45930,699:46890,721:47550,737:52963,810:61558,927:68974,1110:75756,1177:77772,1223:78492,1238:79284,1252:80148,1266:80940,1279:81372,1288:82380,1308:83100,1326:85476,1374:86196,1384:86844,1394:104318,1677:107342,1759:114038,1863:114326,1868:114902,1875:115622,1887:122080,1930:125776,2006:126480,2019:130088,2120:133785,2137:134495,2148:136948,2178:137875,2198:138493,2205:140020,2214$0,0:12222,80:12780,87:17032,117:17772,130:27127,221:27676,232:28103,240:28713,254:30132,262:30376,267:30620,272:31108,282:32328,305:32572,310:33487,329:33914,337:34219,343:36950,370:37370,379:37850,388:43078,480:44170,513:47914,585:50878,646:51346,651:51736,657:52438,669:61115,766:66466,839:71220,852:71760,866:72192,880:72516,888:72948,898:73434,910:74190,926:74406,931:79524,1016:80338,1029:80634,1034:81152,1043:82188,1065:82632,1073:82928,1078:86240,1107:91024,1147:91492,1154:91804,1160:108550,1258:119460,1271:121682,1292:122591,1304:125270,1309:127600,1314:129910,1353:130218,1358:134610,1383:135230,1389:136098,1398:138880,1415:139256,1420:140690,1425:142946,1453:146535,1477:151872,1545:152176,1550:152784,1561:153316,1574:156204,1633:156964,1646:157800,1659:165780,1731:166365,1742:168753,1757:169668,1785:171046,1806:172152,1836:173021,1847:173495,1854:180376,1943:180672,1948:182078,1967:182670,1977:183114,1984:185112,2016:185704,2025:186518,2040:188442,2066:190366,2099:198654,2211:198984,2217:203580,2254:204180,2260:206064,2269:206376,2274:208092,2300:208716,2309:210198,2335:212538,2379:212928,2385:214098,2406:214566,2414:214878,2419:217480,2424:218162,2436:218410,2441:218658,2446:219030,2453:219526,2462:220146,2474:220456,2480:222192,2526:223990,2557:224300,2563:224734,2571:231088,2652:231627,2661:231935,2666:233380,2675
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John Watson's interview (part 1)

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of John Watson's interview (part 2)

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - John Watson shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John Watson talks about his maternal great-grandfather, James Cornelius, part 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John Watson discusses the Federal Writers' Project

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John Watson discusses secrecy in his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John Watson describes Centralia, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - John Watson talks about his maternal great-grandfather, James Cornelius, part 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - John Watson shares his mother's childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John Watson shares his father's family history

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John Watson talks about his paternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John Watson shares his father's childhood experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John Watson discusses his father's involvement in World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - John Watson recalls de-facto segregation in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - John Watson describes growing up in the Ida B. Wells Housing Project in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - John Watson talks about the black community in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - John Watson discusses his parents' personalities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John Watson recalls his elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John Watson remembers exploring Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John Watson describes his Gilbert chemistry set

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John Watson recalls being robbed while selling the "Chicago Defender"

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - John Watson describes the atmosphere at Parker High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - John Watson describes race relations in Chicago, Illinois during the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - John Watson recalls his experiences at Parker High School

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - John Watson recalls the science he observed on TV as a youth

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John Watson recalls not having any mentors in science growing up

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John Watson discusses his classmates at Parker High School

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John Watson discusses his college years at University of Illinois, Navy Pier

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - John Watson talks about working at the American Institute of Baking, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - John Watson talks about working at the American Institute of Baking, part 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - John Watson describes his experiences at Illinois Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - John Watson talks his studies at University of Illinois, Chicago Medical Center

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - John Watson describes glyceraldehyde metabolism, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - John Watson describes glyceraldehyde metabolism, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - John Watson talks about his postdoctoral work at Brandeis University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - John Watson describes the changing nature of science

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - John Watson discusses his decision to work at the University of California, San Francisco

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - John Watson recalls the Civil Rights Movement and the push for minority faculty in educational institutions

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - John Watson describes his administrative duties at the University of California, San Francisco

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - John Watson talks about NADPH-dependent reductase

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - John Watson discusses cholesterol metabolism in hepatoma tumor cells

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - John Watson discusses the scientific process and its impact on society

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - John Watson describes his promotions at the University of California, San Francisco

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - John Watson describes isopentenoids, part 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - John Watson describes isopentenoids, part 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - John Watson discusses halobacterium, part 1

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - John Watson discusses halobacterium, part 2

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - John Watson discusses professional organizations for black chemists

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - John Watson describes the benefits of working with halobacterium

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - John Watson discusses retiring as professor emeritus from the University of California, San Francisco, part 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - John Watson discusses retiring as professor emeritus from the University of California, San Francisco, part 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - John Watson explains that there are very few risky decisions in science

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - John Watson talks about some of his mentees from the University of California, San Francisco

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - John Watson shares his mentoring strategy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - John Watson discusses his hopes and concerns for the black communtiy

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - John Watson reminisces over his life decisions

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - John Watson reflects on his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - John Watson discusses his hobbies and family

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - John Watson talks about his travels to Africa, part 1

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - John Watson recalls his initiation into the Orisa culture

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - John Watson talks about his travels to Africa, part 2

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - John Watson discusses the importance of oral history

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - John Watson discusses how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - John Watson shares advice for students interested in science, part 1

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - John Watson shares advice for students interested in science, part 2

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - John Watson describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
John Watson recalls the science he observed on TV as a youth
John Watson discusses halobacterium, part 1
Transcript
And because when I was a kid, I don't know if you ever remember this program, "Mr. Cox". Mr. Cox came on every Sunday, and, around 6:00 o'clock, and this would--everybody, you know, it was one of those TV, those rare TV moments cause there weren't a whole lot of TV shows. And you'd sit up and look at Mr. Cox, and what I was always excited about, it wasn't so much "Mr. Cox", the program, but DuPont had commercials to come on. And their commercials, in those days commercials were ten minutes (laughter), fifteen minutes, they were long commercials. And I would sit and just wait for the new DuPont commercial each week because at that time they were into synthetics, and "Better Life Through Chemistry" and all of this excitement that would come. And I could just sit there and marvel. And, you know, this was, I was at, I was--$$There was a Wally Cox show.$$Wally Cox, yeah.$$Wally Cox, right. I remember Wally Cox, skinny guy with a bowtie--$$Yeah, yeah--$$--with big glasses.$$Yeah, Wally Cox, that's right.$$He was kind of like what you would call a nerd today.$$Um-hum, but the, DuPont were the people who were sponsoring it, "Better Life Through Chemistry" and plastics and they--I would just sit there and marvel at them taking all of this, putting chemistry to work and making all of these different kind of materials and what have you. And I just, I saw myself as synthetic chemist.$$Now, did Wally Cox play a scientist on the show at all?$$I don't think so.$$I know it was a comedy.$$Yeah, it was a comedy. No, I don't think he was a scientist. He was kind of a nerdy kind of guy, but--$$Right.$$--but it was, so.$$Yeah, I can't remember either what his profession was. But I remember the show, yeah.$$But it was, the commercials were what really drew me or I looked forward to on Sundays, was the commercial.$$Okay, now, did you like the Walt Disney specials on Science when you were growing up?$$I don't remember any Walt Disney specials on science at that time.$$Maybe he did it later on. I know in my generation they did that like "Futureland" and they would talk about--$$No, they had "Mr. Wizard." He was good.$$Don Herbert, right.$$And that was about, that's all I really remember.$Okay, all right.$$So the halobacterium is one of my ventures. You know, you're always looking and so halobacterium, when you fly into San Francisco [California], you see those salt ponds and they're red, and they're red because of special bacteria that grow in that very high salt concentration. And by high concentration, I'm talking about four molar [4M] salt. And when you consider that the salt separating the, circulating in our blood stream is .15 molar [0.15M], this is four molar [4M] salt. I mean it crystallizes. It's almost, I mean you give it a little wink, and it'll crystallize out on you. But there's a bug growing out there that gives rise to the color, what you see in those salt ponds. And that's, and they're called halobacterium. They're extreme organisms, and it's one of a--they're called archaebacteria as a family. And those are the bacteria that grow in these hot springs and Yellowstone and what have you 'cause they can withstand those temperatures. Well, they also can, they're extreme in a wide range of ways. And one of the ways is high salt for the halobacterium. Well, halobacterium is red because it's almost like, have rhodopsin, like in the eye. And it takes the sun, and then it converts it and develops into energy. The organism has as its, part of its cell wall nothing but isopentenoids. They don't have regular, straight-chain, fatty acids in their membrane. They have these branched isopentenoid compounds. And it's an advantage to having branched isopentenoid compounds. One, they are much more fluid because it's branch and it--if they're just flat, and straight-chained, they can get together and move. But now, you've put a kink in 'em, they can't, they become--they retain the fluidity. The other thing is that they're saturated so they're resistant to UV [ultraviolet] radiation, double bonds, don't get all changed and oxidized. They're just, they're stable. And two, they form what we call ether linkages, rather than ester linkages. And ether linkages takes a lot to break an ether linkage as opposed to an ester linkage. So like Crisco [an oil] has ester linkages, and when you wanna make--you just take some lye and boil it up and you break that bond, and you've got soap. You can't take the same kind of triglyceride-like molecule from Halobacterium, throw alcohol, alkali in there and boil it up and break that ether bond. It takes a much more strength, a much more active chemical reaction to break that bond. So they're resistant. That's why these organisms can grow under these extreme environments. And that's in all of the archaebacteria. So they can--that's why they are what they are.

Dr. Shawna Nesbitt

Cardiovascular physician and medical scientist Dr. Shawna Nesbitt was born on November 10, 1963 in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania. Nesbitt attended Quigley Catholic High School in Baden, Pennsylvania where she graduated in 1981. She went on to be the first black student to complete the three year pre-med program at Gannon University and go to Hahnemann School of Medicine in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was the first black to enter the Hahnemann program, where she earned her M.D. degree in 1988. During Nesbitt's residency in internal medicine at Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh, Nesbitt was inspired by Dr. James Ferraro to follow her passion for research in the area of hypertension. In 1991, she became a fellow at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan and worked on several clinical trials with her colleague Dr. Kenneth Jamerson, notably the Tecumseh Blood Pressure Study, the "Losartan Interventions for Endpoints in Hypertension Study" ("LIFE" Study), and the "African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Study" ("ASKD" Study). She went to work as an investigator for various firms, performing research on African Americans with hypertension and renal disease. She met her husband, Thomas Nesbitt, in 1992 and they married in 1995.

Nesbitt moved to Dallas, Texas in 2001 after she completed her M.S. degree in clinical research design to work at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. As an associate professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, she worked on several projects such as the Reynolds Foundation's "Dallas Heart Study" on the "Trial of Preventing Hypertension" or " TROPHY" study funded by the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca . The TROPHY study successfully showed her team's hypothesis was correct and the results were published in the 'New England Journal.' She initiated the trial of preventing hypertension in patients with high blood pressure. In addition, she worked as a manuscript reviewer for the American Journal of Hypertension and the Journal of Ethnicity and Disease.

Nesbitt has received medical licensure in the states of Pennsylvania, Michigan and Texas. She has been honored by the American Heart Association for her work on cardiovascular epidemiology and high blood pressure. Nesbitt has served on several boards and panels including the American College of Physicians, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Hypertension, the Association of Black Cardiologists, the National Medical Association, the International Society of Hypertension in Blacks, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Dr. Shawna Nesbitt was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 13, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.047

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/13/2008

Last Name

Nesbitt

Maker Category
Schools

Quigley High School

Quigley Catholic High School

Gannon University

Hanhnemann University

University of Michigan

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Shawna

Birth City, State, Country

Aliquippa

HM ID

NES02

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Let the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be acceptable in thy sight, oh Lord, my strength and my Redeemer.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

11/10/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet Potatoes

Short Description

Cardiovascular physician and cardiovascular scientist Dr. Shawna Nesbitt (1963 - ) has done research on African Americans with hypertension and renal disease. She has worked as an instructor, lecturer and assistant professor at the the University of Michigan and the the University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center.

Employment

Allegheny General Hospital

University of Michigan

University of Texas Southwestern

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Red

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Shawna Nesbitt's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt shares her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about how her parents met and her early childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about the sights, smells, and sounds of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Shawna Nesbitt remembers the neighborhood where she grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her elementary and middle schools

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her joy for learning

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about growing up in the 1970s and wanting to pursue a medical career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about church and attending Catholic school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her first job and her time at Quigley Catholic High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Shawna Nesbitt continues talking about Quigley Catholic High School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about bridging the gap between her black and white friends

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about deciding on college and medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about attending Gannon University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about getting into medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about going to medical school at the Hahnemann School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her residency and Dr. James Ferraro

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about her hypertension program and Dr. Stevo Julius

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about epidemiology projects like the Tecumseh blood pressure project

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about teaching, meeting her husband, Thomas Nesbitt, and their daughter, Joy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about clinical trials at University of Michigan and gaining the trust of the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about the ASKD study and the "On Job, On Campus" program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Shawna Nesbitt describes the Trial of Preventing Hypertension (TROPHY) Study

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about moving to Dallas, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about finishing the TROPHY study and lecturing around the country.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Shawna Nesbitt shares her plans for the future and her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Shawna Nesbitt talks about slavery on her father's side of the family

Dr. Christopher Leggett

Clinical interventional cardiologist Dr. Christopher J.W.B. Leggett was born on November 8, 1960, in Cleveland, Ohio, the tenth of eleven children to Willie and Ethel Leggett. At thirteen years of age, Leggett was awarded a three year academic scholarship by the A Better Chance organization to attend Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. After his high school graduation, Leggett received a four year scholarship to attend Princeton University. While attending Princeton, Leggett was a campus leader and member of the Princeton University basketball team. In 1982, Leggett graduated from Princeton University with his B.A. degree in sociology.

In 1982, after attending the University of Cincinnati’s School of Medicine in Cincinnati, Ohio, Leggett attended Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio, where he received his M.D. degree. At Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Leggett was also chairman of the Student National Medical Association. In 1986, Leggett interned in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland; after completing his residency at Johns Hopkins in 1989, Leggett completed his cardiology fellowship at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia.

In 1992, Leggett became a physician at the Cardiovascular Laboratory in the Veterans Administration Hospital at the Emory University School of Medicine in Decatur, Georgia. In 1993, Leggett became an interventional cardiology fellow in the Department of Cardiology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine. During his fellowship, Leggett was under the tutelage of world leader and pioneer, Dr. Gary S. Roubin.

In 2002, Leggett was appointed by the United States Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services to serve on the National Practicing Physician Advisory Council in Washington, D.C. for a four year term. In 2002, a Georgia State Senate Resolution honored Leggett for his contributions to society; in May of that same year, Leggett was the recipient of the President’s Award at Oakwood College for being an exemplary role model for Alumni. Leggett is the Director of Cardiology at Medical Associates of North Georgia and practices medicine at Northside Hospital – Cherokee in Canton, Georgia; St. Joseph's Hospital of Atlanta, Georgia; and Gwinnett Health System in Lawrenceville, Georgia.

Christopher Leggett was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 11, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.253

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/11/2007 |and| 2/26/2008

Last Name

Leggett

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Phillips Academy

Princeton University

University of Cincinnati

Mary M Bethune Elementary School

Harry E. Davis Junior High School

First Name

Christopher

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

LEG02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Itay

Favorite Quote

I Belong Everywhere I Go Because My Best Friend, Jesus Christ Owns The World.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/8/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Cardiologist and healthcare executive Dr. Christopher Leggett (1960 - ) was the Director of Cardiology at Medical Associates of North Georgia and practiced at multiple medical institutions in the Southeastern region, particularly in Atlanta, Georgia.

Employment

Medical Associates of North Georgia

University of Alabama, Bimingham

Emory University School of Medicine

Johns Hopkins Hospital

Atlanta VA Medical Center

Piedmont Hospital

St. Joseph's Hospital, Atlanta

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:972,22:1539,30:3888,64:8679,194:13215,295:18312,353:23868,550:38678,724:39686,738:54625,926:55195,933:56050,943:56715,951:58995,982:62490,990:70390,1079:70838,1094:74038,1162:83564,1276:87959,1345:92050,1375:98346,1443:103220,1492:103645,1498:115538,1635:119360,1770:124104,1804:124408,1809:124788,1815:126992,1864:127296,1869:127980,1879:129044,1903:133178,1963:133958,1993:144270,2194$0,0:2940,48:15752,274:20043,305:27094,405:27422,410:30348,438:34602,485:40004,609:42267,688:57318,900:59718,937:72554,1055:73464,1132:74647,1149:75102,1155:75557,1162:84479,1255:89376,1333:89704,1338:90032,1343:90934,1360:97564,1446:98131,1454:98455,1459:105790,1574:106390,1581:111708,1641:113684,1681:115660,1695:115980,1704:119420,1833:121980,1920:137472,2125:142874,2211:146700,2234:157146,2443:162390,2499:163226,2514:163530,2519:175538,2649:177720,2655:178269,2667:180193,2678:181922,2705:183560,2727:184834,2747:196468,2875:196820,2880:199752,2899:200182,2905:200784,2914:205035,2981:212555,3100:215290,3161:215920,3173:220200,3245:220468,3250:221004,3263:221540,3272:221875,3278:232760,3463:233160,3474:236840,3534:238360,3575:238840,3582:239400,3591:243310,3613:243700,3620:245260,3652:246365,3673:265269,3950:270454,4034:275134,4089:276190,4136:289440,4286
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Christopher Leggett's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his early experiences of religion

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his mother's siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his father's discipline

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his father's occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his parents' relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his likeness to his father

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls the aftermath of his father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's strength

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his brother, Robert Leggett

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers a lesson from his brother

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his early work experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his early academic success

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his peers at Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remember a classmate at Harry E. Davis Junior High School in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his community in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his childhood activities

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his admittance to the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his parents' attitudes about race

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his arrival at Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers John F. Kennedy, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls the rigorous coursework at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his friends at the Phillips Academy Andover, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his strength as a math student

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his exposure to white culture at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his teachers at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his friends at the Phillips Academy Andover, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his college aspirations

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Christopher Leggett's interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his project on the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the A Better Chance program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls befriending his peers at the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his activities at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the campus of the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers John F. Kennedy, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls playing basketball at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to attend Princeton University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his transition to Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his summer work experiences

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his religious life at the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his coursework at Princeton University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to pursue medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls playing basketball for Princeton University

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to attend the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers attending Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his mentors at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers attending the University of Cincinnati

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his residency at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the challenges of his residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his influences at The Johns Hopkins Hospital

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences as a medical resident

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his wife's career

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers the mentorship of Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr.

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes a lesson from Dr. Levi Watkins

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences of discrimination at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his philosophy of mentorship

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers a lesson from his wife

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to specialize in cardiology

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to accept a fellowship at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the field of interventional cardiology

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the cause and treatment of a heart attack

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the advancements in interventional cardiology, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his training under Gary Roubin

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the advancements in interventional cardiology, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers Gary Roubin

Tape: 8 Story: 12 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to join the Medical Associates of North Georgia in Canton, Georgia

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to join the Medical Associates of North Georgia

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls treating a heart attack in a pregnant patient

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists the hospitals where he worked

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his appointment to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his hobbies

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his children

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his life

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his mother's lessons

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 12 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his wife's influence

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett narrates his photographs

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$8

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his strength as a math student
Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences of discrimination at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland
Transcript
What were some of the courses that you took there that you know that you probably would not have been exposed to in Ohio (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) You know, a lot of English, math. I, I think for me, the thing that--and it wasn't all positive; don't get me wrong. I mean I had this one teacher who was a jerk; she told me I had to stop writing black English--whatever that was, and I said, "Okay, I'm not sure what that is, but if you can help me understand what it is, I'll be happy to try and modify it." But the one--the mainstay for me that let me know I belonged was, was math is objective. Whether you liked me or not, there was one answer. You couldn't read my essay and give me a C because you just felt like, I'm not giving this African American student an A because this just, you know, because I don't like the way it sounds. But if you got the answer right in math--so, when I initially went there, my grades initially fell in like subjects like English and biology because it's more subjective, (unclear) written it. But math let me know that I belong, because it was objective and I always got great grades in math, and I just--and it always let me know that I was smart, so that I, I said to myself, I, I'll get this other stuff together, and I'll figure out what I gotta do to raise that up. But it was kind of the mainstay for me educationally because it was, it was non-subjective, it was objective, and it was scientific and, and so it helped me through that first semester not get depressed about going from always being a straight A student to having, you know, some different grades. And then, you know, by eleventh grade and twelfth grade years [at Phillips Academy Andover, Andover, Massachusetts], they were back up to what I was used to. But, you know, you, you have these challenges and you gotta meet them and you gotta have something inside you to meet them with. And those are the lessons, like I told you, about my brother [Robert Leggett], and watching my mother [Ethel Leggett] and father [Willie Leggett, Sr.]; that's--those are the lessons they give you, the sort of undergirding, that when you're swimming upstream, that you just don't quit.$You were gonna tell me a story about one of the patients during your residency [at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland] (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, well--you know, there, there are--I, I, I can think of two quick ones. I was on rounds one night with the other medical students--or one morning, and we had one African American dean, and he had admitted a patient and, on the rounds the next morning, just to give you a sense of kind of, you know, what students were used to, the students--well, the student who had worked this patient up--a medical student sent on rounds, he had given his presentation, then he said, you know, "Yeah, there was this, you know, there's this black guy sitting there by the patient's bed," and I said, "Well," I said, "did you ask him about his name yet?" He said, "Yeah, he said his name was Dr. Smoot [Roland T. Smoot]." I said, "Well, Dr. Smoot actually is the dean of this medical school." And the student then said, he said, "Well, he doesn't look like a dean." And I said to him, I said, "Well, what does a dean look like?" And, and, and, and, and basically, what he was saying is he had never seen a black dean, so all deans were white; it wasn't--he had a suit on, he looked intelligent, you know; it was his patient, but he just didn't look like a dean. And, and I, I just felt like I needed to take that opportunity to let him know that, "Frankly, you know, you know, you need to broaden your definition of what deans look like because this is a dean. He's the dean of this medical school and, and you, you should know that, being a medical student. But going forward, you know, you really need to guard yourself from comments that are fairly uninformed like this, so that you don't look so--just absolutely unintelligent when you say it." So, anyway, I mean I, I just felt like you gotta take opportunities. This is all about education because that same attitude can pervade another interaction with a patient and, and you just have to take opportunities to help people, you know, sort of be educated. But then there was another personal one that I had that I was taking care of this guy who was on a trach collar, which means he was on a respirator, an African American patient who had throat cancer, couldn't even talk, and I was going in to evaluate him 'cause I was--had to work him up, and he was gonna be on my service, and I kept, kept hearing him trying to mouth something through the respirator and, and I just leaned down and I got real close to him and he was mouthing out, in his words, "You--you ain't qualified," that's what he was saying. And, and I think, you know, what he was struggling with, which is an internal cultural pathology at times, is that, you know: I'm used to a white doctor taking care of me and, you know, I can't conceptually get my mind around having a black doctor take care of me, so--in other words, I want the qualified white guy. And, and it is funny, because I had just taken care of a Jewish individual earlier that day in the intensive care unit who had said the exact opposite; he said, "Dr. Leggett [HistoryMaker Dr. Christopher Leggett], I want you to take care of me," and I said, "Why?" He said, "Because if you're here, that means you're probably three times as qualified as some of the other doctors walking around, since the numbers are so low--it's only two of you." He said, "No, that--I want you to take care of me." So, you would have these social dynamic paradigms in, in care that would exist quite often and, and you'd have to have a very strong sense of self, and the resolve within yourself of, of who you are and what you represented intellectually so that you would not allow yourself to become angry or intimidated one way or the other. But there were sort of variety of experiences that, that you'd experience and, and quite frankly, people--you know, you would walk in rooms in, in that institution; they just did not--it is not commonplace, at that time, for them to interact with the--a physician of color; they, they would think that you're just a, a, you know, a transporter with a, you know, a doctor's coat on; I mean something--they just couldn't, couldn't grasp it, so--anyway, you just, you know, sort of work through that, kind of.

Dr. Hollis Underwood

Internal medicine physician Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood was born on October 29, 1957 in Chicago, Illinois to Robert Arthur and Janetta Martha Crowe. Underwood graduated from Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan in 1975. She attended the University of Maryland as a zoology major. Underwood then completed her M.D. degree at Howard University School of Medicine and did her post graduate residency training at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota.

In 1987, Underwood worked in the National Health Service Corps at Frederiksted Health Center in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. While there, Underwood co-chaired the 1989 Peer Review Committee at the Virgin Islands Medical Institute in Christiansted, Virgin Islands. Underwood then began working as the Medical Director and Acting Project Director for Frederiksted Health Center and as the District Health Officer at the Charles Harwood Memorial Hospital in Christiansted until 1990.

In 1990, Underwood was hired as the Lead Internist and Director of Hypertension & Lipid Clinic at the Ohio Permanente Medical Group in Parma, Ohio, before working as an intermediate Lipid Specialist for the American Heart Association at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1994, Underwood became a consultant for the Department of Community Internal Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona, where she worked until 2000.

In 1997, Underwood acted as a consultant on a sixteen member multi-disciplinary medical team that traveled to Dakar, Senegal to provide cardiovascular medical care for the community. The venture, Project MEDHELP, led by Albert F. Olivier, consisted of cardiothoracic and general surgeons, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, internists, public health experts, dermatologists and gynecologists.

In February 2000, Underwood became President of Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc., working alongside her husband Dr. Paul L. Underwood, Jr., in Scottsdale, Arizona. Underwood served on several boards and organizations including the Center for Women’s Health, Vibetree Foundation and Planned Parenthood. She is also active in several organizations including the Links, Inc., the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood resides in Phoenix, Arizona with her family.

Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.208

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/14/2007

Last Name

Underwood

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Holly

Schools

Cass Technical High School

University of Maryland

Howard University College of Medicine

Ernie Pyle Elementary School

Mayo Medical School

Lutheran Parish School

First Name

Hollis

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

UND02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

If You Can't Be Who You Need To Be, By Remaining Who You Are.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arizona

Birth Date

10/29/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Phoenix

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Internal medicine physician Dr. Hollis Underwood (1957 - ) specialized in internal medicine and was president of Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc. in Arizona.

Employment

Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc.

Mayo Clinic

Ohio Permanete Medical Group

Charlest Harwood Memorial Hospital

Frederiksted Health Center

Favorite Color

Chartreuse

Timing Pairs
0,0:4757,167:5695,187:8844,288:9849,303:10318,312:10586,322:11122,337:15209,441:16683,467:16951,472:17554,483:18358,499:18626,504:19229,515:30944,671:32388,725:32768,732:34516,766:35580,782:39684,876:45840,1008:51134,1047:51926,1075:54230,1121:56534,1184:57182,1194:57470,1199:58190,1210:62366,1307:65246,1376:65678,1394:66110,1402:82676,1628:83084,1636:87912,1781:88456,1790:88728,1795:89136,1802:89408,1807:94000,1829:95470,1861:95750,1866:96520,1883:97010,1891:98620,2002:99390,2021:100580,2047:100860,2052:104080,2118:104990,2132:108280,2197:108910,2207:112480,2280:113110,2290:115210,2341:132256,2698:138557,2794:139040,2802:139316,2807:140627,2840:142007,2865:143456,2901:145181,2929:145457,2934:161758,3276:162646,3290:162942,3299:163978,3310:168190,3354$0,0:6834,173:7303,184:7571,189:7839,194:8375,203:10720,263:11926,289:12529,299:13467,317:14070,327:14405,333:14807,340:15410,351:15946,361:17487,401:18425,428:19095,442:19497,453:20301,468:20569,473:20971,539:28110,601:29070,614:29390,619:29790,625:35150,702:35630,710:36030,716:37070,740:38670,835:38990,841:39310,847:44490,896:51240,1118:72390,1612:72730,1618:73580,1631:74345,1637:78972,1774:97944,2172:103346,2278:103638,2283:103930,2288:105901,2342:123366,2701:128334,2838:128694,2844:130926,2898:134980,2936
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Hollis Underwood's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls living in Gary, Indiana and Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her neighbors in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the socioeconomic climate of Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes Ernie Pyle Elementary School in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls living on St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her community in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls moving to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her early aspirations to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her peers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers applying to college

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers the University of Maryland in College Park

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her professors at the University of Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls the summer program at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mentor, Dr. John Townsend

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers treating her first patient

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers her experiences at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers dating her husband, Dr. Paul Underwood

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her fellowship at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls working at the Frederiksted Health Clinic in St. Croix

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers becoming a mother

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood reflects upon her humanitarian medical work

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers moving to Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood talks about her community activism

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her peers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan
Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers treating her first patient
Transcript
So you go to Cass Tech [Cass Technical High School, Detroit, Michigan], now for the benefit of our viewers, Cass Tech is considered, was considered one of the elitist schools of Detroit, Michigan?$$Um-hm.$$So now you go to Cass Tech and what, what happens there for you?$$Well, you know, well the first thing is that, and this was a new concept for us, but, you're right, it was a magnet school, but you had to test to get in but there was, there were some of us who were invited to attend. And we were invited to attend and become a part of science and arts curriculum, which was an honors curriculum and, and not knowing Detroit, so we're relatively new there, but my mother's [Jonetta Everette Crowe] best friend who was like a second mother to me in many ways, just said, "Oh, absolutely, this is an opportunity you don't want, you know, not take advantage of," and, and that was it. You know, that was it and I, Cass was--it opened up even broader horizons, now you know we used to call it the pickle factory 'cause it looked like a pickle factory, you know, it was a pretty big old school, we had to all take the city bus to go to school. But I went to school with some kids that were just incredible people, some of whom are friends to this day, some of whom have done some amazing things in this world, made some tremendous footprints.$$Okay give us a few names of people that that, that we might want to know about.$$Oh wow. Well one is David Alan Grier, who is a very well-known actor, and he was a Cass Techite, you know, a Cass Techie, and Wanda [Wanda Whitten-Shurney], oh gosh, I'm blocking out her last name, she's a hematologist, her father [HistoryMaker Dr. Charles Whitten] was a, a very, very well-known hematologist in Detroit, did a lot of ground breaking research with sickle cell disease and she was a classmate, actually not only in high school, but also medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], Harriet Covington [Harriet Covington-Smith], also a friend from medical school as well as high school, oh my gosh. And then, then you had the musicians who are amazing, Geri Allen, one of my classmates who is a very well-known established recording artist, straight ahead jazz pianist, J. Jones [ph.], a very accomplished saxophone player, I mean, so we, you know, we had all of the curriculums, then you had the perfor- the performing arts crowd and you know, and nobody gave any credence to the computer science club, but they're probably all, they've--$$(Laughter).$$--probably all became millionaires, up to the '90s [1990s], and we just lost track, I don't know (laughter).$$So--so Cass, they had a very fertile environment for you to grow, would you say (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh amazing. So, so much, I mean, you know, friends were attorneys and, and you know, the whole, you know the, the legacy, the Patti Coutiver [ph.], a very good friend of mine in high school, an attorney, her fam- her father was an educator, a very well established and well known educator. The former superintendent of schools [Cornelius L. Golightly], his daughter, Linnie Golightly [Linnie M. Golightly], was a classmate at Cass, so it was incredible and many of my friends wer- are physicians and, and, and attorneys and other careers that are considered leadership type careers as a result of that.$(Simultaneous) Do you recall your first assignment?$$Uh-huh. I was in community internal medicine, oh my goodness, ha, ha, with a gentleman who sadly, y- what I've come to realize is that some people's mediocrity prevents them from seeing the greatness in other people and they make it a conscious effort to put the squash on other people because of their own internal insecurity, and I saw a lot of that, I saw a lot of that, people hiding behind the shields of the Mayo Clinic [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota] and with their own mediocrity. And I saw some things that really exposed what that whole experience was, was all about but, but I, I remember being nervous, a, a new intern, first rotation out of medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] and a patient came in, he was very, very, very critically ill, we worked on him, you know, along with the, you know, the E- you know he came in through the ER [emergency room], I worked on him, did, you know, some things; read, worked, read, worked, you know, you had to really kind of move fast, got him kind of stabilized but you know, the, the attendings, consultants would always say, you know, call us, keep us posted, let us know what's going on. So maybe I called them at four o'clock and when I said, "I just wanted to let you know about the person came in and this is what happened and, you know, he's, he's doing better now." He said, "Well if he's still alive, call me in the morning," bam! Or, "We'll deal with it in the morning," and he hung up the phone on me, and I thought, okay so that, that, that was the first baptism by fire, and I realized, okay, so now I understand.$$So, so, so what did you do at that point when he did that to you?$$Oh, I--$$Were angered, or, or do you say, or what did you do?$$Oh, yeah (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) 'Cause you--$$--it angers you.$$--had a patient.$$But it makes you strong. Let me tell you something, and, and this is what the old folks say, if it doesn't kill you, it'll make you strong. It made you strong. Every little hurt, every little slight, every little obstacle, every little pin that was pushed in my side intentionally, and mes- mostly intentionally, it just made me stronger. I'm, I, I'm, I made sure that there wasn't anything in medicine that I had not seen or knew about and I've, I've made that my philosophy. And I read, I read the PDR ['Physicians' Desk Reference'] and never forgetting once, I went to see somebody at his office, one of the consultants and I had the PDR and I was reading about something, he said, "What are you doing? Reading the PDR?" You know, he was kind of snickering, kind of in a very snide, and I said, you know, and I just laughed and said oh no. Yeah, I was reading the PDR, as a matter of fact, I was gonna read every aspect of that drug, at least what we knew about so I would be that much better informed so.