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B. B. De Laine

Educator Brumit Belton De Laine or B.B. De Laine was born on October 1, 1937 in Columbia, South Carolina to Mattie Belton De Laine, a teacher, and Joseph Armstrong De Laine, a minister, teacher, and community activist. De Laine attended segregated elementary schools, and during his childhood, his father spearheaded a civil rights protest against the segregated school and transportation systems in Clarendon County, South Carolina. As a youth, De Laine witnessed the protests and social tensions that led to the Briggs v. Elliott school desegregation case that was eventually bundled with Brown v. Board of Education. Following the U.S. Supreme Court decision, De Laine witnessed widespread vandalism and terror perpetrated by the Ku Klux Klan. He witnessed the burning of his father’s church and the escape of his family to New York City.

De Laine graduated from Carver Public High School in 1955. He attended Howard University for one half of a year and then transferred to Johnson C. Smith University where he got involved in and was one of three primary organizers of the lunch counter sit-in demonstrations in Charlotte, North Carolina. He earned his B.A. degree in psychology and economics from Johnson C. Smith University in 1960.

De Laine accepted a job as a bus driver in New York City. In 1964, he graduated from New York University with a master’s degree in safety, and in 1965, De Laine began teaching in the Chappaqua, New York schools. The following academic year, De Laine moved back to North Carolina with his wife, Edith Strickland De Laine, and three children where he accepted a teaching position in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System at Garinger High School in 1965. De Laine was the first African American teacher at Garinger High School. In 1969, De Laine became Director of Driver Education for the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System. In 1977, De Laine completed a sixth year certificate from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, earning him advanced certification in school administration. After more than thirty years in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System, De Laine retired in 1996. Soon after, he joined the Board of Directors for the Swann Fellowship.

De Laine resides in Charlotte, where he serves on the Board of Directors for the Briggs-DeLaine-Pearson Foundation.

De Laine was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2007.

B.B. De Laine passed away on June 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2007.183

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/21/2007

Last Name

De Laine

Maker Category
Schools

Scotts Branch High School

Liberty Hill Elementary School

Carver High School

Allen University

Johnson C. Smith University

New York University

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Howard University

First Name

B.B.

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

DEL08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Tell A Person To Go To Hell In Such A Way That They'll Enjoy The Trip.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

10/1/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

6/14/2012

Short Description

High school administrator B. B. De Laine (1937 - 2012 ) spent more than thirty years working for the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools.

Employment

New York City Human Resources Administration

Garinger High School

Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

New York City Transit Authority

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1440,27:1824,32:2208,37:2784,46:9353,88:9677,93:11826,106:12298,111:13930,118:14680,129:14980,134:20699,163:21308,171:21743,177:22613,189:26876,291:27398,298:32618,375:33488,386:34900,393:35248,398:35857,403:39424,472:45272,536:45967,542:49370,555:49670,561:50570,579:50930,585:51710,598:55690,649:56490,660:57210,671:57530,676:69284,793:70799,811:71405,817:74334,846:81512,883:88122,1022:88690,1031:92680,1077:98715,1167:99225,1174:99565,1179:105600,1258:106192,1267:106562,1273:107376,1287:110336,1328:113176,1338:120310,1456:124486,1528:128430,1536:128754,1541:129078,1546:130374,1570:150412,1794:154900,1810:171335,1957:172610,1991:177410,2081:177710,2086:186722,2192:187026,2197:191738,2289:200960,2409:203600,2455:204216,2463:205800,2522:209584,2562:210200,2570:219616,2661:252382,3073:252886,3081:264303,3194:264675,3199:265047,3204:267010,3215:267502,3223:267830,3228:272750,3304:273652,3317:275620,3357:276522,3371:277014,3376:277752,3407:278080,3412:288816,3510:290230,3535:291038,3552:292351,3575:299058,3618:302754,3712:303194,3720:305746,3771:306186,3777:306626,3783:308914,3811:314168,3843:314603,3850:320267,3897:320655,3902:325311,3969:325699,3974:331795,4020:332404,4028:335420,4060$0,0:1188,13:1452,18:2046,28:3102,83:6940,117:7325,123:12400,177:17167,227:19390,249:20720,265:22050,281:27342,347:27834,358:33756,407:34680,415:35604,423:40634,486:40978,491:43644,558:45794,600:59982,708:60486,716:61242,731:61914,740:68476,823:68772,828:74940,915:76940,927:88577,1024:91069,1061:91514,1067:92760,1080:101732,1224:104768,1299:105688,1310:111240,1357:113960,1404:114520,1413:125654,1506:130970,1538:131843,1549:134753,1584:143010,1689:144860,1703:152780,1842:153100,1847:157898,1890:173507,2116:173903,2122:175091,2138:175982,2149:185752,2249:186445,2260:186984,2268:195496,2339:210694,2595:212416,2626:217063,2663:217935,2674:218698,2682:232615,2853:233550,2868:244680,2931:246840,2980:251320,3040:252520,3063:260810,3172:270468,3272:272492,3307:279260,3402:282872,3455:283646,3527:284162,3535:284764,3543:286054,3565:287688,3596:294319,3624:294823,3633:297028,3675:297595,3690:297847,3695:298162,3701:298477,3707:311238,3868:312064,3876:329890,4042
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of B. B. De Laine's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine talks about his homes in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes his upbringing in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers traveling with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's discipline

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes his childhood pastimes

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine remembers the Liberty Hill School in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - B. B. De Laine remembers his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - B. B. De Laine recalls the Scotts Branch School in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - B. B. De Laine remembers segregation in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes the segregated movie theaters in South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls the segregated restaurants in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers the lynchings in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's activism

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls the transportation available to black students in Clarendon County, South Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine remembers the family of Levi Pearson

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine recalls the transportation available to black students in Clarendon County, South Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes the white community of Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's values

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes the case of Pearson v. Board of Education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's role in the community

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine talks about the inequalities of school segregation

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine remembers Carver High School in Lake City, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's reaction to Brown v. Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls his decision to attend Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine recalls his decision not to attend a private high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine describes the white reprisals against his father

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine remembers attending Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers leaving Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes segregation in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine recalls his start at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls his start as a civil rights leader in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine talks about his father's influence

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the student sit-ins in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine describes the results of the student protest movement in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine shares his protest philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine recalls working for the welfare department in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine remembers meeting and marrying his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers his graduate studies at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes race relations at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine talks about his civil rights activities

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine describes his children

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes how he became an educator

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine describes his position at Garinger High School in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers Principal Ed Sanders

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine recalls a white parent's reaction to school integration

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls a prejudiced coworker at Garinger High School

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine describes the changes in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine describes his religious involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes his role at the Education Center in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers the leadership of Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine recalls the white protests against busing

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes the school busing process in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine remembers the death of his father

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his father's accomplishments

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls earning a certification in school administration

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers the busing crisis in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the resegregation of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine describes his retirement

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine remembers the death of his mother

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his father's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his family's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine narrates his photographs with his brother, Joseph A. De Laine, Jr.

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
B. B. De Laine recalls the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 1
B. B. De Laine describes the student sit-ins in Charlotte, North Carolina
Transcript
What year did you graduate from high school?$$Nineteen fifty-five [1955].$$And how were race relations at that time?$$Still very much segregated. The 1954 [U.S.] Supreme Court decision in Brown [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954] was--came down at the end of my junior year. The second decision in Brown, the one that required the schools to desegregate with all deliberate speed, came down either the day before I graduated or the day after, I don't remember which it was, but it was one day separation there. So, it were still segregated. There were no whites in South Carolina, to speak of, that even would entertain the thought of integrated schools at that time. But, because of the Briggs case, we did have the new high school. That was a part of the equalization effort that the State of South Carolina went into to try to stave off the integration issue.$$So this was one of the concessions in the Briggs v. Elliott case and your father [Joseph A. De Laine, Sr.] was instrumental in that case, and Thurgood Marshall argued the case?$$Right.$$One of the concessions to avoid seg- desegregation was to build the high school you attended, Carver public high school [Carver High School] in Lake City [South Carolina]?$$Right. In--in the district court hearings, the state conceded that the schools were not equal and that the governor had proposed, and it was rushed through to get a $75 million bond to equalize schools. The bulk of that money went to equalizing black schools. But there were some white schools that were brought up to standards also. And in 1952, I think it is--was, a new school was built in Summerton [South Carolina] and transportation provided for black students. Lake City, they were not as far behind so it took a little longer to get a school there. When we went to Lake City, they had--the elementary building was a cinderblock building. I think it had central heat in it also and then they had another brick building, that was the high school wing. Those--both of those buildings were not too old as schools went during that time because it had not been too very long that the high school--that the school, a black school had burned in Lake City and that's when the cinderblock building was built.$$Tell me about the burning of that school, when did that happen?$$I--I'm not sure what happen--what year that was. But, I don't think it had been fifteen years. In fact, it probably wasn't that long because some of the people I know that said they were in school at that time would not have been in school fifteen years back. But--$$You were alive when this happened?$$Yeah, I didn't know anything about that because it was before we moved to Lake City. But when we got there, they did have a building that had indoor restrooms, and they had central heat. Did not have a cafeteria. But it--it was--it was a pretty nice building as far as black folk were concerned. And--$$This was the 1952--$$This was 19--$$--construction?$$No, this was 1950 and in Lake City, the new school did not come until 1953. So it was about a year after--ni- yeah, the end of 1953, '54 [1954] school year we moved into the new building.$$Was there a sense that your father was part of this movement, a big part of this movement?$$Yeah. People knew where or why the schools were being built. Now in other parts of the state I'm not sure that they were as aware of why they were getting new buildings, as they were in the Clarendon County [South Carolina] area.$$How many buildings? How many new schools, colored schools?$$All over the state. Yeah, I don't know how many, but I know all over the state they were built.$$And this all began in Clarendon County?$$Right. In fact, I spoke at a school in Aiken County [South Carolina] about three years go and one--they--the school where I was speaking had been a black school and it was one that came from the bond issue. And the staff there, the principal and the teachers didn't know until I told them that that was a part of the state's program to equalize the schools.$So what were race relations like in Charlotte [North Carolina] at the time, at the time of the sit-ins?$$Things were still segregated, but Charlotte was much more moderate than most southern towns. I think that's good and bad because Charlotte has always tried to keep the lid on problems and resolve them before they get the negative press that some other places have gotten. But then after they get the initial problem resolved, I don't think Charlotte has stuck with it to get the root causes corrected. And because of that, I think some of the issues that we are still struggling with now are still here and they could've been resolved in my opinion. But during the lunch counter demonstrations, the City of Charlotte, the official policy was, that if we did not val- if we as the demonstrators did not violate any city ordinances they would not hassle us. Now if some individual policeman did underhanded things, but that was not the official policy of the city. And we did not have the violence that other towns experienced during the sit-ins.$$Now which restaurants, stores did you target as activists?$$All of them downtown.$$Name a few?$$Kress [S.H. Kress and Co.]--Kress, Woolworth [F.W. Woolworth Company], Grants [W.T. Grant Co.], Ivy's [J.B. Ivey and Company], Belk's. Ivy's is a department store, you would probably have called that the most upstale- upscale store we had. Belk's is still in existence, Ivy's is--that was a family owned store that's not in existence now. But we--you could not eat anywhere downtown except one place, and that was a little stand known as Tanner's [Tanner's Snack Bar]. And if you remember Harry Golden's vertical integration theory, that's why he came up with that because Tanner's had no seats. You could go in and buy--they specialized in orange juice but you could get a hotdog and some delicious orange juice. And they were not segregated, because they didn't have any seats. You just stand up and eat it.$$It was white owned?$$It was white owned. But all of the other downtown eateries we targeted and they closed for the duration of the sit-in.$$And what, what did you do exactly as activists?$$Initially, when Charles Jones and the other student, Heyward Davenport, he lives in New York now. Charles Jones is here in Charlotte. When they came and asked me about joining that was a Sunday night. We had a mass meeting Monday night and we started the demonstrations Tuesday morning.$$Was this SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee] or SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference]?$$SNCC was organized--during that year Charles was active in the organization of SNCC. But basically that was a student movement. We--once we got started there were some adults who, you know, provided guidance. There were some who would come by and assist with transportation. There were people sending donations to cover bail if--should we need it.$$And you would, boycott? What did you do?$$We--we went into the restaurants and once we took a seat generally they closed. Because it had already started in Greensboro [North Carolina] so they had a little idea of what they were gonna do. And they would close and we would keep them closed.$$They wouldn't throw you out?$$No, there were always policeman around. We picketed, we would get students get the counters full and we had pickets outside. Initially, we started off with the largest number, I believe, at that time. The Levine Museum [Levine Museum of the New South, Charlotte, North Carolina] here said we started with over two hundred students. And that's probably right. Because without the school's permission I took the bus and transported students and I made about three trips initially with fifty to sixty kids on the bus. And then there were the students who walked. Some caught rides. Some rode the city bus downtown. But we started with Kress, Woolworth and Grants. Those were five and ten cent stores. And once we closed those, then we moved onto Ivy's and Belk's, and the other stores downtown.

Joseph A. De Laine, Jr.

Pharmaceutical executive and retail entrepreneur Joseph Armstrong De Laine, Jr. was born on August 17, 1933, in Blackville, South Carolina, to Mattie Lee Belton De Laine, a teacher, and Joseph Armstrong De Laine, Sr., a minister, teacher and community activist. De Laine, Sr., was instrumental in the Civil Rights Movement in Clarendon County, South Carolina, that led to the Briggs v. Elliot court case. De Laine attended Scott’s Branch Public High School in Summerton, South Carolina, and graduated from high school at Mather Academy in 1950. De Laine attended Johnson C. Smith University for a year until transferring to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1954. He served for the U.S. armed forces during the Korean Conflict.

Upon De Laine’s return from Korea, he joined his family in New York, where they resettled after death threats in South Carolina. Over a six year period, he was employed as a cancer research assistant at Roswell Park in Buffalo, New York; Sloan Kettering Institute in New York, New York; E. R. Squibb in New Brunswick, New Jersey; and Joint Disease Hospital in New York, New York. In 1964, De Laine joined Hoffmann La Roche, Inc. as a pharmaceutical sales representative. During the ensuing twenty years, he enjoyed positions at the management level in promotion, marketing, and staff positions as Director of Marketing for Diagnostics Division and Corporate Director of Corporate EEO. Upon retirement, De Laine relocated from New Jersey to Charlotte, North Carolina, where he owned and operated Joseph’s Imports, an outlet of unusual imported artifacts from Europe, Africa, and Asia.

De Laine presently serves on the Board of Directors for the Briggs-De Laine-Pearson Foundation in Summerton, South Carolina, and for the International African American Museum in Charleston, South Carolina. Since retirement, he also served as a Presidential Appointee on the “50th Anniversary Brown v. Board Presidential Commission” and for several years as a member and president of the Board for the Northwest Corridor Community Development Corporation in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.182

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/21/2007

Last Name

De Laine

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

A.

Schools

Scotts Branch High School

Boylan-Haven-Mather Academy

Bob Johnson School

Lincoln University

Johnson C. Smith University

First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

Blackville

HM ID

DEL07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Solitude

Favorite Quote

God Gave Me A Brain To Think For Myself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

8/17/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

United States

Favorite Food

French Food

Short Description

Retail entrepreneur and pharmaceutical executive Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. (1933 - ) was both a cancer researcher and the founder, owner, and operator of Joseph’s Imports in Charlotte, North Carolina, selling international artifacts from Europe, Africa and Asia from 1984 to 1992.

Employment

Joseph's Imports

Hoffmann La Roche, Inc

Hospital for Joint Diseases

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2428,7:2884,12:8888,87:13784,165:14648,258:15704,271:35333,419:37450,425:40611,467:44890,476:45700,483:46375,489:46915,494:51570,534:52290,550:52590,556:52950,563:54765,577:55160,583:55476,588:55950,595:56266,600:56582,605:57056,612:57372,617:61810,638:62210,644:62690,651:74350,763:74775,769:75200,775:77495,803:79025,819:79365,824:85533,903:86947,920:87351,925:92620,962:100066,1051:100598,1060:109851,1144:122110,1231:123370,1250:129364,1270:151692,1493:154801,1542:155117,1547:156776,1573:160252,1645:160647,1652:168151,1723:171058,1740:173312,1781:178470,1836:201102,2148:211512,2279:214546,2399:215064,2410:215582,2418:217876,2481:218320,2488:222501,2514:222849,2519:223197,2524:223806,2532:227112,2584:228504,2638:230679,2680:236320,2722:237189,2735:237505,2741:239796,2779:240902,2799:242166,2816:243035,2829:247580,2868:247868,2873:248156,2878:252924,2926:253603,2935:254573,2947:254961,2952:265830,3068:271100,3107:274670,3180:275180,3187:286632,3293:287080,3298:290402,3318:292282,3343:292752,3349:294068,3370:297452,3434:300084,3477:301494,3488:303092,3509:303562,3515:306240,3532:307130,3553$0,0:385,3:1078,23:2002,102:5698,152:6006,157:29673,391:41322,523:41880,530:61315,706:65215,805:68584,824:73310,870:73940,880:86343,1049:87007,1058:87754,1069:88750,1080:93968,1144:102386,1264:102776,1270:104950,1278:110735,1340:112891,1372:118423,1441:118849,1448:125168,1579:142550,1712:168406,1990:180282,2145:180800,2154:186510,2199:187290,2222:188810,2241
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joseph A. De Laine, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his enslaved maternal ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's occupation and education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his paternal grandmother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his paternal grandfather's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his paternal grandfather's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his possible ancestor, Ben De Lane

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his paternal great-great-grandparents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls living on the campus of Macedonia High School in Blackville, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers his family's move to Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the Bob Johnson School in Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his home in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers the holidays with his family

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls lessons from his family about racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes segregation in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's role in the community, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's role in the community, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the white community in Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. shares the history of public education in South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls the transportation for black students in Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers Pearson v. Clarendon County and School District No. 26

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about the black community's commitment to education

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the role of the NAACP in Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's meeting with Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers the termination of Principal A.M. Anderson

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the discriminatory voting regulations in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls the unrest at Scotts Branch High School in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes Scotts Branch High School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the Mather Academy in Camden, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers his principal at the Mather Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes Thurgood Marshall's role in Briggs v. Elliott

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls the decision of Briggs v. Elliott

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers the burning of his father's house

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls observing a Ku Klux Klan meeting, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls observing a Ku Klux Klan meeting, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls the reprisals against his father

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's escape to New York State

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's civil rights work in New York

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's personality

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his decision to attend Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his experiences at Johnson C. Smith University

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his transfer to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes segregation in Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his experiences at Lincoln University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers his service in the U.S. Army

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his U.S. Army battalion

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his parents' experiences in New York

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his work in cancer research

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his graduate education

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his father's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his work in the pharmaceutical industry

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his experiences of discrimination at F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his experiences of financial discrimination

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his community involvement in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. reflects upon his mother's legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. lists his mother's siblings

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. lists his father's siblings

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. reflects upon his parents' legacies

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes how he would like his father to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his organizational involvement

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about helping others in nonconventional ways

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. narrates his photographs

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Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's escape to New York State
Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about the black community's commitment to education
Transcript
And he went back to Lake City [South Carolina], and--no, no, no, no, no--before he got back to Lake City on the sixth day or something like this, of the letter, the church [Greater St. James African Methodist Episcopal Church, Lake City, South Carolina] was destroyed by arson. Then on the tenth day, which is after he returned because he said he wasn't going anywhere, there was a shootout at midnight. And, so, the third time of the shootout, he started shooting back and nobody knows what happened. It is said--the papers admit that there were three people injured. The grand jury report says five people were injured by him. The local people says that one police officer had a funeral. Now, we don't know what happened, but he fled that night to a town about forty miles away, and escaped the next day to New York State. Someone came back and got my mother [Mattie Belton De Laine]. And the family who lived next door were members of his church, and also the aunt of [HistoryMaker] Ossie Davis, Ossie Davis' mother's sister. They are the ones who protected my mother that night. And her name--all I know is his name was Webb, his first name W-E-B-B, Eady [ph.], and she was Viola Eady [ph.]. The arrangement for his getting out of the state was, I guess, masterminded by an Attorney Williams [ph.] in Florence [South Carolina] and a Mr. Guile, G-U-I-L-E. I can't think of their first names. Guile's wife is still alive. But, they went back and got my mother and smuggled him into Charlotte [North Carolina]. My uncle lived next door and one lived up the street, and they stopped up the street and made arrangements for him to take a plane that night out of here. And, the problem was, they weren't sure where to go. He first took a flight--he took a flight to Washington, D.C. Now, of course, he was on his own at that point, and when he got in Washington he called his cousin, and his cousin said, "No, this is worse than being in Mississippi, so let's get out of here right now." So, my father [Joseph A. De Laine, Sr.] took a cab to his house and they jumped in his car and they started heading north, and ended up in New York. That's how he ended up there. And, the State of South Carolina attemp- they appealed to the attorney general at that time, which was Richard Brownell [sic. Herbert Brownell, Jr.] and to Eisenhower [President Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower], to invoke the federal fugitive act [Fugitive Felon Act], to return him, and that was denied because my father had let them know exactly where he was every step of the way.$$But, he'd been writing the FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation] for years, documenting the situation?$$That's right, right. And then after that in the State of New York, before South Carolina even got to the point of asking for extradition, the State of New York reviewed the case, and determined that they would not honor any extradition, so that's what kept him safe in New York State. Now, they moved back--they moved here in 1971.$$To Charlotte, North Carolina?$$To Charlotte, to this house, because my father knew that he was not probably going to live very long and he wanted to get my mother close to family members, an uncle--a brother next door, and one up the street. So, that's why they came here. But he at that time did not have a safety clearance for his legal problems, but it was ignored in the State of North Carolina, and the warrant for his arrest in South Carolina existed until the year 2000, which was twenty-six years after his death, before it was lifted.$So what happened after that lawsuit [Levi Pearson v. Clarendon County and School District No. 26] was dismissed?$$When that lawsuit was dismissed, they then decided that we don't want to drop this battle, that we want a case that will do something to improve the situation for our children, so we're going to ask NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] to sponsor something that will force some improvements in the schools. We don't know what it is, but we want improvement.$$So, the focus went beyond just busing. Extended to education?$$The focus all along was on education. You're getting a situation where I'm sure that most of these people did not envision what they were leading up to. I'm not too sure my father [Joseph A. De Laine, Sr.] envisioned the whole thing at first. But, we're looking at a situation that is intolerable, a situation where our children are not getting their education, a situation where the parents of that era--and I'm amazed that they're so different than the parents of today, but I remember talking to people and people would tell me, "Look, I wash clothes and I don't want my children washing clothes for a living, so I want them to get an education, and I want to make sure that they can get it right here." That was the kind of expectation and tenacity that I saw as a young man at that time in those people. And, I didn't get that from one, I got that from all. Now, people will say--we talk today about our platitudes of Uncle Toms and all this business--half of the people that we labeled as Uncle Toms weren't Uncle Toms. I talked with a lady, not a girl, she's my age, not too long ago. Her daddy was a bootlegger in town. And, he kept his name as far away from all this stuff as possible. She's a Ph.D. and her husband's a Ph.D. I was talking to her and she says, "Well, he couldn't afford to because the only way he knew how to make a living was this." But, all of his children are educated and if we go back and look then--$$What was his name?$$Smith, we called him Monkey Smith [ph.], I don't know if they want that publicized or not. Anyway, but if we go back and look at then, money was being slid under the table for the movement from him all along.