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Carol Maillard

Musician Carol Maillard was born on March 4, 1951 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Elizabeth and Thomas Maillard. After graduating from John W. Hallahan Catholic Girls’ High School in 1969, she received her B.A. degree in theatre from Catholic University of America in Washington D.C. in 1973.

In 1973, Maillard was hired at the newly formed D.C. Black Repertory Theatre Company as an assistant to vocal director Bernice Johnson Reagon. During a singing ensemble rehearsal featuring Reagon, Maillard, Louise Robinson, and Mie Fredericks, the group Sweet Honey in the Rock was created. On November 17, 1973, Sweet Honey in the Rock performed for the first time at Howard University’s W.C. Handy Blues Festival. In 1982, Maillard starred in her first television appearance in For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow Is Enuf. In 1988, Sweet Honey in the Rock received their first of three Grammy nominations, and the following year, they won their first for their contribution to A Vision Shared: A Tribute to Woody Guthrie and Leadbelly. Maillard was featured in the television show Hallelujah in 1993. In 2000, she worked with James Horner to produce the soundtrack for TNT’s film, Freedom Song. Maillard also served as creative director for the documentary Sweet Honey in the Rock: Raise Your Voice in 2005. The Alvin Ailey American Dance Company commissioned Sweet Honey in the Rock to compose a score for its 50th anniversary celebrations in 2008. The group performed at the White House in 2009 for First Lady Michelle and President Barack Obama. In 2013, Sweet Honey in the Rock performed at the National Memorial Service for Nelson Mandela at the National Cathedral in Washington, DC. In 2015, they toured and performed at four U.S. Embassy’s located in Ethiopia, Peru, Jamaica and Swaziland. The group has produced over fifteen albums.

Maillard has also performed in numerous plays, including productions of The Great MacDaddy, A Photograph: Lovers in Motion, Home, Zooman and the Sign, Under Fire, Colored People’s Time, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, and Spunk.

Maillard resides in New York City and has one adult child, Jordan Maillard Ware, who is also a musician.

Carol Maillard was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.044

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/21/2019

Last Name

Maillard

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Occupation
Schools

Gesu School

John W. Hallahan Catholic Girls' High School

Catholic University of America

First Name

Carol

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

MAI01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bali

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

3/4/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Musician Carol Maillard (1951- ) is a co-founding member of the singing group, Sweet Honey in the Rock, and has performed in numerous plays and several television shows.

Employment

Duke Ellington School for Performing Arts

Two Rivers Theater

D.C. Black Repertory Theatre Company

Sweet Honey in the Rock

Favorite Color

White, Black, Red

André De Shields

Stage actor, director, and choreographer André De Shields was born on January 12, 1946 in Dundalk, Maryland to Mary Gunther and John De Shields. He was raised in Baltimore, Maryland as the ninth of eleven children. De Shields obtained his high school diploma at Baltimore City College in 1964, and earned his B.A. degree in English literature from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1970. In 1991, De Shields received his M.A. degree in African American studies from New York University’s Gallatin School of Individualized Study.

De Shields began his career in 1969 at Chicago’s Shubert Theatre in Tom O’Horgan’s production of Hair, The American Tribal-Love Rock Musical. In 1971, De Shields joined the Organic Theater Company and began performing in Wrap! in Chicago. In 1973, De Shields left the Organic Theater Company and became an associate choreographer for Bette Midler’s Clams on the Half Shell Revue the following year. In the late 1970s, De Shields began choreographing for Saturday Night Live and Sesame Street. He then went on to perform in many televised productions, including Ain’t Misbehavin’ (1982), Alice in Wonderland (1983), and Duke Ellington, The Music Lives On (1984). De Shields continued his work while holding professorships at New York University, Southern Methodist University, and the University of Michigan. In 2009, in honor of President Barack Obama’s election, Mr. De Shields created his solo performance, Frederick Douglass: Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory.

De Shields received numerous awards, including three Chicago Joseph Jefferson Awards and nine AUDELCO Awards. In 1982, De Shields won an Emmy for Outstanding Individual Performance for the NBC TV Special based on Ain’t Misbehavin’. In 2004, he received honorary doctorate of fine arts degrees from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and from SUNY-Buffalo State. De Shields received a Village Voice OBIE Award for Sustained Excellence of Performance in 2007, and in 2009, he won the National Black Theatre Festival’s Living Legend Award. De Shields received a Distinguished Achievement Award from Fox Foundation Fellowship in 2012, a Making Waves Award from Florida Atlantic University in 2014, an Award for Excellence in The Arts from the theatre school at DePaul University in 2015, and a Pioneer of the Arts Award from Riant Theatre in 2016.

André De Shields was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 19, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.020

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/19/2016 |and| 9/22/2016

Last Name

De Shields

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Robin

Schools

New York University Gallatin School of Individualized Study

John Hurst Elementary School No. 120

Booker T. Washington Middle School for the Arts

Baltimore City College

Wilmington College

University of Wisconsin-Madison

First Name

André

Birth City, State, Country

Dundalk

HM ID

DES04

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Port Antonio, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

The Top Of One Mountain Is The Bottom Of The Next, So Keep Climbing.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/12/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lima Beans

Short Description

Stage actor, director, and choreographer André De Shields (1946 - ) starred on Broadway in The Wiz, Ain’t Misbehavin’, Play On!, The Full Monty, and Impressionism in addition to serving as director of numerous off-Broadway productions.

Employment

The Full Monty

Ain't Misbehavin

The Wiz

SUNY-Buffalo State College

CUNY- Hunter College

Gallatin School of Individualized Study

New York University School of Education, Health, Nursing and Arts Professions

Southern Methodist University, Meadows School of the Arts

Southern Methodist University

University of Michigan-Ann Arbor

Morehouse College

Favorite Color

Red

Denise Nicholas

Actress and fiction writer Denise Nicholas was born Donna Denise Nicholas on July 12th in Detroit, Michigan to Louise and Otto Nicholas. She grew up in Milan, Michigan, just south of Ann Arbor. After she graduated from Milan High School, she attended the University of Michigan. In 1963, she met Gilbert Moses, then a stage actor. The two married, and in 1964, Nicholas and Moses moved to Jackson, Mississippi.

Nicholas joined Moses’ Free Southern Theater and with a small troupe of actors performed significant plays for rural African-American audiences many of whom had never seen live theater before. They toured Ossie Davis’ Purlie Victorious, Samuel Beckett’s, Waiting for Godot as well as an Evening of Poetry and Song. Their production of In White America toured not only in Mississippi and Louisiana, but also in New York City. In 1965, the theater company moved its base of operations to New Orleans, Louisiana. Nicholas separated from Moses and the two were divorced in 1966.

Nicholas then moved to New York City and, in 1967, was one of the first members of the famous Negro Ensemble Company. She studied with dance instructor Louis Johnson and voice instructor Kristin Linklater and performed in a production of German dramatist Peter Weiss’ Song for Lusitanian Bogey. The following year, she acted in a number of plays with the company, including Summer of the Seventeenth Doll, Kongi’s Harvest and Daddy Goodness. That same year, Nicholas was cast in her first television role, as a character on the ABC-TV series It Takes a Thief, an action-adventure series that aired until 1970.

In 1969, she was cast as “Liz McIntyre” on the popular television series Room 222, about an American history class at Walt Whitman High School in Los Angeles, California. The following year, she was nominated for an Emmy Award and two Golden Globes for her work on Room 222. Nicholas also received four NAACP Image Awards during her career. In 1972, she was cast in Blacula, a blaxploitation horror movie based on Dracula with William Marshall playing the title character. Throughout the 1970s, she continued to take prominent roles in films, including a series of movies with Sidney Poitier and Bill Cosby that included 1975’s Let’s Do It Again and 1977’s A Piece of the Action.

In 1981, she married Jim Hill, a Los Angeles sportscaster with KCBS-TV. In the early 1980s, she continued working on the stage, and was featured in Voices of Our People: In Celebration of Black Poetry for PBS. In 1987, Nicholas earned her B.A. degree in drama from the University of Southern California, and began teaching at the college that same year. In 1988, she returned to television, starring in In the Heat of the Night as Harriet DeLong, and in 1991 began writing for the program as well. In 1990, Nicholas again starred alongside Bill Cosby in Ghost Dad.

In 2005, Nicholas’ first novel, Freshwater Road, was published to widespread critical acclaim. New York Newsday called it, “perhaps the best work of fiction about the Civil Rights Movement.” In 2006, the novel won the Zora Neale Hurston/Richard Wright Legacy Award for Debut Fiction. That same year, the book won the American Library Association’s Black Caucus Award for Debut Fiction.

Denise Nicholas was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 19, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.177

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/19/2007 |and| 5/21/2007

Last Name

Nicholas

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Milan High School

University of Michigan

University of Southern California

Thirkell Elementary School

Fanny E. Wingert Elementary School

Pattengill Elementary School

Milan Middle School

National High School Institution

University of California, Los Angeles

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Evenings

First Name

Denise

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

NIC03

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Southern France

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/12/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Actress and fiction writer Denise Nicholas (1944 - ) was one of the first members of the Negro Ensemble Company. Her film and television credits include Let's Do It Again, Room 222 and the television version of In The Heat of the Night.

Employment

J. Walter Thompson

Free Southern Theater

Negro Ensemble Company

Room 222 (Television Program)

Delete

Let's Do It Again

A Piece of Action

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Denise Nicholas' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Denise Nicholas describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Denise Nicholas describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Denise Nicholas remembers her childhood in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Denise Nicholas describes the sights and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Denise Nicholas describes the sounds of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas remembers the holidays with her family

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas recalls her parents' discipline

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas remembers her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas describes her early interests

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Denise Nicholas recalls her parents' divorce

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Denise Nicholas describes her move to Milan, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Denise Nicholas describes her experiences in Milan, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Denise Nicholas describes her involvement in social organizations

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas describes her family's perspective on black hair

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas remembers her father

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas remembers her father's work as a numbers runner

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas describes her early interest in politics

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Denise Nicholas describes her decision to move to New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Denise Nicholas remembers meeting her first husband, Gilbert Moses

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Denise Nicholas describes her interest in theater

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Denise Nicholas recalls her marriage to Gilbert Moses

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Denise Nicholas describes the founding of the Free Southern Theater in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Denise Nicholas remembers the Free Southern Theater's production of 'In White America'

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas describes her experiences of racial discrimination in the South

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas recalls the Free Southern Theater's production of 'Waiting for Godot'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas reflects upon her experiences with the Free Southern Theater

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas recalls the Free Southern Theater's move to New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Denise Nicholas remembers the French Quarter in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Denise Nicholas describes her separation from Gilbert Moses

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Denise Nicholas remembers interacting with the White Citizens' Council

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Denise Nicholas describes her return to New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Denise Nicholas describes her start in New York City theater companies

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas recalls her voice lessons with Kristin Linklater

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas remembers the Negro Ensemble Company's first season

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas describes the Negro Ensemble Company

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas recalls her decision to leave the Negro Ensemble Company

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Denise Nicholas remembers auditioning for 'Room 222'

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Denise Nicholas recalls her move to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Denise Nicholas describes her experiences on the set of 'Room 222'

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Denise Nicholas talks about African American television writers

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas reflects upon the success of 'Room 222'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas remembers African American representation on television

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas remembers her press tours for 'Room 222'

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas describes the business of being a television personality

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Denise Nicholas describes her Golden Globe Award nominations

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Denise Nicholas remembers the cast and crew of 'Room 222'

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Denise Nicholas describes her parents' opinion of her acting career

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Denise Nicholas remembers starring in 'Blacula'

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Denise Nicholas remembers filming 'Let's Do It Again'

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Denise Nicholas describes the plot of 'Let's Do It Again'

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Denise Nicholas remembers 'Mr. Ricco' and 'A Piece of the Action'

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Denise Nicholas remembers performing with the Negro Ensemble Company

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas remembers the 'Song of the Lusitanian Bogey'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas remembers Michael A. Schultz and Douglas Turner Ward

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas talks about the success of the Negro Ensemble Company

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas describes the management of the Negro Ensemble Company

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Denise Nicholas reflects upon her transition to screen acting, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Denise Nicholas reflects upon her transition to screen acting, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Denise Nicholas remembers her audition for 'In the Heat of the Night'

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Denise Nicholas remembers earning her bachelor's degree

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Denise Nicholas recalls writing for 'In the Heat of the Night'

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Denise Nicholas remembers Carroll O'Connor

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas describes her role as a writer on 'In the Heat of the Night'

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas reflects upon her character's marriage in 'In the Heat of the Night'

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas talks about her marriages

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas recalls her marriage to Bill Withers

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Denise Nicholas remembers her sister's death

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Denise Nicholas talks about her involvement with writing workshops

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Denise Nicholas recalls publishing her book, 'Freshwater Road'

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Denise Nicholas reflects upon her writing career

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Denise Nicholas describes the male characters of her book, 'Freshwater Road'

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Denise Nicholas describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Denise Nicholas describes her advice for aspiring actors

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Denise Nicholas reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Denise Nicholas narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$2

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
Denise Nicholas remembers interacting with the White Citizens' Council
Denise Nicholas describes her move to Milan, Michigan
Transcript
What is the time period for Free Southern Theater? Would you say, you know having started in 1964 and then you know what is when we look at the height of the theater?$$Well I think the height of it was '65 [1965], '66 [1966] you know and, and maybe '67 [1967]. I was gone by '67 [1967]. I left in September of 1966 to go to New York [New York], but they kept the theater together and actually I think they were touring into the '70s [1970s]. I don't know I lost touch with them because I was so focused on what I had to do in New York.$$Okay. But when you look at the theater, what do people consider seminal and very important about the work that was done during that period?$$I think that we got--that we a small group of people, brought, created and built and brought theater to people who never seen theater before in Mississippi--in the rural South and I think that it--you used the expression guerilla theater and there was that feel about it as well. It was dangerous. It was oftentimes euphoric, the experiences, in Indianola, Mississippi, we performed 'In White America' [Martin Duberman] at a community center. We had a, a phone call from the White Citizens' Council via The Nation magazine and they said they wanted to come and see the performance. So twenty-five members of the White Citizens' Council came to the performance. We were in the theater, in the community center looking out the window, the townspeople, black people were coming and everybody was getting seated. We looked out the window and there was this caravan of cars, all with white men and stingy brim hats coming up the road, and they parked and they came in and they sat in the back of the performance area. They didn't say a word to anybody. We were terrified, terrified. We performed and we did a knockout performance of 'In White America' and then they were interviewed afterwards by The Nation magazine, and the piece that ran in the magazine basically said that their reason for coming was because they wanted to see if the Free Southern Theater was in fact Communist inspired and they had deduced after seeing the play that in fact (laughter) we were all a bunch of little Communists running around the South. It was so insane, so insane, but it was one of those moments where you're standing on the stage and you look out and the enemy, people who are just as soon see you dead are sitting there watching you perform. So we had these adrenaline pumping kinds of experiences all through the time that I was with the, with the theater. I mean just one after the other.$Let's talk about your stepfather and even the time of your parents [Louise Jones Burgen and Otto Nicholas, Sr.], you know your mother remarrying. Do you--how did she meet her--you know your--do you know that (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) I don't know.$$Do you know--can you give his name?$$Yes, his name was, he's deceased, Robert Burgen. He's from--$$Can you spell that?$$B-U-R-G-E-N. He's from a very old Detroit [Michigan] family. His sister, my Aunt Finette [ph.], as I said earlier was a guidance counselor in the public schools of Detroit. I don't know how they met or how their dating process is when I was into my own little world then. I do know that once they married, I stayed in Detroit for a while with my Aunt Ruby [ph.] and back and forth with my aunt and my grandparents [Waddy Nicholas and Samuel Nicholas] and then eventually moved with them, they had moved to Milan, Michigan, because my stepfather was the head of probation and parole at the federal prison [Federal Correctional Institution, Milan] in Milan, Michigan, and they moved there and my sister [Michele Burgen] was born. They settled in and then I went--my mother wanted all of her children, the three of us to be together. My brother [Otto Nicholas, Jr.] did not wanna go out there. He wanted to stay in Detroit, so he stayed at grandparents' house and I fought to stay in Detroit, but I was too young and then she brought me out there. So I ended up going to high school [Milan High School] in Milan and that last year of junior high [Milan Junior High School, Milan, Michigan].$$Was that hard since you loved your brother so much?$$It was very hard. It was very hard (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay. So--$$So every weekend I was skedaddled off to Detroit to be with him and, and you know now it started out as every weekend, but I must say as I settled into it and settled into school out there, the school, my schoolwork demanded that I stay and do you know because I was on college prep track so I had to work.$$So now, how far is Milan from--$$It's only about thirty-five miles, about fifteen miles south of Ann Arbor [Michigan], it's not any big trip.$$And your father was--your stepfather was doing what?$$Head of probation and parole at the federal prison there.$$Okay. So, so that was the main employer you think out there?$$Yes and it still is. Although there's some new industries moving there, I was just there to do a book event and the high school inducted me into the high school hall of fame [Academic Hall of Fame] and so I was there and driving all around and the prison is still the major thing, but there is I think a Toyota company factory [Toyota Technical Center, Saline, Michigan] coming in and some other companies coming in and the space between Ann Arbor and Milan is shrinking because of the development of Ann Arbor kind of reaching out to its (air quotes) suburbs.

Janet Angel MacLachlan

Stage and film actress Janet Angel MacLachlan was born on August 8, 1933, in Harlem, New York; her mother, Iris South MacLachlan, and father, James MacLachlan, were both Jamaican born and members of the Church of the Illumination. Attending P.S. 170 and Julia Ward Junior High School, MacLachlan graduated from Julia Richmond High School in 1950, and earned her B.S. degree in psychology from Hunter College in 1955. While holding down clerical jobs MacLachlan studied acting at the Harlem YMCA, the Herbert Berghoff Acting Studio, and the Little Theatre of Harlem. Later, MacLachlan received additional training from The Actors Studio, Joanie Gerber Voiceovers, and Theatre East in Los Angeles.

In 1961, MacLachlan took Cicely Tyson’s place in The Blacks: A Clown Show by Jean Genet, and worked alongside James Earl Jones, Louis Gossett, Jr., Maya Angelou, and Roscoe Lee Brown. In 1962, MacLachlan was cast in the parody Raising Hell in the Sun and became active in Actors Equity and The Committee for the Employment of Negro Performers. MacLachlan spent a year at Minneapolis’ Tyrone Guthrie Theater and acted in Washington, D.C.’s Shakespeare Festival before she signed a contract with Universal Studios in 1964. Starting with The Alfred Hitchcock Hour in 1965, MacLachlan appeared in over seventy-five television shows, including: I Spy (1967), The FBI (1966), Star Trek (1967), The Fugitive (1966), The Name of the Game (1969/70), The Rockford Files (1975), Good Times (1978), Archie Bunker’s Place (1980), Cagney and Lacey (1982/83), Amen (1988), Murder She Wrote (1985), Murder One (1986), Family Law (2000), and Alias (2002). MacLachlan’s television movies included: Louis Armstrong - Chicago Style (1976), Roll of Thunder Hear My Cry (1978), The Sophisticated Gents (1981), For Us the Living: The Medgar Evers Story (1983), and The Tuskegee Airmen (1995). MacLachlan’s feature films included: Up Tight (1968), ...tick...tick...tick (1970), The Man (1972), Sounder (1972), Tightrope (1984) and Black Listed (2003).

Often cast as a judge, nurse, doctor, psychiatrist, teacher, or social worker, MacLachlan was also featured in the Emmy Award winning KCET-TV PBS production of Voices of Our People: In Celebration of Black Poetry. MacLachlan served as the grant committee chair of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, while remaining a resident of Los Angeles.

Janet MacLachlan passed away on October 11, 2010.

Accession Number

A2005.087

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/30/2005

Last Name

MacLachlan

Middle Name

Angel

Schools

Julia Richman High School

Julia Ward Howe Junior High School 81

P.S. 170

Hunter College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Janet

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

MAC01

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Greece

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

8/27/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pasta

Death Date

10/11/2010

Short Description

Stage actress and film actress Janet Angel MacLachlan (1933 - 2010 ) appeared in over seventy-five television shows, including: I Spy, The FBI, Star Trek, The Fugitive, The Name of the Game, The Rockford Files, Good Times, Archie Bunker’s Place, Cagney and Lacey, Amen, Murder She Wrote, Family Law, and Alias. In addition to a prolific television career, MacLachlan also appeared in numerous television and cinema movies.

Employment

New York Life Insurance Company

Universal Studios

St. Mark's Playhouse

Guthrie Theater

Special Markets, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2955,25:3380,31:4145,42:4485,47:5590,62:10945,207:19562,315:24254,384:25784,406:26600,411:27110,417:30305,431:31070,448:34980,504:37722,627:53710,766:54110,772:61044,794:70068,965:70452,970:87140,1073:88245,1088:91226,1101:92536,1112:93060,1117:93584,1122:94239,1128:98330,1134:99660,1139:100326,1149:101288,1159:101584,1164:102620,1187:103212,1196:113600,1397:119060,1456:119480,1461:121370,1488:122315,1499:122735,1504:128070,1543:128334,1548:128598,1553:129258,1567:141768,1675:142528,1687:143060,1696:143744,1708:144276,1717:145036,1731:147848,1761:148836,1775:150356,1799:157804,1836:159270,1852$0,0:1590,18:2332,27:5064,77:6338,90:8592,156:8984,161:12904,214:13590,221:14178,229:21150,254:22200,267:24822,292:25342,304:29502,348:30022,354:48768,526:52345,558:53025,570:53790,582:58890,690:60080,711:75150,914:75910,925:76480,932:76955,938:80470,987:80945,996:81515,1003:91352,1121:92298,1136:93502,1157:101610,1235:102120,1242:102630,1249:103310,1258:109600,1363:113066,1371:116246,1410:118070,1416:120226,1447:126270,1512:143261,1633:158762,1752:159399,1760:170999,1973:171355,2043:185270,2116:185970,2124:186770,2159:188770,2182:189770,2194:190170,2199:197074,2257:198450,2278:209362,2363:210194,2374:213768,2413:214832,2432:217036,2463:220532,2517:221064,2525:225675,2553:226100,2559:226695,2569:227885,2587:228310,2593:228735,2599:240770,2769
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Janet Angel MacLachlan's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her parents' disinterest in their Jamaican roots

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her mother's education and employment

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers family stories and an early childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes her father's experiences in the British Army during World War I

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers her mother's passing

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her visits with family members

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers attending all-girls schools in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes her favorite childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her self-perception growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about attending dances as a teenager in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers being cast in a play at P.S. 170 in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her college ambitions as a high school student in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her interests and activities in junior high and high school in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her jobs after graduating from Julia Richman High School in New York, New York in 1950

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about forming friendships through the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about completing her degree at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers her early involvement with Little Theater at the Harlem YMCA in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers her social activities as a student at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Janet Angel MacLachlan reflects upon her relationship with her mother while attending Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers her early theater involvement in New York, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes her employment during and after her final year at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Janet Angel MacLachlan recalls working on Wall Street in New York, New York in the late 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her mental health throughout her childhood and early adulthood

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Janet Angel MacLachlan reflects upon her home life growing up

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers traveling to Europe in 1961

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Janet Angel MacLachlan recalls her involvement with Jean Genet's 'The Blacks: A Clown Show' at St. Mark's Playhouse in New York, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her concurrent understudy roles for 'Moon on a Rainbow Shawl' and 'The Blacks: A Clown Show' in the early 1960s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes the unconventional structure of 'The Blacks: A Clown Show'

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers performing in 'The Blacks: A Clown Show' and 'Raising Hell in the Son' in New York, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about being hired by the Tyrone Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes her disappointment in being cast in non-speaking roles at the Tyrone Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers signing with Universal Studios Inc. in 1964

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her parents' reaction to her acting career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her acting jobs with Universal Studios Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her career trajectory following her release from Universal Studios Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Janet Angel MacLachlan explains her motivation for cutting her hair after being let go from Universal Studios Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her role in 'I Spy'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan remembers wardrobe challenges for her role in 'I Spy'

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Janet Angel MacLachlan reflects upon her impression of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about integration in her youth

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her involvement with political and professional organizations in the 1970s

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about traveling to East Germany in 1980

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her work for Communications Bridge Institute

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Janet Angel MacLachlan recalls her decision to leave Communications Bridge Institute and become sober

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about becoming sober and her organizational involvement in the late 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her role in '...tick...tick...tick...'

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about the productions of 'Sounder' and 'The Man'

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her roles in 'The Man' and 'Sounder'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Janet Angel MacLachlan reflects upon African American actresses' access to roles

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Janet Angel MacLachlan considers her favorite acting roles

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about theater roles she wanted to play

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Janet Angel MacLachlan considers projects and roles she would like to do

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her disappointment in the television industry

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about chairing the grants committee for the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her membership in the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her television preferences in relation to the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences' voting procedures

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Janet Angel MacLachlan considers the impact of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' voting system

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Janet Angel MacLachlan reflects upon her life

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Janet Angel MacLachlan reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Janet Angel MacLachlan describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Janet Angel MacLachlan narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Janet Angel MacLachlan narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Janet Angel MacLachlan describes the unconventional structure of 'The Blacks: A Clown Show'
Janet Angel MacLachlan talks about her acting jobs with Universal Studios Inc.
Transcript
Most, if not all, of the black actors who were working in New York [New York], at some point or at some time or another did 'The Blacks[: A Clown Show,' Jean Genet]. They were either an understudy, or they came in and replaced, and they were kicked out, or they came in and they did the show and then they behaved badly and they were thrown out, or they, you know, whatever. It was just the kind of show that there were two, two sets. You know, there was the royal set, and then there were the street people, if you know the play. Do you know the play at all?$$No, I've, you know, I (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) You've never seen it?$$No, I've never seen it.$$Okay. It's very difficult to, to, to explain because it's, it was difficult for me to understand going into the play. There were, there were--it was very stylized, and there were, there were people dressed as, as the queen. I think [HistoryMaker] Maya [Angelou] played the [White] Queen at, at some point. And the--$$Maya Angelou.$$Maya Angelou--and the, the religious leader or the, you know, there, there were all those, those characters that were taken from, from countries that had, that were, that were run by European countries, you know.$$Colonized--$$It was that--they were colonized. Thank you, I knew I could count on you (laughter).$$(Laughter) Okay, I'm sorry. Go ahead.$$At any rate, and then there were other people who were performing this play for the royalty. And then there was another group of people who were backstage, who were off the stage, and they were preparing the revolution. So there were three sets of people going. And if, if one of them was replaced, everybody just adjusted to this new character. It's not like it was a traditional play where--where relationships were, were important to maintain, you know. It's a, it's an incredible play.$So any rate, so I came out here [Los Angeles, California]. I was greeted by everybody at Universal [Studios Inc., Universal City, California]. I realized that there was one black guy under contract, and he and I became sort of friends. And there were maybe two or three other black women, black young women, in town who were under contract to a major studio or a network. Somebody was with NBC; somebody was with Paramount [Pictures, Los Angeles, California]. And I can't remember what else there was, but there I was at Universal. And so I asked, you know, "What should I be doing? Should I come to the studio every day? Should I," you know, you know, "watch directors? Are there classes?" And I was told, "Don't do anything. Don't worry about it. Just go to the beach; enjoy yourself. Don't take any acting classes. We don't want you to change." You know, "Just sort of be," you know, "just enjoy yourself. You're under contract. You'll be paid forty out of fifty-two weeks." Twelve weeks they'll have to put me on a, on, on no salary, and, and everything was gonna be fine. So, one of the directors that I had met when I was--who, who actually had directed me for my, for my scene, my, my test scene, you know, I became pretty friendly with him. And he requested me on a show that he was, he was directing there that I should start getting used to working for camera. I mean I had done three little television shows in New York [New York], like one scene each. And I'd done these little commercials with no dialogue, but I really didn't understand the whole process of filmmaking. So, I worked with him. I think it was a, it was a [Alfred] Hitchcock. Then it as a '[The Alfred] Hitchcock Hour' show. I really did one, two, another Hitchcock, "The Monkey's Paw[: A Retelling," 'The Alfred Hitchcock Hour'], and a--'Bob Hope [Presents the] Chrysler Theatre.'$$Yeah, that was a scary one, "The Monkey's Paw."$$"The Monkey's Paw"? Yeah, that was, that was me. It was a very, but it was a very modern kind of jet set group. And, and a loan-out, they loaned me out to do 'The FBI' and a, a fashion show [Edith Head fashion show] for Universal Studio Tours because the tour center had not been built in '64 [1964], '65 [1965]. And that's all I did for Universal, and so they fired me. They fired me June of '66 [1966], which was like a year and a half. Actually, they brought me in in November. So, the following November they, when, when contract renewal time came, they said to me that because they had, had not used me a great deal, and they had not made their money back on me, they were not gonna give me my raise. And (laughter) I said, "Well, if you're not gonna give me my raise then let me go, you know. I don't want to be here."

Julia Reed Hare

The dynamic motivational lecturer, relationship expert, author, social commentator and educational psychologist Dr. Julia Hare was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Hare has appeared on several television programs offering her expertise and insights on male/female relationships, gender interactions in the workplace, mate selection, toxic relationships and matrimonial harmony. She has appeared on CNN & Company, C-SPAN, Tony Brown’s Journal and Inside Edition. Hare has also spoken before the Congressional Black Caucus, participated in Tavis Smiley’s “State of the Black Family” Conference and spoke at the annual Essence Empowerment Seminars at the Essence Magazine Culture Festival. Her written work has been featured in several magazines and newspapers including The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Miami Herald. Hare and her husband co-authored The Endangered Black Family; Bringing the Black Boy to Manhood: The Passage, The Miseducation of The Black Child, Crisis in Black Sexual Politics and How to Find and Keep a BMW (Black Man Working).

Hare, along with her husband, Dr. Nathan Hare, formed The Black Think Tank located in San Francisco, California. Their consulting firm focuses on issues affecting the black family.

Dr. Julia Hare’s work has brought her many awards and honors including Educator of the Year for Washington, D.C. by the Junior Chamber of Commerce and World Book Encyclopedia in coordination with American University; The Abe Lincoln Award for Outstanding Broadcasting, The Carter G. Woodson Education Award, The Association of Black Social Workers’ Harambee Award; the Scholar of the Year Award from the Association of African Historians; and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Black Writers and Artists Union. Hare has been inducted into the Hall of Fame of her high school alma mater, Booker T. Washington High, was given a Presidential citation from the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education and was named one of the ten most influential African Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area.

During graduate school, Hare taught elementary school in Chicago, Illinois integrating music into the student’s lessons. Following a move to California, Hare served as the director of educational programs at the Oakland Museum and later hosted talk shows for both ABC television and KSFO radio stations. She also served as the public relations director in the local federal housing program in San Francisco.

Her formal education includes a B.A. in music from Langston University of Langston, Oklahoma; a M.A. degree in music education from Roosevelt University located in Chicago, Illinois and a Ph.D. in education from the California Coast University in Santa Ana, California.

Hare passed away on February 25, 2019.

Accession Number

A2004.040

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/5/2004

Last Name

Hare

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Reed

Occupation
Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

George Washington Carver Middle School

Booker T. Washington Elementary School

Langston University

Roosevelt University

California Coast University

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Julia

Birth City, State, Country

Tulsa

HM ID

HAR06

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida, San Francisco, California

Favorite Quote

Do You Remember When Common Sense Was Fairly Common?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/7/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Watermelon

Death Date

2/25/2019

Short Description

Psychologist Julia Reed Hare (1939 - 2019) was the former director of educational programs at the Oakland Museum and hosted talk shows for both ABC television and KSFO radio stations. Hare also co-founded The Black Think Tank located in San Francisco, California and appeared on several television programs offering her expertise and insights on male/female relationships and other issues.

Employment

Black Think Tank

Oakland Museum of California

ABC

KSFO Radio

National Committee against Discrimination in Housing

District of Columbia Teachers College

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:930,17:2400,35:3450,61:15000,349:17520,437:26256,566:34943,764:36987,887:37279,892:37571,897:37863,902:40053,945:41294,965:44068,1022:53258,1135:53861,1145:56809,1215:64045,1362:65318,1418:65854,1427:68534,1520:78498,1637:80514,1680:82614,1715:84882,1763:85386,1770:97756,2022:98024,2027:103250,2149:105863,2197:106734,2226:121434,2475:121804,2481:122618,2497:123358,2510:124320,2525:128464,2635:128982,2643:131424,2693:134162,2764:138676,2849:144170,2891:152423,3207:152801,3215:153746,3244:155699,3297:159270,3305$0,0:1180,61:1540,66:2530,78:11710,317:21700,529:22060,534:29130,610:39930,985:49873,1141:61480,1327:63524,1373:64035,1381:64473,1398:73606,1501:74470,1515:76702,1579:80374,1688:81382,1706:82822,1735:83470,1748:83758,1753:90430,1846:91620,1892:92110,1899:93860,1997:101630,2163:102120,2171:102400,2176:102680,2181:102960,2186:105130,2235:105410,2240:107020,2283:107650,2294:112680,2302:116530,2416:116950,2425:117650,2437:118000,2443:119120,2504:120380,2546:122200,2603:130320,2806:132280,2855:142750,2999:144694,3044:144982,3049:149086,3183:151966,3246:152686,3257:153694,3276:162368,3360:162900,3369:163888,3384:165028,3409:175660,3601
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julia Reed Hare's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julia Reed Hare lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julia Reed Hare describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her relatives and holiday family traditions

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julia Reed Hare describes her early childhood memories of playing the piano

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Julia Reed Hare talks about the 1921 Tulsa race riot and its aftermath

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Julia Reed Hare describes her childhood neighborhood in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Julia Reed Hare describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Julia Reed Hare describes her household responsibilities as a child and her religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Julia Reed Hare talks about going to Booker T. Washington Elementary School in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julia Reed Hare describes her teachers and the culture of Booker T. Washington Elementary School in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julia Reed Hare remembers prejudiced African American teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julia Reed Hare describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julia Reed Hare describes her childhood aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julia Reed Hare describes the segregated schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma, her teachers and her extracurricular activities as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julia Reed Hare describes deciding to go to college and keeping in touch with her friends from Booker T. Washington High School in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julia Reed Hare describes her experience at Langston University in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Julia Reed Hare describes going to Roosevelt University's College of Music in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julia Reed Hare describes teaching elementary school while in graduate school at Roosevelt University's School of Music in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her work for the District of Columbia Teachers College in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Julia Reed Hare describes being director of education for the Oakland Museum of California in Oakland, California

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Julia Reed Hare describes her work for the National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing, Inc. and as a radio host

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Julia Reed Hare recalls people she interviewed on the radio and teaching others about radio broadcasting

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Julia Reed Hare describes the content of lectures she gives across the country

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Julia Reed Hare talks about getting her educational and social psychology degrees at California Coast University and her lectures

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Julia Reed Hare describes what The Black Think Tank does, with HistoryMaker Nathan Hare, in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Julia Reed Hare describes the book she authored with HistoryMaker Nathan Hare, 'Bringing the Black Boy to Manhood: The Passage'

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Julia Reed Hare describes the book she published with HistoryMaker Nathan Hare, 'Crisis in Black Sexual Politics'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her research on African American families

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Julia Reed Hare describes the changes she would like to see for African American students in the schools

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her love of playing piano

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Julia Reed Hare talks about reading

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her desire to write a romance novel and her spiritual growth

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Julia Reed Hare describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Julia Reed Hare talks about her proudest accomplishments and her values

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Julia Reed Hare describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Julia Reed Hare narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$1

DAStory

3$8

DATitle
Julia Reed Hare describes being director of education for the Oakland Museum of California in Oakland, California
Julia Reed Hare talks about the 1921 Tulsa race riot and its aftermath
Transcript
So, I became the first director of education for the Oakland Museum [of California, Oakland, California], because the museum was opening. Now, the museum was not exactly alien to me, because as the language arts and the college--and the supervisor at the college and--the University of the District of Columbia [Washington, D.C.], which was at the time the District of Columbia Teachers College [Washington, D.C.]--I had to do a lot of work with the curators of the Smithsonian [Institution, Washington, D.C.]. Because we tried to bring the museum to the kids, in addition to taking the kids to the museum. So, when Oakland--it was opening, this was a new museum that had never opened, hadn't had it there. And so, I was speaking at something at San Francisco State [College, later San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California], talking about the Smithsonian. I had no idea that some curators were there and asked would I come there and work with them on getting other people--blacks, ethnic minorities, women, whoever, involved in the museum. And I said, "I'd be delighted to do that." But I said, "I must develop something that you probably haven't had before, and that was a museum on wheels because a lot of people are not coming here. You're going to have to take the museum out to them." So, we had what we call traveling exhibitions that went out. And we had, we got all of this from the changing exhibition galleries. Because we had permanent galleries that you have to come there to see that, because that's borrowed from museums all over the world. But we would take the museums out to underprivileged areas. We would take them to middle class areas, any group of people that we felt would not on their own come there. We had things that they could handle and touch in the museum. It was not a hands-off, you know, you can pick this up, it's not going to break. Before we knew it, then they were coming to the museum. Because I would always dangle the carrot, "There's more of that over there at the museum if you come over to us." So, we would arrange for them to come there when I felt--then I developed a board and brought in people--these were adults, blacks who had never had the opportunity to sit on a board of a museum. Because you know, that's kind of a playground of the rich and the affluent. And so we brought them in and established a board for them. Well, they were surprised. Well by doing this, then we brought in black artists who had never had an opportunity to display their work in a museum. We brought in black scientists, because we also had a specialty there in the natural sciences. And the other specialty was California history. We were able to bring in black historians that never thought that they would have an opportunity to be in a museum. So, when the national museum meetings took place--and Thomas Hoving at that time was the director of the Smithsonian [sic, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York]. And we would meet at all of the fancy, great museums, Santa Barbara [Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, California], you know, there are good ones all over the country. These people that we brought into the museum were able to come with me, down, and meet other curators. So, now they are dispersed over the country.$You, you grew up in Tulsa [Oklahoma]?$$Yes.$$And Tulsa has a very interesting history.$$Yes, it does.$$Very interesting. Did your parents [Will Reed and Beatrice Brown Reed] ever talk, or did they experience the riot, the [1921] Tulsa [race] riot?$$No, my mother wasn't living there. She came to Tulsa when she was sixteen. The riot took place I think in 1921. But my father was living there, and he would tell it to us in the house because believe it or not, did you know that black people and black teachers were afraid to talk about that riot when we were growing up in school? Because I mean that was punishable by lynchings, or whatever it might be. That had to be swept under the rug. And the major newspaper of the day, the Tulsa Tribune, that fanned the flames by simply saying that a black man looked at a white woman on an elevator. Well, by the time that hit the radio news--it was not the television--and that went out, then the riot was on. And so, we're talking about concentration camps. They put the black people in that. My father said you could stand and look all across the country--the city and see everything that was burning. Well, the [U.S.] National Guard was called out, and they locked all the black people up in something called the Convention Hall. They locked them up, burned down the houses, destroyed the businesses. One of the reasons that was done is because Tulsa's black community had a self-contained community. They had black--doctors had their own hospitals and businesses. You didn't have to go to the other side of town to purchase anything; it was all done there. In fact, the whites had to come over to the black part of town to purchase a lot of things. And I guess someone just did not like that. And the papers, you know, the newspapers, really fanned that up. And the only church that has ever been bombed from the air in the United States was Mount Zion Baptist Church [Tulsa, Oklahoma], which was the church of my youth, and the church had recently been built, but about a million bucks [dollars] back then in 1921, you know, you can imagine the value of that now. Well, they bombed the church because they said they were destroying, in today's language, weapons of mass destruction but then they said they had an arsenal of weapons that were destroyed. And then after they bombed the church, they later learned that there were no weapons in the church. That church still stands, and they would like to get rid of that church now so that they can build a white university on that land, because they're trying to move now the blacks that are out of North Tulsa. It was often said the reason why--that was the only place blacks could live. It's often said that the reason why they want them out of North Tulsa is because the hurricanes that always visit Tulsa never went through North Tulsa. It always went through the other side of town. And so, they were trying to move them out. The school there that they built for blacks because of segregation, Booker T. Washington High School [Tulsa, Oklahoma], now they're trying to put all of them out and turn that school into a white preparatory school and move the blacks out of Tulsa. I just wrote an editorial for one of the newspapers back there on that situation. So, the reparations movement that they were trying to get for them, the State of Oklahoma ruled that it's so few of them living that we should not pass the reparations on to them or to their heirs, nor has there been an apology. So, the city is about to go up again anytime. Don't be surprised if you hear that.