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Ronald J. Temple

Education administrator Ronald J. Temple was born on September 10, 1940 in Chicago, Illinois. A graduate of Marshall High School in Chicago, Illinois he received his B.A. degree in 1964 from Eureka College, in Eureka, Illinois, and his M.A. degree in 1965, and later his Ph.D. degree in 1985, both from the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio.

In 1965, he began his career teaching at Lyons Township High School and Junior College in La Grange, Illinois. Temple was hired by the University of Cincinnati as assistant dean of student groups, becoming the university’s first black senior-level administrator in 1967. In 1969, he founded and served as the first president of the United Black Faculty Association as well as the University of Cincinnati’s first American urban history instructor. In 1971, Temple was promoted to serve as special assistant to University of Cincinnati president Warren Bennis where he campaigned for increased state support for the university. That same year, he was appointed to the Cincinnati Public Schools Board of Education where he served for four years until 1975. Temple was then promoted to dean of the university and served in this role for ten years from 1975 to 1985.

Then in 1985, Temple became president of Wayne County Community College in Detroit, Michigan and over a five year period worked to reduce the college’s $2 million deficit. He was then hired as the third president of the Community College of Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania where he served from 1990 to 1993, focusing on improving the college’s vocational training programs and partnerships with area businesses. Temple served as chancellor of Chicago City Colleges from 1993 to 1999 before becoming chancellor of Peralta Community College District in Oakland, California where he served from 1999 to 2003 before retiring.

Temple was appointed to serve on the National BSA Executive Board in 1994 and on the Program Group Committee. He later served on the Chicago Area Council Executive Board. Temple was also a recipient of the Silver Beaver and Silver Buffalo Awards in 1998.

Ronald J. Temple was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 12, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.143

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/14/2018

Last Name

Temple

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

John Marshall Metropolitan High School

First Name

Ronald J.

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

TEM02

Favorite Season

Late Spring, Early Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maryland and Venice

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

9/10/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

Fish and Chicken

Short Description

Education administrator Ronald J. Temple (1940- ) served as chancellor Peralta Community College District and Chicago City Colleges and as the third president of the Community College of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania and the president at Wayne County Community College in Detroit, Michigan.

Employment

Peralta Community College

City College of Chicago

Community College of Philadelphia

Wayne County Community College, Detroit

University of Cincinnati

Lyons Township High School and Junior College

Favorite Color

Blue

Franklin A. Thomas

Foundation executive and lawyer Franklin A. Thomas was born on May 24, 1934 in Brooklyn, New York to James and Viola Thomas. He graduated from Franklin K. Lane High School in 1952, and attended Columbia University, where he played basketball, became the first African American to captain an Ivy League basketball team, and was named the league’s most valuable player in 1955 and 1956. Thomas earned his B.A. degree from Columbia University in 1956 and went on to earn his L.L.B. degree from Columbia Law School in 1963.

After earning his B.A. degree, Thomas joined the U.S. Air Force as a strategic air command navigator, where he served as captain from 1956 to 1960. In 1964, he was admitted to the New York State Bar and began his legal career as an attorney at the Federal Housing and Home Finance Agency’s New York office. During the same year, Thomas served as Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. From 1965 to 1967, he served as deputy police commissioner in charge of legal matters for the New York City Police Department, where he established the Civilian Complaint Review Board. From 1967 to 1977, Thomas served as president and chief executive officer for the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation, and was credited with raising approximately $63 million in public and private funds, and serving in the forefront of community redevelopment efforts. In 1977, Thomas resumed his private legal practice, until 1979, when he was selected to serve as the first African American president of the Ford Foundation, where he served until 1996.

Thomas served as the chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation-funded Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward South Africa from 1979 to 1981, and produced the comprehensive, groundbreaking report on apartheid, Time Running Out. He went on to serve as a member of the U.S. Secretary of State’s Advisory Committee on South Africa from 1985 to 1987.

Thomas served as chairman of the Secretary of State’s Advisory Committee on South Africa, the Study Commission on United States Policy Toward Southern Africa, and the September 11th Fund. He has also served on the board of directors for the Aluminum Company of America, Avaya, CBS Inc., Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Citicorp/Citibank, and Lucent Technologies. In 2005, Thomas founded the TFF Study Group, a nonprofit organization dedicated to development in South Africa in 2005.

Thomas is the recipient of numerous awards, including: The Lyndon Baines Johnson Award for “Contributions to the Betterment of Urban Life,” the John Jay and Alexander Hamilton Awards from Columbia College, and Columbia Law School’s James Kent Medal for distinguished professional achievement. He is also the recipient of Columbia University’s Medal of Excellence. He has been granted honorary degrees from Bank Street College, Columbia University, Fordham University, New School University, Pace University, Pratt University and Yale University. In 2003, Thomas was named one of four “kingmakers” in corporate America by Fortune magazine.

Franklin A. Thomas was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 28, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.088

Sex

Male

Interview Date

04/26/2017 |and| 06/28/2017

Last Name

Thomas

Maker Category
Middle Name

A.

Schools

Franklin K. Lane High School

Columbia University

J.H.S. 33 Mark Hopkins Junior High School

P.S. 44 Marcus Garvey Elementary School

Columbia Law School

First Name

Franklin

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

THO26

Favorite Season

Fall, Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

How Are You?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/27/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken And Rice

Short Description

Foundation executive and lawyer Franklin A. Thomas (1934 - ) was the first African American president of the Ford Foundation, after serving as the president and CEO of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation.

Employment

Ford Foundation

Faucus and Baron

U.S. Air Force

Housing and Home Finance Agency

U.S. Attorney's Office, Southern District of New York

New York City Police Department

Civilian Complain Review Board

Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Slating of Franklin A. Thomas' interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his parents' migration to New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers the drum and bugle corps at the Concord Baptist Church in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls his childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers the gang activity in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his interactions with gangs in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his mother's influence

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls an altercation between his mother and her boarders

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his maternal uncle

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls lessons from his mother

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his experiences at J.H.S. 33 in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his high school basketball career

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his summer position at an architectural firm

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his experiences at Columbia University in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his coursework at Columbia University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls his challenges at Columbia University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas reflects upon his time at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls his NAACP activities at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his experiences on the basketball team at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his perception of racism

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his service in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his role in the Strategic Air Command

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his basketball records at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his mother's emphasis on self-determination

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his older sisters

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls his mother's emphasis on education

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his travels with the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls how he became a navigator in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his decision to attend Columbia Law School in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his experiences at Columbia Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls being hired at the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers prosecuting a domestic terrorism case, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers prosecuting a domestic terrorism case, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas describes how he became deputy police commissioner of New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers New York City Mayor John Lindsay

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the Civilian Complaint Review Board of the New York City Police Department, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the Civilian Complaint Review Board of the New York City Police Department, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls the corruption in the New York City Police Department

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his relationship with the Harlem Clubhouse

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers Earl G. Graves, Sr.

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the creation of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls becoming president of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls becoming president of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the leaders of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers the Community Home Improvement Program

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls the problems in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his challenges at the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the gentrification of the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his legacy at the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the financial success of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas reflects upon his time at the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his relationship with Vernon E. Jordan, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his relationship with Vernon E. Jordan, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers meeting John Hay Whitney

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation's cable television venture

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his wife, Kate Roosevelt Whitney

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his board memberships

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls how he became the president of the Ford Foundation

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his corporate board memberships

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas reflects upon his experience as an African American in Corporate America

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls his tenure on the board of Citibank, N.A.

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his invitation to the board of Citibank, N.A.

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his transition to the Ford Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his transition to the Ford Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his tenure at the Ford Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his tenure at the Ford Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his successor at the Ford Foundation

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his changes to the Ford Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his changes to the Ford Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas lists his charitable board memberships

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Slating of Franklin A. Thomas' interview, session 2

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his basketball teammate, Albert Vann

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his decision to attend Columbia University

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the importance of education

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers the student protests at Columbia University

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls the student protests on South Africa

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the black community at Columbia University

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his mother's lessons about racial discrimination

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers Robert M. Morgenthau

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers the conspiracy to bomb the Statue of Liberty

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about mandatory minimum sentences

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his decision to leave the U.S. attorney's office

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers Police Commissioner Howard R. Leary

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about Robert F. Kennedy's commitment to the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his early involvement with the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the rising property values in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls the early leaders of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his start at the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the Bedford-Stuyvesant Development and Services Corporation

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers dissolving the Bedford-Stuyvesant Development and Services Corporation

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers John Doar

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers the staff of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 13 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his role on the Knapp Commission

Tape: 13 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the Knapp Commission

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the history of Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls his early interactions with the Ford Foundation

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the Ford Foundation funding of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls how he met J. Irwin Miller and Henry Schacht

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation's architectural investments

Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas reflects upon the success of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation

Tape: 14 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his family

Tape: 14 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers the development of Continental Cablevision, Inc.

Tape: 14 Story: 9 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his relationship with the Whitney family

Tape: 15 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about John Hay Whitney's philanthropy

Tape: 15 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers meeting Kate Roosevelt Whitney

Tape: 15 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers interviewing for the presidency of the Ford Foundation

Tape: 15 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the Ford Foundation's financial problems

Tape: 15 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his relationship with President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.

Tape: 15 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers McGeorge Bundy

Tape: 15 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the leadership of the Ford Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 15 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the leadership of the Ford Foundations, pt. 2

Tape: 16 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his assessment of the Ford Foundation's operations

Tape: 16 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his changes to the Ford Foundation

Tape: 16 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his interview with The New York Times

Tape: 16 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the Ford Foundation's philanthropic work

Tape: 16 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls his assessment of the Ford Foundation's funding efforts

Tape: 16 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his development of the Ford Foundation

Tape: 16 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his relationship with Vernon E. Jordan, Jr.

Tape: 16 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas reflects upon the experiences that led him to the Ford Foundation

Tape: 16 Story: 9 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers Mary Griggs Jordan

Tape: 17 Story: 1 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the 'Time Running Out' report, pt. 1

Tape: 17 Story: 2 - Franklin A. Thomas describes the 'Time Running Out' report, pt. 2

Tape: 17 Story: 3 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers meeting Nelson Mandela

Tape: 17 Story: 4 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk's visit to the United States, pt. 1

Tape: 17 Story: 5 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk's visit to the United States, pt. 2

Tape: 17 Story: 6 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls meeting with F. W. de Klerk upon Nelson Mandela's release

Tape: 17 Story: 7 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers Nelson Mandela's release from prison

Tape: 17 Story: 8 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his involvement with South Africa's government, pt. 1

Tape: 17 Story: 9 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his involvement with South Africa's government, pt. 2

Tape: 17 Story: 10 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his mentorship of South African lawyers

Tape: 17 Story: 11 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his relationship with Nelson Mandela

Tape: 17 Story: 12 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the Constitutional Court of South Africa

Tape: 17 Story: 13 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers Albie Sachs and Arthur Chaskalson

Tape: 17 Story: 14 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about Nelson Mandela's wives

Tape: 17 Story: 15 - Franklin A. Thomas remembers his advice to Nelson Mandela

Tape: 17 Story: 16 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the life of Nelson Mandela

Tape: 17 Story: 17 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about the African National Congress

Tape: 17 Story: 18 - Franklin A. Thomas reflects upon the international reputation of the United States

Tape: 17 Story: 19 - Franklin A. Thomas recalls his chairmanship of the September 11th Fund

Tape: 17 Story: 20 - Franklin A. Thomas talks about his marriage to Kate Roosevelt Whitney

Tape: 17 Story: 21 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his wife, Kate Roosevelt Whitney

Tape: 17 Story: 22 - Franklin A. Thomas reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 17 Story: 23 - Franklin A. Thomas describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 17 Story: 24 - Franklin A. Thomas describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

2$2

DATape

12$16

DAStory

7$2

DATitle
Franklin A. Thomas describes his early involvement with the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation
Franklin A. Thomas talks about his changes to the Ford Foundation
Transcript
And it's during that period that I get a call from the senator's office, and Earl Graves [HistoryMaker Earl G. Graves, Sr.], who's then working for the senator, must have mentioned my name to him; he had no other--I don't know what other sources there were, but certainly I suspect Earl was among them. And I get a call and they--I go and meet with the, the senator, and he explains what his vision is and what he's assembled up to that point, and that he's trying to work with these different groups in Bedford-Stuyvesant [Brooklyn, New York] and they need someone who can handle all of that and be, at the same time, accessible to the business group. And, for some reason, it kind of strikes me as something that--unplanned on my part, but maybe I ought to try and be helpful. So, I--I think I told you this story--I go to the meeting with the local people, and Elsie Richardson among them, and others who later become great friends, but at that point--I mean the beginning is, "What makes you think you're qualified to do what needs to be done here?" I mean that's the opening wedge for this meeting (laughter). And so we have a lengthy conversation, and I go back to Kennedy [Robert F. Kennedy] and his assembled group and say, "You know, I think it's an interesting idea. I don't think I'm the person that the community would seek to oversee this. And I say that be- not as any knock on me, but because, in my opinion, they have someone in mind who they would like to be in that position--someone they know and have worked with in the past, and who has some credentials," et cetera. So that's my impression from my meeting that I relate to the senator, and he says, "You know I, I know but that--we, we know of that person, and we've done a check there, and it's a well intentioned idea, but he's not the person that can lead this, so would you please not withdraw yourself from this while we search to see if we can find a person of--that's acceptable to both parties?" So, I say, "Okay." I'm as interested in seeing something done well as anyone. So I agree to spend some time with the local folk as they go through looking at what had been done in a, a couple of other cities--where Ed Logue [Edward J. Logue] had worked, and people whom Kennedy had brought into Bedford-Stuyvesant [Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation, New York, New York], and I.M. Pei had brought in, and others had been brought in.$$I.M. Pei, who is the architect, right?$$He's the architect, yeah.$$Um-hm.$$And so--anyway, a few months go by; I--I've got my own job I'm working on, but I spend time with them, and they finally double back and say, "Well, you're not our first choice but unless you're willing to do this, it's probably not gonna happen." And the Kennedy people are saying basically the same thing, and that the person the local group seemed more interested in is not someone that the business group thinks can do the job, so I said, "Okay," I would do it for two years to get it started, and so I did. And I spent the next ten years there, and I'm happy to say it's having its fiftieth anniversary upcoming, and some of the same people are happily still there. Most have passed on, but there's another generation there, and yeah, we're all pretty proud of what's happened--yeah. And Al Vann [Albert Vann] still lives there, Gil Scott [Gilbert L. Scott] still lives there; a number of the people that, you know, I grew up with are there and involved with what's going on.$So I held meetings with the staff [of the Ford Foundation, New York, New York] in all the different areas and laid out where we were, where we had been, what had happened in the ensuing ten or twelve years, what trajectory we were on, and what that could mean going forward. So either we're going to fix things while we still have the ability to do that, with the hope that we can reposition it so it can be around in perpetuity. And that means that some who think they have a lifetime arrangement are gonna be disappointed because we're going to trim the staff and, (makes noise). So, anyway, we did all that.$$You did a lot of trimming of staff.$$Yeah.$$This was--it was, I think, what--a quarter of the staff?$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Like over a hundred--it was over a hundred and something positions.$$Yeah, yeah, yeah, it was a lot, it was a lot. And everybody got--I mean they're all disappointed obviously, but everybody got treated as well as you could expect to be treated; you're given three or four years of coverage, but it's the end. So I go to The New York Times, at their invitation--$$After some of this has happened.$$After some of this has happened.$$And this is--this is the--but it took--so it--you're saying within the year of stu- after that year of study this is when you make the decision now?$$Yeah.$$How long does it take to get board alignment? That's a--$$I'd say about three years--to get it all sorted, and then I, I double back to The New York Times, at their invitation, and they, they start by saying to me--I've--never forget (laughter) the conversation. "You know it's, it's been a while since we last spoke." He said, "Oh, I would like to know what's, what's happened, you know, since then," and all that. And so we're--I give them a, a, a rundown, a generalized rundown of what we've done and where we then were financially, and how I saw the future and, you know, their, their response was, "You know, well, you know, it's obvious that place needed to be restructured, (mumbling)." And so I say back to them, "You mean now that I've survived you, what I did was obvious, is that it?" "No, I didn't mean that." "Oh, you guys are just so full of shit, you know--stop it!" You know. But I, I knew the, the then head of the newspaper from my Columbia [Columbia University, New York, New York] days; we'd both been trustees at Columbia, and so I was pretty relaxed with, with--I wasn't angry at all; I'm just saying (laughter), you know, "Now that I've survived you, you tell me what I did was obvious."$$Well, because they had--I remember reading the one article where they were, you know, talking about you being sequestered behind--$$Yeah, yeah.$$--and then--well, I--you let go like some key people at the beginning, but you had to get your team in place, too (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) That's right, that's right. Well, they were--$$And Harold Howe [Harold Howe II] was one of--but--$$They were all angry when they left.

Gus Solomons jr

Dancer and choreographer Gus Solomons jr was born on August 27, 1938 in Cambridge, Massachusetts to Olivia Stead Solomons and Gustave Solomons, Sr. He attended Cambridge High and Latin School before enrolling at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956, where he studied architecture. During this time, he began studying dance as a student of Jan Veen and Robert C. Gilman at the Boston Conservatory of Music.

Upon graduation, Solomons moved to New York City to dance in Oscar Brown, Jr.’s musical Kicks and Company, with choreographer Donald McKayle. Solomons joined McKayle’s company shortly after, and began taking classes at the Martha Graham School. Solomons’ interest in postmodernism developed further at Studio 9, where he shared space with other modern dance colleagues and worked with avant-garde experimentalists, some of whom went on to form the Judson Dance Theater collective. While at Studio 9, Solomons caught the attention of Martha Graham’s student Pearl Lang, who cast him in Shira in 1962. In 1965, postmodern choreographer Merce Cunningham asked Solomons to join his company. There, Solomons created roles in How to Pass Kick Fall and Run, RainForest, Place, Walkaround Time, and partnered with Sandra Neels in Scramble. In 1968, Solomons left Cunningham’s company after sustaining a back injury. He then collaborated with writer Mary Feldhaus-Weber and composer John Morris on a dual-screen video-dance piece entitled CITY/MOTION/SPACE/GAME at WGBH-TV in Boston, produced by Rick Hauser. Solomons went on to found his own company, The Solomons Company/Dance, creating over 165 original pieces. He became known for his analytical approach and incorporation of architectural concepts as well as his exploration of interactive video, sound, and movement, as depicted in the piece CON/Text. In 1980, Solomons began writing dance reviews, which were published in The Village Voice, Attitude, and The Chronicle of Higher Education. In 1996, he founded PARADIGM with Carmen de Lavallade and Dudley Williams. Solomons also worked as an arts professor at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts until 2013.

In 2004, Solomons was named the American Dance Festival’s Balasaraswati/Joy Ann Dewey Beinecke Endowed Chair for Distinguished Teaching. He received the first annual Robert A. Muh Award from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and served as a Phi Beta Kappa Scholar in 2006.

Gus Solomons jr was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 7, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.054

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/7/2016

Last Name

Solomons

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Occupation
Schools

Kennedy-Longfellow School

Boston Conservatory at Berklee

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cambridge Rindge and Latin School

First Name

Gus

Birth City, State, Country

Boston

HM ID

SOL02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Wherever I Have Work

Favorite Quote

Dance Like No One's Watching.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/27/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Dancer and choreographer Gus Solomons jr. (1938 - ) created over 165 dance pieces for his two companies, The Solomons Company/Dance and PARADIGM. He was known for his analytical approach, architectural concepts, and use of video and other forms of media.

Employment

Donald McKayle and Company

The Joffrey School

Barbara Dona and Associates

Studio 9

Jacob's Pillow

Barbara Dorn Associates

Dance Circle

Merce Cunningham Dance Company

Martha Graham Dance Company

Solomons Company Dance

Glimmerglass Playhouse and the Canadian Opera

PARADIGM Dance Company

Complexions

Favorite Color

Orange, Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:704,13:1496,24:1848,29:2288,35:3344,48:4312,71:5808,107:6864,126:19964,171:20354,177:21602,197:24242,224:32980,307:35418,333:37928,354:39134,384:39469,390:41211,421:42484,470:48940,551:50965,669:51340,675:62685,931:68114,1023:79654,1167:80474,1180:88839,1346:92832,1390:103795,1537:104619,1547:108376,1574:114750,1645:115185,1651:116577,1677:117795,1694:118404,1703:121888,1731:122785,1757:123268,1765:123958,1777:124234,1782:126925,1858:127339,1865:127753,1872:145318,2082:145780,2089:146319,2103:146781,2111:147782,2128:148090,2133:157270,2242:164354,2307:164975,2315:166760,2341:168590,2351:168974,2356:169646,2366:170030,2371:170702,2387:172142,2412:172910,2432:174770,2438:176062,2464:176402,2470:176810,2477:177082,2482:178442,2518:184474,2592:185956,2620:186736,2635:192508,2772:192898,2778:197570,2802:199219,2824:203390,2917:203778,2922:204360,2929:214808,3024:221008,3128:222412,3161:224284,3189:224908,3198:231852,3274:235480,3318:236558,3335:236866,3340:237482,3350:238637,3385:240947,3424:246464,3473:247928,3507:262058,3647:263085,3665:267272,3735:270350,3763$0,0:1764,31:3192,59:3948,70:47530,524:48055,530:63769,633:65188,645:69522,676:75350,710:76250,722:77240,736:77690,742:79490,764:80120,773:82190,819:82640,825:86330,878:88490,912:94080,936:95676,963:97680,971:98110,977:98454,982:101760,1002:107741,1058:108359,1065:109389,1081:114200,1162:115608,1196:116056,1204:135138,1338:136514,1353:136858,1358:137632,1370:138922,1393:139524,1401:148500,1536:148980,1543:151330,1586:152067,1605:152871,1619:166566,1737:170878,1810:174398,1864:175102,1874:175718,1883:176422,1893:182018,1932:185090,2037
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gus Solomons jr's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gus Solomons jr lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gus Solomons jr describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gus Solomons jr describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gus Solomons jr remembers his home in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gus Solomons jr describes his neighborhood in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gus Solomons jr talks about the lack of racial diversity in his neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gus Solomons jr describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gus Solomons jr describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gus Solomons jr recalls his early exposure to music and performance

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gus Solomons jr remembers the start of his career in performance

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gus Solomons jr describes his early academic success

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gus Solomons jr talks about his attitude towards racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gus Solomons jr recalls his decision to study architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gus Solomons jr remembers studying dance at the Boston Conservatory of Music

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gus Solomons jr describes the start of his dance career in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gus Solomons jr describes his position at Barbara Dorn and Associates

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gus Solomons jr remembers performing in 'Kicks and Company'

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gus Solomons jr recalls joining the companies of Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gus Solomons jr talks about the techniques of Merce Cunningham and Martha Graham

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gus Solomons jr remembers performing with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gus Solomons jr describes the formation of Solomons Company Dance

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gus Solomons jr describes his creative process for choreography

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gus Solomons jr talks about the theories of choreographic composition

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gus Solomons jr recalls the funding for Solomons Company Dance

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gus Solomons jr remembers the dancers in Solomons Company Dance

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gus Solomons jr describes the rehearsal space for Solomons Company Dance

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gus Solomons jr remembers touring with the National Endowment for the Arts

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gus Solomons jr describes 'City Motion Space Game,' pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gus Solomons jr describes 'City Motion Space Game,' pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gus Solomons jr talks about the dance installations 'Red Squalls' and 'Red Squalls II'

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gus Solomons jr talks about his work as a dance critic

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gus Solomons jr talks about his committee service

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gus Solomons jr talks about his experiences of clinical depression, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gus Solomons jr talks about the Paradigm Dance Company

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gus Solomons jr talks about the loss of his family

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gus Solomons jr describes the live video dance 'CON/Text'

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Gus Solomons jr talks about his collaborations with Jason Akira Somma

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gus Solomons jr talks about his depression's influence upon his work

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gus Solomons jr describes the Paradigm Dance Company

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gus Solomons jr talks about his experiences of dancing at an older age

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gus Solomons jr describes his involvement with the It Gets Better Project

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gus Solomons jr talks about his involvement in the piece 'Monument 0.1'

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gus Solomons jr reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gus Solomons jr shares his advice to aspiring dancers

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gus Solomons jr reflects upon the state of diversity in dance

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Gus Solomons jr reflects upon his life

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Gus Solomons jr remembers studying dance at the Boston Conservatory of Music
Gus Solomons jr talks about the dance installations 'Red Squalls' and 'Red Squalls II'
Transcript
When did you perform in your first professional show?$$(Makes sound) I guess, I would say the Dancemakers. That was a company that I joined in 1958 maybe. It was Boston's first professional modern dance company. And, it was started by Martha Baird who lived out in Newton [Massachusetts] or somewhere. And, there was no modern dance company so that was, that was what I would call my first professional performing.$$And, when you were taking dance classes leading up to that, did you take traditional ballet and all of the--?$$Yes, when I went to the Boston Conservatory [Boston Conservatory of Music; Boston Conservatory at Berklee, Boston, Massachusetts]. See, in my first year at Tech [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts], I went out to audition for the show, the original musical. And, they said, "Wow, you can dance. Can you choreograph?" And, I said, "Oh, you mean make up dances? Yeah, I can do that." So, I was the lead in the show and choreographed it.$$What show is this now?$$It was called MI- the 'Tech Show.' It was an original--and the first one was called "Djinn and Bitters" [Harold Lawler]. And, I played the genie. But, when I--they said, "Can you choreograph?" I thought, well, maybe I should go and see what that's about. So, I went across the river [Charles River] to the Boston Conservatory and enrolled in a modern dance class, which was taught by Jan Veen, who was a German Viennese who had studied with Laban [Rudolf von Laban] and he taught us the Laban scales. Now, in the, in his system of teaching, making dance and technique and improvisation were all one. There were no categories, no sharp divisions. So, that was a wonderful way to learn to dance. And, then, they kept offering me more and more classes because men were scarce in dance in Boston [Massachusetts] at that time. And, then I started taking ballet classes with Rue Santon [ph.], and--Cecchetti technique, and jazz with Bob Gilman [Robert C. Gilman]. That was kind of Broadway jazz.$$And, this was all at the conservatory?$$Correct.$$So, you were taking, the entire time that you were in college you were also taking dance classes--$$Yes.$$--across the water?$$Yeah, (makes sound). Yes. Yes. As a matter of fact at one point in my senior year, or my, yeah, either the fourth or fifth year, I went up for jury with our projects. That week, the last week before the project, I had slept six hours in total that week, because I would sleep two hours before each performance. I was performing in an opera in Boston, 'Traviata' ['La Traviata,' Giuseppe Verdi] I think. And, when I got up to present my work one of my professors said, "Gus [HistoryMaker Gus Solomons jr], would you tell us how you managed to do a full time architecture course at MIT and still have time to be dancing professionally in the opera?" I thought, oops, busted (laughter).$$Right, right, right.$$But, yeah, I mean, 'cause when you're that age you don't need sleep. You just need more pasta and coffee. But, that--$$So, you knew, that you were gonna be a dancer?$$I did (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Some- in one way or another.$$I knew I wanted to do some kind of performing. And, I remember actually going to one of my professors, Richard Phillapolski [ph.], and saying, "You know, I really, I'm not sure I wanna finish that extra sixth year because I really wanna be a dancer." And, he said, "Oh, no, you will be a credit to your race if you become an architect." He--those were his words (laughter). And, I thought, okay, whatever. And, then when I graduated, I graduated in May--oh, and they gave me an award at MIT, a (unclear) or something, in recognition of my service as a performer in the 'Tech' shows, because I did 'Tech Show' every year when I was there.$Moving forward in time, what's another highlight?$$Another highlight, let's see. There were, I think the collaborations stand out for me with Toby Twining doing the music and Scott De Vere doing the installation in that company, especially--and, that was starting in '88 [1988] 'til '93 [1993] and culminating in a big site specific piece ['Red Squalls,' Gus Solomons jr] at Lincoln Center [Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York, New York] in '93 [1993] on the North Plaza where the pool is. And, we took up that whole space with six dancers and twelve (pause) dancers, prop movers, chorus. An installation was a 150 foot long fabric wall that had, you know, posts each twelve feet. And, that could isolate the dancers or it could have its own dancers, become a solid if you zigzagged it from a cube. Or, it could become a streamer or it could be, if you twisted the opposite, via every other post it became a, like a bowtie arrangement. And, then the dancers would move around the plaza in relationship to this wall. That was the first time. The second time, we did it again in 1997 ['Red Squalls II,' Gus Solomons jr]. And, that time I collaborated with Walter Thompson whom I begun working with who did instrumental music. But, with a kind of a language that he had devised of directing improvisation by musicians. And, the musicians then were part of the spectacle because they marched around and they moved and they were in separate locations and so forth and he could conduct them all. And, this time also, there was a fabric designer [Stephanie Siepmann] who made the costumes. And, the costumes were three dimensional fabrics that she had invented essentially. So, the dancers were in these wonderful constructions in addition to moving.$$So, when you did these pieces on the plaza, did you also film them?$$Yes. Not, very comprehensively. But, there are bits and pieces of film that exist in the New York Public Library performing arts collection [New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, New York, New York].

Robert Bogle

Newspaper chief executive Robert Bogle was born to John Bogle, a vice president and advertising director at The Philadelphia Tribune, and Roslyn Woods Bogle, an advocate and activist throughout the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. In 1973, he graduated from Cheyney State College with his B.A. degree in urban studies and attended the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Business and Finance to study marketing and economics.

Bogle was first hired at The Philadelphia Tribune in 1970, and was named advertising director in 1973. He served in that position until 1977, when he became director of marketing. From 1981 to 1989, Bogle worked as executive vice president and treasurer for the Tribune and was then promoted to president and chief executive officer. In 1991, Bogle was appointed president of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), where he served two terms. Among his achievements as president of the NNPA were the dedication of the new national headquarters in Washington, D.C., the introduction of the NNPA’s national wire service, and the establishment of new and enhanced relationships with major national advertisers, including Toys R Us, Procter & Gamble, U.S. Air, K-Mart, and Walt Disney World Company.

Bogle has served on the boards of U.S. Airways Group, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Pennsylvania Newspaper Association, United Way of America, the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, the Workforce Investment Board, and the African American Chamber of Commerce. In addition, in 2009, Philadelphia Mayor Michael A. Nutter appointed Bogle to the Independence Blue Cross board of directors.

Bogle is chairman of the Hospitals and Higher Education Facilities Authority of Philadelphia and serves as a commissioner of the Delaware River Port Authority. He has served as chairman of the council of trustees of Cheyney University and is an advisor to the United Negro College Fund, a member of the executive committee of the Boy Scouts of America, and a life member of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. He is also a founding member and president of the African American News and Information Consortium, a group of premier Black newspapers in some of the largest markets in the United States of America.

In 1993, Bogle was named one of Ebony magazine’s 100 most influential black Americans. In 1995, 1997 and 1999, the NNPA honored Bogle with the Russwurm Award, the highest honor to the “Best Newspaper in America.” Bogle received an honorary doctorate of humane letters degree from Drexel University in 2000.

Robert Bogle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 11, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.151

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/13/2014

Last Name

Bogle

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Schools

Cheyney University of Pennsylvania

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

BOG02

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Maarten

Favorite Quote

Never To Your Friends Your Secrets Tell, For One Day Your Friend May Be Your Foe And Out Into The World Your Secrets Will Go.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Oxtail Stew, Pig's Feet. Chitlins, Roast and Turkey

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Robert Bogle ( - ) is the president and chief executive officer of The Philadelphia Tribune. He also served as president of the National Newspaper Publishers Association from 1991 to 1995.

Employment

The Philadelphia Tribune

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Bogle's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother's academic abilities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about his father and his parents' views of race and character

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle talks about how his parents met, his likeness to them and lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle describes his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Bogle talks about his brother, HistoryMaker Donald Bogle, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle talks about his brother, HistoryMaker Donald Bogle, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about growing up in Darby, Pennsylvania where he attended integrated schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle talks about the lessons he learned from his father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle states his elementary school and recalls his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle talks about meeting influential African Americans as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Robert Bogle talks about growing up knowing that he would have to choose between education, work, and the military after high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Bogle talks about South Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and black-owned theaters across the country

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle claims Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as the birthplace of the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about working as a newsboy, his educational experience, and moving to Yeadon, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about attending Yeadon High School in Yeadon, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about attending Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle lists his instructors at Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about how he came to work at the Philadelphia Tribune

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle talks about his studies at Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania and working at the Philadelphia Tribune

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle talks about participating in the student union at Cheyney University of Pennsylvania in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Terry Jones

Founder of Syncom, Inc., Terry L. Jones graduated from Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut with his B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering. At Trinity, Jones founded the school’s first black student organization. Upon completing college, Jones worked as an electrical engineer for Westinghouse Aerospace and Litton Industries. He later returned to school where he earned his M.S. degree in computer science and biomedical engineering from George Washington University. In 1972, Jones obtained his M.B.A from Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration and became the co-founder and vice president of Kiambere Savings and Loan in Nairobi, Kenya. During his time in Nairobi Kenya he served as lecturer at the University of Nairobi. In 1977, he returned to the United States to join Syncom Inc. as Vice President.

Over the years Syncom has been responsible for investments made in companies such as Black Entertainment Television (BET), Radio One, TV One, Buenavision Inc. and the District Cable Incorporated. In 1990, Jones became the President of Syndicated Communications, Inc. and Syncom Capital Corporation. He has served as Vice Chairman and Executive Officer of Citi Group Global Investment Management and Citi Group Asset Management. In 1993, he was the Vice President of Finance and Planning Chief Financial Officer of TIAA-CREF. Since then he has worked as Vice Chairman and Executive Officer at Citi Group Global Investment Management and Citi Group Asset Management. He has also worked as the director of Cyber Digital Inc., Iridium Communications and Fox Entertainment Group.

Jones has served as a member of the board of Directors for a number of Syncom Portfolio companies and other corporations such as Weather Decisions Inc., V-me Media, Delta Capital Corporation and the Southern African Enterprise Development Fund. He has also served on the board of directors for Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, Phillip Morris Companies, Inc. and the Howard University Entrepreneurial Leadership and Innovation Institute. He has joined the board of trustees for Cornell University and Spelman College. He is the recipient of the New America Alliance Award of Excellence.

Accession Number

A2012.064

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/13/2012

Last Name

Jones

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Trinity College

George Washington University

Harvard University

Central Academy of Excellence

First Name

Terry

HM ID

JON28

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

The Struggle Continues.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/23/1947

Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Favorite Food

Popcorn

Short Description

Business chief executive Terry Jones (1947 - ) Founder, Terry Jones has invested in the development of industry-leading companies, such as BET, Radio One, and Iridium Satellite.

Employment

Westinghouse Corporation

Kiambere Savings and Loan in Nairobi

University of Nairobi

Syncom

Litton Industries

Goddard Space Flight Center

The Booker T. Washington Foundation

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3101,106:18335,251:20425,281:25850,313:26394,318:32380,382:34128,413:34508,419:34812,424:37396,488:38840,510:45300,681:45756,688:46592,701:48872,740:49936,767:62730,811:63679,824:68205,963:68643,970:70030,990:71709,1068:74118,1091:78850,1108:79205,1114:85098,1274:85950,1287:86589,1298:90370,1323:91540,1337:92710,1353:93700,1367:94330,1380:94780,1390:97840,1438:98560,1456:100270,1479:103920,1485:107808,1581:108888,1604:111912,1713:112992,1736:113496,1744:113928,1752:114360,1759:114648,1771:115296,1785:120576,1806:122094,1821:131764,1967:132100,1973:132520,1992:137770,2041:139518,2071:140530,2091:147232,2187:147911,2211:152373,2297:153343,2320:153731,2333:160602,2392:162870,2431:163206,2436:166410,2465:168020,2507:169840,2550:170190,2568:171030,2586:171520,2594:173550,2649:174320,2665:175790,2695:177400,2723:182585,2779:184721,2818:185077,2823:185878,2834:186857,2852:188940,2859$0,0:3128,58:5816,97:10988,209:25710,325:26475,335:27325,356:28430,439:29620,449:30640,469:31150,482:40934,636:42266,664:42562,669:47535,755:52676,831:53646,842:54034,847:54616,858:55489,872:58108,915:60630,974:63055,1011:71630,1088:72820,1116:75270,1180:75690,1187:76600,1208:77230,1218:78770,1261:84313,1313:85236,1333:85520,1338:87450,1348:90145,1409:91223,1426:91608,1432:91993,1438:93533,1467:94534,1482:94919,1488:96228,1499:97229,1513:97922,1524:101378,1538:102754,1559:103098,1564:108774,1652:109376,1660:115224,1773:116256,1790:116600,1799:118406,1828:135780,2084:143330,2153:143735,2159:144788,2177:145679,2191:148109,2248:152580,2372:157131,2423:157423,2428:158007,2447:158299,2452:161820,2484
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Terry Jones' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Terry Jones lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Terry Jones talks about his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Terry Jones describes his mother's childhood in Hiawatha, Kansas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Terry Jones talks about his paternal family history, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Terry Jones talks about his paternal family history, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Terry Jones describes race relations in Kansas versus race relations in Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Terry Jones describes his father's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Terry Jones describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Terry Jones describes his parent's personalities and considers which parent he takes after the most

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Terry Jones lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Terry Jones describes his earliest childhood memories in Hiawatha, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Terry Jones explains his family's migration to Omaha, Nebraska and back into Hiawatha, Kansas, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Terry Jones describes the sights, sounds, and smells of Hiawatha, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Terry Jones describes his childhood community in Hiawatha, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Terry Jones describes his experience in Hiawatha Elementary School in Hiawatha, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Terry Jones talks about the impact of the Supreme Court's 1954 ruling in Brown v. the Board of Education on Kansas City schools

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Terry Jones explains his family's migration to Omaha, Nebraska and back into Hiawatha, Kansas, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Terry Jones talks about developing an early interest in engineering

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Terry Jones talks about playing the clarinet

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Terry Jones explains why he chose to be an engineer

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Terry Jones describes his extracurricular activities at Central High School in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Terry Jones describes his childhood mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Terry Jones talks about influential teachers at Central High School in Kansas City, Missouri, including Dr. Jeremiah Cameron

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Terry Jones describes his summer jobs growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Terry Jones talks about the African American business community in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Terry Jones explains what inspired him to become an engineer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Terry Jones talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Terry Jones talks about applying to college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Terry Jones talks about East Coast elite academic culture

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Terry Jones describes his experience as an undergraduate student at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Terry Jones describes his experience as an undergraduate student at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Terry Jones talks about the Trinity College black student organization, the Trinity Coalition of Blacks (T.C.B.)

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Terry Jones talks about his involvement in campus protests at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Terry Jones talks about his involvement in protests at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Terry Jones talks about national political unrest in 1968

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Terry Jones talks about his post-graduation jobs in engineering

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Terry Jones talks about applying to Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Terry Jones talks about the curriculum and faculty at Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Terry Jones talks about the African American Student Union alumni weekends at Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Terry Jones talks about pursuing entrepreneurial opportunities in Kenya after graduating from Harvard Business School

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Terry Jones describes his experience in Kenya

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Terry Jones describes meeting his wife, Marcella Jones

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Terry Jones describes planning a family and long-term goals with his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Terry Jones talks about his return from Kenya to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Terry Jones talks about his work with the Booker T. Washington foundation and the Federal Communications Commission tax certificate program for minorities

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Terry Jones explains venture capitalism

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Terry Jones talks about venture capital available to African American entrepreneurs

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Terry Jones explains HistoryMaker Herbert P. Wilkins, Sr.'s departure from the Urban National Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Terry Jones talks about the Federal Communications Commission's Minority Tax Certificate Program

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Terry Jones describes connecting with HistoryMaker Herbert P. Wilkins, Sr. and accepting a job at Syncom Venture Partners

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Terry Jones explains why he was interested in media entrepreneurship and Syncom Venture Partners

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Terry Jones talks about Radio One and HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Terry Jones talks about how he contributed to the success of HistoryMaker Cathy Hughes' station, Radio One

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Terry Jones talks about investing in BET, Black Entertainment Television

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Terry Jones talks about investing in Latino and African American telecommunications companies

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Terry Jones talks about encouraging cities to diversify cable television ownership

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Terry Jones talks about the success of cable in inner city neighborhoods

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Terry Jones talks about Syncom Venture Partners' financing of WorldSpace, Inc., pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Terry Jones talks about Syncom Venture Partners' financing of WorldSpace, Inc., pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Terry Jones talks about the sale of WorldSpace, Inc.'s rights to XM satellite radio, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Terry Jones talks about the sale of WorldSpace, Inc.'s rights to XM satellite radio, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Terry Jones talks about the economic component of the movement for racial justice

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Terry Jones talks about the success of black businessmen Robert L. Johnson and Reginald F. Lewis

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Terry Jones talks about the Glass-Steagall Act

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Terry Jones talks about the Iridium Satellite Company's technology and flaws in its original business plan

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Terry Jones talks about the purchase of Iridium Satellite LLC from Motorola

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Terry Jones describes making Iridium Satellite into a successful company

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Terry Jones talks about the success of TV One

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Terry Jones talks about investing in NuvoTV

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Terry Jones talks about how the internet has affected media and communications

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Terry Jones describes the impact of the economic crash of 2008 on venture capitalism

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Terry Jones talks about people of color becoming the majority in the United States population

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Terry Jones considers the profitability in media platforms for communities of color

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Terry Jones talks about the low number of minority entrepreneurs financed by Silicon Valley venture capitals

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Terry Jones talks about the Federal Communications Commission's auctioning off of portions of the broadband spectrum

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Terry Jones talks about the budget priorities of the federal government

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Terry Jones describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Terry Jones reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Terry Jones talks about his three daughters

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Terry Jones talks about his volunteer activities

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Terry Jones considers what he might have done differently

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Terry Jones talks about his recreational activities

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Terry Jones describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

9$6

DATitle
Terry Jones talks about developing an early interest in engineering
Terry Jones describes connecting with HistoryMaker Herbert P. Wilkins, Sr. and accepting a job at Syncom Venture Partners
Transcript
Now you got keenly involved in science, now, you know, so this is, you know--how, who got you involved in science early? I mean how, or how did you, what, what drew you into science.$$Well, again, I, I always felt I was relatively balanced. I liked science. I liked art. But I think as I did things as a kid, like building things, and got, I remember getting an Erector set for Christmas one year because I'd shown this interest in it, in that kind of stuff. And I don't know if you remember Erector sets back in the day, but they used to be these beams, little beams, little aluminum beams, and screws, and bolts, and little motor you can--(unclear)--and, but you had to put things together and make a drawbridge or a this, or make a that. And so I used to do that, and I used get a lot of--what is it? People would congratulate or--I'm trying to think of the word--but you know, when people sort of pat you on the head and say that's really good; that's really good; that's really great; look at this; look at, look at what he did there. And all those kind, that was, that kind of feedback affects young people. It certainly affected me. I said hmm, this is something I'm--people think I'm good at. And you know (laughter), and I'd get, you know, praise for it because I, I growing up physically, I didn't get accolades for physical things because I was thin, and at that time short, and I just didn't have the, the genes to jump high and run fast like a lot of the other guys did. I mean I liked sports, and I did 'em, but I wasn't, I wasn't a winner. I wasn't the fastest. I wasn't the strongest.$$But you were a year behind the other--$$And I was, and I was--$$--students there.$$--and I was a year sort of, at least several months, behind most of the people in any class I was in. So, where I got my support and, and you know, sort of, you know, co, co--what do you call it--kudos, was, you know, people say oh, gee, look at he did this; he made that; he's, you know, is good at that, you know. And so you sort of, you sort of gravitate towards the things that you get rewarded and congratulated for. So that tended to be, you know, in engine, engineering kind of stuff, you know, little science stuff, little projects, math. And 'cause that didn't, didn't matter how many muscles you had or how high you can jump, you can do that. And so I wanted, being a seeker of adulation, decided to (laughter) to do that stuff and, and you know, was encouraged to do it as more, and the more encouragement it got and the same was with music. The more, more I played and studied music, the better I got, the more people say oh, isn't that great, the more it made me want to do it more and distinguish myself more. So, you know, it was just seeking approval. And seeking, you know, that really kind of help direct the course of, of, of things.$So Syncom [Venture Partners] was created in '78 [1978] as well, right?$$It did what?$$Syncom was also created in '78 [1978], right?$$Seventy-seven [1977].$$Seventy-seven [1977], okay. It's just on the eve of this F.C.C. [Federal Communications Commission]--$$Yeah.$$--rule, okay, all right. Okay, and, and Syncom hired you basically from Booker T. Wash, Washington [Booker T. Washington Foundation], right?$$Right.$$Right. How, how did that come about? I mean how, when did you first meet Herb Wilkins [HM Herbert P. Wilkins Sr.], and how did this happen?$$Herb had a--Herb was in Harvard Business School [Boston, Massachusetts] as well. And one, some of his best friends, one of his best friends, a guy named Len Fuller [Leonard Fuller]--and Len be another guy to interview (laughter)--Len offered me a job. He worked for a consulting firm here. And when I was in business school he offered a summer job to work with them. I didn't take it. I took the real estate thing, mortgage banking job, for the summer. And then when I came out of school and I went to Africa, Len was in Africa, in Nairobi [Kenya], just vacationing. And he and I hooked up together, and we just became friends. And he was impressed with what he thought I could do, and I was impressed with him. And he and Herb happened to be classmates and real good friends. When I took the job with Booker T. Washington Foundation, we were, as I said, doing cable television. We were getting franchises for cable television opportunities around the country. And when the job opening here came up in '78 [1978] at Syncom, I said, "I'm interested in getting, transitioning into venture capital, and Herb Wilkins is the guy." And so Len told me, he said, "Well, I know Herbert. He's one of my best friends. Let me tell him about you. Let me write him about you," blah, blah, blah. And so he kind of said, "Herb, you really need to talk to this guy," blah, blah. So I applied and talked with Herb, and we, he finally felt comfortable enough to hire me, so I became the vice president. But that's how that happened. That's how I came to Syncom. It was sort of I was in the cable area. Syncom was created to do cable and other broadcasting things. They needed a vice president. Herb with the Harvard Business School. I went to Harvard Business School. Len Fuller went to Harvard Business School. We knew each other. You should talk with each other, talked with each other, and ultimately came over.

Charles Teamer, Sr.

Banker and civic leader Charles Teamer, Sr. was born on May 20, 1933 in Shelby, North Carolina to B.T. Teamer and Mary Teamer. He received his B.S. degree from Clark Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia in 1954. He served in the U.S. Army from 1956 to 1958, and later received his M.A. degree from the University of Nebraska and his Ph.D. degree from Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Teamer worked in the office of the business manager at South Carolina State University in 1954. He then became assistant business manager at Tennessee State University in 1958; and, in 1962, Teamer was hired as business manager at Wiley College. In 1965, Teamer became vice president of finance at Dillard University and was promoted to chief financial officer in 1968. In 1983, he was appointed by Louisiana Governor David Treen as the first African American on the Board of Commissioners of the Port of New Orleans. From 1985 to 1988, Teamer served as the national president of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. In 1993, Teamer co-founded the Dryades Savings Bank and served as chairman. He later retired from Dillard University in 1997, and continued to work as a consultant to Clark Atlanta University. In 2001, Teamer led a partnership of investors in opening The Cotton Exchange and Holiday Inn Express Hotel in downtown New Orleans, and became president of the World Trade Center of New Orleans in 2003.

Former executive director of the Amistad Research Center and a consultant to the U.S. Department of Education, Teamer has held numerous board appointments on the Board of Education of the United Methodist Church, the Ford Foundation, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Common Fund, the National Association of Colleges and University Business Officers, the Ochsner Medical Foundation and the Audubon Institute. Teamer also served as board chair for the Urban League of Greater New Orleans, the Metropolitan Area Committee, Harrah’s New Orleans Casino, the Greater New Orleans Foundation and the United Way. He was a member of the business and higher-education council for the University of New Orleans and served on the board of the Southern Education Foundation. Teamer was president of the Southern Association of College and University Business Officers and vice president of fiscal affairs at Dillard University and Clark Atlanta University. He was a member of the board of supervisors for the University of Louisiana System and was on the board of administrators of Tulane University. Teamer was also the director of Entergy New Orleans.

Teamer was married for forty-seven years to the late Mary Dixon Teamer. They have three children: Charles, Jr., Roderic, Sr. and Cheryl. Teamer has six grandchildren.

Charles Teamer, Sr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 28, 2008 and April 27, 2019.

Accession Number

A2008.061

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/28/2008

3/28/2008 |and| 4/27/2019

Last Name

Teamer

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Schools

Clark Atlanta University

Cleveland School

Tulane University

J.C. Price High School

University of Nebraska-Omaha

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Shelby

HM ID

TEA01

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Boule Foundation

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Any Golf Course

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

5/20/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Banker and civic leader Charles Teamer, Sr. (1933 - ) served as chief financial officer at Dillard University for over thirty years and co-founded Dryades Savings Bank and served as chairman.

Employment

Texas Southern University

Wiley College

Dillard University

Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B.

Tennessee State University

South Carolina State College

Clark Atlanta University

World Trade Center

U.S. Army

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Black and Gold

Timing Pairs
0,0:770,16:1694,54:2002,59:3311,133:6880,166:7280,171:14080,259:14580,265:21454,314:21718,319:25084,432:25678,442:27394,485:27790,492:28780,511:30364,548:31486,586:59486,843:69250,973:69775,981:70900,1000:71725,1015:82764,1137:86820,1176:98286,1291:99294,1306:99726,1313:115490,1550:116290,1563:116690,1569:119490,1613:131256,1781:136559,1841:137126,1849:137450,1854:150328,1983:151960,2017:152708,2026:154680,2059:164135,2198:164475,2207:165750,2234:170808,2280:171116,2285:171501,2291:172040,2300:172502,2308:172887,2314:185650,2513:186574,2523:191870,2565$0,0:666,25:5106,148:8325,248:9102,256:16612,380:17404,392:18052,402:20850,418:31900,558:32290,564:33772,584:42981,749:43366,755:46138,809:46754,824:49130,830:49922,850:52990,871:53234,876:53722,887:54027,893:54515,902:55491,927:58053,989:70904,1151:77600,1230:77900,1235:83300,1368:83825,1377:84650,1392:85325,1403:90800,1475:91625,1492:92375,1505:96141,1515:98066,1549:99914,1584:100530,1594:103240,1608:107676,1629:110050,1640:110809,1665:111430,1675:111706,1680:118544,1769:119156,1779:119904,1794:121128,1864:123100,1925:123576,1933:126228,2042:132098,2079:132616,2088:132912,2093:141570,2259:148960,2307:149404,2315:149996,2325:150884,2334:151180,2339:158194,2408:158579,2414:161428,2457:164592,2484:166209,2493:176400,2552:177048,2561:177615,2575:179559,2605:180288,2616:180936,2625:181260,2630:182811,2639:184116,2656:185508,2674:186030,2681:197495,2800:208290,2913:211060,2925:215000,2971
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Teamer, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. talks about his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his induction into the Masonry

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers the Boy Scouts of America, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers the Boy Scouts of America, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes Salisbury, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls the Cleveland County Training School in Shelby, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his early interests

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers Joe Louis' boxing matches

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his early awareness of African American history

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers J.C. Price High School in Salisbury, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers moving to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls the faculty of Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers the influence of communism

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his teachers at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls pledging Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers his U.S. Army service

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes interstate travel during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls a sit-in at the Hotel Marshall in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers Hobart S. Jarrett

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. talks about the influence of African American leaders

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. remembers moving to New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. talks about the Mardi Gras krewe of Rex

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his introduction to corporate board service

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls serving on the Boy Scouts of America council

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls working at Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls founding the Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B. in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls his work for Clark Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes the impact of Hurricane Katrina

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his role as grand sire of Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes the role of Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B. in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his hopes for New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls acquiring the Historic Cotton Exchange in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his work with the Amistad Research Center in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Charles Teamer, Sr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Charles Teamer, Sr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes his children

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Charles Teamer, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Charles Teamer, Sr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Charles Teamer, Sr. describes the role of Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B. in New Orleans, Louisiana
Charles Teamer, Sr. recalls acquiring the Historic Cotton Exchange in New Orleans, Louisiana
Transcript
Fast forwarding back to New Orleans [Louisiana] as we talk about the bank [Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B., New Orleans, Louisiana] and where we're going, a part of the role that I see is that the p- the percentage of people in the community who are underserved still remain. They're unbanked. And especially as we talk about rebuilding the community, you've been here for several days now and you've driven through the city and you recognize that you can be in a--what we would call a pretty good neighborhood, you're on one street, it seems to be growing and prospering, you go on the next street it's like, is this the same neighborhood? The patterns are so unpredictable. Let me give you an example. As I told you my wife [Mary Dixon Teamer] passed away in 2004. The storm [Hurricane Katrina] occurred in 2005. I had not completed the succession of the estate when, when the storm occurred. If something had happened to me, my children would've been in a terrible problem because the estate would still be open and the question would be who actually owns the property. If you transform that to people who are less informed you find incident after incident where the title to the property is unclear. New Orleans is a very old city. Its traditions are very old, so you might have generations of people living in the same house and they do not know where the title is. In the 9th Ward [New Orleans, Louisiana], for example, I'm told, that there's home after home in which the mortgages had been paid, the people have been there for years, there was no flood insurance. So flood insurance is mandatory when you have a mortgage, well if you don't have a mortgage you have no flood insurance and obviously then you're not gonna have any wind in- wind storm insurance. So consequently, the problems of redeveloping these properties becomes even more severe. What we are doing looking for innovative ways to serve the people in our community to, to, to, to come up with new products, but maybe more than new products just to be available to work and talk with the people in our community on a one-to-one basis. While everybody wants to use the Internet and the computer, the challenge is that the people who really need the services probably are not computer savvy. So that means that the cost of doing business is a little more expensive for hands on, but that's the only way we're gonna do it. And so what we're trying to do is create a way to do what needs to be done in our community while at the same time being a profitable and viable institution.$Tell me about the Cotton Exchange [Historic Cotton Exchange, New Orleans, Louisiana] and the Holiday Inn Express, now you were--$$Happy to.$$Okay.$$When we developed the franchise, the bank [Dryades Savings Bank, F.S.B., New Orleans, Louisiana], I learned from actually our congressman, [HistoryMaker] William Jefferson, that there were opportunities available for us in terms of purchase of buildings that had housed banks by the RTC [Resolution Trust Corporation]. And through my relationships with people in the real estate business, I identified two or three properties of which this was one, this--that we would be interested in. One day somebody came and said to me, Charlie Teamer [HistoryMaker Charles Teamer, Sr.] there's some--there's a white group interested in your building, so to speak. So I decided that I would make an inquiry. I went to my bank, the bank that I was doing business with and talked with the people there and said I'm interested in purchasing the Cotton Exchange. No, I said I need a half million dollars. They in turn said, "What are you gonna do?" I said, "I'm gonna put a bid on the Cotton Exchange building." Because of my experience with them and having been a customer for a long time, they realized that the Cotton Exchange building was worth more than I was gonna pay for it. So they said, "We'll cover you." So I led a group of investors. We bought the building that we're in for considerably less than $500,000, eight story building, it was empty at the time. We purchased the building, moved the bank into the building, leased the first two floors to the bank for ninety-nine years, and decided that we would do something else with floors three through eight. We tried a number of things. We wanted to, to develop something like the Equal Opportunity [Equal Employment Opportunity Commission] building in New York [New York], you know, where the United--where the Negro College Fund [United Negro College Fund] and Urban League [National Urban League] and all--but we weren't able to do that. So the first couple of years, three or four years, the third through the eighth floor was vacant. And then one day one of my acquaintances came in and said, you know, we are in the process of developing empty buildings, boutique hotels, and therefore, we'd like to develop a hotel in this building, floors three through eight. We created a partnership with three groups, our Cotton Exchange partners, one, which own this building to create a hotel. We sold floors one through two to our partnership, invested three through eight into a new partnership, bought the building next door and created a hotel, which we call the Cotton Exchange Hotel, it's a Holiday Inn franchise. So we are one-third owners of the hotel property that is next door. So therefore, we own these two floors and we're one-third owners of the building next door.$$Okay, okay.$$So we are substantial hoteliers in downtown New Orleans [Louisiana].

Orlando Bagwell

Documentary filmmaker Orlando Bagwell was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Donald Bagwell, Sr. and Barbara Jones Bagwell in a family of seven. He attended Blessed Sacrament School in Baltimore. In 1969, his family moved to Nashua, New Hampshire, where he was a member of the Nashua High School football team. After graduating from high school, Bagwell pursued his B.S. degree in film at the Boston University. He completed his undergraduate studies in 1973 and furthered his education by earning his M.A. degree in broadcast journalism from Boston University in 1975.

In the early 1970s, Bagwell worked for the United South End Settlements (USES) and was active in the organization’s after school program. He later became a substitute teacher for the South Boston Public School District where he taught political science and history. Bagwell was contracted by Boston’s WGBH-TV to work as a film producer in 1975. In 1988, he served as a staff producer for the PBS weekly program Frontline. That same year, he produced a documentary on the Reverend Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr.’s presidential campaign entitled Running with Jesse. In 1989, Bagwell founded the Boston based media company, Roja Productions, Inc. and produced Roots of Resistance: A Story of the Underground Railroad. From 1991 until 1994, Bagwell was the executive vice president for the Eyes on the Prize PBS documentary series on the Civil Rights Movement. He produced episodes of the Blackside series entitled Mississippi: Is this America? and Ain’t Scared of Your Jails for which he received the Alfred DuPont Award and the Peabody Award. In 1995, Bagwell served as the executive producer for the not-for-profit WGBH Educational Foundation, and in 1999, he produced the six hour documentary called Africans in America: America’s Journey through Slavery.

Bagwell became the program officer for the Ford Foundation’s Media Arts and Culture unit in 2004. He works with the unit’s director and oversees international operations to accomplish the foundation’s goals.

Orlando Bagwell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 17, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.339

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/17/2007

Last Name

Bagwell

Maker Category
Schools

Nashua High School South

Blessed Sacrament School

Boston University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Orlando

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

BAG01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Brazil

Favorite Quote

You Know.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

6/2/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Berkeley

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet Potatoes

Short Description

Documentary filmmaker Orlando Bagwell (1951 - ) made Peabody Award-winning films; served as a staff producer for the PBS weekly program, Frontline; produced a documentary on the Reverend Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr.’s presidential campaign, "Running with Jesse," in 1988; and served as the executive producer for the not-for-profit WGBH Educational Foundation.

Employment

United South End Settlements

WGBH-TV

WNET-TV

WETA-TV

Blackside, Inc.

Ford Foundation

WGBH TV

Harriet Tubman House

Blackside Productions

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:4116,78:5628,107:23168,314:32056,599:36016,689:54379,974:70010,1242:71850,1278:76000,1307:81082,1406:81467,1412:82545,1439:89268,1491:94695,1694:100954,1761:101386,1768:102826,1802:105274,1827:111250,1933:114346,1985:119337,1999:131168,2178:131958,2259:138357,2422:141990,2445$0,0:1020,16:1428,22:1904,30:2176,35:2720,44:3060,50:10422,151:13102,206:13370,211:13772,220:14040,225:15514,264:15983,272:16452,280:18998,344:26522,397:27362,409:28370,443:34112,522:36785,611:39053,653:46690,743:56130,959:57410,989:57730,999:60130,1055:60690,1063:61330,1072:62610,1135:66130,1192:68690,1256:77070,1314:81405,1506:90024,1627:93673,1704:94296,1716:95008,1724:98301,1798:98924,1807:100793,1840:111699,1996:112469,2001:118002,2116:119178,2135:119514,2140:120606,2194:120942,2199:121278,2204:122202,2220:125394,2261:134259,2357:135930,2370:142380,2468:150120,2610
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Orlando Bagwell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Orlando Bagwell remembers St. Clair Bourne

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Orlando Bagwell lists his favorites

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Orlando Bagwell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Orlando Bagwell describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Orlando Bagwell describes his maternal great-grandmother and great-aunts

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Orlando Bagwell remembers his extended family members

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Orlando Bagwell describes his community in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Orlando Bagwell talks about his parents' return to college, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Orlando Bagwell talks about his parents' return to college, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Orlando Bagwell describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Orlando Bagwell describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Orlando Bagwell remembers his daily activities in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Orlando Bagwell describes the Blessed Sacrament School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Orlando Bagwell recalls his teachers at the Blessed Sacrament School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Orlando Bagwell remembers the holidays with his family

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Orlando Bagwell describes his religious upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Orlando Bagwell remembers his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Orlando Bagwell describes the Civil Rights Movement in Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Orlando Bagwell describes the Wilson Park neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Orlando Bagwell talks about the political climate of his neighborhood

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Orlando Bagwell reflects upon attitudes in the black community during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Orlando Bagwell recalls the television and radio shows of his youth

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Orlando Bagwell describes his involvement in neighborhood sports leagues

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Orlando Bagwell recalls moving to Nashua, New Hampshire

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Orlando Bagwell remembers Nashua High School in Nashua, New Hampshire

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Orlando Bagwell describes his decision to attend Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Orlando Bagwell remembers his high school guidance counselor

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Orlando Bagwell describes his religious involvement in Nashua, New Hampshire

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Orlando Bagwell remembers Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Orlando Bagwell describes his decision to pursue a career in film

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Orlando Bagwell talks about civil rights leaders

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Orlando Bagwell remembers the film program at Boston University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Orlando Bagwell describes his role at the United South End Settlements in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Orlando Bagwell recalls teaching film at the United South End Settlements

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Orlando Bagwell describes his coursework at Boston University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Orlando Bagwell recalls working with PBS and WGBH-TV in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Orlando Bagwell describes his independent films

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Orlando Bagwell remembers pledging Omega Psi Phi Fraternity

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Orlando Bagwell remembers his aspiration to become a filmmaker

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Orlando Bagwell reflects upon his career

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Orlando Bagwell reflects upon his work at the Ford Foundation

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

10$3

DATitle
Orlando Bagwell describes his decision to pursue a career in film
Orlando Bagwell describes his role at the United South End Settlements in Boston, Massachusetts
Transcript
I took my second semester, sophomore year, and I took off. And I think it was also that I was feeling that school wasn't--I couldn't make it connect with what I, I couldn't make it make sense or have a relevancy to me. And that was a tough year because I was, you know, kind of floating. I had an idea I was gonna work, you know, travel, and my sister and I were living together, and I was working and I lost my job. And, you know, it's just wasn't--trying to live in an apartment too and living in Boston [Massachusetts]. And my parents [Barbara Jones Bagwell and Donald Bagwell, Sr.], when I left school, they decided they weren't gonna pay anymore for me. So if I wanted to get back to school, I had to do it on my own. And, and it was the summer of the semester, and then the summer. And that summer, I had hooked up with this place [United South End Settlements, Boston, Massachusetts] and had, through a girlfriend, and said that I was gonna work at this camp for the summer. And it was with this Harriet Tubman House [Boston, Massachusetts] that was a community center in the South End of Boston. And that was a breakthrough for me because suddenly I was, I was with young people and what I believed in and everything. So I could make work and make sense, you know, on a work level. And so I started working there, and I decided I was gonna get myself back in school, and I had been--I had bought a still camera and had been taking pictures and doing some slide shows and things like that. And one of my, and my roommate in freshman year was in the school of communications [Boston University College of Communication, Boston, Massachusetts] and was in film school. And, not in the film school, the school of communications, and he said to me--and I had always worked with films in high school, teaching, using them for teaching things, for teaching with my CYO work, Catholic Youth Organization work, and had brought, done a presentation in my sociology class with films about conditions in schools in urban areas. And my friend said, you really under--you really seem to know something about movies, and when you talk about them, and I really didn't know that and feel that way because I didn't really go to movies and stuff, you know. But he got my attention, and I decided I'd try and get back in school in the film school, which was a very small program in the communications school. I think they had like ten students, and I got in.$How soon do you start working with children after school in film?$$Well, that happened immediately actually 'cause it was a funny thing. I came out of that summer as a counselor, and the center asked me to come back and work with their after-school program. And I started working there, and no sooner had I gotten there, that the woman who was running it quit. And they offered me a full-time job running the program, which meant that I would work most of my hours in the evening. But I would, the days when I didn't have classes at school [Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts], I would spend my after- my days there, you know, working through the planning and the preparation and the, you know, just all the things to kind of set up the program. And it was really working in a center that really didn't have a lot of programs coming out of it. But what had happened is, once they gave me the job to run the after-school program, it didn't have a lot of kids coming to it either. But when they asked me to do it, I noticed that there is a lot of new housing projects that were built by the church in the neighborhood--there was a church on the corner, and they built a lot of low-income housing on Columbus Avenue. And I started recruiting from those homes. And then I, I petitioned for a little bit of money from the settlement house organization [United South End Settlements, Boston, Massachusetts] that ran this particular house [Harriet Tubman House, Boston, Massachusetts], and we renovated the house. And, you know, sanded and cleaned all the floors repainted the whole place and fixed it up so that somebody would want to come and be there and upgraded our offices and we started recruiting kids in and started bringing in a whole group of new kids. And suddenly the place was full of kids and teenagers. And we started a teen program too, and we then built a stage down on the corner and, you know, and started working and built, transformed a lot of the lots that were empty there into playgrounds and stuff like that, and started turning it into a new place. And then I started, I worked through the schools to get, to work with all the different schools in the area to kind of work with them to get our statuses up as an employer of work-study students, so I could recruit students in work-study programs. And I started building a cadre of teachers who were doing after school classrooms, teaching in math and reading and then other kinds of arts and other kinds of things. And then I taught a, I built a dark room on the top floor and taught photography and started doing a video class there.

James Breeden

James Pleasant Breeden was born on October 14, 1934 in Minneapolis, Minnesota to Florence Beatrice Thomas, a secretary and homemaker, and Pleasant George Breeden, a railroad dining car waiter. He was raised by his mother and stepfather Noah Smith and attended Harrison Elementary School and Lincoln Junior High School, both in Minneapolis. In 1952, Breeden graduated from North High School in Minneapolis and attended Dartmouth College.

In 1956, Breeden graduated cum laude from Dartmouth College with his B.A. degree. Two years later, he married Jeanne Marie Savoye in Geneva, Switzerland. The following year, Breeden obtained a certificate from the University of Geneva in connection with his work at the Ecumenical Institute World Council of Churches in Bossey, Switzerland. In 1960, Breeden graduated from Union Theological Seminary with his M.Div degree and moved to Boston, where he joined the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts.

From 1960 until 1965, Breeden was a member of the Episcopal Diocese as a deacon, priest and canon at St. James Church and St. Paul’s Cathedral. He became an advisor to Bishop Anson Phelps Stokes in the area of civil rights. During this period, Breeden was heavily involved in the Civil Rights Movement. In 1961, he participated in the Freedom Rides and was arrested in Jackson, Mississippi for “action likely to cause a riot.” He and others were later freed when the case was dismissed. In 1963, Breeden helped organize the first “Stay out for Freedom” event in Boston protesting the city’s lack of quality public education for African American students. The following year, Breeden was involved in rent strikes against landlords who were taking advantage of their tenants.

Breeden joined the National Council of Churches’ activist leadership in 1965, where he would remain for two years coordinating non-violent mass protests. In 1967, Breeden became the Director for the Commission on Church and Race for the Massachusetts Council of Churches during the time of the Boston race riots. In 1969, Breeden joined the faculty at Harvard Graduate School of Education, and in 1972 he earned his Ed.D. degree from the school. Breeden moved to Tanzania and became Professor of Education at the University of Dar Es Salaam in 1973, where he set up a master’s degree program in education administration.

Breeden returned to Boston two years later, joining the Citywide Coordinating Council in 1976 and monitoring the Boston Public Schools’ compliance with the federal order to desegregate. In 1980, Breeden became a Senior Officer for Planning and Policy at Boston Public Schools. Breeden became a dean at Dartmouth College in 1984 of the William Jewett Tucker Foundation. In 1994, Breeden became a visiting scholar at the Howard Graduate School of Education, and in 2001 joined the School for International Training as adjunct faculty.

Breeden was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 12, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.258

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/12/2007

Last Name

Breeden

Schools

Dartmouth College

William H. Harrison Elementary School

Abraham Lincoln Junior High School

North High School

Harvard Graduate School of Education

Union Theological Seminary

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Minneapolis

HM ID

BRE02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Minnesota

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

If You Do Anything Significant In History, It’s Because Many People Were Working On It Before You; Or, If Anything Comes Out of It, It Will Be Because There Will Be Many People Working On It After You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

10/14/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Greenfield

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Curry

Short Description

Civil rights leader, academic administrator, and priest James Breeden (1934 - ) became a dean at Dartmouth College in 1984. In 1994, Breeden became a visiting scholar at the Howard Graduate School of Education, and in 2001 joined the School for International Training as adjunct faculty.

Employment

Diocese of Massachusetts

St. James Episcopal Church

Cathedral Church of St. Paul

University of Dar es Salaam

Citywide Coordinating Council

Boston Public Schools

Harvard Graduate School of Education

Howard University

School for International Training Graduate Institute

Favorite Color

Fall Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:11463,104:12473,118:18080,151:18520,156:25022,213:27090,246:37006,395:37852,406:51145,503:57635,553:67600,637:73190,691:75936,706:76331,712:94084,926:95585,947:97876,997:99693,1075:100799,1094:107450,1138:108230,1153:108490,1158:109075,1169:109595,1179:113537,1214:114265,1224:117788,1248:125430,1301:126442,1313:128282,1340:129202,1351:134434,1397:148184,1567:159310,1706:165350,1764:166520,1782:174023,1856:174646,1865:177356,1891:179520,1909$0,0:0,6:320,11:640,16:960,28:3680,93:4960,109:5440,116:13676,164:15608,185:16160,192:17080,203:20790,217:21170,222:22405,263:24590,302:26812,314:27586,326:28790,343:29736,355:30596,367:31542,381:32058,388:36150,399:36510,404:39050,421:40562,441:41654,456:43082,474:43586,481:48002,494:52600,518:54532,534:57476,572:57844,577:60972,613:61800,623:62536,633:67715,651:69125,663:78428,741:78800,746:83391,763:84103,773:84459,781:85082,790:91110,821:92034,836:92790,847:93294,860:93966,870:95898,904:96402,912:97410,930:97830,936:102366,1014:109574,1081:111275,1107:111842,1116:113057,1238:113786,1249:114758,1264:115163,1270:123270,1346:125830,1355:126478,1365:126766,1370:131780,1416:133205,1432:134345,1446:135200,1453:135865,1462:136340,1468:140115,1491:143810,1529:146870,1565:147590,1574:148760,1589:159958,1668:165040,1805:165348,1810:166349,1828:167196,1844:168274,1861:168736,1871:169352,1883:170122,1894:171662,1919:175820,1929:176450,1938:176810,1943:177530,1953:185255,2039:185579,2044:186065,2052:197737,2191:207924,2303:213850,2348:215140,2356
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Breeden's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Breeden lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Breeden describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Breeden describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Breeden describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Breeden talk about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Breeden describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Breeden describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Breeden describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Breeden talks about the politics of Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Breeden describes his home life

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Breeden recalls the role of religion in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Breeden describes his involvement in the Boy Scouts of America

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls the entertainment of his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Breeden remembers William H. Harrison Elementary School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Breeden recalls Abraham Lincoln Junior High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Breeden describes North High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - James Breeden remembers the World Scout Jamboree in Austria

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - James Breeden describes his social life at North High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - James Breeden remembers graduating as salutatorian

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - James Breeden describes his experiences at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Breeden describes the political climate at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Breeden recalls his experiences of racial discrimination at Dartmouth College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Breeden remembers the Dartmouth Christian Union

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Breeden recalls his mentors at Dartmouth College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls his induction to the Palaeopitus Senior Society

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Breeden recalls the Union Theological Seminary in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Breeden talks about Operation Crossroads Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - James Breeden recalls his trip to Nigeria with Operation Crossroads Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - James Breeden reflects upon his experiences in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Breeden remembers his wedding in Switzerland

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Breeden talks about his travels in Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Breeden recalls his mentors at the Union Theological Seminary in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Breeden remembers the Civil Rights Movement in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls his involvement in the Freedom Rides, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Breeden recalls his involvement in the Freedom Rides, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Breeden describes his role in the Civil Rights Movement in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - James Breeden remember Bishop Anson Phelps Stokes III

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - James Breeden recalls the civil rights issues in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Breeden recalls organizing rent strikes in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Breeden remembers the Highlander Folk School in New Market, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Breeden talks about his training as a community organizer

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Breeden recalls his role in Massachusetts Governor John A. Volpe's election, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls his role in Massachusetts Governor John A. Volpe's election, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Breeden describes the school desegregation crisis in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Breeden talks about the activist community in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - James Breeden reflects upon the desegregation of schools in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Breeden reflects upon the legacy of desegregation in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Breeden describes his role at Harvard Graduate School of Education in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Breeden recalls teaching abroad in Tanzania

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Breeden remembers Charles Willie

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Breeden recalls the William Jewett Tucker Foundation in Hanover, New Hampshire

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Breeden talks about The Dartmouth Review

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - James Breeden remembers his retirement

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - James Breeden talks about a former student

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - James Breeden describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - James Breeden reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - James Breeden reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - James Breeden reflects upon his family

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - James Breeden talks about the black experience

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - James Breeden describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - James Breeden narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
James Breeden recalls his involvement in the Freedom Rides, pt. 2
James Breeden recalls the civil rights issues in Boston, Massachusetts
Transcript
We were immediately arrested and taken to Jackson city jail [Jackson, Mississippi]. We stayed there six days 'til the trial occurred. One of the guys from Washington, D.C. was a very dark with short cut hair and when they asked him his race, he said, "Human." And so they interrogated him for about an hour to try to figure out which cell to put him in (laughter) and they finally figured out, correctly, that he was white (unclear) so they got him into the right cell unit. We were put on trial; the judge was an Episcopalian. He read to us from the prayer book about how we were supposed to obey the civil authorities. And found us guilty of, in some kind of weird thing, like behavior that was--that might cause civil disturbance or something like that, very vague kind of thing. And, anyway, there wasn't anybody there to disturb the civil (laughter) whatever, so we got bailed out, two stayed in. We got bailed--the rest got bailed out, several went to Detroit [Michigan] to the General Convention [General Convention of the Episcopal Church LX] to try to get some energy around some motions in the Episcopal--for the Episcopal church to take some positions, which was successful. They stopped off at a suburb of Detroit, which was a no blacks, probably no Jews, quota suburb, and probably significant number of Episcopalians to illustrate northern, you know, behavior of the Episcopal church. We stopped--I can't remember if it was that trip or not, but there had been a big controversy at Sewanee University [The University of the South], the Episcopal school in Tennessee [Sewanee, Tennessee] that had a theological unit to it. And all the theological faculty had resigned because the, the university wouldn't change its policies on race. We went there and visited with the, with the whatever rector or president of that, but at any rate, that was part of the, of the, of a kind of continuum.$Well, what were some of the issues here in Boston [Massachusetts] that you--$$Well, the, the biggest one was school desegregation. And twice I was to serve at the center of a a--an--a effort successful effort to get kids from the Roxbury [Boston, Massachusetts] schools, these would be the segregated schools, to stay out of school and go to alternative schools and churches, and social centers to call attention to the quality and lack of integration of schools in Boston Public Schools. So that was a big one. In housing, I paid most attention--my, I should say is a more general thing. My--I saw myself as primarily trying to figure out how to make things public and nonviolent and big so that I, I was always trying to figure how to make something larger enough so that it could be seen. So, for instance, when, when there was started to show up that there was trouble with landlords not taking care of their houses, and there were the housing that they were renting to people and so that housing was not meeting code. It was--there were, you know, vermin infesting it. People, women, who I knew from our parish [St. James Episcopal Church; St. John and St. James' Episcopal Church, Boston, Massachusetts], would be telling me stories of staying up all night with a, with a cast iron pan to hit a rat before it would bite one of their children something like that. And so, I learned that, you know, that these codes are just were not being, were not being enforced either out of laziness or bribery or whatever. So, what we did was adopt a--I think it actually started in New Jersey, rent strike. And the money would--for the rent would come to me and I would deposit it somewhere and then and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) So you'd hold it in escrow for them--$$Yes, exactly right. And then that way we'd get leverage on the landlords to get them into court. And eventually that, that resulted in a state law that was much easier to enforce and made it legal. It was illegal to hold rent in escrow when we started it, that made it legal to do that so you could come into court and say the reason I haven't paid rent in X number of months is that there's this, you know, electricity cord is frayed or there're vermin in the apartment or whatever. And gave quite a considerable lev- leverage to, to people and, you know, to, to renters.

Hiram Little

Post office manager and Tuskegee Airman Hiram Emory Little, Sr. was born on March 31, 1919 in Eatonton, Georgia. When Little was young, his family moved from the rural town of Eatonton to Atlanta, Georgia where he attended David T. Howard Elementary and Junior High Schools. While in junior high school, Little was a charter member of Troop 94, the very first Boy Scout Troop in an African American school in Atlanta.

In 1941, Little enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps. He was trained at the Chanute Air Force Base located in Rantoul, Illinois, as an aircraft armorer in the Tuskegee Aviation Program. Little also served as a part-time instructor at the Cadet Ground School of the Tuskegee Army Air Base in Tuskegee, Alabama. Little served at the Tuskegee Army Air Base until December of 1943, when he applied for flight training. In 1944, Little graduated from bombardier school and in January of the following year, he was assigned to the 477th Bombardment Group as a crew member on a B-25 bomber. By late 1944, the 477th Bombardment Group was assigned to conduct combat training missions, but winter conditions reduced their flying time. They faced constant instances of racism from white officers.

In March of 1945, the 477th Bombardment Group was moved to Freeman Field, Indiana. Although the 477th trained with both the B-25 and the P-47 aircraft, the war ended before the 477th could be deployed overseas into combat. At Freeman Field, tension between white and black personnel increased due to strict segregationist policies. When Little, along with other black aviators, entered the whites’ only officers’ club, they were arrested. They had defied an illegal order issued by the commander of the 447th Bombardment Group. The commander had classified all black officers as trainees and decreed they were not allowed to use the staff officers’ club. Instead, the trainees, who had already graduated from flight school, were required to use a second former NCO club, housed in a run-down building. This event became known as the Freeman Field Mutiny.

On December 1, 1945, Little was honorably discharged from the U.S. Army Air Corps and enrolled at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia to complete his academic studies. While attending Morehouse College, Little was hired to work for the Atlanta U. S. Postal Service. In 1955, he became one of the first African American supervisors in the Atlanta area. Little worked for the U.S. post office until he retired in 1978 as a mid-level manager. In 2005, at the age of eighty, he received a certificate in carpentry from the Atlanta Technical College. Little, along with the remaining Tuskegee Airmen, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor by President George W. Bush in 2007.

Hiram Little was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 10, 2007.

Little passed away on February 18, 2017.

Accession Number

A2007.252

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/10/2007

Last Name

Little

Maker Category
Schools

David T. Howard High School

Morehouse College

Atlanta Technical College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Hiram

Birth City, State, Country

Eatonton

HM ID

LIT03

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Stay

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/31/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hotcakes (McDonald's), Sausage

Death Date

2/18/2017

Short Description

Post office manager and tuskegee airman Hiram Little (1919 - 2017 ) was a member of the 477th Bombardment Group. In April of 1945, Little was one of the African American enlistees who attempted to desegregate the officers’ club at Freeman Field. He along with the other surviving Tuskegee Airmen received the Congressional Medal of Honor in 2007.

Employment

United States Army Air Corps

Cadet Ground School of the Tuskegee Army Air Base

United States Army Air Force

Atlanta Postal Service

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:735,13:9450,173:18075,275:19500,362:42588,672:52865,782:54640,821:89480,1233:98302,1471:114408,1680:141589,2026:142147,2033:143440,2038:146359,2071:147054,2077:160414,2142:163406,2190:163846,2196:164286,2202:164814,2209:171000,2274:171500,2280:175150,2300:175434,2305:185180,2512$0,0:5185,122:5610,128:6290,138:11560,239:12155,246:27365,501:27705,506:33315,648:49258,798:54156,962:62925,1126:66638,1215:72689,1220:81144,1369:83814,1438:96180,1614:106980,1851:128900,2092
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Hiram Little's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Hiram Little lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Hiram Little describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Hiram Little describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Hiram Little describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Hiram Little describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Hiram Little describes his birth

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Hiram Little describes the Spivey Plantation in Putnam County, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Hiram Little talks about his parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Hiram Little describes his family

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Hiram Little remembers the blacksmith on the Spivey Plantation

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Hiram Little describes his father's work on the Spivey Plantation

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Hiram Little describes his home in Putnam County, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Hiram Little describes the workers on Spivey Plantation

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Hiram Little recalls picking cotton on the Spivey Plantation

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Hiram Little describes his older brother

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Hiram Little remembers his schooling at Texas A.M.E. Church in Eatonton, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Hiram Little remembers moving to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Hiram Little remembers joining the Boy Scouts of America

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Hiram Little describes his neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Hiram Little recalls David T. Howard Colored Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Hiram Little remembers listening to the radio

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Hiram Little describes his parents' professions

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Hiram Little describes his pastimes as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Hiram Little recalls his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Hiram Little recalls his decision to attend Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Hiram Little remembers Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Hiram Little recalls joining the 99th Pursuit Squadron

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Hiram Little describes his duties at Tuskegee Army Airfield

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Hiram Little recalls becoming a bombardier

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Hiram Little describes Sharpe Field in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Hiram Little remembers the Freeman Field Mutiny, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Hiram Little remembers the Freeman Field Mutiny, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Hiram Little describes his duties as a flight officer

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Hiram Little remembers the pilots he admired

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Hiram Little talks about the founding of the Tuskegee Airmen Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Hiram Little remembers receiving the Congressional Gold Medal

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Hiram Little describes the Tuskegee Airmen Inc. organization

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Hiram Little remembers returning to Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Hiram Little talks about his wife and children

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Hiram Little describes his career at the post office

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Hiram Little remembers the changes in the post office

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Hiram Little describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Hiram Little describes his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Hiram Little describes his work with the Cub Scouts

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Hiram Little talks about the speaker's bureau of Tuskegee Airmen Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Hiram Little recalls earning a degree in carpentry

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Hiram Little reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Hiram Little reflects upon his legacy and how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Hiram Little shares his advice for future generations

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Hiram Little narrates his photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Hiram Little remembers the blacksmith on the Spivey Plantation
Hiram Little recalls becoming a bombardier
Transcript
Tell me more about the Spivey Plantation [Putnam County, Georgia] where you grew up.$$What I can remember about the Spivey Plantation was that it looked like everything you needed there, Mr. Spivey [John Greene Spivey] had it on his plantation. One of the things I remember most was he had a blacksmith shop, and the blacksmith shop was right across the street from his cotton gin, he had a cotton gin, where you gin the cotton, we picked the cotton, and you take it to this gin and they gin it and bale it up and send it to town and sell it. But, right, right across the street from his cotton gin was a blacksmith shop, and the blacksmith was named Anderson, his last name was Anderson, A-N-D-E-R-S-O-N, and his first name was Alex, A-L-E-X, Alex Anderson and I understand from talking to some of the people he was a native of Sweden. How he got to America I don't know, but he was--well mules and horses had to be shoed. He would shoe, shoe them horses and mules, and I remember watching him and how he would take these, he would start, I think he always started on the left side of the horse or the shoe, the mule he was shoeing, and he would cut trim and I would ask him, "Does that hurt?" I can remember asking him, "Does that hurt the horses?" He said, "Nah just like your fingernails. Say you cut your finger it don't hurt you. It's the same way with horse." And he would know how, how far to cut 'cause he would have to nail the shoes, all shoes on the, that foot and he, I said, "At least don't hurt these horses you never been kicked?" He said, "No I never been kicked." He said, "I know where to start and I know why, how far to go and I nail these shoes on this horse and the, the mules. They'll stay there until the, you know they wear off and they come back and I shoe them again." I can remember his wife was named Jenny, Jenny, Ms. Jenny [ph.], and the thing I remember about Ms. Jenny she is--and, I, I, I've thought about this a lot. Ms. Jenny didn't have any white friends. All of Ms. Jenny's people were blacks, and I found out that the white folks in that community since Ms. Jenny's husband did ma- manual labor and horse, shoeing houses it was a little below their social standing. So, all the, the visit that Ms. Jenny had were black, black women and she would talk about. She had a son, a couple of sons that lived somewhere in Florida. I think it was St. Petersburg, Florida. She used to talk about them a lot, but I, I can't remember what she used to stay about them.$And then I decided I wanna go into the flying end of it 'cause you got 50 percent more pay when you--on flight duty. So, after doing all this, all these times I said I wanna try out for flight training. But, to apply for flight training it's a whole new ball game. So, they sent me down to Keesler Field, Mississippi [Keesler Air Force Base, Biloxi, Mississippi], which was a classification center. I must have spent eight or nine weeks down there, and they had some of everything. Had you doing some psychological things, psychomotor things, depth perception, all the color blindness. You could get out of there if you were color blind. You have to be able to recognize all of them lights by glancing at them, different colors what they mean. You can't stay with them all the time, but you have to, if you're color blind you had to wash out of that. But, anyway after they get through doing all these testing with you they, they had three categories of people. The guys who had in the top third of the class were designated as pilot trainees. These were potential pilots. That mean we set these guys aside. They, they in the top third of the class. The second tier of classes were guys who, these are guys they were gonna send to Hondo, Texas, and train them as celestial navigators where you can be out in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and nothing but water, but you could shoot the moon or the stars or the sun and tell exactly where you are, celestial navigation; those are the guys. Well, the third bunch well I fell, these guys are not gonna be much of anything. We make, (laughter) we make them bombardiers slash navigators (laughter). That's the way I feel. That's all right I took it. So, yeah--$$So you were a bombardier.$$Yeah, sent me. I let there and went to Midland, Texas [Midland Army Airfield, Texas], and stayed down there in Midland, Texas for I don't know how many months, but anyway I left there with a ranking as a flight officer which is similar, similar to a warrant officer junior grade, same pay. Flight officer is a bombardier slash navigator.

John B. Clemmons, Sr.

College professor and scholar J.B. Clemmons was born John Benjamin Clemmons on April 11, 1912 to Lewis and Bessie Clemmons in Rome, Georgia. Clemmons graduated from high school in 1927 after completing only the tenth grade; African Americans were not allowed to go to eleventh or twelfth grade in Rome. In 1930, he entered Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia.

Clemmons then enrolled in graduate studies at Atlanta University, obtaining his M.A. degree in 1937. He then moved to Harlan, Kentucky, where he began teaching for $100 a week and met and married Mozelle Daily. By 1942, Clemmons was the principal of the school in Harlan. In 1947, Clemmons and his wife moved to Savannah, Georgia. While his wife began her lifelong involvement in the NAACP, Clemmons taught at Savannah State College (now Savannah State University) alongside his colleague, Dr. Henry M. Collier, Jr. Together, they formed the Delta ETA Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. In the summer of 1949, he worked as a visiting professor at the University of Pittsburgh.

Clemmons then decided to continue his education by attending the University of Southern California to earn his Ph.D. He received Ford Foundation and National Science Foundation grants in 1951 and 1952, respectively. After working towards earning his Ph.D. at UCLA, Clemmons decided to return to Georgia, continued his teaching career and became involved in banking. He went on to charter the Alpha Lambda Boulé of the Sigma Pi Phi in Savannah in 1963.

Clemmons served as the Chairman of the Department of Mathematics and Physics at Savannah State University for thirty-seven years. He received many honors over the years for his outstanding work and philanthropic efforts in the community. Clemmons served as Chairman of the Board for Carver State Bank in Savannah.

Clemmons passed away on June 13, 2012 at the age of 100.

Accession Number

A2007.025

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/22/2007

Last Name

Clemmons

Maker Category
Middle Name

B.

Schools

Morehouse College

Main Elementary School

Clark Atlanta University

University of Southern California

University of Pittsburgh

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Rome

HM ID

CLE04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

Ask The Man That Won't Own One.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

4/11/1912

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster

Death Date

6/13/2012

Short Description

Math professor and physics professor John B. Clemmons, Sr. (1912 - 2012 ) served as acting chair Department of Mathematics and Physics at Georgia State College, and chartered the Alpha Lambda Boule’ of Sigma Pi Phi fraternity. He also served as Chairman of the Board for Carver State Bank in Savannah, Georgia, and received many honors over the years for his outstanding work and philanthropic efforts in the community.

Employment

Fairbanks Company

Tobacco Farm

Duffy's Tavern

Rosenwald High School

Savannah State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John B. Clemmons, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his family's land in Rome, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. talks about his brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his parents' professions

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers working at the Fairbanks Company in Rome, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his grade school education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers his elementary school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his experiences as a Boy Scout

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. recalls the entrance examination at Morehouse College

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers working on a tobacco farm in Hartford, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his summer work experiences during college

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his college education in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his thesis at Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his position at Rosenwald High School in Harlan, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his move to Cumberland, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. recalls being excused from U.S. military service

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his Ph.D. program at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. recalls joining the faculty off Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers his academic grants

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers Louis B. Toomer

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his real estate investments

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers the first computers at Georgia State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his position on the board of Carver State Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. recalls the Civil Rights Movement in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers founding the Alpha Lambda Boule

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes the Alpha Lambda Boule's scholarship program

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. describes his loan program at Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. talks about his organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers his induction to the Savannah Business Hall of Fame

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers teaching drama at Savannah State College

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. talks about his wife and children

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - John B. Clemmons, Sr. narrates his photographs

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers working at the Fairbanks Company in Rome, Georgia
John B. Clemmons, Sr. remembers the first computers at Georgia State College in Savannah, Georgia
Transcript
How much education did your father [Lewis Clemmons] have?$$He went to the third grade, he said. I don't know, but I know he could, he kept a, on his job, he kept a ruled notebook where he--real neat--where he would say, oh, you know, I, bill fifteen, uh, meaning assemble, fifteen 5213 trucks. That's the number of it. And those were cotton trucks, 5213. I will always remember that 'cause I remember most of them. And at the assembly, the price might have been--let us say, twelve cents. And then, if he built ten of them, then he put a dollar and twenty cents out there, and then on down the line, whatever trucks he was assembling. And then, one time, they were--the bosses sent three white boys down there one summer to work with him. And, and daddy said, "No, I'm not going to teach these boys how to take my job" (laughter). So, so he told his boss no. Well, one of the boys that came down there was one of the bosses' son. One--another one of the officials of the company [Fairbanks Company, Rome, Georgia]--son. And, and it was three boys. And, and the, and the, I don't know whether if that's what they planned to do or not. But daddy said, he wasn't going to teach them how to take his job--not him.$$So, did you and your brothers [Eddie Clemmons and Willie Clemmons] have--I'm sure you had chores, but did you work?$$Yeah, we would work sometimes after school. We, when we got a certain age, we'd go down to the same company. See, my daddy's work was piecework. And, and then, we had tapped, we knew the numbers of different things and, and, that were in certain bins. And it was a big factory too, covered about three or four blocks. And what we would do is, if he had to build fifty 230s--2- 2- trucks that were called 230s--then, we knew what brackets to get, what axels to get, all of the parts. And we'd bring it out of the bins, out to a desk. And my daddy and another man, Mr. Williams [ph.], for part of the time, and then, finally, there was just, there's a lot of different folks with him. But we'd pile those other, stack them up neatly by the desk, where the bench, where the, where each man was working. And then, and as the truck is assembled--first, you, you put the two hands down, then you do what, what they call nose guards and things, put them down. And then, finally, you end up, you putting the wheels on the axel. And then, you push it off. And every day about four o'clock, some man comes through, and see how many of them you assembled.$$Okay.$$And then, our job was to roll them to the warehouse. And in the warehouse, well, they shipped everything from the warehouse. That was what daddy did.$$Okay. Now (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) He was doing that when he died--up to, and lived to that point, he got--up 'til he retired.$At this time, you're still, you're teaching at Savannah State [Georgia State College; Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia]. How long--$$I'm not teaching. I didn't--$$Not--no, at this time, this is in 1947, 1948.$$Oh, yeah, I was teaching.$$Yeah. How long did you teach at Savannah State?$$I, I taught, let me see, I taught thirty-five years there.$$What did you teach? Was it mathematics and physics (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Mathematics, physics, and computer science.$$Okay. And you were the chairman of the department of mathematics?$$Chairman, chairman of the department. One of the things, special things I did, I wrote IBM [International Business Machines Corporation] at Poughkeepsie, New York. They gave me a trip up there, and tell--I went to a meeting in University of Georgia [Athens, Georgia] for all of the units in Georgia. And they took us out to Georgia Tech in, in Georgia [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia]. And, and those places, they had rooms where each student would have a computer way back then, and I didn't know that. I didn't know that was happening. And so, I wrote IBM. They gave me a trip up there. And I took one of the leader, leader students with me up there, and see, he's, he's deceased now. But (unclear), I was able to talk to the vice president of IBM. And I told them, that's--you all should--we trying to get the computers. And when--you all should give, give us some, a resource person. Said, "Well, we'll let you know." And I stayed two days up there. But when I got back, I got a letter saying they had decided that they would give us a resource person at their expense for one year. Well, that person came, and we were living at The Landings [Savannah, Georgia]. That's where rich people--they paid for all of that. And, and we had, and he taught a class in it. And I, I and they didn't--lady named Ms. Wilson [ph.] knew a good bit about programming and stuff. But that, that fellow kind of directed us and taught us more. And we got what you call the 1620 computer [IBM 1620]. And, and they put that in, in here at the college. And then, later, we got a, one called a 360 [IBM System/360], but the college bought it. And then, but you see, but that's something, a lot of the kids didn't know how the computer got here. But, and a lot of teachers probably didn't know, but that's how we got it, see (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) All right.