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Jessie Carney Smith

Librarian, author and educator Jessie Carney Smith was born on September 24, 1930 in Greensboro, North Carolina to James Ampler and Vesona Bigelow Carney. Smith attended Mount Zion Elementary School and James B. Dudley High School in Greensboro. She graduated from North Carolina A&T State University with her B.S. degree in home economics in 1950. Smith pursued graduate studies at Cornell University and then received her M.A. degree in child development from Michigan State University in 1956, and her M.A.L.S. degree from the George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University in 1957.

In 1957, Smith was hired as an instructor and head library cataloger at Tennessee State University. In 1960, she enrolled in a Ph.D. program at the University of Illinois, and worked as a teaching assistant from 1961 to 1963. Smith then returned to Tennessee State University, where she was hired as an assistant professor and coordinator of library services. In 1964, she became the first African American to earn a Ph.D. degree in library science from the University of Illinois; and, in 1965, she was hired as a professor of library science and the university librarian of Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. She was named the William and Camille Cosby Professor in the Humanities at Fisk University in 1992, and appointed dean of the library in 2010. Smith has also lectured part-time at Alabama A&M University, the University of Tennessee and the George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University.

Smith served as consultant to the U.S. Office for Civil Rights, the U.S. Office of Education, the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), and the American Library Association. She directed three institutional self-studies at Fisk University, resulting in the institution’s reaffirmation of accreditation by SACS. In addition, Smith has directed multiple projects funded by NEH and the Andrew Mellon Foundation, and served on several Fisk University campus committees.

Smith has published numerous research guides and reference books. In 1991, she released the award winning, Notable Black American Women, and went on to publish Notable African American Men in 1999. Her other books include Black Heroes of the Twentieth Century, Freedom Facts and Firsts: 400 Years of the African American Civil Rights Experience, and Black Firsts: 4000 Groundbreaking and Pioneering Historical Events, among others.

Smith received the Martin Luther King Black Authors Award in 1982 and the National Women's Book Association Award in 1992. She received the Candace Award for excellence in education, Sage magazine's Ann J. Cooper Award, and distinguished alumni awards from both the Peabody College of Vanderbilt University and the University of Illinois. She was named the Academic/Research Librarian of the Year from the Association of College and Research Libraries in 1985; and, in 1997, received the key to the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In 2011, Smith was awarded the Global Heritage Award from the Global Education Center and the Outstanding Achievement in Higher Education Award from the Greater Nashville Alliance of Black School Educators.

Jessie Carney Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 22, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.011

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/22/2014

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Carney

Schools

Mt. Zion Elementary

James B. Dudley High School

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Cornell University

Michigan State University

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

First Name

Jessie

Birth City, State, Country

Greensboro

HM ID

CAR28

State

North Carolina

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

9/24/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Nashville

Country

United States

Short Description

Librarian, author, and educator Jessie Carney Smith (1930 - ) is the dean of Fisk University’s library and the William and Camille Cosby Professor in the Humanities. She has worked at Fisk University since 1965, and has published numerous research guides and reference books, including the award-winning Notable Black American Women. In addition, Smith was the first African American to earn a Ph.D. degree in library science from the University of Illinois.

Employment

Fisk University

Tennessee State University

Peabody College of Vanderbilt University

University of Tennessee

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin

Library director and theater executive Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin was born on April 25, 1945 in Winston-Salem, North Carolina to Thelma N. Holtzclaw, a custodian, and Arthur William Henry Sprinkle, Jr., a factory worker. She received her B.S. degree in education from Winston-Salem State University in 1967 and her M.S. degree in library science from Clark Atlanta University in 1968.

After the completion of her studies, Sprinkle-Hamlin joined the staff of the Free Library of Philadelphia as a children’s librarian. In 1970, she became an information specialist at the Benjamin Banneker Urban Center and in 1973, she became the instructional media center director for the Philadelphia Public Schools while taking education administration classes at Cheyney State University. Sprinkle-Hamlin returned to Winston-Salem State University in 1978 where she served as a public services librarian and assistant director of the university library. In 1979, she joined the Forsyth County Public Library system as department head for children’s outreach. Also in 1979, Sprinkle-Hamlin met her future husband, Larry Leon Hamlin, who was the founder of the North Carolina Black Repertory Company. They married in 1981 and Sprinkle-Hamlin became secretary of the National Black Repertory Company in 1983. Hamlin would go on to found the National Black Theatre Festival in 1989, with the fundraising support of Dr. Maya Angelou. Sprinkle-Hamlin has served on the board of directors for The National Black Theatre Festival since 1991. The Festival grew from thirty performances and 10,000 in attendance in 1989 to over 100 performances and 50,000 in attendance in 2005. In 2007, Hamlin died after an extended illness and Sprinkle-Hamlin carried on her husband’s work becoming executive producer for the National Black Theatre Festival. In 2010, she became president of the board of directors for the North Carolina Black Repertory Company. During this time, Sprinkle-Hamlin also continued to work for the Forsyth County Public Library serving as assistant library director , extension division, associate library director and becoming the library director in 2000. She also served as a library consultant for W.H. Roberts & Associates.

Sprinkle-Hamlin has worked extensively in the Winston-Salem community serving on the board of directors for Family Services, Inc., Forsyth County Smart Start, The Shepherd Center of Greater Winston-Salem and The Diggs Gallery of Winston-Salem University. She has also served as a council member of the American Library Association (ALA), president of the Black Caucus of the American Library Association, Public library Association Board member and chair of the African American Issues Roundtable of the Southeastern Library Association. Sprinkle-Hamlin has received the Roundtable for Ethnic Minority Roadbuilder’s Award, the DEMCO/ALA Black Caucus Award for Excellence in Librarianship and The Chronicle Women of the Year Award. She lives in Pfafftown, North Carolina.

Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 23, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.037

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/23/2012

Last Name

Sprinkle-Hamlin

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Middle Name

Yvonne

Schools

Winston-Salem State University

Clark Atlanta University

Carter High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sylvia

Birth City, State, Country

Winston-Salem

HM ID

SPR04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

All Things Are Possible With Help From God. I Get My Strength From The Lord.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

4/25/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Winston-Salem

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cake (Strawberry Shortcake)

Short Description

Theater chief executive and library director Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin (1945 - ) was executive producer of the National Black Theatre Festival, and board president of the North Carolina Black Repertory Company. She also directed the Forsyth County Public Library.

Employment

Forsyth County Public Library

Winston-Salem State University

Benjamin Banneker Urban Center

Free Library of Philadelphia

W.H. Roberts & Associates

Fashion Two-Twenty Cosmetics

North Carolina Black Repertory Company

Favorite Color

All Colors

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about her maternal great-grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sylvia Hamlin-Sprinkle describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about her mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about her upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin recalls Center Grove A.M.E. Zion Church in Tobaccoville, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin remembers Carver Consolidated School in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about the book mobile in Forsythe County, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin recalls segregation in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about the history of Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin recalls her early exposure to television and radio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin remembers her early interest in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin recalls her start at Winston-Salem State College in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin remembers her college classmate Earl Monroe

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes her decision to pursue a master's in library science

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin remembers Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about the education qualifications of a librarian

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes her career in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin remembers her return to Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes how she met her husband, Larry Leon Hamlin

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about Larry Leon Hamlin's theater background

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin recalls the founding of the North Carolina Black Repertory Company Theatre Guild

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes the development of the North Carolina Black Repertory Company

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about funding for the North Carolina Black Repertory Company

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin remembers the inaugural National Black Theatre Festival

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about the cost of the National Black Theatre Festival

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes the content of the National Black Theatre Festival

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about the North Carolina Black Repertory Company staff

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes North Carolina Black Repertory Company's guest artists

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamline talks about the North Carolina Black Repertory Company's marketing strategy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes the highlights of the North Carolina Black Repertory Company

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about support for the North Carolina Black Repertory Company

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin reflects upon Larry Leon Hamlin's legacy, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin reflects upon her career

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about the relevance of public libraries

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about her family

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin reflects upon Larry Leon Hamlin's legacy, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin talks about the 2012 season of North Carolina Black Repertory Company

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin remembers the inaugural National Black Theatre Festival
Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin describes the highlights of the North Carolina Black Repertory Company
Transcript
Tell us about the National Black Theatre Festival and how that idea (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay, so I think in 1988 Larry [Sprinkle-Hamlin's husband, Larry Leon Hamlin] went to a conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, and I think he was supposed to write an article on black theaters in America, and I think in writing that article he realized that it was quite a few black companies in America, but they weren't communicating with each other, and they all had the same problem: funding, how do you really get funds? So at first he just thought about having a conference and bringing these theater companies together, but then he decided it would be probably more fun to have a festival, so the idea of the festival came up. So what he did was invited some theater companies that he had relationships with to come to the festival and Dr. Maya Angelou, he went to her with his plans and she gave him a lot of pointers as to what he should do, and she also recommended that he bring in celebrities because, you know, if you have celebrities, that would get a lot of the people who wouldn't come to a theater festival, to come to the festival to see the celebrities. So she helped him to get some named people, known people, to come to the first festival. And Oprah was our first celebrity guest.$$Okay, now from what I've read here, he sort of accidentally bumped into [HistoryMaker] Maya Angelou in the airport, is that true?$$Yeah, yeah, yeah.$$So how does that, well tell us that story.$$Well that's all I know, he started--he bumped into her at an airport and he talked to her about what he wanted to do, because you know she had moved here. She was living here.$$Oh no, I didn't know that.$$Oh, yeah, she lives here now.$$Okay.$$She's a Reynolds Scholar [Nancy Susan Reynolds Scholar] at Wake Forest, Reynolds Scholar for life.$$Wake Forest is?$$Wake Forest University.$$Yeah, that's close by Winston-Salem [North Carolina].$$It's here.$$It's in Winston-Salem?$$Yeah, yeah.$$Okay, all right. A lot of people don't know 'cause the name is Wake Forest and we don't know where it is (laughter).$$It used to be in Wake Forest--$$Okay.$$--North Carolina.$$Yeah.$$Then they moved to Winston-Salem in the '50s [1950s].$$Okay. All right.$$Yeah.$$Okay.$$So she helped him to get it off the ground in 1989.$$All right, okay. So it was her clout that got Oprah Winfrey?$$Yeah, yeah, um-hm.$$And Oprah Winfrey was one of the most popular people in America, if not the most popular.$$Right, (laughter) but I like to tell the story, is that when Larry said he was going to have a festival and Oprah was going to be here and some of the other people who came in 1989, the people in Winston-Salem didn't really believe it. And so you know we have an opening night gala and in 1989 gala tickets were only fifty dollars so the people from across the United States was real excited and so they bought a lot of the tickets. So two weeks before the, the festival then the people around here started believing it. Oh yeah, it's really gonna happen, it's really gone happen, but we were sold out, so a lot of people missed out on the first one. But they haven't missed out any more since then.$$Okay. So how was that first festival? What I read here is that Oprah was there, [HistoryMaker] Ruby Dee, [HistoryMaker] Ossie Davis.$$Yeah.$$Esther Rolle, Cicely Tyson.$$Yeah, all of those people were there.$$Maya Angelou too, was she, was she?$$Oh yeah, she was, yeah, she was chair, the first chair we had, co-chair, the first chair we had for the festival. It was very exciting because it happened, people came. I think we were most excited that people came from all over: from California; New York [New York]; Chicago [Illinois]; Atlanta [Georgia]. You know, they saw it, they believed in us and they came and they had a really good time and we had some really good shows. And so that was the beginning.$Now what have been some of the highlights of the, the Black Repertory's [North Carolina Black Repertory Company] seasons over the years?$$Some of the highlights. Well I think--the milestones that I think that we've--? Creating the guild [North Carolina Black Repertory Company Theatre Guild], I think was a high point. Well, first we'll start with the living room theater, how we start at first marketing the company then creating the guild. We now have what we call--at one point we had a music division, where we had singers and musicians that were involved. I think we have what we call now, Marvtastic Society; that was created in 2003. And in order to be a member of the Marvtastic Society you had to pay a thousand dollars to be a part of that society, and you get some discounts, and that has really worked really well.$$Well tell us what--this is a good time I guess to tell us what does marvtastic mean and where did it come from?$$(Laughter) Well Larry [Sprinkle-Hamlin's husband, Larry Leon Hamlin] coined that word, marvtastic, marvelous and fantastic together, so (laughter) that's what it means. And he came up with that word and then it caught on and everybody started using it, everybody started asking what does it mean and so he decided he would come up with a Marvtastic Society, and these people donate, especially to the festival [National Black Theatre Festival].$$Okay, all right, well keep going. I didn't want to, I just wanted to have you say something about that.$$Yeah, yeah, the Marvtastic Society I think is a milestone. I think the teen theater, having actual--doing the teen theater has been a milestone. And I think our longevity, you know, we been in business since 1979 and we've been through a lot and we're still around and we're still doing the festival. And, of course, the biggest thing is the festival in 1989. And I think in 2007 when Larry passed, people didn't know what was going to happen. You know that year, he passed that--the festival was that year. The festival was in August and he passed in June, so we--the board decided that we should go on and do the festival 'cause we were already working on it. And everybody was there and people were having conversations because they really didn't know what was gonna happen with the festival. But I knew that he really loved the festival and sometimes I feel that the festival probably was one--working really hard late at night, not doing what you're supposed to do health wise probably contributed to his early death. I decided that I would do all I could, along with some other supporters, to make sure that it still happened. And you know I was always in the background. I was the person that worked with the community. I knew a lot of people in the community. I worked a lot with the volunteers and I would be around at the meetings and all of that, so I was in the background so I knew some of the things that were involved. And then he had a lot of people who had worked with him before. We call 'em consultants. Lawrence Evans from New York [New York]; lark hackshaw from Atlanta [Georgia], Artie Reese [Arthur Reese]; those people had worked with him before. So we knew that it had to continue. So we just did what had to be done and we just had to do it without him, but we are doing okay, but his presence, we feel that his presence is still here. We feel his spirit, you know, when we start planning the festival.

Carla Hayden

Library Director and Administrator Carla Hayden was born on August 10, 1952. She received her B.A. degree from Roosevelt University and began work as a library assistant at the Chicago Public Library in 1973. She later received M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Chicago’s Graduate Library School.

She worked as library service coordinator for the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago and as a professor at the University of Pittsburgh’s School of Library and Information Science. In 1991, she returned to Chicago where she worked as the Chicago Public Library System’s deputy commissioner and chief librarian. She is also the second African American to become the executive director of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, one of the oldest free libraries in the United States.

Hayden was elected president of the American Library Association in 2003. She succeeded in getting Attorney General John Ashcroft to declassify reports on the Act’s provisions and eventually, through her efforts and the efforts of other civil liberties organizations, the section of the Act that allowed the F.B.I. to demand private individuals’ library records was rescinded.

Hayden has continually championed the cause of civil liberties and freedom of information. She spearheaded the A.L.A.’s efforts to overturn legislation that forced all libraries receiving federal funding to install internet content filters on their computers. Eventually the Supreme Court upheld the right of adult library users to request the filter’s deactivation, though they did not overturn the requirement that the filters be installed. Hayden has worked with the A.L.A. to publicize and uphold the right to deactivate the filter.

She has been honored with the Andrew White Medal by Loyola College, the President’s Medal by Johns Hopkins University, and the Legacy of Literacy Award by the DuBois Circle of Baltimore. Hayden was named one of Ms. Magazine’s 2003 Women of the Year and one of Maryland’s Top 100 Women of Maryland. She is also the first African American to receive the Librarian of the Year Award from Library Journal Magazine. She is a member of the Boards of the Maryland African American Museum Corporation, Goucher College, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute and Library and Maryland Historical Society.

Accession Number

A2010.082

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/16/2010

Last Name

Hayden

Maker Category
Middle Name

D.

Occupation
Schools

Roosevelt University

University of Chicago

Ps 96 Joseph C Lanzetta School

St. Edmund's Parochial School

South Shore International College Prep High School

First Name

Carla

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

HAY10

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

Living Well Is The Best Revenge.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

8/10/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream (Chocolate)

Short Description

Librarian Carla Hayden (1952 - ) has served numerous library systems and fought for civil liberties and freedom of information. She was appointed the 14th Librarian of Congress in 2016.

Employment

Enoch Pratt Free Library

Chicago Public Library

Museum of Science and Industry

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carla Hayden's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden relates stories from her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden recalls the stories her paternal grandmother told her about family history

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden talks about her father's upbringing in central Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carla Hayden talks about her father's career as a musician

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden talks about how her parents pursued careers in music during the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden talks about how her parents' marriage ended after the family moved to New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden shares memories of the music scene her father belonged to during her childhood in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden explains why she chose not to pursue a career in music

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden talks about her childhood interest in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden recalls Margaret Pendergast of Springfield, Illinois, one of her role models as a librarian

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences in grade school in New York, New York and Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Carla Hayden talks about the impact of her parents' divorce

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden talks about the factors that led to her parents' divorce

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences at St. Edmund's School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden recalls her cultural experiences in Chicago, Illinois during the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden describes the changes in the South Shore neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois during her high school years

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences at South Shore High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden talks about why she did not attend her prom at South Shore High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden recalls her impression of radical politics in Chicago, Illinois during the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden talks about her aspirations while attending South Shore High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences at MacMurray College in Jacksonville, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden describes her experiences at Roosevelt University in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden talks about how she decided to become a librarian

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden describes her early career as a librarian in the Chicago Public Library system in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden describes her graduate studies in library science at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden talks about her decision to specialize in children's literature

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden recalls her time as a professor at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden talks about returning to Chicago, Illinois as the chief librarian of the Chicago Public Library

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden recalls the completion of the Harold Washington Library Center in Chicago, Illinois in 1991

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden talks about her decision to become the director of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden recalls the dedication of the Bruce K. Hayden Center for the Performing Arts at Malcolm X College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden talks about the history of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden describes her tenure as director of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden talks about how she became president of the American Library Association

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden talks about her opposition to the USA PATRIOT Act as president of the American Library Association

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carla Hayden talks about the future plans of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carla Hayden offers her perspective on how reading will change in the future

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carla Hayden reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carla Hayden talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carla Hayden reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carla Hayden talks about her family's pride in her career

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Carla Hayden offers advice to young people considering a career in library science

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Carla Hayden describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

7$8

DATitle
Carla Hayden talks about how she became president of the American Library Association
Carla Hayden talks about her opposition to the USA PATRIOT Act as president of the American Library Association
Transcript
Tell me about the American Library Association [ALA] and your involvement in the American Library Association.$$Well, I was elected to be president of the American Library Association. And that's the oldest and the largest organization that is involved with libraries. So it has about sixty-five thousand members, mainly librarians and it represents--it's the voice of public libraries in particular in this country. And I was elected and--to be president, my first elected position. And it (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) This is the first--okay.$$I never ran for anything, school, president, and anything like that.$$How do you get to be the president of the American Library Association?$$You actually have to campaign, and you have to have a platform, and you have to present to the different groups, and you have to do interviews. And you have to actually run for it, and I had an opponent. And I guess that, a little bit of that Chicago [Illinois] rubs off on you. So (laughter), I won by a wide margin, and we--there were no dirty politics though. But it was a clean election, but it was an interesting experience. And it was also interesting because I had, by that time made friends with some political figures in the Baltimore [Maryland] area. And they helped me with the campaign. The other person who helped me with the campaigning came out and did a fundraiser for me, was [HistoryMaker] Tavis Smiley. We had had him here several times for book signings, and he heard that I was running for the American Library Association president. And he actually came out and gave a donation, one of the first donations to my campaign that allowed me to buy T-shirts and buttons to give to the librarians at the conference. You have to really do that kind of electioneering. And that, and I've been grateful for that ever since. And he's been back to the [Enoch] Pratt [Free] Library [Baltimore, Maryland] to do book signings.$$Okay, does he have a connection here locally at all, I mean in terms of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) No, I don't think there's any direct connection. I think he--what I've found is he can be very supportive of people that are trying to do things. So.$$Okay, now, what was your platform?$$Well, my platform was equity of access, that people of all backgrounds should have as much access to library services as possible. And sometimes we may not realize that in libraries that the policies that we put in place are actually barriers to access. And homeless--if you have a requirement that someone has to show a driver's license to get a library card, that can eliminate a lot of people, or if there has to be a residency thing. You have to show a piece of mail. Well, what about the homeless people. So there're lots of things that we do in libraries sometimes that are actually blocking people from using us freely and that we should look at all of our policies. We should look at the people we hire to make sure that sometimes they reflect the communities that they're working in. So, it was really asking the library community to look at everything we do to make sure that our libraries stay free and open.$After 9/11 [September 11, 2001]--$$Right.$$--[U.S. Department of] Homeland Security came up with some--there's even legislation, right, to (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yes, the [USA] PATRIOT Act [of 2001].$$PATRIOT Act, right.$$And that, and during my term, that, the PATRIOT Act was enacted, and there was a section--and there still is a Section 215 that related to library records. And while I was president, I had to represent the [American Library] Association [ALA] and take a stand basically saying that we were concerned about that section that allowed the federal government to look at and confiscate library records without the library being able to tell the person who's being investigated that their records were being examined. And, in fact, we couldn't even tell other staff members or our boards that the FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation] or whatever agency had visited us. We would be put in jail if we revealed that we were even asked for records, much less the names. So (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) These are records of the kind of books you check out or--$$The books, the use of computers. We also and still at this time, are able to, say you sign in for a computer session. There's a way, as everybody knows, that you can track what someone's looking at, what websites they're going to. And we have that information. And so the government, without--and this was another aspect of it that we were concerned about, could go into and get a court, a closed court, and get the warrant for this type of search without showing cause. So they did not have to say we suspect Larry Crowe of this, this and this. They could just say, we want to look at his records. That's all they had to do. So they did not even have to show any proof. And so what bothered, and in a true sense, the librarians who had this covenant of trust with our patrons, is that you may be interested in jihad, just because you're interested in it. You've heard the name. You wanna know more about it. That doesn't mean that you intend to join. So interests and intent are not necessarily equal. And that's what we wanted to protect and make sure that people could still want to find out information about anything without being investigated and not knowing that they were being investigated. And it really escalated to the point that the government was able to just find out, not even particular names of people coming in to a search, but would say, be able to say, we want to see the names of everyone who has ever looked at this. So that's really broadening to it, to the extent that it was unacceptable.$$Okay, so did you achieve any success with (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) We did have some successes in terms of that, and each subsequent passage or reauthorization of the PATRIOT Act, there have been modifications to that section so that there is notification. Librarians will not be jailed if they reveal that the FBI--so each reauthorization, we've been able to effect some modification.$$Now, you, you've actually had to speak with John Ashcroft who was then attorney general (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--about these--$$Right, so it--as my grandmother said at the time, "I never thought being a librarian would get you to do this kinda thing." (Laughter) She was very amazed.

Henrietta Smith

Library science professor and school media librarian Henrietta Mays Smith was born on May 2, 1922, in Harlem, a neighborhood in New York. Smith is the daughter of Nettie Johnson Mays, a domestic worker, and Henry Lucas Mays, a chef who worked on riverboats on the Hudson. Smith attended Hunter College, studying English and history. She earned her B.A. degree from Hunter College in 1943 and in 1946, she received her B.S.L.S. degree from Columbia University. Smith then moved to Tallahassee, Florida, where she served as a cataloguer at Florida A&M University for the next two years. Dr. Smith received her M.S.L.S. degree from Columbia University in 1959.

Smith started her career working for Florida A&M University's Library as a cataloger and later returned to New York to complete her M.S.L.S. degree. She also worked at the Countee Cullen Branch of the New York Public Library as a children's librarian where she become interested in storytelling and the power of oral traditions. In 1949, she married Isaiah Courtney Smith, a young civil rights lawyer. Returning once again to Florida, Smith worked for Broward County Public Schools, as a school media specialist. In 1975, at the age of fifty three, she received her Ph. D. degree from the University of Miami and joined the faculty of the Florida Atlantic University's School of Education. After ten years at Florida Atlantic, she left the institution and joined the faculty of the University of South Florida's School of Library Science where she was the first and only African American faculty member on campus. She specialized in children's librarianship and the art of storytelling.

Since retiring in 1993, Smith has been remained active in the library science field. She has sat on many American Library Association (ALA) selection committees for several literary awards such as the Coretta Scott King Awards, the Caldecott Award, and the Newbery Award. In 1994, she edited the book The Coretta Scott King Book Awards: From Vision to Reality. She has been a board member of the Florida Association of Media in Education (FAME) and the Florida Library Association (FLA) and has continued her general membership. She has also been involved with Storytellers Association, an association which teaches and develops multicultural storytelling and the oral tradition. In 2000, she wrote the introduction to Lift Every Voice and Sing: A Pictorial Tribute to the Negro National Anthem.

Smith lives in Florida with her husband, I.C. Smith, now a retired judge. She has two adult children, Cynthia Smith Jackson and Robin Smith. In 2008, she was honored by the American Library Association (ALA) as the recipient of the Association for Library Service to Children's (ASCL) Distinguished Service Award for Smith's accomplishments and contributions to children's librarianship.

Henrietta Mays Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 13, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.235

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/13/2007

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Hunter College

Columbia University

University of Miami

Morris High School

P.S. 139 Frederick Douglass School

Julia Ward Howe Junior High School 81

First Name

Henrietta

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

SMI19

Favorite Season

Christmas, Easter

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere New

Favorite Quote

Take Time To Smell The Roses.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

5/2/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tampa

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken Wings

Short Description

Library science professor and school media librarian Henrietta Smith (1922 - ) became the first African American faculty member at the University of South Florida’s School of Library and Information Science.

Employment

University of South Florida, School of Library Science

Florida Atlantic University, College of Education

Broward County Public Schools

Countee Cullen Branch, New York Public Library

Florida A&M University

New York Public Library

Favorite Color

Blue, Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Henrietta Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith describes her upbringing in New York City's Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith remembers her parents' cooking

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith remembers her relationship with her father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith describes her family's holiday traditions

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Henrietta Smith describes her mother's emphasis on etiquette

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Henrietta Smith remembers her lessons in elocution

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Henrietta Smith talks about her sister

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Henrietta Smith describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Henrietta Smith describes her neighborhood in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Henrietta Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Henrietta Smith remembers the Grace Congregational Church of Harlem

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Henrietta Smith recalls her experiences at P.S. 81 in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Henrietta Smith describes her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Henrietta Smith describes her mother's parenting

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith remembers Morris High School in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith describes her experiences at New York City's Hunter College

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith remembers attending Hunter College with Ruby Dee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith remembers volunteering at the 135th Street Library in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith talks about the 135th Street Library

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith recalls attending library school at Columbia University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith recalls working as a cataloguer at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Henrietta Smith recalls her return to the New York Public Library system

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Henrietta Smith describes the work of Augusta Braxton Baker

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Henrietta Smith recalls the discrimination faced by African American authors

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Henrietta Smith remembers the notable African American librarians

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Henrietta Smith recalls her storytelling lessons from Augusta Braxton Baker

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith recalls the Hans Christian Andersen storytelling hour

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith remembers Jean Blackwell Hutson

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith describes her duties as a children's librarian

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith remembers meeting and marrying her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith remembers the birth of her first daughter

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith describes her husband's law practice

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith remembers moving to Delray Beach, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Henrietta Smith describes her work for the public schools of Broward County, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Henrietta Smith talks about her doctoral studies at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Henrietta Smith remembers her tenure at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Henrietta Smith describes working at University of South Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith remembers E.J. Josey

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith recalls the creation of the Coretta Scott King Award

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith describes the John Steptoe New Talent Award

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith talks about the Coretta Scott King Awards Book

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith talks about illustrator Ashley Bryan

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith describes the African American Research Library and Cultural Center

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith remembers Doris Clark

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Henrietta Smith remembers Lucille Thomas

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Henrietta Smith remembers Charlemae Rollins

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Henrietta Smith remembers Virginia Lacy Jones

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Henrietta Smith remembers Effie Lee Morris

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Henrietta Smith describes her involvement in Storytellers International

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Henrietta Smith remembers telling stories with Blue Water

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - Henrietta Smith recalls the creation of the Pura Belpre Award

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Henrietta Smith shares her philosophy of storytelling

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Henrietta Smith talks about access to African American children's literature

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Henrietta Smith describes her concerns for children's literature

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Henrietta Smith shares her concerns for public libraries

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Henrietta Smith talks about the Negro National Anthem

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Henrietta Smith reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Henrietta Smith narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Henrietta Smith narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

1$1

DATitle
Henrietta Smith recalls her storytelling lessons from Augusta Braxton Baker
Henrietta Smith shares her philosophy of storytelling
Transcript
So let's talk a little, let's talk some more about Augusta Baker [Augusta Braxton Baker]. Do you--can you tell us, can you describe her for us and tell us maybe about some of your personal interactions with her?$$Okay, Augusta Baker, a tiny woman, but big. You know what I mean, big in what she could and as I told you she said, "You're gonna tell stories." Well they had told us that before but she really reinforced--"You're gonna tell--and remember when you're telling you are sharing this event and you are not the primary character therefore you dress down." "Do what?" "You dress down. You wear dark colors, no jewelry that jangles and you don't have a lot of stuff around you because you are just sharing an event." And then they would come around and you had to do a practice or practicum story while you know she's sitting there looking at you and you're saying okay am I doing this right? Am I gonna remember the events? And you're scared to death until she relax--you relax when you finish and she smiles at you and you know that you did okay. When I moved to Florida--moved--well, we're get to that more later, but when I moved to Florida I would come up in the summer, I was going back to Columbia [Columbia University, New York, New York] to get my master's in library science and I told Augusta I said, "I'm gonna be up for the summer, maybe I can do some part-time storytelling," and she would say, "I can give you ten hours a week if you do that much for me." And that's when I use to go down in the parks but remembering what she had taught you went out to the park. You might carry a book or two, but you really--she said your book is your Linus blanket. You're not reading to the children, you're telling them this story, and that what we really--I don't think the people much of that now. They use visuals and stuff like that but--$$So can you talk a little bit about that telling of a story? What's involved in telling a story versus reading a story?$$When you tell it, it you say, "This is the event at which I was present. And Adrienne [Adrienne Jones] for some reason you missed it but here's what happened," and then you tell this story, you tell the Anansi stories or you tell the Peter Rabbit story or you tell how the cat made the--got to make the sound that it does. The book may be over here, but you're telling and you know when you've done it okay because at one I have a favorite story and I tell 'The Cat's Purr' which was illustrated by Ashley Bryan, one of my favorite storytellers, and when I finished a little kid came up to me and she said, "You know what my cat didn't look like your cat." In her head she had a cat and, and that's, that's the thing that Augusta and all the early storytellers embedded in your head that you were going to tell so that your audience visualize in their own heads what was happening, and the pacing and the diction I mean they, they were strict on how you did it.$$So tell us a bit about that, what did Ms. Baker instruct you in terms of the framework of the nuts and bolts of telling a story?$$The first place you learn the story, you don't say, "Today I'm gonna tell 'The Cat's Purr,'" pick it up today and go tell it. You've read it and you've read it again and you read it again. You've told it in front of a mirror, you've told it on tape. You put the book way aside and then tell it again until it's down to where you want it to be. The pacing, the diction, the motion and she would say, "Now remember, motion is not--if you're running up a hill you don't run across the floor, you let them see you by your motion run up that hill. If you fall down, don't fall down because if you fall down you're gonna have trouble getting up." And she would you know give you those, those kind of things. You don't go in with any chewing gum in your mouth, she would just--and if you had long hair enough of these distractions or things you know getting your hair out--none of that. Every motion you make had to be important to that story or you don't make it, and every--even if you told the story yesterday you don't go tomorrow and tell it again without refreshing the story. It makes it look easy but it's because you worked--worked on it to get it done, and as I said she would pop up sometime and just be there when you were, when you telling just to make sure you were doing what, what should be done. We had a storytelling season that started, what is it, September and it went through the first Friday in May and then the first Friday in May all the storytellers got on the ferry boat and went over to Staten Island [New York] for the storytelling symposium and--each--the chosen storytellers would tell (laugher)--and Augusta said, "And they never let me be one of the chosen storytellers but when I became supervisor of children's work I became a storyteller and I told it." (Laughter) She was so funny, she was very, she was very interesting at that.$Is that the end of the story? Perez falls into the porridge?$$Well if you fall into a pot of hot porridge what?$$You're dead.$$You're dead. Well one of the things we have to help children learn is death is a part of life. I remember once when I was teaching at FAU [Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida] I got a book on--it's called the 'Unbuilding' [David Macaulay] it's the story of the dismantling of the Empire State Building [New York, New York]. It's done by a very wonderful illustrator. So one of colleagues was teaching children's literature that night, and I gave him a copy of the book, I said, "Take this up to your class, it's a wonderful new book and maybe they wanna see it." He took it to his office and in about fifteen minutes he brought it back and he said, "I can't use this book." I said, "Why not?" He says, "It's doesn't have a happy ending, and I don't teach any literature that doesn't have a happy ending." That's not life, when you're working with children you have to give them life and death is a part of life, and it isn't only animals that die, and that's part of what I do. I do it with the teachers that I'm teaching and I do it with the children when I'm working with them and there's some wonderful stories that handle death beautifully for children.$$I saw a quote by you that indicated that you do not as a storyteller preach about the moral of the story or discuss that in anyway. You're simply laying the story out for the listener. Can you talk a little bit about that?$$People underestimate what children understand. You don't need to preach the moral, if the story ends with the moral and you say, "Well when you think about it the best way for this is sometimes is to say no to your very best friends," that's the end of the story. If they're following the story along, you don't need to tell them that. Now if I say to you today, "We're gonna analyze this story in terms of structure and vocabulary," you're going to listen a certain way. If I say to you, "Today is story hour day, we're just gonna share stories. That's what we came to do and you go home with whatever you go home with." With some it may be nothing, with some it's a lot. I remember once years ago I was in a restaurant and this waiter came up to me and said, "You told us stories when we were in elementary school." Here's this guy about six feet tall who remembered something that I told him, so you know you don't have to belabor children with what the moral is, that's, that's my belief anyway as a storyteller.

Julia Bond

Librarian Julia Agnes Washington Bond was born on June 20, 1908, in Nashville, Tennessee, where her parents graduated from Fisk University. Bond's mother, Daisy Agnes Turner Washington, worked as a teacher, and her father, George Elihu Washington, served as the principal of Pearl High School. Both stressed the importance of education. Bond attended Meigs Middle Magnet School until the eighth grade, and then went on to Pearl High School, where she graduated in 1924 when she was sixteen years old. Like her parents, Bond attended Fisk University and graduated with her B.A. degree in English in 1929. In her senior year at Fisk University, she met a young instructor, one of the few African American teachers at Fisk University in those days, Horace Mann Bond. Soon they were courting. They both attended graduate school at the University of Chicago, Illinois where they got married. They later had a marriage ceremony in Nashville in order to satisfy their parents. Unfortunately, Bond did not return to school due to their finances. Horace earned his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, Illinois.

Her husband, Dr. Horace Mann Bond, was appointed president of Georgia’s Fort Valley State College in 1942. In 1945, he became president of Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. In 1956, Dr. Bond was named president of Atlanta University. Julia Agnes Bond acted as First Lady for her husband in all of these positions. She also traveled with her husband to Europe and Africa on behalf of the University. She attended the inauguration of Osageyfo Kwame Nkrumah as Ghana’s first president in 1957.

Returning to school at Atlanta University, Bond earned her Masters of Library Science degree and was a mainstay at the Atlanta University Library beginning in the 1960s. Bond and her husband supported their daughter and their sons Jane, Julian and James, in their civil rights activities including the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the 1960s. The venerable Bond retired from the Atlanta University Library in 2000, at the age of ninety-two years. Her husband, Dr. Horace Mann Bond, passed away in 1973.

Bond passed away on November 2, 2007 at age 99.

Accession Number

A2006.119

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/14/2006

Last Name

Bond

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Agnes

Occupation
Schools

Meigs Middle Magnet School

Pearl-Cohn Entertainment Magnet High School

Fisk University

University of Illinois at Chicago

Clark Atlanta University

First Name

Julia

Birth City, State, Country

Nashville

HM ID

BON03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

6/20/1908

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

11/2/2007

Short Description

Librarian Julia Bond (1908 - 2007 ) worked as a librarian at Atlanta University. She was the wife of Horace Mann Bond, former president of Lincoln University, and the mother of civil rights leader Julian Bond.

Employment

Atlanta University; Clark Atlanta University

Favorite Color

Pink

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julia Bond's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julia Bond lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julia Bond describes her parents' family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julia Bond describes her parents' educations

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julia Bond describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julia Bond describes her childhood community in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Julia Bond describes her childhood activities in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Julia Bond describes her experiences at Pearl High School in Nashville

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Julia Bond describes her experiences at Fisk University in Nashville

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julia Bond recalls the community of Fisk University in Nashville

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julia Bond recalls meeting and marrying Horace Mann Bond

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julia Bond describes her experiences at the University of Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julia Bond describes her married life with Horace Mann Bond

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julia Bond recalls her friendships with African American intellectual leaders

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julia Bond recalls her husband's years as a college president

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julia Bond recalls the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Julia Bond talks about her work as a librarian

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Julia Bond reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Julia Bond describes her family and how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julia Bond narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julia Bond narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
Julia Bond recalls meeting and marrying Horace Mann Bond
Julia Bond recalls her friendships with African American intellectual leaders
Transcript
Now you met your husband [Horace Mann Bond] at Fisk [Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee], right, when you were a senior?$$Yes.$$Okay. Now what--tell us what happened.$$Nothing. We heard that he was coming and my mother [Daisy Turner Washington] and grandmother were very impressed because they had known his mother [Jane Browne Bond] and thought very highly of her. So they were very receptive to him.$$Okay. Was he from Kentucky, too?$$Yes.$$Was he from Mount Sterling [Kentucky]?$$Huh?$$Was he from Mount Sterling, too?$$No. He was from Louisville [Kentucky], I think.$$Louisville, all right.$$Yeah.$$Okay. So I heard that some of the girls tried to get in his class so they could talk to him (laughter)?$$Yeah.$$So what--but you didn't do that, right?$$No, I didn't. He--they knew that he was coming and we would--and several had a young black teacher, and they were all trying to be in his class, but I decided I wouldn't rush into it.$$Okay. So, how did you become acquainted? Did he--what happened?$$I don't remember how we first met. I guess somehow on the campus.$$Okay. So did you like him?$$Huh?$$Did you like him when you met him?$$Yes. Uh-huh. And my parents liked him because they knew his mother.$$Okay. So, how long--so I guess you--did you date him when you were a senior?$$Huh?$$Did you go out with him when you were a senior? Did he--?$$Go out with him?$$Yeah. Did he court you or, you know?$$Yes.$$What was dating like in those days? I mean, how--did you?$$It was very supervised, very curtailed.$$Okay. Did one--did your mother have to be around when he was there or your father [George Elihu Washington] have to be present or something or--?$$What?$$Did someone have to be there when he was--?$$Yes, most of the time. Very close if not in the room.$$Oh, okay.$All right. So (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I remember once Dr. Du Bois [W.E.B. Du Bois] came and I was going somewhere and he was at the station, and I spoke to him and he was very haughty because he didn't know me (laughter) and he thought I was just pushing myself on him.$$Okay. Yet, do you have any other stories about Dr. Du Bois?$$Huh?$$Do you have any other stories about him?$$I don't know. We were sitting down before the fire and he was reading the newspaper and I was taking care of my children, and somebody said, "Some students are coming over to see Dr. Du Bois," and he got up and went upstairs right away (laughter).$$So, he wasn't the most friendly person, I guess?$$Huh?$$He was not very friendly, I guess?$$No, he was all right once you knew him, but it was--he was hard to know.$$Okay. Did you like him?$$Yes, I did.$$Okay. What did you like about him?$$Well, I liked to listen to him talk and people would of course ask him many, many questions.$$Okay. Was he as smart as people say now?$$Huh?$$We always hear about how bright he was, how intelligent he was.$$Yes, he was.$$Was that true?$$Uh-huh.$$Okay. Did his wife [Nina Gomer Du Bois] ever come with him when he traveled?$$No. She was busy at the Du Bois' chasing dirt. (Laughter) She was a good housekeeper.$$Okay. Who else do you remember that came by?$$Who taught?$$No, that stayed with you. Who stayed at your house in those years? Who else stayed at your house?$$Who else--$$Stayed at your house when--during those days?$$Oh, anybody who spoke at the school [Fort Valley State College; Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, Georgia] and they would have various speakers during the year. Let's see, Franklin Frazier [E. Franklin Frazier]. I can't think of anybody else. Maybe Langston Hughes.$$What about E. Franklin Frazier? What--tell us about him. Do you have any stories about him?$$He was a neighbor and he was a friend. He was full of fun and jokes.$$Okay. What about Langston Hughes? Do you have a story about him?$$I know he took Julian [HistoryMaker Julian Bond] and Jay [James Bond] to eat at Paschal's [Paschal's Motor Hotel and Restaurant, Atlanta, Georgia] for lunch and--$$(JAMES BOND): That's here in Atlanta [Georgia].$$I don't know. Jay was kind of critical of Julian and he defended Julian.$$Yeah. Okay. All right. But that's here in Atlanta [Georgia], right? That's--$$Huh?$$That's here in Atlanta (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Atlanta, yes.$$Right, right.

Effie Lee Morris

Public children’s library administrator Effie Lee Morris was born on April 20, 1921, in Richmond, Virginia, to Erma Lee Caskie Morris and William Hamilton Morris. Morris is the eldest of two daughters. She grew up in Richmond until the age of eight when her family moved to Cleveland, Ohio for her father’s job as head chef with the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad Company. Morris can trace her family history back to slavery and owns the slave papers of her paternal great grandmother. Morris loved to read at an early age and grew up trading books with her friends and family members. She attended Robert Fulton Elementary School and John Adams High School in Cleveland. Morris was her high school class's co-valedictorian with three other students. Morris earned her B.A. and M.L.S. degrees at Case Western University.

Morris began her career as a public librarian at the Cleveland Public Library in 1946. There, she specialized in working with children and children’s literature. Morris moved to New York in 1955 after working for the Philadelphia Public Library in order to work for the American Library Association. That same year, she went on to work for the New York Library for the Blind and served as the first female chairperson of the Library of Congress. Morris also served as president of the National Braille Association for two terms. In 1963, Morris moved to San Francisco, California and became the first Coordinator of Children’s Services at the San Francisco Public Library. In 1964, Morris established the Children’s Historical and Research Collection at the Children’s Center of the San Francisco Library. In 1968, she founded the San Francisco Chapter of the Women’s National Book Association, and in 1971, Morris became the first African American president of the Public Library Association. She officially left her position as Coordinator of Children’s Services of the San Francisco Library in 1977, and in 1981, the children’s literature collection that she started was officially named the Effie Lee Morris Historical and Research Collection.

Morris continues to be an advocate for children and children’s literature. Morris and the San Francisco Public Library hold an annual lecture series that features a children’s literature author and illustrator. Some of the lecturers have included children’s book authors Nikki Grimes, Milly Lee, Pamela Munoz and Tomie dePaola. Morris has received several awards for her work and contributions to children’s literature, including the Silver Spur Award for enhancing the quality of life and economic vitality of San Francisco; the Women’s National Book Association’s Award for Extraordinary Contribution to the World of Books; and the Grolier Foundation Award.

Accession Number

A2005.242

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/11/2005 |and| 10/13/2005

Last Name

Morris

Maker Category
Middle Name

Lee

Schools

John Adams High School

Robert Fulton Elementary School

University of Chicago

Case Western Reserve University

First Name

Effie

Birth City, State, Country

Richmond

HM ID

MOR09

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

It Is Only With The Heart That One Sees Rightly; What Is Essential Is Invisible To The Eye.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

4/20/1921

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Barbecue (Ribs)

Death Date

11/16/2009

Short Description

Library administrator Effie Lee Morris (1921 - 2009 ) founded the Children’s Historical and Research Collection, now known as the Effie Lee Morris Historical and Research Collection, at the Children’s Center of the San Francisco Public Library. She was the first female chairperson of the Library of Congress and the first African American president of the Public Library Association.

Employment

Cleveland Public Library

New York Public Library

Library of Congress, Division for the Blind

San Francisco Public Library

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Effie Lee Morris's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Effie Lee Morris lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Effie Lee Morris describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Effie Lee Morris describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Effie Lee Morris talks about her father's brothers

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Effie Lee Morris describes her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Effie Lee Morris talks about her generation

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Effie Lee Morris shares her family's artifacts

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Effie Lee Morris describes her sister's family

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Effie Lee Morris describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Effie Lee Morris describes her early family life in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Effie Lee Morris describes her neighbors in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Effie Lee Morris remembers Maggie Lena Walker and visiting Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Effie Lee Morris describes her childhood community in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Effie Lee Morris remembers visiting Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Effie Lee Morris remembers Richmond's Third Street Bethel A.M.E. Church

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Effie Lee Morris describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Effie Lee Morris recalls moving from Richmond, Virginia to Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Effie Lee Morris describes her educational experiences in Cleveland, Ohio, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Effie Lee Morris describes her educational experiences in Cleveland, Ohio, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Effie Lee Morris describes the Samuel DeWitt Proctor Institute for Child Advocacy Ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Effie Lee Morris remembers John Adams High School in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Effie Lee Morris describes her activities at John Adams High School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Effie Lee Morris recalls the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Effie Lee Morris recalls being unfairly banned from a pool in Cleveland, Ohio, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Effie Lee Morris recalls being unfairly banned from a pool in Cleveland, Ohio, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Effie Lee Morris remembers her high school experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Effie Lee Morris describes notable personalities from Cleveland, Ohio, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Effie Lee Morris describes notable personalities from Cleveland, Ohio, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Effie Lee Morris describes her freshman year at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Effie Lee Morris describes her experiences at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Effie Lee Morris recalls studying at Cleveland's Flora Stone Mather College for Women

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Effie Lee Morris talks about her interest in children's literature

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Effie Lee Morris describes her work at the Cleveland Public Library

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Effie Lee Morris recalls her experiences as a teacher at Atlanta University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Effie Lee Morris describes her transition to New York Public Library

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Effie Lee Morris recalls her work at New York City's Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Effie Lee Morris remembers Helen Keller

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Effie Lee Morris describes her work for the Library of Congress and the National Braille Association

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Effie Lee Morris recalls Cardinal Francis Spellman's support of her pioneering work with blind children

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Effie Lee Morris describes the challenges she faced as a librarian

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Effie Lee Morris recalls her move to San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Effie Lee Morris recalls Negro History Month at the San Francisco Public Library

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Effie Lee Morris explains why owls are significant to her

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Effie Lee Morris describes her work at the San Francisco Public Library

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Effie Lee Morris describes the Effie Lee Morris Historical and Research Collection of Children's Literature

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Effie Lee Morris recalls leaving the San Francisco Public Library

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Effie Lee Morris describes her involvement with the Ohio Library Association

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Effie Lee Morris talks about New York City

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Effie Lee Morris describes the Women's National Book Association Award

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Effie Lee Morris talks about her M.A. thesis and the Coretta Scott King Award

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Effie Lee Morris describes the Women's National Book Association and Grolier Foundation Awards

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Effie Lee Morris recalls her community involvement in San Francisco

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Effie Lee Morris talks about her awards

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Effie Lee Morris remembers her appearance on 'What's My Line'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Effie Lee Morris describes her husband, Leonard Jones

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Effie Lee Morris describes her husband's career and legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Effie Lee Morris talks about her favorite books and authors

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Effie Lee Morris reflects upon the significance of hip-hop

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Effie Lee Morris reflects upon the impact of technology for children's libraries

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Effie Lee Morris describes her international travels

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Effie Lee Morris talks about her future plans

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Effie Lee Morris describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

2$2

DATape

4$7

DAStory

7$6

DATitle
Effie Lee Morris recalls her work at New York City's Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped
Effie Lee Morris reflects upon the significance of hip-hop
Transcript
In Cleveland [Ohio], you have quite a community orientation. You work with the community, and you know where all the schools are, you know where the children hang out, you know what organizations are in your community. Well they didn't quite have that kind of orientation in New York [New York], because you had so many people just came to the library. So, to go to the Library for the Blind [Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, New York, New York] meant to build the whole population, to build it. There were children, now it was very interesting. Up, beginning in the 1940s, there was just a sudden rush of blind babies and blind premature babies and finally it was discovered that these new incubators which were in all the special hospitals, the [U.S.] military hospitals, these were the children who were being blinded. Kids who were--poor kids who were put between hot water bottles in (laughter) the dresser drawer were doing fine, but it so happened that these new incubators had a greater quantity of oxygen, which was fed to these children to keep them alive, but damaged the optic nerve. So we called these babies retrolental fibroplasia, RLF babies, and they were all over. So the, but at that time they had been going to schools for the blind and as they began to be five years old, their parents, and many of them were middle class children, their parents didn't want them to go, they wanted them mainstreamed, and that started the mainstreaming of children with disabilities into the regular schools and classrooms, and I had a lot there in New York. I had those wonderful volunteers, Ruth Turkeltaub [ph.]. The sisterhoods in the Jewish faith [National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods] are the ones who are supportive of working with the blind, and so the group from Great Neck [New York] was very supportive of one little boy, his mother was a member of the group and this little boy said one day that he wanted to be able to look up things for himself. He wanted an encyclopedia. He had to do a report and so his mother's friends, who had all learned to braille books to be supportive, wrote Marshall Field to ask for, no, they wrote the World Book [Scott Fetzer Company] to ask for permission to braille the World Book [World Book Encyclopedia], and Marshall Field heard about it and underwrote the commercial production at the American Printing House for the Blind in Louisville [Kentucky]. And so all of that generated from this one little boy who wanted, and now Bruce Bresnow [ph.] lived out here. I knew children all over the United States 'cause I was the only person with children's background in literature so they wrote to me from everywhere and even Red Wing, Miss--Minnesota [Red Wing, Minnesota]. There was a blind child there and that blind child wrote to the New York Public Library [New York, New York], and so I was helping him and interestingly in Michigan, the librarian for the blind at that time didn't want to be bothered with children at all and so I got all the Michigan children, came to me and this was crossing all kinds of lines and, of course, I had to discuss it with Library of Congress [Washington, D.C.], which the division for the blind [Division for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.] was responsible for talking books and so forth, so that the federal, it was a federal district that I lived, that I was in, and I had to serve my district, but I was also serving this--children all over the country because they could say I need a book on whatever and I knew how to find and send you. So it grew. They were getting, because they were mainstreamed, you see, they were in the regular schools. Now Mrs. Edith Thompson [ph.] was a wonderful volunteer and Mrs. Thompson made picture books for the blind. She did 'Little Blue and Little Yellow' [sic.] is one of the books and, of course, and then she cut the circles out of felt and, you know, she could apply them. So, oh, I had all kinds of children who wanted to stand in front of the class and give a book report like their friends did. Well, they could with the 'Little Blue and Little Yellow' because they could show pictures. They couldn't see them. They could feel them and we had a great time. She did many wonderful books, which I hope the New York Public Library still has. They were one of a kind, and there were many experiences, as I said. The children who were, played the children in Perkins [Perkins School for the Blind, Watertown, Massachusetts] in Helen Keller on Broadway, 'The Miracle Worker' [William Gibson].$--You said you don't read a lot of current authors, but I know you're really interested in what's happening in the world. You're into hip-hop now.$$Oh, yes. (Laughter) I'm going to learn hip-hop. I'm going to learn with Tupac [Tupac Shakur] and I have met Wu-Tang [Wu-Tang Clan].$$That's right, it's over on the other side.$$Oh, Wu-Tang, I went to hear him speak, and I am very much impressed by Wu-Tang and Jamake Steptoe [sic. John Steptoe], who's a children's author, oh, comes to the farm for the various meetings and things we've had there at Children's--I haven't talked about that, the Children's Defense Fund, and he always brings along this tape recorder and music and he tells me what to listen to. I have not yet learned it, but I'm trying, and then at this last wonderful meeting at the farm, which was the Proctor Institute [Samuel DeWitt Proctor Institute for Child Advocacy Ministry], now the farm is Alex Haley's farm in Clinton, Tennessee, it belongs to the Children's Defense Fund and Marian, every year, [HistoryMaker] Marian Wright Edelman, has the Proctor Institute, named for Samuel Proctor, who was president of Virginia Union [Virginia Union University], I believe, in Richmond, Virginia, and it, this is in his memory. So this Proctor Institute invites people from the community, various ministers and other people who are working with children, are being advocates for children for time at the farm, which is just a glorious experience. People stay in some of the cottages on the farm and they stay mostly in motels around. Also at the same time are the students from the Freedom Schools, for the Freedom Schools. These are college students who go out and teach the Freedom Schools in the summertime and there are about two hundred of them and they stay in the University of Tennessee [Knoxville, Tennessee] dormitories. And so it was Sam Moss, oldest Moss, the third [sic. HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Otis Moss, Jr.], whose sermon this year included literature from the Greeks through hip-hop. I am so impressed, I am so impressed and I bought the tapes and can't tell where I have got one. I know I've lent one to someone, she's got to send that tape back but I just, it was wonderful and it's not that, I know people think hip-hop is evil and it might be but I don't know because I haven't had a chance to understand it and learn about it and I want to learn about it before I say, no I don't believe in hip-hop, but it's the language of this generation and if you're going to stay current, I used to say to the children's librarians, now look at it like this, you're right in the middle, you've got one foot in the past, one foot in the future and so somehow you're standing up, but don't forget you're always five years, there's a generation in the life of a child and we have to think always five years ahead.