The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Hattie Carwell

Physicist Hattie Carwell was born on July 17, 1948 in Brooklyn, New York. Carwell grew up in a nurturing black community in Ashland, Virginia, which encouraged her interest in science. After graduating from high school in 1966, she enrolled at Bennett College for Women. Carwell earned her B.S. degree in chemistry from Bennett College in 1971. She went on to earn her M.S. degree in health physics from Rutgers University in 1971.

Throughout her career, Carwell has worked nationally and internationally for the U.S. Department of Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency as a health physicist and nuclear safeguards group leader. From 1980 to 1985, she went on leave to Vienna, Austria where she served as a nuclear safeguards inspector and group leader at the International Atomic Energy Agency. In 1990, she became a program manager for high energy and nuclear programs with the DOE San Francisco Operations Office. She then became a senior facility operations engineer at the Berkeley Site Office in 1992. In 1994, Carwell was promoted to operations lead at the Berkeley Site Office, a position which she held until 2006. She became a senior physical scientist before retiring in 2008.

Carwell has written numerous research articles and two books including, Blacks in Science: Astrophysicist to Zoologist. Carwell is a Board Member of the Northern California Council of Black Professional Engineers, an organization of which she is a past President. She is treasurer for the National Council of Black Engineers and Scientists, co-founder and chair of the Development Fund for Black Students in Science and Technology, and Director of the Museum of African American Technology (MAAT) Science Village. MAAT Science Village archives information on the achievements of Africa American in science and engineering.

Carwell is the recipient of numerous performance awards from the Department of Energy, and is recognized as a community leader. She is a distinguished alumna of Bennett College and included in the Black College Hall of Fame. Her achievements are annotated in biographical

Accession Number

A2012.239

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/5/2012

Last Name

Carwell

Maker Category
Middle Name

Virginia

Schools

Bennett College for Women

Rutgers University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Hattie

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

CAR25

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

I Am Not Fattening Frogs For Snakes.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/17/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Oakland

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pie (Apple)

Short Description

Environmental scientist Hattie Carwell (1948 - ) was a health physicist for the United States Atomic Energy Commission and the International Atomic Agency.

Employment

United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)

Energy Research Administration

United States Department of Energy

International Atomic Energy Agency

Department of Energy Headquarters

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:22660,236:23940,261:24660,271:25220,279:33412,334:42252,439:44478,444:45008,482:56340,562:57390,579:57880,586:61870,689:63550,773:68806,790:70210,804:78074,853:78954,866:80802,897:81594,909:82650,924:83178,932:89199,974:89752,982:90384,991:91174,1006:91964,1017:93781,1054:94808,1070:95440,1079:95993,1091:96783,1104:100575,1223:101207,1234:101681,1248:101997,1253:103182,1273:107284,1280:107744,1289:108296,1296:118309,1412:118664,1418:120936,1470:121362,1477:121930,1494:125890,1538:129685,1572:134943,1644:135387,1649:137607,1678:138051,1683:145780,1720:151080,1776:151704,1786:152484,1801:164886,2076:173648,2152:174400,2159:175058,2167:175998,2178:177314,2199:183541,2253:187465,2308:195816,2394:196361,2400:198541,2431:200612,2449:205460,2487:206500,2503:209902,2517:210613,2528:212035,2558:212351,2563:212746,2569:213536,2582:223048,2679:227092,2737:228893,2753:230108,2785:230837,2796:231404,2805:234725,2876:240004,2957:240501,2965:242063,2989:242844,3000:243625,3014:248780,3070:249224,3080:249742,3089:252184,3133:252628,3140:252998,3146:253442,3154:255588,3201:266656,3354:267046,3360:273690,3449:280030,3490$0,0:5583,129:6164,136:6828,145:8073,166:20360,277:20740,282:21690,295:23590,328:30145,421:31095,434:31760,442:40954,491:41994,503:46154,572:49932,619:50760,626:56418,689:60436,702:61012,710:62092,731:62380,736:69442,805:70330,813:80334,946:80978,953:92952,1097:97786,1128:107098,1263:107735,1271:109282,1296:110101,1306:114413,1349:116553,1386:116981,1397:117623,1405:118372,1414:128430,1603:134079,1623:134534,1629:134989,1635:141950,1725:143700,1741:144200,1746:149527,1790:151180,1810:154760,1850
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Hattie Carwell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell talks about her maternal great grandmother, Edmonia Tunstall

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell talks about her family's educational background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Hattie Carwell talks about her mother's life in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Hattie Carwell describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Hattie Carwell describes her father's background and military service

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell talks about her parents and siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell talks about her uncle Patrick Tunstall and her adoptive grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Hattie Carwell describes the sights, smells, and sounds of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Hattie Carwell describes her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Hattie Carwell talks about Shiloh Baptist Church

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Hattie Carwell describes her mischievous nature as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell describes her aunt and uncle as parents

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell describes her experience at John Manuel Gandy High School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell talks about civil rights and the Richmond Improvement Association

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Hattie Carwell talks about her interest in news and current events

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Hattie Carwell talks about her high school interests and opportunities

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Hattie Carwell discusses her high school experiences with science

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Hattie Carwell describes her selection of Bennett College

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell describes her experience at Bennett College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell describes her interest in California

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell discusses her work in the field of radiation science

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell talks about the Atomic Energy Commission and exposure to radiation

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Hattie Carwell talks about human radiation experiments

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Hattie Carwell describes the effects of exposure to radiation

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell describe measures people take to shield themselves from radiation

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell talks about her internship at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell describes her thesis

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell describes working at Thomas Jefferson University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Hattie Carwell talks about her return to Brookhaven National Laboratory

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Hattie Carwell describes her work with the Atomic Energy Commission

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell talks about her transfer to California

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell talks about her experience at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell describes her work in Vienna, Austria

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell talks about her travels while working for the International Atomic Energy Agency

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Hattie Carwell talks about her work as a group leader for the International Atomic Energy Agency

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell talks about her second year at the International Atomic Energy Agency

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell describes her return to the United States

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell describes her work in Rocky Flats, Colorado (part 1)

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell describes her work in Rocky Flats, Colorado (part 2)

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Hattie Carwell talks about her work with the High Energy and Nuclear Programs

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Hattie Carwell talks about her appointment at Lawrence-Berkeley

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell reflects on her time at the Department of Energy

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell talks about her book, 'Blacks in Science'

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell talks about Dr. Warren Henry (part 1)

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell talks about Dr. Warren Henry (part 2)

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Hattie Carwell talks about Ernest Just

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Hattie Carwell talks about Glenn Seaborg

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Hattie Carwell discusses the Development Fund for Black Students in Science and Technology

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Hattie Carwell talks about the Museum for African American Technology Science Village

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Hattie Carwell describes exhibits in the Museum for African American Technology Science Village

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Hattie Carwell talks about her publication exploring green technology

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Hattie Carwell shares her hopes and concerns for the African American communiry

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Hattie Carwell talks about her legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Hattie Carwell talks about her personal life

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Hattie Carwell tells how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Hattie Carwell describes her photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$9

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Hattie Carwell talks about her travels while working for the International Atomic Energy Agency
Hattie Carwell describes exhibits in the Museum for African American Technology Science Village
Transcript
Now, did you ever go to Russia or--$$Went, I went to Russia as a tourist. And the Russians we interacted with, Russians disappeared on the job that I had because the majority of us believed the Russians were spies. And they were just doing our job to see the different nuclear facilities. And they thought the Japanese were out to steal industrial secrets. And me, you know, I was harmless. It was only one of me, you know, I was the only black woman and for a while, the only woman. And so, you know, what harm could I do? I was a novelty. And so I was representing the United States. I had a Laissez-passer from the UN [United Nations]. Don't touch her. Don't mess with her. Even if she's in trouble, don't mess with her. And it was, you know, if you messed with me, it's an international incident. So I got lost, you know, trying to go places and I never worried about being lost until I was supposed to be where I wasn't, you know, getting directions in a foreign language that you don't completely understand. It's bad enough getting directions in a language that you do understand. People, you know, so concerned that you might get lost, they're going in the opposite direction, and they turn around, follow me, taking you to make sure you get to the point, going to little towns in Italy. The Italians will talk to you, I don't care what language you speak. And once again, I'm going to these tiny little towns, 'cause, you know, and small-town people will get in your business. And they would wonder why is she coming here once a month, staying three days and then going back? What is she doing? And this Thai--guy from Thailand and I used to go to this town an hour from Amsterdam, Almelo, next door to Hengelo. Hengelo, they have beer. And we stayed in this bread and breakfast place. And so (laughter) Mr. Gemung (ph.) Hung (ph.) said, I'll bet you they wanna know why the two of them come here (laughter), why the hell they come here to this little town (laughter), 'cause you know, they didn't know what we were doing. We would go to the university or out to a power plant. I went to, we--it was a new enrichment plant, uranium enrichment plant, experimental, that we would go to. And, you know, I, since I was a novelty, you know, there's dead time. You're counting samples and machine, and you're just sitting there waiting. So there's a lot of just small talk. And, you know, this was interesting. The plant was in the Netherlands, and the Germans ran the plant. And I forget his name, but the director of the plan would come, and at lunchtime, he'd, you know, just hang out a little bit. And he had a habit, when you asked him a question he would say, "in princeive" (ph.), you know, in principle. And when he would say that, I would always get this big smile on my face. And he didn't know why I would always smile. So he said, what's, what's, you know, what's the problem? I said, well, you know, I'm smiling because most times when people say something "in principle", whatever they're saying is not really true, that it's close to being true, but it's not really true or you really don't know if it's true. And for the nature of our work, if he's telling us, well, it's kinda like this, but it's not, and so I would just smile. And he, it was such an ingrained habit, he couldn't break it. So every time he'd ready to say something, he'd find himself, saying "in princeive". And then he would look at me and laugh.$$Okay--$$So--$Okay, so, well, tell us, what are the exhibits in the museum, and--$$Well, first of all, I have to tell you right now, we do not have a physical location. We are in search of purchasing a building. And I wish the market had changed when we had money, but the money we had at that time was not sufficient to purchase. But now that the market is down, we're desperately in pursuit. So most all of our activities are at events or in someone else's venue. Right now, we participate in U.S. Science and Engineering Festival in D.C. [Washington, D.C.]. There were 150,000 people that came to that. And you were saying people that, not shop, but it's nice to know, kind of thing. I got a photo of the African American who got the very first patent of, you know, not a drawing, but a photo of him and was able to include that in the, in the exhibit. And since we're just more like a picture show, you gotta keep people's interests. So we do it like a game, and we'll ask, "Can you tell me who did so and so?" It's an open-book test 'cause all the answers are right there. And more than likely people don't know. They don't have a clue. But to engage them, we will blow bubbles in the directions, so they start looking. One, they read more, and they end up reading everything as opposed to something that kind of looks interesting. So, we do that. We do Juneteenth, things like that. But when we have our facility, we have groups of kids come in. My thing is solar. I don't know if you noticed my solar cells on my roof.$$I did, I did, on the roof, right, right.$$I've had my solar cells ten years, and I wanted solar cells when I didn't have a roof. And energy and the variety of what DOE [Department of Energy] research is, is what kept me there that long. And when we go to South Africa in two weeks, I'm gonna do a solar paper there.

Julian Manly Earls

Physicist and federal government administrator Julian Manly Earls was born on November 22, 1942 in Portsmouth, Virginia to James and Ida Deberry Earls. He graduated from Crestwood High School in Chesapeake, Virginia in 1960 and went on to earn his B.S. degree in physics from Norfolk State University in 1964. Upon the advice of his mentor, Dr. Roy A. Woods, Earls attended the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry to obtain his M.S. degree in radiation biology in 1965. Earls then moved to Cleveland to work at NASA for six years at the Lewis Research Center. NASA sponsored Earls to obtain his Ph.D. degree in radiation physics at the University of Michigan in 1973. Also, while working at NASA, he graduated from the Harvard Business School Program for Management Development in 1978.

Working at NASA for over forty years, Earls became NASA's first black section head, first black office chief, first black division chief, first black deputy director, and NASA's second black center director. Earls was hired as the director of the Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio in 2003. As center director, Earls has been responsible for research, technology and systems development programs in aeronautical propulsion, space propulsion, space power, space communications, and microgravity sciences. He manages an annual budget and oversees all employees and contractors. Earls has written several publications for technical and educational journals. He also wrote NASA’s first health physics guides. On two occasions, he has been awarded NASA medals for exceptional achievement and outstanding leadership and has received the Presidential Rank Award of Meritorious Executive for career Senior Executive Service (SES) members.

Earls has been awarded honorary degrees by Vaughn College of Aeronautics and Technology in Queens, New York, Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro, North Carolina. He has been a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the National Technical Association, the National Society of Black Engineers, the National Society of Black Physicists, the Development Fund for Black Students in Science and Technology, the Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, and the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity. An avid runner, he has run at least twenty-five marathons and was given the honor of being a torchbearer for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. Earls and his wife, Zenobia, reside in Beachwood, Ohio. They have two sons, Gregory and Julian, Jr., and one granddaughter, Madisyn Chandler.

Julian Earls was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 10, 2005.

Accession Number

A2005.006

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/10/2005

Last Name

Earls

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Manly

Schools

Crestwood High School

Crestwood Middle School

I.C. Norcom High School

Norfolk State University

University of Rochester

University of Michigan

Harvard Business School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Julian

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

EAR02

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Los Angeles, California

Favorite Quote

God did not give anybody everything, but He gave everybody something.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

11/22/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pie (Lemon Meringue)

Short Description

Federal government administrator and physicist Julian Manly Earls (1942 - ) worked at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for over forty years, and has served as the director of the NASA's Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio.

Employment

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center

Cuyahoga Community College

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:1888,14:2779,25:3751,43:6343,81:6748,87:8692,130:9097,137:10636,169:11527,187:11851,192:12337,199:12823,207:25722,365:26066,370:29230,376:29605,383:30055,390:30505,397:31466,407:32090,417:32792,427:33182,433:34118,447:34898,458:35444,467:37004,492:37706,503:38096,509:39110,524:39968,537:40982,552:41606,562:41996,568:45134,581:45406,586:45746,592:46902,618:47718,631:48330,642:48874,651:49486,661:50370,677:51322,693:51662,699:52546,711:53770,733:54314,742:55062,758:59708,797:60038,803:60302,808:61160,824:61754,840:62678,857:63272,867:64922,911:65714,925:66176,933:66638,941:66902,946:67892,964:68222,970:68618,977:69080,990:69410,996:70070,1008:71324,1034:71588,1039:74634,1049:74882,1054:78354,1121:78726,1128:80090,1154:80896,1166:82198,1191:82942,1206:83438,1216:83996,1226:84554,1236:84926,1244:85484,1255:89540,1294:90036,1303:90470,1312:91090,1324:91338,1329:92206,1346:92888,1359:95306,1409:95740,1417:96174,1426:97414,1453:98468,1471:98716,1476:99212,1487:99460,1492:99894,1501:100514,1516:100762,1521:101258,1531:101506,1536:102188,1551:102436,1556:103366,1577:103862,1586:108046,1600:109472,1634:109782,1641:110216,1649:110526,1655:111642,1721:112014,1728:112634,1745:113130,1755:114370,1781:114866,1790:115672,1811:116168,1822:116416,1827:116664,1832:116974,1838:117594,1853:117966,1860:121496,1873:121802,1881:122006,1886:122618,1904:122873,1910:124406,1920:125308,1935:126128,1946:126948,1964:127686,1978:128014,1983:128506,1992:129326,2004:130064,2015:130392,2020:131048,2030:131868,2045:132770,2060:133426,2069:135066,2097:135804,2108:139010,2114:139380,2120:140342,2136:140934,2153:141304,2159:141674,2165:142118,2172:142858,2190:143228,2196:143598,2202:144190,2211:144930,2229:145300,2235:145670,2241:146114,2248:147076,2272:147520,2279:147890,2285:148334,2292:149148,2307:149592,2315:149962,2321:150258,2327:152404,2362:152700,2367:154106,2391:155290,2413:155808,2422:157066,2447:157510,2455:158694,2473:159138,2480:159434,2485:159878,2492:160174,2498:160544,2504:161136,2513:161802,2527:162690,2547:163208,2556:164244,2573:164836,2583:165354,2591:166020,2602:166760,2613:167130,2619:174030,2639:174582,2647:175226,2656:177560,2677:178100,2688:178520,2696:179120,2713:179480,2721:180620,2743:181040,2752:181940,2770:182540,2781:182960,2791:183380,2803:186110,2831:188169,2875:189873,2913:190654,2926:194914,3049:199955,3185:201091,3213:201730,3224:202582,3250:202866,3255:203292,3263:204215,3278:204499,3283:206132,3320:206629,3329:207126,3337:207552,3345:207907,3351:213625,3364:214825,3383:215880,3390:216617,3402:216952,3408:217957,3430:219820,3443:220076,3448:220460,3455:221100,3468:221548,3476:221932,3483:223842,3496:225516,3519:226260,3528:226911,3537:227283,3542:227655,3547:228213,3554:228957,3565:231342,3578:232336,3596:232620,3601:233117,3610:233685,3620:235324,3630:237364,3664:237840,3673:238588,3691:239268,3710:239608,3716:240492,3730:241172,3741:241988,3756:242736,3768:247050,3800:248506,3815:249130,3823:250274,3835:250690,3840:251210,3846:252458,3861:254122,3881:256039,3896:256424,3902:256732,3907:258041,3927:259889,3955:262600,3976:263315,3989:263575,3994:264095,4005:264940,4022:265720,4038:269730,4077:270105,4083:270780,4094:271230,4101:271530,4106:276180,4178:276480,4183:276855,4190:280010,4211$0,0:444,11:888,19:2738,59:3182,66:4440,130:6512,174:6808,179:13542,291:16354,349:29196,478:29592,483:35334,620:35730,625:47998,769:54714,914:60400,962:62984,1011:63972,1027:70735,1158:71560,1178:71935,1184:72535,1192:73360,1204:76435,1269:76885,1277:77185,1282:82484,1348:83016,1356:83776,1370:84156,1376:84764,1385:85296,1397:90318,1509:93500,1569:94166,1581:94684,1590:97718,1662:98088,1668:98458,1675:98976,1686:99938,1709:100604,1721:102750,1755:103120,1761:103712,1769:104304,1778:104970,1794:106598,1834:107042,1841:117680,1918:118219,1927:118758,1935:119220,1942:119682,1950:120298,1964:120991,1979:121530,1987:121992,1994:124764,2064:127767,2128:132522,2163:133138,2173:133446,2178:133754,2183:134062,2188:139020,2270
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julian Earls' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julian Earls shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julian Earls talks about his parents and grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julian Earls remembers the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood and talks about his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julian Earls talks about his four brothers and two sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julian Earls describes his parent's jobs as well as family holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Julian Earls talks about growing up in the Union Holiness Pentecostal Church

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Julian Earls talks about his elementary, junior high, and high school years

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Julian Earls remembers the segregated schools in Virginia and graduating from Crestwood High School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julian Earls talks about his decision to attend Norfolk State University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julian Earls describes his professors at Norfolk State University

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julian Earls talks about going to graduate school and his early years at NASA

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julian Earls remembers his promotions at NASA, the Carl Stokes mayoral election, and the contributions of Congressman Louis Stokes

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julian Earls talks about NASA's contracts with minority and women-owned firms and making science fun for young people

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julian Earls talks about increasing African American participation in engineering and physics

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julian Earls talks about the Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, the Boule, and his mentors at NASA

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julian Earls talks about affirmative action

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julian Earls talks about NASA's equal employment opportunity office and the values of NASA

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Julian Earls tells stories about Guion "Guy" Bluford and Mae Jemison.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Julian Earls talks about the NASA astronaut program

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Julian Earls talks about his wife, Zenobia, and their two sons, Julian Earls, Jr. and Gregory Earls

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Julian Earls talks about Cleveland public schools

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Julian Earls discusses civil rights, education, and the importance of stable family structures

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Julian Earls talks about Ohio and the 2004 Presidential Election

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Julian Earls talks about his long distance running

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Julian Earls talks about Dr. Willie Ray "Karimi" Mackey

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Julian Earls talks about mentoring and Northeast Ohio as home

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Julian Earls talks about the difference between the North and the South

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Julian Earls explains how science and technology are good for the economy and a global society

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Julian Earls talks about ethics in science and technology

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Julian Earls talks about the ethics of cloning

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Julian Earls shares his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Julian Earls describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Julian Earls remembers his promotions at NASA, the Carl Stokes mayoral election, and the contributions of Congressman Louis Stokes
Julian Earls tells stories about Guion "Guy" Bluford and Mae Jemison.
Transcript
All right, so again, I'm looking at what's happening at the, I guess we say, the macro level. In '64 [1964], you said you didn't have a clue. But I would think by the late '60s [1960s] when you're here in Cleveland [Ohio] in the era of the, well, the tenure of Carl Stokes as mayor, you must have known that history was being made?$$Oh, absolutely, and it was at that point that I really became active in trying to encourage black youngsters to focus upon math and science and increase the numbers of black scientists and engineers by increasing the number of black students who took those courses. And I joined an organization called the National Technical Association, an organization of black scientists, engineers, architects that had been founded in Chicago in 1925. And once I found out about that organization, I decided that we needed to form a Cleveland chapter. And we formed the chapter here in Cleveland and started working with youngsters in the local school system. Our first program was established a Kirk Middle High School in East Cleveland. And we, second, next we moved out into the Warrenville school system. And we had black scientists, engineers, technologists working at any number of different companies here in Cleveland, Ohio. And we would go out on Saturday mornings into the schools and take projects for the students and also had a parental involvement section where the parents would be involved and would have to essentially agree that they would work with the students. And some sessions, they would actually come with the students on Saturday morning. But that was one of the efforts. And then I started right here within NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration], people blame me for the being the catalyst for starting the movement that said, look, not only do we need more black people working within NASA, but we need to make sure that we have black people in true, powerful management positions here at NASA. And at that time, we didn't have blacks who were managers, section heads, branch chiefs, division chiefs and so forth. And I became the first black section head at NASA. I was the first black office chief. I was the first black division chief. I was the first black deputy director, but I was the second black center director. But back in those days, back in '64 [1964], '65 [1965], we have records and archives of things that we did to make the points that we needed to open up opportunities for blacks here within NASA, Lewis Research Center at the time. But then, we were the catalyst for any number of changes within the agency for black employees. And, of course, being in Cleveland, when Carl Stokes was elected mayor, you would have to live in a cave not to know the importance of the activities that were going on at that time.$$Okay. Okay, so that was '67 [1967]--$$That's right.$$--his first victory?$$That's right.$$Do you remember the election night--$$I certainly do.$$--when it was announced?$$I certainly do.$$I watched a video in the 'Eyes on the Prize' series and I saw people dancing in the street.$$(Laughter).$$Were you a part of that crowd?$$I was not dancing on the street, but I was dancing in my living room. That's for sure (laughter).$$Did you ever have an opportunity to work with Mayor Stokes?$$No, but I worked with his brother back in those days. And I really call him my hero. Congressman Louis Stokes and I forged a relationship when things needed to be changed within NASA. And I credit him for all the progress that has been made within NASA as an agency, with progress that has been made for people of color and females. I credit him especially with the progress that has been made with the small disadvantaged businesses because it was Congressman Stokes who attached to the NASA appropriations bill, a requirement that eight percent of all contract dollars in NASA had to be spent with small disadvantaged businesses in the set-aside program. He was the architect of that which is a requirement that still exists to this day at this agency.$$Okay, and so those things are coming into being in the '60s [1960s] to the 1970s, in that era?$$Yes, that's--$$So more than a generation ago?$$Yes.$I mean I'm just so proud of them. And so, I don't know if that's because NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] is pushing them out front and saying, here's a role model or if they just have that excellence, that's part of that formula you just told me about. Were they just that cream, you know, that just rose to the top?$$Well, I have to tell you my Guy Bluford [Guion "Guy" S. Bluford, Jr.] story.$$Okay.$$I applied to be an astronaut in 1977. That was the same year that Guy Bluford applied, Fred Gregory [Frederick D. Gregory] applied, Ron McNair [Ronald Ervin McNair] applied. Guy Bluford and I were born on the same day, November 22, 1942. And I kid Guy because I tell him he was born at 10:00 a.m. in the morning. I was born at 4:15 in the afternoon, and NASA, as a tie breaker, went with the old man. That's why he got in the Astronaut Corp and I didn't. But I've worked with those astronauts. When Guy was launched, his was the first night launch of the shuttle, and I was the speaker for the Education program at Kennedy Space Center [The John F. Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida] when Guy Bluford went on the first flight as the first African American in space. And Guy subsequently retired from the Astronaut Corp and came to work here at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland [Ohio]. He was a program manager for a major contract here and is still living here in the Cleveland area.$$And how about Mae Jemison [Mae C. Jemison]? Have you had a chance to work with her?$$Absolutely. Mae and I talked, before Mae's launch, the last six months before Mae launched, Mae's launch, she and I must have talked at least once a week about some of the issues and some of the challenges confronting her as the first African American female going in space. As a matter of fact, one of the things that she and I talked about was she did a down link from her shuttle mission with the Chicago school system, which she's a product of the Chicago school system. And so we worked that, and I've been in touch with her since that time. She's absolutely--I maintain that NASA has a little back room where they build perfect people to make them into astronauts. And that's why I never got selected to (laughter) to be an astronaut.