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Sharon Hall

Corporate chief executive Sharon Hall was born in 1956 in Chicago, Illinois to Barbara and Wallace Hall. She attended Catholic grade school and graduated from Bloom Township High School in Chicago Heights, Illinois in 1974. In 1978, Hall graduated magna cum laude from Morris Brown College with her B.S. degree in business management. She went on to be a Consortium fellow at the University of Southern California, where she earned her M.B.A degree in venture management in 1982.

In 1978, Hall was hired as assistant brand manager at Procter & Gamble. In 1982, she began working as a consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton. She was hired as manager of strategic planning for Pacific markets at Avon in 1984, and by 1992, she worked her way up to being general manager of the Avon’s new business development group. In 1997, Hall was hired at the executive search firm Spencer Stuart, where she became partner in 2001. She is a member of the firm’s human resources and consumer practice specialties. She founded the firm’s Diversity Practice in 1999, and began serving as a global diversity practice leader. Hall became the only African American to ever serve on the board of Spencer Stuart in 2005, and managed the firm’s Atlanta office for five years.

Hall has been widely recognized for her success in business. In 1987, Hall was named an Outstanding International Business Woman by Dollars & Sense Magazine. She was recognized by Avon with its Chairman’s Award in 1990 and 1992. She participated in the 1992 marketing strategy development for the Boys & Girls Clubs of America; and became a board director at the Kansas City Urban League in 1994. Spencer Stuart awarded Hall the Q-Firm Award in 2000. In 2006, she was awarded by Women Worth Watching; and in 2008, she was included on The Essence Power List. Hall was a featured speaker at the 2010 Women on Wall Street Conference, and is a speaker at the 2014 Black Enterprise Women of Power Summit.

Hall has been interviewed or featured in the publications Fortune Magazine, Dollars & Sense Magazine, Business to Business, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, and Black Enterprise.

Hall lives in Atlanta, Georgia and has two children, Christopher and Casey.

Sharon Hall was interviewed by The History Makers on February 18, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.027

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/18/2014

Last Name

Hall

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Stephanie

Schools

St. Dorothy School

St. Philip Neri Catholic School

St. Gerard Majella School

Hillcrest High School

Bloom High School

Morris Brown College

University of Southern California Marshall School of Business

First Name

Sharon

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

HAL15

Favorite Season

Every Time the Seasons Change

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cancun, Mexico

Favorite Quote

Know Why You Are Where You Are.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

12/11/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Short Description

Corporate chief executive Sharon Hall (1956 - ) was a partner at Spencer Stuart, where she founded the diversity practice and served as director of the board. She was also a general manager at Avon Products Inc. and a strategist at Booz Allen Hamilton Inc.

Employment

Spencer Stuart

Le Petite Academy

Avon

Booz Allen

Procter & Gamble

Favorite Color

Yellow Orange

Reverend Raleigh Trammell

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) national board chairman, Reverend Raleigh Trammell was born on December 30, 1936, in Grantville, Georgia. His father, Walter Trammell, worked in a cotton mill and his mother, Thomasina Smith Trammell, was a homemaker who ardently preached to him the benefits of education. Trammell attended segregated Grantville School all twelve years, graduating in 1955. He went on to attend Clarke University, then known as Clarke College, where he was influenced by Reverend Dr. William Holmes Borders of Wheat Street Baptist Church and Dr. C. Eric Lincoln, founder of the Black Academy of Arts and Sciences. When he graduated in 1959, Trammell was an ordained minister and was well-seasoned in civil rights doctrine.

Trammell met Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and joined the SCLC in 1960. In 1963, he participated in the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham, Alabama, Albany, Georgia and the March on Washington. Trammell also participated in the march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, promoting voting rights for African Americans. After the assassination of Dr. King in 1968, Trammell played a major role in the Poor People’s Campaign. He later moved to Dayton, Ohio, joining his parents and siblings as residents and was hired as pastor of Central Missionary Baptist Church. In 1966, he started working for the Montgomery County Welfare Department as deputy director. Then in 1983, Trammell was elected president of the Dayton chapter of the SCLC. Working closely with Andrew Young, Trammell rose to vice chair of the SCLC in 1996 and chairman of the national board in 2004.

Trammell was the first non-union recipient of the AFL-CIO Community Award in 1991. He received the Outstanding Service Award from the NAACP in 1995, the 1996 IBPOE of W Award in 1996 and was inducted into Selma, Alabama’s Civil Rights Hall of Fame in 1998. In 2005, Trammell garnered the Humanitarian Award from the State of Alabama, and in 2006, he received the Doug Couttee Award. Trammell lives in Dayton, Ohio where he has organized an annual march of 10,000 people to commemorate the ideals of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It is the country’s largest march. Trammell and his wife, Ann, have two daughters, Angela and Cheryl.

Accession Number

A2008.034

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/27/2008

Last Name

Trammell

Maker Category
Schools

Grantville Elementary

Grantville High School

Clark Atlanta University

First Name

Raleigh

Birth City, State, Country

Grantville

HM ID

TRA02

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

To Serve This Present Age; My Calling To Fulfill.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/30/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dayton

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Civil rights activist and pastor Reverend Raleigh Trammell (1936 - ) was the National Board Chairman of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He participated in the Civil Rights Movement, played a major role in the Poor People's Campaign and is the pastor of Central Missionary Baptist Church.

Employment

Central Missionary Baptist Church

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:6529,126:6998,134:14911,195:15355,205:71340,856:88710,1030:95535,1109:127510,1476:127950,1482:159130,1899$0,0:2468,53:2876,58:21156,170:21611,176:30029,276:32280,284:33180,297:33580,302:34480,314:46485,438:47590,453:50534,477:54394,533:54834,539:59678,567:60074,575:66147,665:69258,683:73236,754:73782,762:74250,769:74562,774:76560,788
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465152">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Raleigh Trammell's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465153">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465154">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465155">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about segregation in Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465156">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his mother's upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465157">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his father's upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465158">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his parents' personalities and his likeness to his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465159">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about his role as the seventh son</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465160">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his childhood home, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465161">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465162">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465163">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his childhood home, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465164">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the Greater Jehovah Baptist Church in Grantville, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465165">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Grantville School in Grantville, Georgia, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465166">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers playing basketball</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465167">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Grantville School in Grantville, Georgia, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465168">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his aspiration to join the ministry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465169">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about singing in the choir</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465170">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls funding his studies at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465171">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Benjamin E. Mays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465172">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his professors and peers at Clark College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465173">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the 92nd Division in World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465174">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his studies at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465175">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the early Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465176">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the philosophy of nonviolence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465177">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the Montgomery Bus Boycott</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465178">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his early civil rights activism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465179">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his move to Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465180">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the civic organizations in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465181">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his activism with the Dayton Organization</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465182">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the March on Washington, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465183">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the March on Washington, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465184">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the press coverage of the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465185">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls protesting against the Rike-Kumler Company</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465186">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his involvement with the SCLC</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465187">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465188">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465189">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s visit to Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465190">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Central Missionary Baptist Church in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465191">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the racial discrimination in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465192">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the City of Dayton's black elected officials</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465193">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his arrest</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465194">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his presidency of the SCLC chapter in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465195">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. celebration in Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465196">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his roles with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465197">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the importance of civil rights organizations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465198">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about gun violence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465199">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465200">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the changes in the SCLC</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465201">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465202">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his hopes for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465203">Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his family and how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465204">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell narrates his photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/465205">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell narrates his photographs, pt. 2</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

3$9

DATitle
Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. celebration in Dayton, Ohio
Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his legacy
Transcript
And organized the biggest Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] celebration that we had--they have in the country because we have a whole week of celebration. We, we changed this, the street out here to Martin Luther King, Jr. Way. We had Mrs. King [Coretta Scott King] come here and, and bless the street the day it was changed. The federal judge, Judge Walter Rice [Walter Herbert Rice] was a part of that. And so we organized the community in celebration, Martin Luther King. We have the biggest banquet, the biggest march.$$There are at least, I know in 2006, I came back I noticed there was like five or six banquets, breakfast and lunches and banquets during that (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$--week or the week of his--$$We start at the first of January with the Emancipation Proclamation celebration and we make that a part of the Martin Luther King celebration. And, of course, we go right on down the line. We have a, we have a student participation, youth participation, they have workshops, we have a, a musical, we have a worship service, we have a cultural service, then we have an ecumenical service, and then we have a march and, of course, we have the, what is called the Presidential Banquet.$$Okay.$$And--$$And as many as ten thousand people march down 3rd Street which is now Martin Luther King Way.$$And we have it coming from four ways.$$Okay. That's right, that's right.$$We have the biggest come from west but it comes from four ways and meet up there in the community (unclear)--$$You mean downtown at the, at Courthouse Square [Dayton, Ohio], right?$$Yes.$$Yeah.$$We meet up at the Courthouse Square all four ways, south, west, east, and north.$$Now, this year the governor of Ohio spoke--$$Yes.$$--Governor Ted Strickland, the mayor, of course--$$Um-hm.$$--Rhine McLin. This is, it's the largest Dr. King march in the country.$$Yes.$Now, when you look back on everything you've done to this point, again, what today would you consider to be your legacy?$$I think the people of Dayton [Ohio] has given a great deal of support to the leadership of SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference], and in such a fashion that we have been able to put together the leading Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] celebration in the country and it is modeled throughout the nation and I'm proud of that. It was not just me, it was all the folks that we bring together. The--we, we have what is called a Martin Luther King committee for which I chair, we bring 'em together and we sit down and plan the celebration. I am really proud of that Martin Luther King celebration because people look forward to it.

The Honorable Harry Elam

Retired Judge Harry Justin Elam was the first African American appointed to the Boston Municipal Court of Massachusetts. Subsequently, Elam became the Chief Justice of this court and later was appointed as an Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court. Prior to his judgeship years, between 1971 and 1988, he was a prominent lawyer in the city of Boston from 1952 to 1971.

Elam was born on April 29, 1922 in Boston, Massachusetts, the second child of five born to Robert H. and Blanche Lee Elam. A graduate of Boston Latin School, he attended Virginia State College between 1940 and 1942. He served in the U.S. Army during World War II from 1942 to 1946 and earned an A.B. degree from Boston University in 1948 and his J.D. degree from Boston University’s Law School in 1951. In his early years of general law practice, Elam partnered with Edward W. Brooke, who went on to become a U.S. senator from Massachusetts, the first since Reconstruction.

As a judge in both the municipal and state courts, Harry Elam maintained a deep and sensitive connection to Boston’s neighborhoods. He saw the reduction of adult and juvenile crime as a responsibility of those leading the court system and so he linked himself and fellow jurists with social, cultural, and political issues in his community. Elam was the founder and first president of the Massachusetts Black Judges Conference. He was the founder and first president of the Roxbury Multi-Service Center, serving twelve years as the Center’s president. Elam also chaired the board of directors of the Elma Lewis School of Fine Arts for ten years.

Elam’s signature community project was Project Commitment. He served as its creator and chair for twelve years. This project brought Black judges and lawyers into public school classrooms to mentor youth. His most coveted recognition is one received in 1983, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Drum Major for Justice Award presented jointly by two of Boston’s venerable Black Episcopal churches.

Elam retired to Buzzards Bay on Cape Cod in Massachusetts with his wife, Barbara, have four children, Patricia, Harry, Jr., Keith, and Jocelyn.

Judge Harry Elam passed away on August 16, 2012.

Accession Number

A2005.196

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/11/2005

Last Name

Elam

Maker Category
Schools

Henry Lee Higginson Elementary School

Boston Latin School

Boston University School of Law

Virginia State University

First Name

Harry

Birth City, State, Country

Boston

HM ID

ELA01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Caribbean Islands

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/29/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Martha's Vineyard

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Lobster, Fried Chicken

Death Date

8/16/2012

Short Description

Municipal court chief justice The Honorable Harry Elam (1922 - 2012 ) was the first African American appointed to the Boston Municipal Court of Massachusetts, and was later appointed as an Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court.

Employment

Boston Municipal Court

Massachusetts Superior Court

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2340,38:2880,46:19022,316:19882,328:20570,337:25280,375:25872,385:27722,415:32236,540:54040,734:54368,739:55024,749:56500,771:56828,776:59944,832:60272,837:63470,889:64372,940:72314,993:74442,1020:74746,1049:75050,1057:78850,1114:79458,1124:83854,1182:87426,1225:89400,1266:91750,1307:92690,1323:96696,1339:98544,1380:108363,1525:109720,1530:112330,1597:121470,1691$0,0:3264,91:19650,293:20050,299:20450,305:21010,313:26798,415:29346,429:30482,451:30979,460:34103,522:34600,529:38190,570:38645,579:39295,645:39815,654:52030,903:52790,918:53246,925:53702,932:54994,956:57046,1004:57730,1015:58338,1023:60314,1067:66320,1125:66644,1130:69317,1174:78800,1297:83122,1354:88762,1476:92052,1523:95060,1599:120597,2060:121326,2071:121731,2077:122136,2083:125052,2139:136813,2363:144118,2453:145758,2512:156020,2643
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300073">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Harry Elam's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300074">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Harry Elam lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300075">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his profession</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300076">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his mother's family history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300077">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300078">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his father's childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300079">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his father's military service and auto shop</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300080">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300081">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300082">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his youngest sister, Harriet Elam-Thomas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299877">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his neighborhood in Cambridge, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299878">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299879">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers his uncle, Ralph Lee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299880">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers his mother's siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299881">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers family and church picnics as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299882">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his neighborhood in Roxbury, Boston</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299883">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his elementary schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299884">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers attending Boston Latin School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299885">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Harry Elam recalls choosing Virginia State College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299886">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers attending St. Mark Congregational Church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299887">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers meeting his wife, Barbara Clark</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299888">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his studies in college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299889">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers important professors at Virginia State College for Negroes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299890">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers attending Virginia State College for Negroes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299891">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers serving in the U.S. Army during World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299892">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Harry Elam recalls his rejection from Harvard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299893">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes the friends who inspired him to become a lawyer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299894">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers attending Boston University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299895">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his family's work after World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299896">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers attending Boston University School of Law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299897">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers getting married and passing the bar exam</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299898">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes practicing law with HistoryMaker Edward Brooke</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299899">Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers his legal and political work in the 1950s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299900">Tape: 3 Story: 12 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his political activity in Roxbury, Boston, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300099">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his oldest daughter, Patricia Elam</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300100">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his oldest son, Harry Elam Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300101">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his third and fourth children, Keith Elam and Jocelyn Elam</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300102">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his appointment to the Boston Municipal Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300103">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers securing George Skelly's appointment as chief probation officer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300104">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers his early work at the Boston Municipal Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300105">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers his term as chief justice of the Boston Municipal Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300106">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his civic activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300107">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his role models</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300108">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes fighting for the appointment of Frank Barbour, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299920">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes fighting for the appointment of Frank Barbour, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299923">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes hearing two Boston Municipal Court cases</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299924">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Harry Elam recalls a difficult case, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299925">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Harry Elam recalls a difficult case, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299931">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes serving on the bench of the Massachusetts Superior Court</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299932">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his post-retirement work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299933">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes his wife's career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/299934">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes memorializing Wade H. McCree at Boston Latin School, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300115">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes memorializing Wade H. McCree at Boston Latin School, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300116">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Harry Elam remembers meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300117">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Harry Elam describes increased opportunities for African American lawyers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300118">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Harry Elam reflects upon being interviewed by The HistoryMakers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300119">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Harry Elam reflects upon his life and how he hopes to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/300120">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Harry Elam narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
The Honorable Harry Elam remembers his early work at the Boston Municipal Court
The Honorable Harry Elam describes his role models
Transcript
And subsequently and--shortly after I came on board to the governor, [Francis W. Sargent], there was an eruption in the various prisons throughout--with the--starting with Attica [Attica Correctional Facility, Attica, New York] throughout the county, and we began to have eruptions in the Massachusetts prison so he appointed a citizens committee to look into the correction system in Massachusetts and asked me to chair it, and so I did and for about a year we traveled, this commission all over--this is between my work in the court, all over the state visiting all the state prisons, all of the correctional institutes, and the problem we had in each of them, we could talk to the warden and the inmates but the guards had a union that would not allow them to talk to this commission, 'cause we wanted to get some feel from them what they saw as the problem, because they were the ones that are the closest to the inmates, but we had no opportunity to talk and they were all--there were no black correction officers, they were all white and even then in those days, this is back in 1971 there was a significant number of blacks in prison, but in any event we made our report and recommendations to the governor and, as to what we felt ought to be done and made a point that you know we felt sorry, badly that we weren't able to get the viewpoint of the correction officers but this was prevented by--. But we had recommendations to make in that area as well, and so we did and some it could--those, those recommendations were taken up and by the legislature and--. But that was an experience that I had while shortly after coming on board as, as a justice of the Boston Municipal Court.$So you certainly well, I don't always like to use this term but you were a role model, who were your role models before you became a judge? You certainly had--$$My role model really was Wade [H.] McCree. I remember Wade McCree.$$Who is Wade McCree?$$Wade McCree went on to become one of the first black federal judges in the state, in the United States. He was the second black appointed to the federal district court and the second to the federal court of appeals. He later went on to become solicitor general of the United States. He gave up his judgeship on the court of appeals [U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit] which was a lifetime appointment to become--so he followed Thurgood Marshall. Thurgood Marshall had gone to the Supreme Court of the United States and he--Carter [President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.] appointed Wade McCree solicitor general. The solicitor general represents the United States government in all cases before, in which the government has an interest before the Supreme Court. He's sometimes considered the tenth member of the Supreme Court of the United States, and I'm sure that had Wade--had Carter been elected to a second term that Wade would've gone on to the Supreme Court, but he was an outstanding, he was the first black appointed a judge in the State of Michigan. I can remember, now I'm living in Massachusetts I remember reading about Wade, I knew Wade from the time we were Boy Scouts together. He was two years older than I, but he was really somebody that I wanted--I always wanted to be like Wade, outstanding Boy Scout. The first boy--black Boy Scout in Massachusetts to become an Eagle Scout which is the highest honor you can attain in the Boy Scouts, and then he went, he was graduated from Fisk University [Nashville, Tennessee], magna cum laude, went on to Harvard Law School [Cambridge, Massachusetts] was twelfth in his class, and then couldn't get a job in Massachusetts, had to go to Detroit [Michigan] to get a job in a law--it was a black firm out there and then went on to become the first black judge in federal court, went on federal district court, court of appeals and then solicitor general. So he was my role model. I always wanted, when I saw--I said one day I hope I could be a judge like Wade.$$And you did it.$$And it did happen.$$Were there any other role models that sand out along the way?$$He was the principal one there to be honest with you and of course Ed Brooke [HistoryMaker Edward Brooke] was somebody that I always admired and, and watched, and he was very, as I said he was very instrumental in my starting out in the law practice.

Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill

Azira Gonzalez Hill, referred to as Atlanta’s Angel for her works as a civil rights activist and nurse, was born in Holguin, Cuba, on October 28, 1923, to a large working class family of eight siblings. As a young woman, Hill worked diligently as a student to provide opportunities that would enable her to flourish outside of Cuba; because of her academic achievements, she was finally afforded the opportunity to come to the United States to study through her church. Hill attended Bethune Cookman, Morris Brown, and Georgia State University, ultimately becoming a registered nurse. Hill married Jesse Hill, a prominent civil rights figure, with whom she had two daughters.

Hill worked as a nurse at Grady Hospital Educational Department, Price High School, and Ralph Bunche Middle School, before her retirement. After her retirement, Hill remained an active member of Big Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church; the Azalea Links, Inc.; the Inquirer Literary Club; the Circlelets; and the Quettes. Hill also founded the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra Talent Development Program at the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, which named its scholarship fund in her honor. Hill has been involved with the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Center’s Board of Directors; the Board of Directors of the Center for Puppetry Arts; the Southeastern Flower Show; the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra; and St. Joseph’s Mercy Care. In 2008, Hill was named a life director of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, an honor which at the time only belonged to five other individuals.

Hill has received awards from the Association of the National Negro Musicians for promoting Black music and musicians, and the Martin Luther King Federal Commission for her service. Hill also received the Golden Rule Award for community service from J.C. Penney; the Ralph Bunche Middle School Medal; the School Nurses Association for Merit and Distinction; the Lexus Leader of the Arts Award; and a Mercy Care Award for Service.

Accession Number

A2005.184

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/4/2005

Last Name

Hill

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Gonzalez Sanchez

Schools

Boylan-Haven School

Bethune-Cookman University

Grady Memorial Hospital School of Nursing

First Name

Azira

Birth City, State, Country

Holguin

HM ID

HIL10

Favorite Season

Spring

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

It's Going To Get Better.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/28/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

Cuba

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Civil rights activist and registered nurse Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill (1923 - ) has had a long and prolific career in Atlanta in the areas of school health care and civil rights. After her retirement, Hill became involved in various philanthropic endeavors, most notably her involvement with the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, for which she was named a lifetime director in 2008.

Employment

Price High School

Grady Memorial Hospital

Bunche Middle School

Big Bethel AME Church

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:1800,18:14338,192:15418,205:36590,470:45190,598:48890,644:49290,710:68250,895:69390,906:81191,1063:99484,1316:111390,1417$0,0:37720,377:45916,464:73372,859:82550,1011:93250,1197:103865,1260:111346,1449:123460,1701:149836,2021:183900,2375:184565,2383:186370,2418:192345,2504:199720,2546
DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268421">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill narrates her photographs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268422">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268423">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268424">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268425">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268426">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her maternal grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268427">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her mother supporting the family after her father's death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268428">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill recalls moving to the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268429">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her childhood in Holguin, Cuba</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268430">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill lists her siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268431">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her childhood home in Holguin, Cuba</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268311">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes the diversity of her neighborhood in Holguin, Cuba</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268312">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers a supportive teacher from her elementary school years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268313">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her middle school experiences in Holguin, Cuba</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268314">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her experiences at Boylan-Haven School in Jacksonville, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268315">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her personality and aspirations as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268316">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes attending church in Jacksonville, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268317">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers experiencing exclusion at Boylan-Haven School in Jacksonville, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268318">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill explains her decision to attend Grady Memorial Hospital School of Nursing in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268319">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about leaving Bethune-Cookman College in Daytona Beach, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268320">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers returning to Cuba briefly after obtaining her nursing license</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268432">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes how Jesse Hill courted her</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268433">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill recalls the strict regulations at Grady Memorial Hospital School of Nursing in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268434">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers having her two children while working as a nurse</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268435">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her return to work as a school nurse</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268436">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill recalls her and her husband's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268437">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill reflects upon her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268438">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about her connections to Cuba</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268439">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill reflects upon the reception of Latino immigrants in the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268329">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about her philanthropic work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268330">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her husband, Jesse Hill</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268331">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about her grandchildren's accomplishments</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268332">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes the rewards of nursing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268333">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268334">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her concerns for the African American and Latino communities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268335">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill explains her values</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268336">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268337">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill explains the importance of history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268338">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her best friends</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268339">Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268340">Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about Big Bethel A.M.E. Church in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/268341">Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes youth programs at Big Bethel A.M.E. Church</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

9$5

DATitle
Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her childhood in Holguin, Cuba
Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill recalls her and her husband's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement
Transcript
In terms of early memories, can you describe what family life was like when you were in Cuba--holidays, special events, or just daily life in your neighborhood?$$In the neighborhood, we had a pretty large house. And my brothers played all kinds of instruments. And so that she [Hill's mother, Dominga Sanchez Gonzalez] could control us, I suppose, we were not allowed to go out too much. But the neighborhood could come to our house, and so, they would come and play music. At that time, there was no radio. We didn't have any radio, but they did--I had, I had plenty of music--all kinds, not just salsa, and all these other thing. But I knew [Johann Sebastian] Bach, and [Ludwig van] Beethoven, and all that, 'cause my brothers were, you know, serious musicians, and that was fun. And some days, we read poetry, and play music, and everybody play, and had a good time. And holidays are wonderful, because, you know, everybody come. If you were a friend of any of my brothers, you could come to my house, and that was fun. And there was only one family that I was allowed to go to, and they were three sisters. Since I didn't have much--I had a sister about ten years younger than I, so we were not peers, you know. And so, that she would allow me to, you know, interact with those, that family that had these three daughters. And that was fun. In fact then, we all married in the same dress (laughter).$If you could, share with me, maybe, the name of some of the associations that you belong to professionally.$$Oh, I've done so many things. I, you know, during the Civil Rights Movement, you know, I didn't have any other choice but to join. My husband, [Jesse] Hill, was chair of the All-Citizens Registration Committee, so I became a registrar, and, you know, could register people to vote. And so, we used to go to churches, and mass meetings, and places like that, and register to vote people. Then, when [HistoryMaker] Charlayne [Hunter-Gault] and Hamilton [Holmes]'s application, and all the turmoil and went through that, you know, I was there, you know, fixing foods, and just being there. You had to support your husband. Political rallies, and mass meetings, and all that. The only thing I didn't do was to--I didn't march. Only one time, and that was the demonstration on the [Boisfeuillet Jones Atlanta] Civic Center [Atlanta, Georgia] at something about they tried to integrate the dentists' professional meeting that they were having there. And other than that, I would--did sit-ins, Mrs. [Otelia Hackney] Russell and I, you know, went to, used to be, store across the street from The Ritz-Carlton [Atlanta, Georgia]--I can't remember the name now, but they had a restaurant and Macy's--$$Which is--$$--but anyway, they--we just went inside in their dining room. And when we got there, they didn't serve us--they just closed. They closed the dining room, so we just got up and left. And then, there was in Lenox Square [Atlanta, Georgia], there was another restaurant, and we did that, too. And the third one was (unclear) that was in Locust Street, and that was the only one that I really got upset and frightened (laughter), because we were--it was a delicatessen. And so, we were trying to get in to order--it was sandwiches and things--and the police came. And the minute police came, I have to go--I couldn't, I just could not. Well, [Jesse] Hill and I had made the promise to each other that we would not get arrested, because--well, I'm a foreigner, you know, I could be deported. At that time, I don't think I was even a citizen. And then, too, the girls [Nancy Hill Cook and Azira Hill Kendall] were small, and we didn't have any relatives in town, so somebody had to be, you know, there to--over them. In addition to that, he was the contact person to bail out those that were arrested. So, he couldn't be arrested himself. So, that was one of the arrangements that, you know, that were made beforehand.

Walter Theodore Hayden

Entrepreneur Walter Theodore Hayden was born June 24, 1926, in Tuskegee, Alabama, where his father, Rev. Charles Hayden of Greenwood, Mississippi, was chaplain of Tuskegee University. Hayden attended Hudson Elementary School in Birmingham, Alabama, and graduated from Birmingham’s Parker High School in 1944; he was a pre-med student at Indiana University from 1944 to 1947.

In the mid-1950s, Hayden was a driver and broker for PR & R Trucking Company in Birmingham. From 1961 to 1964, Hayden was the owner and operator of Birmingham’s Star Bowl bowling lanes. Star Bowl became a meeting place and a secret sheltering place for civil rights workers during the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham. In 1964, Hayden moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, where he started Diamond Printing; soon thereafter, he began printing and distributing his own line of African American oriented greeting cards. In 1995, Hayden founded Fort Wayne Black Pages Business Directory.

A lifetime member of the NAACP, Hayden was also a member of the Urban League for twenty years, and for over sixty years was a member of the A.M.E. Church. Hayden and his wife, Ernestine, remained in Fort Wayne where they raised nine children.

Walter Theodore Hayden was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 23, 2005.

Hayden passed away on January 8, 2020.

Accession Number

A2005.122

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

5/23/2005

Last Name

Hayden

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Theodore

Schools

A.H. Parker High School

Hudson Elementary School

Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW)

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Walter

Birth City, State, Country

Tuskegee

HM ID

HAY08

Favorite Season

Winter

Sponsor

Lincoln Financial Group Foundation

State

Alabama

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Indiana

Interview Description
Birth Date

6/24/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Fort Wayne

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Barbecue (Ribs)

Death Date

1/8/2020

Short Description

Leisure entrepreneur and printing entrepreneur Walter Theodore Hayden (1926 - 2020) owned the Star Bowl, which served as a meeting place in Birmingham, Alabama, for civil rights workers during the Civil Rights Movement. Hayden later founded Diamond Printing; created his own line of African American greeting cards; and published the Fort Wayne Black Pages Business Directory.

Employment

Fort Wayne Black Pages

U.S. Army

Diamond Printing

Star Bowling Lanes

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579798">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Walter Theodore Hayden's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579799">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Walter Theodore Hayden lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579800">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579801">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his mother's personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579802">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his paternal great-grandfather</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579803">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his paternal grandfather</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579804">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his father's career and personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579805">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his childhood family life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579806">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579807">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his early childhood in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579808">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls moving frequently during his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579809">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his father's work as an A.M.E. minister</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579810">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579811">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his childhood activities in Birmingham, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579812">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his school experiences in Birmingham, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579813">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes influential teachers from grade school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579814">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls his interest in chemistry at A.H. Parker High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579815">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes playing football at A.H. Parker High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579816">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls his ambitions to attend college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579817">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Walter Theodore Hayden explains why he chose not to become a minister</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579818">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes serving in the U.S. Army during World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579819">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls his decision to leave the U.S. Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579820">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls his travels during his U.S. Army service</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579821">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his early work experiences after college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579822">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls the Civil Rights Movement in the early 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579823">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his involvement in civil rights in Birmingham</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579824">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes the dangers faced by civil rights activists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579825">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579826">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes the tradition of civil rights protest marches</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579827">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Walter Theodore Hayden talks about why he left Birmingham, Alabama in 1964</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579828">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls entering the printing industry in Fort Wayne, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579829">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his company, Unique Greeting Cards</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579830">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls working with black-owned businesses in Fort Wayne</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579831">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Walter Theodore Hayden recalls publishing the Black Pages in Fort Wayne, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579832">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes why he doesn't support black chambers of commerce</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579833">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Walter Theodore Hayden explains why black businesses have difficulty obtaining loans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579834">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Walter Theodore Hayden offers advice for African American businesses</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579835">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Walter Theodore Hayden reflects upon the legacy of Willie Lynch</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579836">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579837">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Walter Theodore Hayden reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579838">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Walter Theodore Hayden reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579839">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Walter Theodore Hayden talks about volunteering at area schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579840">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Walter Theodore Hayden reflects upon his relationship with his parents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579841">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes his children</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579842">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Walter Theodore Hayden describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579843">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Walter Theodore Hayden narrates his photographs</a>

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DATitle
Walter Theodore Hayden explains why he chose not to become a minister
Walter Theodore Hayden recalls publishing the Black Pages in Fort Wayne, Indiana
Transcript
When I came home from the prom that night, that night, about one o'clock in the morning, he [Hayden's father, Charles Hayden] was sitting on the porch rocking, you know. And I came home, he says, "I wanna talk to you," I said okay. We sat on the porch, there was two rockers there on the porch him and hers, you know. And he says, "You don't have to go to the [U.S.] Army." He said, "I can get you deferred." And he said, "I could get you enrolled in school, and you don't have to go to the Army," he said, "you can be a minister." Of all the boys my dad had, he didn't have a minister.$$Was it, that had to be troubling for him because his great-grand, his grandfather [Charles Hayden] had been a minister, his father [Charles Hayden] had been a minister, he was a minister, right?$$Yes, it might have been troubling for him.$$And not a single one?$$Not a single boy, and there were eight of us, eight. Now there was one that preached, wasn't a minister, so he picked me. I had good grades and I pleaded with him, I told him, "Dad, I know how you feel but I don't wanna go through what you've gone through. I don't think I can handle it and come out like you."$$Now what did you mean by that, what did you mean by that?$$In all of the years I had watched him operate, that's what I called it, he did things, took care of things, all the time. One thing that always bothered me is on Monday morning he'd come in there early and wake us up, "You, Walter [HistoryMaker Walter Theodore Hayden]," I said oh, no, I knew what was going on, somebody had got into trouble and he bailed 'em out so they could go to work Monday. That means I didn't have carfare to ride the bus to school. I had to hike it over that mountain the rest of the week, you know. But that, we did it. And we knew what was happening, what was going on. And like you said he was a fixer, and there was always some little problem going on at the church or he was gonna move to another church and da, di, da. And I just didn't think I could handle people that well, (laughter) you know. I, he could have been in any other profession, he could have been quite a force, could have made a lot of money because he was well educated. And I thought, oh, you kind of mistreated us I thought over the years, but later he gave me something that you can't equate with money. And I can do whatever I decided to do. And I can. And I've had that now, tried to instill my kids with it. And, of course, you don't always succeed. Now, my grandfather, my father, would have been very proud of some of his grandchildren and I have two ministers (laughter). So it didn't go for naught, I have two.$$So did you, was it just the economic factor or did you feel like you really (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I thought it was later on, but that soon dispelled because I found out that after I got out on my own, I had no problem making my own way because I had been taught how to do that. That goes back to the time when this guy told me his kid was home from school, from school and he was gonna work, drive a truck all summer, and he would call me in the winter, I said um-hm, forget it. So I haven't worked for anybody else since.$$But you didn't feel, you didn't feel like any calling to be a minister at all, you didn't really feel that was a--$$Although I'm heavily involved in church.$$Okay. I thought it probably would have been since all this tradition, you know, you probably would have (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, but none, pfft.$I did that, I printed the book for her, she said, "Why don't you start one?" And I thought about it, I started thinking about that here and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) There's a young lady here in town [Fort Wayne, Indiana] who was--already had a Black Pages [Fort Wayne Black Pages]?$$No, no, no, we didn't have one. But I was dealing with, Rae Pearson. Rae Pearson is, has a personnel company [Alpha Rae Personnel, Inc., Fort Wayne, Indiana]. And we always talked with each other and so we, we were trying to get a meeting where everybody knew everybody. And so people started bringing me copies of Black Books from, Black Pages from all around the country, so I said, okay, I can put one of these together, I got a print shop [Diamond Point Printing; Express Print and Copy, Fort Wayne, Indiana], so I did. It took me two years to get the first one through but after that, I put out five good ones after that. The first one well, it's typical of a first book and then the rest of them look like it was done right.$$Okay. Now is this a, is the Black Pages like a franchise or something--$$No.$$--or anybody can start their own version of it then?$$Yes.$$It's not a copyrighted idea where--$$No.$$--you can get in trouble if I wanted to start one, I just go start one?$$No. It's just a matter of, I've got this here and it can only support one, you can start one in another city but like Chicago [Illinois], Chicago could support two Black Pages, pages, okay. French [Arnette D. French] up there, nobody wants to get in French's way 'cause can't, printing fifty thousand books a year. And the advertising from that is tremendous in Chicago. What he gets a page up there, I can't even think about it here, most I can get for a full color page would be about eight hundred dollars. He can get two, three thousand for a full page because of the coverage and people who keep these books. And I have created mine to the point where it was really something. And the young man that bought it from me is doing the same. In fact, the new edition will be out some times this week, I think. I was up to see him last week in his, this year's book is coming out this, this week.$$Okay.$$So the Black Pages is a way for you to find any service that's in the black community that you wanna spend your money with. That's what it's all about.$$Now it probably has more significance, tell me if I'm right or wrong, I would guess it would have more significance today than it, even in the past because the black--$$That's right.$$--community is scattered around, people don't even know what the other black businesses are.$$That's right. That's right. This is what it's, that's basically what it's supposed to be. It's your avenue to everything that's going on in the black community. Unfortunately, there's a downside to that, okay (laughter). Everything has a downside. Some people want the very first issue right away as soon as they can get it. And they are using it as a hit list.$$A hit list?$$By that, yes, a hit list. Same as telemarketing, they know where the black community, the black businesses are so they can reach them real quick like they know where all of them are, they're in that book. They don't have to go out, government agencies get them, the city gets them, all government agencies have to have them because they're looking for suppliers, you see. They're looking for suppliers and they're used for more than one purpose what I'm showing you. It became quite a book because of that; they're using it for more than one purpose. Some use it as a hit list, some use it for information, and some use it for use, basically. And they are all over the country doing well. And like you said about it, what's the difference then, I can just start, yes, you can. But there's this thing about what you can do and what you shouldn't do. For instance, this city cannot support two Black Pages. It can support two black newspapers because the advertising in newspapers are here today and gone tomorrow, whereas on this book you see it once a year. And the people who are in that book are very stable, the advertising you see in the newspaper is hit and miss because the guy that puts it in there today he puts in two issues that's it. You won't see it again for some time until he gets another budget maybe. But whereas the Black Pages are full of people who are stable, they're not going in that directory for a seasonal thing, they're going in it because on the long run it's there.