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Samuel C. Thompson, Jr.

Tax lawyer Samuel Coleman Thompson, Jr. was born on October 25, 1943 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Thompson and his family can trace their lineage to the 1600s. After Thompson and his family moved to the industrial town of Steelton, Pennsylvania in 1948, he graduated from Steelton High School in 1961. Thompson then received his B.S. degree from West Chester University in Pennsylvania and his M.A. degree from the University of Pennsylvania’s prestigious Wharton School and Graduate School of Economics in 1969.

Between Thompson’s first and second years of law school at the University of Pennsylvania, he was drafted into the Vietnam War, where he served for three years. During Thompson’s tenure, he rose to the rank of Captain, serving as Commanding Officer of Headquarters Company and received the Navy Commendation Medal. After returning to the United States, Thompson received his J.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School and began working as a legal writing instructor.

Between 1971 and 1972, Thompson worked briefly for Davis Polk & Wardwell in New York. Shortly thereafter, he earned his L.L.M. degree in taxation from New York University while working as an assistant and associate professor of law at Northwestern University. In 1976, Thompson published his first book, Pension Reform: How to Comply with ERISA, and served as an attorney advisor in the Office of Tax Legislative Counsel and International Tax Counsel for the U.S. Treasury Department.

In 1977, Thompson joined the faculty at the University of Virginia School of Law until 1981. He then served as the partner-in-charge of the tax department at the law firm of Schiff Hardin & Waite in Chicago, Illinois until 1990, when he joined the UCLA Law School faculty. There, Thompson taught courses on mergers and acquisitions and corporate taxation.

In 1994, Thompson left UCLA’s Law School to become the Dean of the University of Miami School of Law. During his tenure, Thompson created the Center for the Study of Mergers and Acquisitions and transferred it to the UCLA School of Law when he moved back to California in 2003. There, Thompson established the school’s first two endowed chairs, the Center for Ethics & Public Service and the Children and Youth Law Clinic.

Thompson published numerous books throughout his professional career including Federal Income Taxation of Domestic and Foreign Business Transactions, An Examination of the Effect of Recent Legislation on Commodity Tax Straddles and Investment Tax Credit: Alternative to the President’s Flawed Dividend Plan, Financed by ETI Repeal (Extraterritorial Income Exclusion).

Thompson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 17, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.145

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/17/2007

Last Name

Thompson

Maker Category
Middle Name

C.

Schools

Hygienic School

Steelton-Highspire High School

University of Pennsylvania

West Chester University

Millersville University

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

First Name

Samuel

Birth City, State, Country

Harrisburg

HM ID

THO14

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

Let's Roll.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

10/25/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

State College

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Swordfish

Short Description

Academic administrator, tax lawyer, and law professor Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. (1943 - ) served as the partner-in-charge of the tax department at the law firm of Schiff Hardin & Waite in Chicago, Illinois. He taught law classes at the University of Virginia, UCLA and served as dean of the University of Miami School of Law.

Employment

Devereux Foundation

School District of Philadelphia

Philadelphia Department of Human Services

Davis, Polk & Wardwell, LLP

Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). School of Law

University of Virginia

University of California, Los Angeles

United Sates Department of The Treasury

University of Miami

South Africa. Ministry of Finance

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel C. Thompson, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. shares his parents' dates and places of birth

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his experiences at the Hygienic School in Steelton, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his experiences at Steelton-Highspire High School in Steelton, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his undergraduate college experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls his decision to attend the University of Pennsylvania Law School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes the University of Pennsylvania Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. remembers his peers at the University of Pennsylvania Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his service in the U.S. Marine Corps during the Vietnam War

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. talks about his senior thesis at the Wharton School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes how he came to teach at the Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. talks about his interest in mergers and acquisitions

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. remembers teaching at the Northwestern University School of Law in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his roles in education and government

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon his experiences of discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. talks about his fellow African American law school deans

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his role at Schiff Hardin and Waite

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his political involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. lists his publications

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes the Center for the Study of Mergers and Acquisitions

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his role at the South African National Treasury

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls his civil rights activities the South

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls organizing the NAACP chapter at West Chester State College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon his accomplishments

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. remembers Wayne McCoy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. talks about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his tenure as dean of the University of Miami School of Law, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his tenure as dean of the University of Miami School of Law, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his career at the South African National Treasury

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls his departure from the University of Miami School of Law

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon affirmative action, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. reflects upon affirmative action, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. remembers writing for the National Black Law Journal

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$1

DATitle
Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. describes his role at the South African National Treasury
Samuel C. Thompson, Jr. recalls his civil rights activities the South
Transcript
Let me ask you about the--you was a consultant to South African president Nelson Mandela at one time?$$Well, I was, I was a consultant to the South African treasury department [National Treasury].$$Okay.$$I, I didn't work directly with Nelson Mandela, but I, but I worked with the, I worked in the Ministry of Finance--$$Okay.$$--for a, for a little over a year, the Ministry of Finance and also the South African Revenue Service--$$Okay.$$--for, for a little over a year.$$And, basically, what you did in just a few words.$$Yeah, I was the tax policy advisor to the, to the, to the Ministry of Finance, and then to the, to the South African Revenue Service. And I helped them with a project to modernize their income tax. And we, we, for example, they, during that time, adopted what's known as a capital gains tax. They did not tax capital gains prior to that time, and they moved to what's known as a worldwide, a modified worldwide system of taxing foreign income, as opposed to the system that they, they previously had, which was a, which was a basically, basically something called a territorial system that did not tax income earned by South Africans out of South Africa, outside of South Africa (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay.$$And, and I, those were sort of the principal things I worked on when I was in South Africa.$You've had a long and successful career, and I'm sure you must be very, very proud of it. What I wanted to ask--if there's anything that I may have overlooked in this interview that we could cover at this point?$$Yeah, you know, one of the things I suppose I would mention is that (laughter), I was talking to my wife [Becky Sue Thompson] about this the other day. When I was in law school, my first year of law school, I went with two other people--a white guy and a black lady, down to Mississippi during Christmastime to work on a civil rights project in a place called Leland, Mississippi, a place called tent city, where some sharecroppers had left their sharecropping jobs to work in this, to work in this, to, to work in this--I mean, to, to build a new life for themselves. And we were going down from the University of Pennsylvania [University of Pennsylvania Law School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] to help them put up this, this community center. So, we went down and to, to work with them. You know, it was the height of the Civil Rights Movement. My parents [Emmitt Nickens Thompson and Samuel C. Thompson, Sr.] didn't want me to go. They were, you know, frightened.$$Right. What year was this?$$This was in 1965.$$All right.$$This was in December of 1965. They didn't want me to go because of the, you know, fear for what, what might happen.$$Right.$$And I remember as we, as we, we drove, we were driving down to Mississippi. And we stopped--I think, it was in Nashville, Tennessee. And the, we stayed in a black area in a black hotel. And the, you know, the, the, the lady, the black lady didn't have anything romantically to do with either the white guy or myself. But when we stopped in this hotel in, in, in Nashville, they made me and the white lady--me and the black lady--stay in a room. And they put the white lady--put the white guy in another room by himself. And they said, "Now, you, you can be in there, but she can get up, and go into his room after," (laughter), "after we check you in," or something like that. I thought that was awfully funny (laughter). But, but it, you know, when, I remember distinctly when we were, how we felt when we crossed the border into Mississippi, you know, the fear we felt.$$Apprehension then--$$Here, we, you know, a white guy and two--and a black lady and a black man--going to Jackson, Mississippi, or Green- we're going to Greenville, Mississippi, going to stay in Greenville, working on this project, in Leland, Mississippi. We were, we were frightened, we were intimidated.$$Right.$$And I, I was just telling my wife, I was more intimidated driving into Mississippi than I was going to my first assignment in Vietnam as a Marine [U.S. Marine Corps]. And it's, it, it, it--those, those, you know, the people of Mississippi, who, who, who built that system of intimidation, you know, were, were, were doing something very evil.$$Right.$$And it was, and, and, and to do that to people in, in, in, in their own country is just sickening. And, and for, for the federal government to have permitted it to happen is even, is even worse.$$Right, right. I would certainly, certainly--$$So, you know, that's, you know, I, I, just drawing the comparison between, you know, driving, for, for an American citizen to be more frightened driving into Mississippi, than he is going into Vietnam in a combat situation in Vietnam, is just, it's just, you know, it shouldn't be.$$It should, should not be.

Ronald Brown

Atlanta Life Financial Group President and CEO Ronald DeWayne Brown was born on August 1, 1953 in Cleveland, Ohio to Bettye Williams and Clifford Brown. He was raised in New York City by his mother and stepfather, Gifford Williams. Brown was a graduate of Morehouse College with a B.A. degree in political science and economics. He was also a graduate of the Financial Management Program at Columbia University School of Business.

Brown began his career in 1977 working with Equifax in Atlanta, Georgia where he held various managerial positions. In 1988, he began his tenure with the Dun and Bradstreet Corporation and its successor companies, becoming the President and CEO of Sales Technology. There, he developed sales force automation software for the consumer packaged goods and pharmaceutical industries and was instrumental in taking the company public. In 1998, Brown became the CEO of Strategic Technologies, a premier market research firm with operations in 90 countries. By 2000, Brown was the President of Synavant, a global leader in customer relationship management software and solutions for the pharmaceutical industry.

In 2001, Brown joined the board of directors of Atlanta Life and became the CEO and managing partner of Variant Group. Charles E. Cornelius, President of Atlanta Life Financial Group retired, and in 2004, Brown was appointed the sixth President and CEO in the 100 year history of Atlanta Life Financial. He was also the Chairman of Jackson Securities, a full service investment bank, now affiliated with Atlanta Life, founded by the late mayor of Atlanta, Maynard Jackson.

Brown served as a business mentor at Morehouse College and the Georgia 100 Mentor program. He was the 2005 recipient of the Rainbow PUSH Wall Street Project Entrepreneur of the Year Award and the Business Advisor of the Year Award. He was also a member of the 100 Black Men of Atlanta Executive Committee and the Rotary Club of Atlanta.

Brown passed away on April 28, 2008 at age 54.

Accession Number

A2007.115

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/28/2007

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Middle Name

DeWayne

Schools

George Washington Carver Elementary School

P.S. 129 John H. Finley School

P.S. 139 Frederick Douglass School

J.H.S. 104 Simon Baruch

Seward Park High School

Morehouse College

First Name

Ronald

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

BRO43

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

AON

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cabo San Lucas, New York City

Favorite Quote

The More You Sweat During Times Of Peace, The Less You Bleed During Times Of War.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/1/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Thanksgiving Dinner

Death Date

4/28/2008

Short Description

Investment chief executive Ronald Brown (1953 - 2008 ) was the President and CEO of Sales Technology for Dun and Bradstreet Corporation, served on the board of directors of Atlanta Life Financial Group, and was appointed President and CEO of Atlanta Life Financial Group.

Employment

Equifax, Inc.

First Atlanta Bank, N.A.

Sales Technologies, Inc.

Atlanta Life Financial Group, Inc.

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ronald Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown describes his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown describes his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown talks about his mother's college education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown describes his paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown describes his father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown describes his father's golf career

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ronald Brown describes his relationship with his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ronald Brown describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ronald Brown remembers moving to his mother's home in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown talks about his parents' move to Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown remembers the community of Bessemer, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown remembers George Washington Carver Elementary School in Bessemer, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown remembers living for the summer in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown recalls his relocation to New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown talks about his stepfather

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ronald Brown describes his early education in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown remembers his teacher, H.W. Brendle

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown describes his extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown describes the sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown describes the sights of New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown remembers his mother's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown remembers Seward Park High School in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown remembers his experiences in the Baptist church

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown talks about his early understanding of racial identity

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown talks about the political climate of the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown remembers his decision to attend Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown describes his experiences at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown remembers his influences at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown describes his part time work experiences

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown describes his social life at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown describes his early career

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown remembers his roles at Sales Technologies, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown recalls the expansion of Sales Technologies, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown remembers his tenure as the CEO of Sales Technologies, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown remembers the initial public offering of Sales Technologies, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown remembers his introduction to international business, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown remembers his introduction to international business, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown recalls his career at Synavant, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown recalls joining the board of the Atlanta Life Financial Group

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown describes the history of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown recalls his appointment as the CEO of the Atlanta Life Financial Group

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown describes the Atlanta Life Financial Group's role in the community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ronald Brown talks about the future of the Atlanta Life Financial Group

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ronald Brown talks about Jesse Hill's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ronald Brown describes his commitment to minority financial education

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ronald Brown talks about his board memberships

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Ronald Brown describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ronald Brown reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Ronald Brown reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Ronald Brown shares a message to future generations

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Ronald Brown narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$6

DAStory

8$6

DATitle
Ronald Brown describes his father's golf career
Ronald Brown talks about Jesse Hill's role in the Civil Rights Movement
Transcript
And what did he--what was his occupation?$$My father [Clifford Brown] was one of the first blacks to ever play on the PGA Tour [Professional Golfers' Association].$$Okay. Tell me about that.$$Well, it was during a time period where you weren't making Tiger Woods money, that's for sure. A lot of the purses were significantly smaller then. He started late. He got his love for golf as a caddy there in Alabama. And naturally, after he'd finished caddying he'd stay out on the course and hit the ball a little while. And it got to a point where people saw that he could really hit a golf ball, and actually got to play with some of the, the white men that were members of the club there in Alabama, and did very well. And the rest, as they say, is, is history. But it was a tough history because of a series of things that happened, based on how difficult it was to, to fit in. Golf at the time was your quintessential white man's game. And for my father, to be able to do it and do it well, there were a lot of hardships, not the least of which was when he would go to play in a tournament, he wasn't allowed to stay in any of the hotels. So, there were times when my father would go to a tournament and have to sleep in his car and have to shave at, in the restroom of a gas station and then go out and play against Jack Nicklaus and Arnold Palmer and Lee Trevino.$$So those were some of the golfers that he played against?$$And beat, yes.$$Okay. What year are we talking about? What years?$$Early '60s [1960s].$$Early '60s [1960s], okay.$$There's a, a tremendous story that my father told me about a tournament that he was playing in, in Tennessee. And whether you're aware of this, but they, they feed all of the, the PGA. The card carrying PGA pros get to go into the clubhouse and eat, and you know, they always put on these big spreads, these extravagant meals for them. And they wouldn't allow my father in the clubhouse. And only one golfer stood up for him and said, "If you don't let him in, I won't come in either, and I'll protest this." And ironically, it was Gary Player from South Africa.$$Very interesting.$Is there anything that we have not talked about, about Atlanta Life [Atlanta Life Financial Group, Atlanta, Georgia] that you would like to, to tell us?$$Well, I think it's important to recognize that a major part of Atlanta Life's history took place during the civil rights era. And it took place during Jesse Hill's tenure when actually allowed Atlanta Life employees to leave work and go and work as deputized individuals to register people to vote in the City of Atlanta [Georgia]. And all of the progress that we've seen here in the City of Atlanta now, particularly the diversification process, a lot of that stemmed from the work that was done by Atlanta Life employees and that they were given the opportunity to do that because of the vision that, that Jesse Hill had for what this city could be and what the southeast could be. So everything from having the phones answered here from the SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference] when they were trying to tap all of Dr. King's [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] phones, to in this very room where we are right now, the funeral arrangements for Coretta Scott King were made with all of the King children sitting in some of the same chairs that we're sitting in right now.

Herbert DeCosta, Jr.

Architect and building contractor Herbert Alexander DeCosta, Jr. was born on March 17, 1923 in Charleston, South Carolina to Herbert A. DeCosta, Sr. and Julia Craft DeCosta. DeCosta’s interest in architecture began when he was thirteen years old while working for the family construction business which was founded in 1899 by his grandfather Benjamin DeCosta. He graduated high school from the Avery Institute in Charleston in 1940 and went on to receive his B.A. degree from Iowa State College in architectural engineering in 1944.

Prior to joining the family business in 1947, DeCosta worked as an architectural engineer for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA, now known as NASA). He returned to the DeCosta Company as Vice President and became President, serving there until his retirement in 1989. Under his leadership, the company undertook major renovation projects to preserve the historical landscape of Charleston and other areas. One of his most notable projects was the restoration of the Herndon Mansion in Atlanta, Georgia. This mansion was owned by one of the wealthiest African American men in America, Alonzo Herndon, founder of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company.

The H.A. DeCosta Company was named one of the top 100 black businesses in the nation by Black Enterprise magazine in 1979. Upon his retirement in 1989, DeCosta continued to be active in the field of preservation as a restoration consultant and project manager.

DeCosta’s work has been featured in various magazines and newspapers across the country. He has received various awards and recognitions for his contribution to Charleston, including South Carolina’s Governor’s Award and the Frances R. Edmunds Award for Historic Preservation. DeCosta passed away on December 28, 2008.

Accession Number

A2007.041

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/2/2007

Last Name

DeCosta

Maker Category
Middle Name

Alexander

Schools

Avery Normal Institute

Immaculate Conception School

Iowa State University

First Name

Herbert

Birth City, State, Country

Charleston

HM ID

DEC02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Europe, South Africa

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

3/17/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charleston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Fish

Death Date

12/28/2008

Short Description

Construction chief executive and architect Herbert DeCosta, Jr. (1923 - 2008 ) joined his family's business in 1947, a construction company that was in existence from 1899.

Employment

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Langley Field

H.A. DeCosta Company

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
0,0:1752,26:2920,43:6980,57:26650,207:30554,288:31018,303:44668,410:98136,904:99394,926:106015,996:117491,1124:123280,1181:125906,1192:136719,1316:152510,1387:163680,1466:166630,1495:189670,1657:202356,1783:202728,1788:224222,2001:227100,2019:232765,2083:233500,2092:266310,2378$0,0:1080,8:1512,13:2700,25:14883,284:22278,378:22614,383:23118,391:23706,400:30390,485:47422,698:56070,776:56880,786:70695,1034:71500,1042:83258,1115:83554,1120:119257,1472:131716,1585:134708,1631:144244,1738:144492,1743:144740,1748:145422,1786:145794,1793:149258,1860:155682,1940:156218,1945:164574,1995:166788,2012:167895,2017:168510,2023:169740,2034:211045,2267:217702,2317:218908,2332:222094,2359:228246,2427:241243,2530:242990,2537:249220,2633:250120,2837:259270,3091:317795,3374:318159,3384:325872,3454:329100,3481:333600,3539
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Herbert DeCosta, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his maternal great-grandparents' escape from slavery

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his maternal great-grandparents' life as freemen

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. talks about his maternal relatives

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his mother's upbringing and personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his maternal ancestors

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. recalls his father's contracting business

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his neighborhood in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers the Avery Normal Institute in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his experiences at the Avery Normal Institute

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. recalls the music curriculum at the Avery Normal Institute

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his decision to attend the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his college housing, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his college housing, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. recalls his upbringing in a wealthy family

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. recalls his influences at the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. recalls his early career

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. recalls joining his father's construction business

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers his construction projects, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers his construction projects, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers his construction projects, pt. 3

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his renovation work throughout the South

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers the Citizens Committee of Charleston County

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his civil rights activities

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers the assassinations of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. talks about his organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his daughters

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. talks about his marriage

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. talks about selling his construction company

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his advice to future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Herbert DeCosta, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

4$5

DATitle
Herbert DeCosta, Jr. describes his maternal great-grandparents' escape from slavery
Herbert DeCosta, Jr. remembers his construction projects, pt. 1
Transcript
Well, they were both born slaves in Macon, Georgia. And decided, they were still young, and I believe they were married in Macon, I'm not sure, but anyway, they had decided that they, no I don't think they were married, they wanted to get married and have children, but under the law at that time, the children would be slaves, you see. So they didn't want their children born as slaves so they decided that they would escape, and Ellen [Ellen Craft] was a seamstress and William [William Craft] was a carpenter and so, and she decided to disguise herself as a white gentleman. You see, she was very fair and she looked like a white person, so that's what she disguised herself as. And she had, they bought a top hat, then she had her arm in a sling and wore dark glasses, and then a bandage around her mouth because see she couldn't speak in, you know, good English, and she didn't want to be asked questions you see, so that was the reason for the bandage around the mouth so she would not have to talk. So they decided and, of course, William to be her slave, and they were supposed to be going, now they told their owners that they were going to visit their relatives and friends on Christmas Day on some nearby plantation. See, slaves, as I understand it, were permitted to visit relatives and friends on Christmas, so then, so that morning they left and boarded a train, and they ended up in Baltimore [Maryland]. Now Baltimore was the last stop before Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], which was, you know, in a free state, so the officials were very careful, you know, about slaves traveling into freed states. So then they asked for all kind of identification and they almost got caught. So it was Christmas Eve and they said, somebody told them, they said, "I traveled with them, or with him, this gentleman all the way from Macon, Georgia, and he's all right, it's Christmas Eve, just let them go on," and so that's how they got past the customs in Baltimore, and then they ended up in Philadelphia, and they lived in someone's farmhouse, and then they were taught to read and write, but things were sort of, hot you might say, so to speak, in Philadelphia, so they thought they better move on to Boston [Massachusetts]. So some friends helped them to get to Boston and while in Boston, William opened a carpenter shop or cabinet shop and Ellen continued to sew.$You had some information about buildings that you worked on early on (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah. It was my early days here [at H.A. DeCosta Company]. One, we built the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance [North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company] building, corner of Coming [Street] and Cannon Street. I designed that and built that. And that was designed to take care of adding a second story if they wanted to, but they, the Clemmons [ph.] family just sold it the other day, I see, and the father died, and the two boys inherited, of course they're not boys, they are grown men, and they decided to sell the building 'cause they got a good price for it so they sold that. And then rebuilt an educational building on Johns Island [South Carolina] for the Methodist church. See Johns Island back in those days was really kind of rural see. There wasn't any Kiawah [Kiawah Island Golf Resort, Kiawah Island, South Carolina] down there, or one on the other end, and nothing like that. It was just a sort of rural country place, and they built this building to take care of the people so they'd have some place to go up for recreation, and you know, have meetings and programs and things of that type. So that's what we built. And then we also remodeled the Carolina Savings Bank, and that was one of the banks, one of the big banks in Charleston [South Carolina]. We remodeled that. Put in new counters, a new safety deposit vault, and did things, that type of thing. Then I remember I did the drawings for the vault and then also built a parish house for our church. One of the first things we did.$$And this was St. Mark's Church [St. Mark's Episcopal Church, Charleston, South Carolina]?$$Yes.$$So you worked with your father [Herbert DeCosta, Sr.] and you become president in what year (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Nineteen--$$Nineteen sixty [1960]?$$Sixty [1960]. I think that's what it was.$$And tell me what happened after that.$$Well--$$Did you become more into undertaking more major renovation projects?$$Well, we did major renovations, you know, when he was, that was the main thing that he was interested in, you see. See then, I'm looking at this little sheet that had--(pause) we did a lot of work for a storage house and foundation. See that's the foremost preservation society in the city, and we knew a lot of people who were members of that. So when they organized about sixty years ago, we did a lot of their work. See we did 61 Laurens Street, 82 Anson Street. These were all houses that we did before the foundation and then we also did a house at 25 East Battery [Street], and that was the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Drayton [Emily Beatty Drayton and Charles H. Drayton, Jr.]. He was a very wealthy northerner, who married a Charleston girl, and we, they had this big house that we renovated for them. Course it used to be a planter's townhouse and he had a house in the country and then they had beautiful townhouses. It was a beautiful townhouse that he lived in, and we, and it was someplace and we restored this, and then they also had in the back a place for servants or guests 'cause that was a two-story residence. And whether they used that, I mean, 'cause I didn't see any other places on the property that slaves could live 'cause this was, they built this place just before the Civil War see. So that must have been their house but that was a nice house, and then there was a little land, we restored a small kitchen building. It was behind that house you see.

Emory Campbell

Cultural heritage chief executive and author Emory Shaw Campbell was born on October 11, 1941 on Hilton Head Island in South Carolina. He attended elementary school on Hilton Head Island. Campbell travelled to the nearby city of Bluffton, South Carolina to attend Michael C. Riley High School where he graduated as class valedictorian in 1960. He received his B.A. degree in biology in 1965 from Savannah State College, and in 1971, he earned his M.A. degree from Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts.

Campbell served as the Director of Community Service Education at the Beaufort-Jasper Comprehensive Health Services in Ridgeland, South Carolina for ten years before becoming Director of the Penn Center on St. Helena Island in 1980. The historic Penn Center, which opened in the 1800s to educate freed slaves, serves as a center to preserve the history and heritage of the Island.

During his tenure at the Penn Center, Campbell spearheaded efforts to create a family connection between the Gullah people and the people of Sierra Leone in West Africa. In 1988, he hosted Sierra Leone President Joseph Momoh at the Penn Center for the Gullah reunion and became an Honorary Paramount Chief in 1989 when he led the historic Gullah Reunion to Sierra Leone. A documentary of these two events has been produced for South Carolina Educational Television.

Campbell’s work to preserve the Gullah culture has led him to write several publications one of which is "Gullah Cultural Legacies." He also worked on a project to translate the New Testament of the Bible into the Gullah language. In 2005, he received the Carter G. Woodson Memorial for outstanding work. He retired from the Penn Center in 2002 and is the President of Gullah Heritage Consulting Services.

Campbell lives on Hilton Head Island with his wife, Emma. They have two adult children, Ochieng and Ayoka.

Emory Shaw Campbell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 30, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.035

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/30/2007

Last Name

Campbell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Shaw

Schools

Michael C. Riley High School

Savannah State University

Tufts University

Spanish Wells School

Robinson Junior High School

First Name

Emory

Birth City, State, Country

Hilton Head Island

HM ID

CAM08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cities

Favorite Quote

That's Great.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

10/11/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hilton Head Island

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Rice, Nuts

Short Description

Cultural heritage chief executive Emory Campbell (1941 - ) was the Director of the Penn Center on St. Helena Island, South Carolina. He led the Gullah Reunion to Sierra Leone in West Africa.

Employment

Harvard University School of Public Health

Process Research, Inc.

Bromley-Health Community Centers

Beaufort-Jasper Comprehensive Health Services, Inc.

Penn Center

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1440,32:2790,58:8696,144:9242,152:13688,232:17042,301:22736,408:34641,586:42404,660:45242,707:50660,811:52380,850:52810,862:53240,868:56938,943:57798,1021:68266,1106:106022,1585:106427,1591:106994,1600:107318,1605:110550,1639:118850,1780:121138,1812:123762,1883:124172,1889:129502,1982:129830,1987:136018,2035:136402,2040:136882,2047:140722,2101:141106,2106:145810,2169:150260,2208$0,0:1425,23:1805,28:4275,113:15588,234:18100,240:18364,245:18628,250:18958,256:19288,262:19618,268:21070,303:25055,340:25355,345:25730,351:26255,360:26555,365:28130,400:28730,409:40770,633:47078,747:47382,752:52428,794:53004,808:53964,825:54476,834:57610,880:57818,885:58078,891:58546,903:59222,920:59898,939:65398,1015:65934,1025:66671,1042:68861,1062:69491,1077:69743,1082:80672,1248:82344,1278:82800,1284:89670,1332:90134,1337:95301,1378:95657,1383:96102,1389:98620,1421:99880,1449:100440,1459:104300,1479:107094,1497:107622,1504:109030,1526:110350,1543:110702,1548:111230,1555:114640,1566:115208,1575:115847,1587:116202,1593:116699,1611:120320,1714:120675,1720:125824,1796:129640,1897:129928,1903:130864,1924:131368,1932:132088,1947:132520,1954:138230,2011:144918,2091:147798,2144:148278,2150:151725,2185:152025,2190:153075,2209:154275,2259:160990,2364:171442,2527:171770,2532:173902,2631:175706,2682:176198,2689:179338,2703:182630,2743:183910,2769:185350,2803:192695,2882:193700,2925:194102,2932:197657,3006:198083,3013:198367,3018:198651,3023:199006,3029:199645,3039:200213,3049:200781,3058:201207,3066:201562,3072:201917,3078:202343,3086:202627,3091:203550,3121:203834,3126:204331,3134:211860,3219:215222,3284:217600,3335:219402,3349:221925,3373:222201,3382:229308,3526:230067,3540:233310,3615:239160,3680:240536,3699:240966,3705:241310,3713:246398,3790:246763,3796:249492,3838:249748,3843:250068,3849:252564,3899:258730,3960:259400,3984:260271,4022:260539,4027:273642,4191:274278,4198:287647,4360:295490,4438:296030,4448:296330,4465:296750,4473:297170,4482:302068,4540:303608,4563:306534,4637:314190,4714
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Emory Campbell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Emory Campbell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Emory Campbell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Emory Campbell remembers fishing with his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Emory Campbell describes his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Emory Campbell describes his family's land

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Emory Campbell recalls lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Emory Campbell describes his paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Emory Campbell describes his maternal family's education

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Emory Campbell describes his paternal relatives' careers

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Emory Campbell lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Emory Campbell talks about his youngest brother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Emory Campbell describes the community on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Emory Campbell describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Emory Campbell remembers his childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Emory Campbell recalls the Spanish Wells School on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Emory Campbell remembers Robinson Junior High School on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Emory Campbell recalls his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Emory Campbell recalls listening to the radio as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Emory Campbell remembers Michael C. Riley High School in Bluffton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Emory Campbell describes his chores

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Emory Campbell talks about the terms Geechee and Gullah

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Emory Campbell describes the Gullah food traditions

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Emory Campbell talks about the Gullah religion

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Emory Campbell describes the founding of Mitchelville on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Emory Campbell talks about the Gullah language

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Emory Campbell recalls attending Michael C. Riley High School in Bluffton, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Emory Campbell recalls his early experiences of racial discrimination, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Emory Campbell recalls his early experiences of racial discrimination, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Emory Campbell remembers his community's self-sufficiency

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Emory Campbell describes the Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Emory Campbell remembers the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Emory Campbell remembers the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Emory Campbell remembers moving to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Emory Campbell describes his research at the Harvard School of Public Health

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Emory Campbell describes his decision to attend Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Emory Campbell talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Emory Campbell remembers researching pesticides in the Mississippi Delta

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Emory Campbell recalls his experiences in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Emory Campbell recalls working at the Beaufort-Jasper-Hampton Comprehensive Health Services, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Emory Campbell recalls the Gullah translation of the Bible

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Emory Campbell describes the Penn Center on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Emory Campbell remembers visiting West Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Emory Campbell describes the publications on the Gullah culture

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Emory Campbell describes his hopes for the Gullah people, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Emory Campbell describes his hopes for the Gullah people, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Emory Campbell talks about the changes in the Gullah culture

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Emory Campbell reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Emory Campbell shares a message to future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Emory Campbell describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Emory Campbell narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
Emory Campbell describes the Gullah food traditions
Emory Campbell recalls the Gullah translation of the Bible
Transcript
What are some of the traditions that you, you're speaking about that are the same?$$Well, I told you about the cousins. You know your fortieth cousins because you, you live in the same land, and so you stay connected, and, and you keep those lineage. And then, then living on an island, it's almost like the old African tribes so you, you're very clannish. You really look out for each other and you, you suspect, you suspicion of outsiders. And that's island life because you know, you--the island is, is surrounded by water so, who's that coming over the river? Is that somebody that shouldn't be here? Is that somebody that's gone hurt us? The other thing is the food, rice. Rice is always--they call us rice-eating Geechees. And then I never knew why, I thought, I thought that's what made me talk funny (laughter). So I stopped eating rice, and I still talk funny.$$(Laughter).$$But, but rice is always you--we didn't grow rice when I grew up but people grew rice up in, you know, after slavery. And some people on some of these islands grew rice into the '60s [1960s], you know, the swamp rice where you had to depend on the rain water. But in the old days of plantation days, people grew rice by--from the fresh water part of the up- upland. They actually took the fresh, fresh water rivers and, and actually dammed the rivers so that you could get the water as you pleased to flood the fields. And they said that that traced that, can get traced back to the Senegambia part of West Africa, where they originally discovered rice growing. The Europeans found rice being grown in West Africa, and they went after those folks to import because South Carolina and Georgia had large rice growing fields. And so in the '50s [1950s], '40s [1940s] and '50s [1950s] when I grew up, and no rice was being grown here, people would go to Savannah [Georgia] and that's the first thing on the list, a sack of rice, either a fifty pound or a hundred pound. And everybody'd come back on that boat with those big sacks of rice, very much a staple. But okra, sweet potatoes, all--fish, and the fish nets, all that food gathering method, you can trace it to West Africa. That's, that's Gullah culture.$Well, let's talk about this translation of the Bible. What was that like? I mean, how much work (laughter) did that take?$$Oh, gosh. Well you see after I got to Penn Center [St. Helena Island, South Carolina] as its director we--I found that just about every other person who came to Penn Center was interested in the Gullah culture. I went there with the idea that we really could do more about economic development at Penn Center, because the health center [Beaufort-Jasper-Hampton Comprehensive Health Services, Inc., Ridgeland, South Carolina] had more emphasis on healthcare and I always thought both of 'em linked, but the government would fund--the, the government agency that funded the health didn't see the linkage. So I was, I was very happy to get to, to Penn Center so that I could do more concentration on economic development and, you know, what people can do with their land in the midst of all the development that's going on. But what I found was everybody who came through there (laughter) wanted to study the Gullah culture. And so we spent a lot of time helping scholars with, with understanding the Gullah culture. And then two of the people who came through were translators of languages, and they had spent a lot of time translating the Bible in South America in the different languages down there. Just about, oh, must have been about three or four years before I got there the previous director at Penn Center had started a program on English, English was--as a second language. And he was concentrating on high school graduates, teaching them how to speak English better so that they could get a job on Hilton Head [Hilton Head Island, South Carolina]. Well, he got, he got a grant from the department of labor to do it. And everybody who really, you know, people who really loved the Gullah language condemned him for doing it, but he was interested in the kids' economic well-being, because people weren't hiring people who spoke Gullah. And so these linguists who had been translating the Bible throughout South America read about that program and contacted him said, "We wanna come and translate the Bible into Gullah." Well, he didn't pay much attention to that, John Gadson [John W. Gadson, Sr.] didn't. And so they ended up coming here to Daufuskie Island [South Carolina] and beating about on Daufuskie awhile and then they decided to come over to St. Helena Island [South Carolina]. And so they struggled over there a bit before anybody would accept them. And then somebody came from the University of California [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California], a professor [HistoryMaker J. Herman Blake] who was a mutual friend of, of mine and one of my other friend, and he asked me about the Gullah language. And I said, "There are couple here trying to study that thing but I don't know anything about helping with Gullah language because everybody had always condemned Gullah." And so we went to their senior citizens center and he talked with them about different words and language that he could trace back to West Africa. He had been studying West African languages and culture and comparing it to Gullah. That afternoon after going to the center and talking with those folks he convinced me to meet with these linguists. He said, "You need to meet those people." And those linguists, we sat down for about two hours, and they had a big language book we used and we could trace the language, the Gullah language, back through West Africa. They showed me the difference in languages and they showed me the roots of many of the Gullah words, and so I became very convinced and I joined the team. At that time they had about four or five people on their team. We ended up with about fifteen people and we met every week. And they would send out, you know, they would write the scriptures and then would send it us to correct, and we were correcting Gullah based on what I heard spoken by my [maternal] grandmother [Rosa Brown Williams] way back when she babysat me. And that's how we got through that whole New Testament, just by remembering--$$Hm.$$--how the language was spoken.$$So, there's a--were there copies produced?$$Oh, yes. Gee, I wish I had brought a copy for you to see.$$Okay.$$But you can take a shot of a copy. We have--we, we finished it back in 2005. It's published. It's online. It's on Amazon.com. You can--$$Okay.$$It's, it's a wonderful work. Now we're getting ready to record it in audio. And that project's going to begin in March. When we--as we speak here now I'm thinking of who I can recruit. We need twenty voices, twenty male voices and five female voices to record the, the Gullah language.

Julia Bond

Librarian Julia Agnes Washington Bond was born on June 20, 1908, in Nashville, Tennessee, where her parents graduated from Fisk University. Bond's mother, Daisy Agnes Turner Washington, worked as a teacher, and her father, George Elihu Washington, served as the principal of Pearl High School. Both stressed the importance of education. Bond attended Meigs Middle Magnet School until the eighth grade, and then went on to Pearl High School, where she graduated in 1924 when she was sixteen years old. Like her parents, Bond attended Fisk University and graduated with her B.A. degree in English in 1929. In her senior year at Fisk University, she met a young instructor, one of the few African American teachers at Fisk University in those days, Horace Mann Bond. Soon they were courting. They both attended graduate school at the University of Chicago, Illinois where they got married. They later had a marriage ceremony in Nashville in order to satisfy their parents. Unfortunately, Bond did not return to school due to their finances. Horace earned his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, Illinois.

Her husband, Dr. Horace Mann Bond, was appointed president of Georgia’s Fort Valley State College in 1942. In 1945, he became president of Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. In 1956, Dr. Bond was named president of Atlanta University. Julia Agnes Bond acted as First Lady for her husband in all of these positions. She also traveled with her husband to Europe and Africa on behalf of the University. She attended the inauguration of Osageyfo Kwame Nkrumah as Ghana’s first president in 1957.

Returning to school at Atlanta University, Bond earned her Masters of Library Science degree and was a mainstay at the Atlanta University Library beginning in the 1960s. Bond and her husband supported their daughter and their sons Jane, Julian and James, in their civil rights activities including the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the 1960s. The venerable Bond retired from the Atlanta University Library in 2000, at the age of ninety-two years. Her husband, Dr. Horace Mann Bond, passed away in 1973.

Bond passed away on November 2, 2007 at age 99.

Accession Number

A2006.119

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/14/2006

Last Name

Bond

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Agnes

Occupation
Schools

Meigs Middle Magnet School

Pearl-Cohn Entertainment Magnet High School

Fisk University

University of Illinois at Chicago

Clark Atlanta University

First Name

Julia

Birth City, State, Country

Nashville

HM ID

BON03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

6/20/1908

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

11/2/2007

Short Description

Librarian Julia Bond (1908 - 2007 ) worked as a librarian at Atlanta University. She was the wife of Horace Mann Bond, former president of Lincoln University, and the mother of civil rights leader Julian Bond.

Employment

Atlanta University; Clark Atlanta University

Favorite Color

Pink

Timing Pairs
0,0:2139,100:3910,191:15715,380:41000,681:54010,794:106325,1337:118090,1460:136630,1704:137198,1715:146310,1802$0,0:24095,315:57161,708:57525,713:60892,754:61529,800:77654,923:96702,1109:110152,1330:112466,1362:116471,1419:122080,1451:124080,1486:130780,1654:146362,1797:146678,1802:150628,1872:151181,1880:181774,2253:197680,2491
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julia Bond's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julia Bond lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julia Bond describes her parents' family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julia Bond describes her parents' educations

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julia Bond describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julia Bond describes her childhood community in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Julia Bond describes her childhood activities in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Julia Bond describes her experiences at Pearl High School in Nashville

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Julia Bond describes her experiences at Fisk University in Nashville

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julia Bond recalls the community of Fisk University in Nashville

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julia Bond recalls meeting and marrying Horace Mann Bond

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julia Bond describes her experiences at the University of Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julia Bond describes her married life with Horace Mann Bond

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julia Bond recalls her friendships with African American intellectual leaders

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julia Bond recalls her husband's years as a college president

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julia Bond recalls the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Julia Bond talks about her work as a librarian

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Julia Bond reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Julia Bond describes her family and how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julia Bond narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julia Bond narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
Julia Bond recalls meeting and marrying Horace Mann Bond
Julia Bond recalls her friendships with African American intellectual leaders
Transcript
Now you met your husband [Horace Mann Bond] at Fisk [Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee], right, when you were a senior?$$Yes.$$Okay. Now what--tell us what happened.$$Nothing. We heard that he was coming and my mother [Daisy Turner Washington] and grandmother were very impressed because they had known his mother [Jane Browne Bond] and thought very highly of her. So they were very receptive to him.$$Okay. Was he from Kentucky, too?$$Yes.$$Was he from Mount Sterling [Kentucky]?$$Huh?$$Was he from Mount Sterling, too?$$No. He was from Louisville [Kentucky], I think.$$Louisville, all right.$$Yeah.$$Okay. So I heard that some of the girls tried to get in his class so they could talk to him (laughter)?$$Yeah.$$So what--but you didn't do that, right?$$No, I didn't. He--they knew that he was coming and we would--and several had a young black teacher, and they were all trying to be in his class, but I decided I wouldn't rush into it.$$Okay. So, how did you become acquainted? Did he--what happened?$$I don't remember how we first met. I guess somehow on the campus.$$Okay. So did you like him?$$Huh?$$Did you like him when you met him?$$Yes. Uh-huh. And my parents liked him because they knew his mother.$$Okay. So, how long--so I guess you--did you date him when you were a senior?$$Huh?$$Did you go out with him when you were a senior? Did he--?$$Go out with him?$$Yeah. Did he court you or, you know?$$Yes.$$What was dating like in those days? I mean, how--did you?$$It was very supervised, very curtailed.$$Okay. Did one--did your mother have to be around when he was there or your father [George Elihu Washington] have to be present or something or--?$$What?$$Did someone have to be there when he was--?$$Yes, most of the time. Very close if not in the room.$$Oh, okay.$All right. So (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I remember once Dr. Du Bois [W.E.B. Du Bois] came and I was going somewhere and he was at the station, and I spoke to him and he was very haughty because he didn't know me (laughter) and he thought I was just pushing myself on him.$$Okay. Yet, do you have any other stories about Dr. Du Bois?$$Huh?$$Do you have any other stories about him?$$I don't know. We were sitting down before the fire and he was reading the newspaper and I was taking care of my children, and somebody said, "Some students are coming over to see Dr. Du Bois," and he got up and went upstairs right away (laughter).$$So, he wasn't the most friendly person, I guess?$$Huh?$$He was not very friendly, I guess?$$No, he was all right once you knew him, but it was--he was hard to know.$$Okay. Did you like him?$$Yes, I did.$$Okay. What did you like about him?$$Well, I liked to listen to him talk and people would of course ask him many, many questions.$$Okay. Was he as smart as people say now?$$Huh?$$We always hear about how bright he was, how intelligent he was.$$Yes, he was.$$Was that true?$$Uh-huh.$$Okay. Did his wife [Nina Gomer Du Bois] ever come with him when he traveled?$$No. She was busy at the Du Bois' chasing dirt. (Laughter) She was a good housekeeper.$$Okay. Who else do you remember that came by?$$Who taught?$$No, that stayed with you. Who stayed at your house in those years? Who else stayed at your house?$$Who else--$$Stayed at your house when--during those days?$$Oh, anybody who spoke at the school [Fort Valley State College; Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, Georgia] and they would have various speakers during the year. Let's see, Franklin Frazier [E. Franklin Frazier]. I can't think of anybody else. Maybe Langston Hughes.$$What about E. Franklin Frazier? What--tell us about him. Do you have any stories about him?$$He was a neighbor and he was a friend. He was full of fun and jokes.$$Okay. What about Langston Hughes? Do you have a story about him?$$I know he took Julian [HistoryMaker Julian Bond] and Jay [James Bond] to eat at Paschal's [Paschal's Motor Hotel and Restaurant, Atlanta, Georgia] for lunch and--$$(JAMES BOND): That's here in Atlanta [Georgia].$$I don't know. Jay was kind of critical of Julian and he defended Julian.$$Yeah. Okay. All right. But that's here in Atlanta [Georgia], right? That's--$$Huh?$$That's here in Atlanta (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Atlanta, yes.$$Right, right.

The Honorable Byron Rushing

Massachusetts state representative Byron Douglas Rushing was born in New York City on July 29, 1942. His father, William Rushing, worked as a janitor in the Washington Heights neighborhood of New York City. His mother, Jamaican native Linda Turpin, migrated to New York City working as a seamstress. The family moved to Syracuse, New York, where Rushing attended Madison Junior High. He was praised for his public speaking, and entered various oratorical contests. He also attended a youth summer camp, under the direction of the Universalist Unitarian Church, which taught world peace and cultural understanding by bringing various racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups together. Rushing attended this camp throughout high school.

In 1960, Rushing graduated from Syracuse Central High School. Members of the Quaker church whom he met at his summer youth camp invited him to participate in another youth summer program operated by the American Friends Service Committee. Rushing was able to travel through Eastern and Western Europe. In the fall of 1960, Rushing attended Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. At the end of his junior year, Rushing decided to postpone his studies and fully dedicate his efforts to the Civil Rights Movement. He returned to Syracuse to work with the local chapter of CORE [Congress of Racial Equality] tackling issues of employment integration and police brutality.

Rushing moved to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1964 to work for the Northern Student Movement. He operated programs of youth tutoring, and voter education and registration. During this time, Rushing volunteered for various programs involving the Episcopalian church, his religious faith. He was hired by St. John's Church to set up a community information center. The Massachusetts Council for Churches then hired Rushing to establish a community organizing project called Roxbury Associates. It was at Roxbury Associates that Rushing met his first wife, Andrea Benton.

From 1967 to 1969, Rushing worked as an orderly at Rochester General Hospital. In 1969, Rushing returned to Boston as the Director of the Urban Change program for the Urban League. Between 1972 and 1985, he worked as president of the Museum of Afro-American History. As president, he helped raise money for the purchase and restoration of what was cited as the oldest African American church building in the United States, the African Meeting House.

In 1982, Rushing was elected as a representative of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He was the chief sponsor of the law to end discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in public schools, and an original sponsor of the gay rights bill in Massachusetts. Rushing also led the Massachusetts state pension fund to launch community development investment of poor communities of Massachusetts. Rushing is an elected deputy to the General Convention of The Episcopal Church; a founding member of the Episcopal Urban Caucus; and serves on the boards of the Episcopal Women's Caucus and the Episcopal Network for Economic Justice.

Accession Number

A2006.013

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/8/2006

Last Name

Rushing

Schools

Syracuse Central High School

Madison Junior High School

Harvard University

P.S. 2 Morrisania School

Washington Irving Elementary School

First Name

Byron

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

RUS07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Men May Not Get Everything They Pay For, But They Must Certainly Pay For Everything They Get.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

7/29/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork

Short Description

Museum director and state representative The Honorable Byron Rushing (1942 - ) has sponsored civil rights and community development legislation in Massachusetts since his election in 1982. Between 1972 and 1985, he worked as president of the Museum of Afro-American History.

Employment

Massachusetts House of Representatives

Museum of Afro-American History/Museum of African American History

Congress of Racial Equality

Northern Student Movement

St. John's Episcopal Church

Massachusetts Council of Churches

Center for Inner City Change

Rochester General Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:3174,76:5865,155:10212,235:10764,244:12765,278:20594,348:23441,422:29573,566:33296,651:35559,703:45340,814:46140,827:47140,840:51444,884:51716,889:55388,1010:56884,1053:57428,1063:59264,1101:59536,1106:60148,1113:60828,1124:61168,1130:61644,1141:67696,1275:68308,1291:70484,1334:70756,1343:71164,1350:78960,1424:84525,1503:85050,1514:85425,1520:85875,1528:87000,1554:87300,1559:90520,1601:91430,1622:93640,1681:94615,1698:95330,1714:106562,1876:107101,1885:107794,1897:110951,1959:111567,1969:111875,1974:112260,1980:116726,2071:117188,2078:118497,2142:118882,2148:119267,2154:123040,2277:131300,2362:131948,2372:132452,2380:133100,2391:137708,2509:143670,2590$0,0:1740,36:2610,59:3132,73:3480,80:3712,85:4060,92:5626,159:6148,169:6438,175:6960,186:7192,191:7830,203:8758,238:10440,275:10730,281:11078,292:11600,302:11890,308:13108,333:14268,381:14790,391:15022,396:15312,402:15602,408:16414,423:17400,451:17864,460:18850,479:19082,484:19604,496:20184,509:27461,575:28410,590:29286,608:29870,618:30892,634:34615,703:34907,708:36294,736:36732,744:37608,752:37900,757:39506,778:40017,786:40382,792:40966,802:43229,855:46076,914:46441,921:53677,940:54615,961:55084,969:55419,975:55821,983:57295,1004:57764,1012:60980,1078:63593,1129:63995,1134:64330,1140:65134,1156:66072,1174:66407,1180:66742,1200:67211,1209:68082,1231:68953,1259:71231,1297:71566,1304:81173,1394:81920,1406:88145,1541:88643,1548:94038,1632:97109,1686:98769,1727:99101,1735:100014,1754:101259,1775:101591,1780:102089,1787:109463,1846:113617,1935:113952,1941:116297,2008:116565,2013:118106,2040:118575,2049:126104,2154:126636,2170:129296,2228:130056,2240:130816,2256:132108,2276:132564,2284:133856,2312:136212,2355:136668,2362:137124,2369:143128,2474:151098,2556:155936,2655:157002,2671:158068,2688:159216,2717:161102,2752:166768,2789:167265,2797:167549,2802:169963,2843:171170,2866:171880,2877:174862,2919:175217,2926:175643,2933:176211,2942:181110,3043:184447,3101:185725,3121:186435,3130:188210,3155:188707,3164:189133,3178:194878,3199:198074,3298:198482,3310:198754,3315:199026,3320:199978,3338:200794,3363:202494,3417:206220,3440
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of the Honorable Byron Rushing's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes her parents' professions

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his parents' reunion

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the neighborhood of Morrisania in the Bronx, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls places his mother took him as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing remembers P.S. 2 Morrisania in the Bronx

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his baptism in the Presbyterian church

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his schools in Syracuse, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls teachers and friends who influenced him

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing describes his neighborhood in Syracuse, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls how his mother faced employment discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls his experiences at Syracuse Central High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Bryon Rushing recalls his parents' NAACP involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his involvement with the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls meeting Ralph Abernathy and Eleanor Roosevelt

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his trip to Europe with the American Friends Service Committee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his decision to attend Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls how he became involved with CORE

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work with CORE in Syracuse

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls CORE's demonstration against urban renewal

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains his work with CORE and the Northern Student Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his role at the Northern Student Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Community Voter Registration Project

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes Blue Hill Avenue's African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work in Episcopal organizations

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Lower Roxbury Community Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains how he came to work for the Center for Inner City Change

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls working with Melvin King and Hubie Jones

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the accomplishments of the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls the archeological investigation of the African Meeting House

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes the Boston African American National Historic Site

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing reflects upon his achievements at the Museum of Afro-American History

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing explains his role at the Roxbury Historical Society

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls running for the Massachusetts House of Representatives

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes Boston's Ninth Suffolk District

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his roles in the Massachusetts House of Representatives

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his legislative work against the apartheid

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls creating Massachusetts' Burma Law

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls his work for marriage equality in Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work to alleviate homelessness

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his family life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls how Malcolm X changed his religious views

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Byron Rushing reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Byron Rushing gives advice to young African Americans

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Byron Rushing describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Byron Rushing narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

7$4

DATitle
The Honorable Byron Rushing recalls CORE's demonstration against urban renewal
The Honorable Byron Rushing describes his work to alleviate homelessness
Transcript
(Laughter) So, so we go out to find a place where they're tearing down some buildings. The only building--they're, they're not tearing down any houses on that particular day. They're tearing down a gasoline station. So we go to the gasoline station and, and we walk onto the site and we--and, and the workers just go berserk, right. They start yelling at us and start throwing things at us, and we tell 'em we have to close the whole thing down. We're, of course, nonviolent, and the police come. The police call up the urban renewal authority. The, the, the director and two or three other people of, of, of the urban renewal authority are in Washington [D.C.] because they went to the March on Washington (laughter) and so no one can get--so they--so the whole--so they tell the workers to go home and we have our big success. We close down (laughter)--and so we get all of this publicity and we have a big meeting inside CORE [Congress of Racial Equality]. There, there were a lot of people in the chapter who were mad at us. They think we didn't go about it in the right way. We didn't have enough discussion about doing this demonstration. And now we're sort of stuck 'cause we're now in the--we made the chapter be anti-urban renewal, right, and how are we gonna do all of this with just a bunch of volunteers? And when the school starts, they won't have the volunteers, right 'cause everybody will be in school. And they say--they, they turn to me and they say, "Why don't you stay instead of going down to Louisiana? Why don't you stay here, right, and you spend your year here working for us? And also, you have this big advantage, is that you won't be an outside agitator which was a big thing then, right, always accusing all the civil rights groups of being outside agitators. You're from Syracuse [New York]." So, I said okay and I spent a year working, running the chapter in Syracuse.$$Right. I see.$$I was their twenty-five dollars a week staff person.$$For the record, we should indicate what CORE stands for.$$CORE is the Congress of Racial Equality (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--which is an early civil rights organization--$$Back in the '40s [1940s].$$--I mean, which began in the '40s [1940s]--$$Yeah, yeah.$$--in the North based on Gandhian [Mahatma Gandhi] principles. And, and actually the word congress, they took because that's the word that Gandhi used for his political organization [Indian National Congress] was--in India was the--was a--was the congress. And that--and so--and this was the Congress of Racial Equal- Equality.$Now, on a--on a day to day basis, I have to spend a lot of time with the issues that relate directly to my constituency [from the 9th Suffolk District]. Now, sometimes those issues are very interesting issues and sometime--you know, and sometimes they're--and, and apply to other people and sometimes those issues just apply to the South End [Boston, Massachusetts] and, and, and everybody else would glaze over as I talk about the fact that we have flooding problems or that a good deal of the South End is built on filled in land and we're--and we're having problems with foundations of buildings and who should be responsible for that, but I get involved in that a lot. But on the other hand, as I said earlier, I'm very concerned that we have as good housing for poor and working class people as possible in, in, in our community. Now, I want that housing, a lot of that housing, to be in my district. But when I work for improving housing for poor and working class people, when I work for a, a housing trust fund set up by the state so there'll be money available for developing that kind of housing, I, of course, not just doing work for my own constituents, I'm doing work for that whole class of people throughout the state that need--that needs that. That has drawn me, though into what I consider one of the real disgraces of the United States and the--and cities in the United States, and that is homelessness. I mean, you and I can remember when there was no such word as homeless. We could--you can--I can remember when almost everybody had some place to live. We--our--we complained about the, the conditions with which we lived in but we usually didn't complain that they didn't have a roof at all, and that is something that has only happened in the past twenty years. And we don't--and we seem to be just--buy into it, taking it for granted, assuming it's gonna be with us forever, so we set the--we--so the issue becomes, we set up shelters and we try to make sure we have enough beds available for everyone who wants to come in off the street, right, but we're not saying, no. There was a time when this didn't exist and it doesn't need to exist now. So I've been spending a lot of time trying to reframe the question around homelessness and to move it from how to we take care of people who--in shelters and how do we have decent family shelters, get 'em out of--out of hotels and motels and into some kind of shelter where they can get some services when, when, when--but to move it away from that conversation which is an important conversation to the conversation of how do we end homelessness? How do we supply enough housing so that nobody has to be homeless, right? And I find that there are not a lot of people thinking that way. And so I've been working with people here and in other parts, in other states in the country, Wisconsin, Minnesota, who are coming up with working plans, really business plans on how to end homelessness. So I have legislation to establish a commission to come up with a working plan to end homelessness in Massachusetts, a plan that has benchmarks like any business plan, had--will know how much it would cost to do this, how long it would take, spending this amount of money to have this accomplished, and that's one of the things that I've been spending a lot of time on--$$Okay.$$--most recently.$$I'm gonna follow that initiative. I wanna watch it.$$That's good.

Malvyn Johnson

Journalist and civil rights activist Malvyn “Mal” Johnson was born July 4, 1924, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Johnson and her four siblings, Alice, Artie, Harvey and Norma, were primarily raised by their mother, Johnnie Reeves Taft, because their father left the family when Malvyn was still young; her mother would later remarry. Johnson attended Temple University, where she earned her B.A. degree while working to pay her own way through school as a riveter in the naval yards, among other jobs.

After graduation, Johnson began working for Veterans Affairs before moving on to become the program director for the local YWCA. Johnson soon married her husband, Frank Benjamin Johnson, whom she had known since she was twelve years old; the couple moved to California until the Korean War separated them, and Johnson was forced to return to her hometown. Because of her husband's service in the Air Force, Johnson and her husband traveled extensively beginning in the mid-1950s, including periods in Redding, England, Maine, and Wyoming. While traveling, Johnson began to teach.

Johnson returned to the United States to attend Springfield University in Massachusetts, where she received her M.A. degree in intergroup relations and community dynamics. Johnson’s husband tragically died at the Westover Air Force Base during the Vietnam War, and Johnson continued teaching. Prior to moving back to Philadelphia, Johnson got a job at the Philadelphia Inquirer as the assistant to the editor; at this time, she also became heavily involved in the Civil Rights Movement.

Johnson eventually left the Philadelphia Inquirer to work with the North City Congress, a Civil Rights organization in Philadelphia, where she worked for two years alongside such luminaries as C. Delores Tucker; she also served as a co-chair of the local NAACP chapter with Tucker. In 1964, Johnson became director of community affairs for WKBS-TV, and worked as the "Cash for Trash" girl. Johnson soon became a news anchor and wrote as a columnist for the Philadelphia Tribune.

In 1969, Johnson was offered a job at Cox Broadcasting Corporation in Washington, D.C. after Barbara Walters and Jim Vance, both close colleagues of Johnson, encouraged her to take the position; she stayed with this organization for twenty-seven years. Johnson was the first female reporter employed by Cox and became the second African American female White House correspondent. Johnson covered five different United States Presidents, as well as Capitol Hill and the State Department. In 1980, Johnson became the Senior Washington Correspondent and the National Director of Community Affairs. Johnson also served as a representative of the United Nations International Association of Women in Radio and Television. Johnson also helped to found the National Association of Black Journalists, and the National Broadcast Association for Community Affairs. In 2000, Johnson left Cox to create her own media consulting firm, Medialinx International.

Malvyn “Mal” Johnson passed away on November 7, 2007, at the age of eighty-five.

Accession Number

A2005.219

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/20/2005 |and| 1/31/2006

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Schools

John Hancock Demonstration Elementary School

Philadelphia Military Academy

Temple University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Malvyn

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

JOH23

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

London, England, Solomons Island

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/4/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Death Date

11/7/2007

Short Description

Media consultant and television and radio correspondent Malvyn Johnson (1924 - 2007 ) was the first female reporter for Cox Radio and Television News Bureau in Washington, D.C. and the second African American female White House correspondent. In 2000, Johnson founded Medialinx International, a media consulting firm.

Employment

Young Women's Christian Association

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

RAF Greenham Common

Philadelphia Inquirer

WKBS-TV Philadelphia

Cox Communications, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
240,0:1760,13:2080,18:4080,68:4800,81:5680,99:6640,117:6960,122:8080,153:13600,283:18720,373:30928,481:31288,487:31864,499:34240,547:34744,556:35896,579:37552,610:37912,616:38344,623:39136,638:42160,702:50951,769:51899,786:53321,811:54348,836:56481,863:56876,869:57350,881:58693,909:59009,914:62880,977:63196,982:68192,1015:68480,1020:69416,1040:69704,1045:70928,1068:71504,1077:72008,1086:72584,1096:73448,1141:74816,1160:75176,1166:85616,1343:86336,1356:86912,1365:87416,1374:96984,1421:97374,1427:98076,1438:101430,1508:101820,1515:113130,1780:113832,1791:122930,1857:123270,1863:123610,1869:132450,2058:132722,2063:133266,2074:144530,2187:144974,2195:146158,2215:146898,2227:148008,2241:148304,2246:148970,2256:149266,2261:151856,2298:152374,2307:160992,2433:162642,2464:164094,2493:165150,2516:165414,2521:165876,2529:167394,2557:169902,2608:175020,2613:175364,2625:182330,2804:184910,2851:187146,2889:195479,3025:196172,3035:208410,3204:213000,3271:213360,3276:213990,3285:214890,3299:215250,3304:215880,3318:218670,3370:227640,3520:228008,3525:229296,3537:232976,3579:233528,3589:235460,3626:239416,3696:240060,3704:249776,3773:250352,3783:251432,3808:251720,3813:252296,3823:252728,3830:253232,3843:254312,3862:255176,3879:257048,3924:257552,3932:259928,3989:260504,3998:271505,4146:275640,4164:277538,4194:277903,4200:278779,4214:288050,4381:288342,4386:288707,4400:290021,4424:290386,4430:297236,4480:299018,4521:299282,4526:299546,4531:299810,4537:300140,4544:300404,4549:306410,4679:306806,4685:312782,4715:313470,4727:318090,4782$0,0:1858,14:3793,21:4706,38:7196,69:9188,98:9852,108:11180,126:12757,148:13089,153:13670,162:15662,193:15994,198:17654,216:19065,237:19397,242:19729,247:20642,261:21306,271:22717,289:23298,319:29829,347:31143,374:34501,422:35085,432:37348,476:39100,508:39611,515:41582,549:47860,648:49320,673:49831,681:57850,746:58420,753:58895,759:59275,764:60890,780:64595,816:72480,905:78981,945:79702,953:80629,959:82792,992:86191,1028:86706,1038:87324,1045:87736,1050:91286,1062:91656,1074:91952,1079:92544,1088:93210,1099:93802,1109:95504,1128:99204,1174:99722,1183:103200,1251:103496,1256:103792,1261:111638,1335:112340,1345:116702,1395:119144,1428:119440,1433:123510,1518:124398,1534:125212,1548:125804,1561:128616,1617:132390,1698:132834,1705:135572,1842:142149,1876:146692,1947:147308,1956:147847,1965:148463,1975:151543,2025:152082,2032:158240,2069:159740,2085:160265,2093:160940,2103:164315,2154:166490,2207:172115,2300:173090,2315:173615,2324:174215,2334:182870,2408:183710,2421:188570,2504
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Malvyn Johnson's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Malvyn Johnson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Malvyn Johnson describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Malvyn Johnson describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Malvyn Johnson lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Malvyn Johnson describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Malvyn Johnson describes her early homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Malvyn Johnson describes her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Malvyn Johnson describes her stepfather's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her diverse neighborhood and schools

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Malvyn Johnson describes her mother's education and profession

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her experiences with racial prejudice in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Malvyn Johnson describes the Philadelphia High School for Girls in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Malvyn Johnson recalls working while attending Temple University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Malvyn Johnson remembers her experiences at Temple University

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Malvyn Johnson describes how she met her husband

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Malvyn Johnson talks about her husband's service in the U.S. Army Air Force

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her experiences as a housekeeper, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her experiences as a housekeeper, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Malvyn Johnson describes Royal Air Force Greenham Common in Reading, England

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Malvyn Johnson remembers her husband's death

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Malvyn Johnson recalls teaching herself to drive

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Malvyn Johnson describes her position at the Philadelphia Inquirer

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Malvyn Johnson recalls the Civil Rights Movement in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Malvyn Johnson describes the start of her television broadcasting career

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Malvyn Johnson describes her experiences with racial discrimination at WKBS-TV

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Malvyn Johnson remembers her friendship with Pearl Buck

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Malvyn Johnson recalls becoming a White House correspondent

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Malvyn Johnson describes her involvement with the American Women in Radio and Television

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Malvyn Johnson remembers interviewing Senator Richard B. Russell, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her trip to Russia with President Richard Milhous Nixon

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Malvyn Johnson remembers fellow journalist Ethel Payne

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her arrest in Johannesburg, South Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Malvyn Johnson describes the Fourth World Conference on Women

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Malvyn Johnson's interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Malvyn Johnson describes her position with Cox Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her interviews with politicians

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Malvyn Johnson talks about Cox Broadcasting Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Malvyn Johnson talks about the members of the U.S. Congress

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Malvyn Johnson describes the founding of the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Malvyn Johnson remembers her social gatherings at the Watergate Hotel

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Malvyn Johnson remembers her mentors, Helen Thomas and Sarah McClendon

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Malvyn Johnson remembers reporter Sarah McClendon

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Malvyn Johnson describes her involvement with the American Women in Radio and Television

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Malvyn Johnson remembers President Richard Milhous Nixon's administration

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Malvyn Johnson recalls the United Airlines Flight 553 crash in 1972

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Malvyn Johnson corrects information regarding Sam Ervin and Sam Rayburn

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her coverage of the presidential campaign in the 1970s

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Malvyn Johnson describes her experiences with President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.'s administration

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Malvyn Johnson recalls her first meeting with Nancy Reagan

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Malvyn Johnson describes her involvement with the National Women's Conference

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Malvyn Johnson describes her work at the Fourth World Conference on Women, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Malvyn Johnson describes her work at the Fourth World Conference on Women, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Malvyn Johnson describes her involvement with women's rights organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Malvyn Johnson describes government involvement in the 1990s, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Malvyn Johnson describes her government involvement in the 1990s, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Malvyn Johnson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Malvyn Johnson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Malvyn Johnson narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Malvyn Johnson narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Malvyn Johnson narrates her photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$7

DAStory

3$2

DATitle
Malvyn Johnson recalls becoming a White House correspondent
Malvyn Johnson describes her involvement with women's rights organizations
Transcript
There came a time when [HistoryMaker] Jim Vance, who was the anchor with the NBC affiliate here in Washington, D.C., left Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] to come to Washington?$$Well he was working as the anchor at WKBS [WKBS-TV, Burlington, New Jersey] by then. And he got a--obviously somebody had, had saw him on TV and they invited him to go to work there. Well Jim didn't really want to leave his family, his mother, with whom he was living. So he came in my office to talk to me about this. And I said to him, "You know, I don't count any fools among my friends, you must take this job." So he did. And then three months later I got an offer and I called him up and said, "What do you think?" And he said, "I don't count any fools among my friends (laughter)." So we both ended up in Washington.$$And tell us about the offer that you received?$$I was--the, the first person that hired me turned out to be a good friend. He was the man who was, who had originally been on the soap operas and he turned out to be a good friend to me and he said that I should join the American Women in Radio and Television [Alliance for Women in Media], an organization I had never heard of. And he paid my, my membership for it and I joined it and got totally involved in it and ended up being the president of that chapter in Philadelphia and then ended up being on the national board of directors. And one weekend we were to have the board meeting in Washington. So I traveled down to Washington to the board meeting and when I arrived, there sat this only man on the board. I didn't know the board had a man. It turned out to be the president and CEO of Cox Broadcasting [Cox Broadcasting Corporation; Cox Communications, Inc.] headquartered in Atlanta [Georgia]. And we talked and discussed things and finally he invited me to lunch. And this dummy said, "Well I have these other ladies I'm going to lunch with." He said, "Well I'll take them too." So we all went to lunch and I sat near him and he said to me, you ought to come to Atlanta sometime and I very politely said that I had been there one or two times, but I didn't know Atlanta at all and that maybe I would sometime. Well the next day back in Philadelphia, in my office that Monday, I get this telephone call from him and he said he'd like me to come and visit. So I said, "Well maybe I will." And he said, "Let me send you a ticket and if you really decide not to go then you can just send the ticket back." So when I got the ticket I went into the office of the same general manager and told him and he says, "Let me tell you who this man is." And so he said that he not only taught Truman [President Harry S. Truman] to speak, he was the man who put together the fireside chats for Roosevelt [President Franklin Delano Roosevelt]. And he set all of that up and then he became Mr. Democrat [sic.] because he was running the democratic conventions [Democratic National Convention] and everything (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) His name was?$$J. Leonard Reinsch. And, and everybody knew him in the broadcasting industry and that I should go 'cause he wants to hire you. So I made the arrangements and went, and that was, was my story.$$Okay, and that year was 19-?$$Sixty-nine [1969].$$And they hired you at Cox?$$No, they tried to hire me and I said that I didn't particularly want to move to Atlanta, didn't know a thing about Atlanta anyway, except that I knew Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] and that was only one or two trips. And so I went back to, to Philadelphia and they kept after me for a couple of weeks and finally they asked me what salary would I take. Well I haven't the faintest idea. So I called up Barbara Walters and asked her what I ought to do. And she said, "You ask for twice the amount you're--two and a half times the amount that you are making now and you accept two times that much. And don't--and make 'em put it in writing before you accept." And so I did that and they sent me a telegram with it in write.$$Now let's--and so you were hired?$$I was hired, but then I said I didn't want to move to Atlanta and they said, "Don't worry, we have an office in Washington." So I guess there comes another story because I went--they had setup the appointment and I went to Washington and met the bureau chief who looked at me as if I were crazy and didn't even consider it. So I came back home and called Atlanta and said those people don't wanna be bothered with me in, in, in Washington. And he said I want you to go back next week. When I went back next week, everybody was falling on their knees to get me (laughter). And that's how it started. And they trained me to be a White House correspondent.$$And the date we are looking at, do you remember?$$Yes, March the 3rd, 1969.$You have been active before and after that time working on different women's issues, putting on a number of international and national conferences, both here and abroad and so forth. Could you just briefly outline a couple of them as to what they were?$$Well I became an activist after my husband [Frank Johnson (ph.)] died. As a matter of fact I became a feminist after my husband died and got myself totally involved in trying to raise the condition of women throughout the world, particularly through the United States at first and then I worked toward international projects as well. And I've been involved in a number of them and have gone to every one of the, of the women's conferences that have been held through the years. And they were mostly every five years. And this last one was in 2000 and we did not have one in 2005. But in any case, women have not reached equal status in various areas, like for instance in, in pay equity, in various other issues that, that concern women. Women are not admitted in all-men's clubs and things like that. Women still don't have complete control of their own bodies in terms of abortions or pro-choice, things like that. So there is still lots to do and there are a lot of people that do it. What--we have some great concern is about those in my era know what is was to go through the struggles that we went through, but we have not trained our children about it and they don't know from whence they come. We need to give them more history of the struggle. They think that it was all there all the time, and it wasn't all there all the time. So those are some of the things that, that concern us in the, in the women's movement.$$And you are still active with the American Women in Radio and Television [Alliance for Women in Media] (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) I'm still very much active with International Association of Women in Radio and Television [IAWRT] headquartered in India, and with American Women in Radio and Television and it's, of course, right here in the United States. So--and with the IAWRT, I do travel a lot to various countries around the world.$$Okay. And you are still doing a program with the UN [United Nations] and women?$$I'm still very much involved at the UN. I am the United Nations representative for International Association of Women in Radio and Television. And I still attend their meetings and participate in that and sometimes do workshops on media for them. And I am on their media committee as a matter of fact.

Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill

Azira Gonzalez Hill, referred to as Atlanta’s Angel for her works as a civil rights activist and nurse, was born in Holguin, Cuba, on October 28, 1923, to a large working class family of eight siblings. As a young woman, Hill worked diligently as a student to provide opportunities that would enable her to flourish outside of Cuba; because of her academic achievements, she was finally afforded the opportunity to come to the United States to study through her church. Hill attended Bethune Cookman, Morris Brown, and Georgia State University, ultimately becoming a registered nurse. Hill married Jesse Hill, a prominent civil rights figure, with whom she had two daughters.

Hill worked as a nurse at Grady Hospital Educational Department, Price High School, and Ralph Bunche Middle School, before her retirement. After her retirement, Hill remained an active member of Big Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church; the Azalea Links, Inc.; the Inquirer Literary Club; the Circlelets; and the Quettes. Hill also founded the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra Talent Development Program at the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, which named its scholarship fund in her honor. Hill has been involved with the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Center’s Board of Directors; the Board of Directors of the Center for Puppetry Arts; the Southeastern Flower Show; the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra; and St. Joseph’s Mercy Care. In 2008, Hill was named a life director of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, an honor which at the time only belonged to five other individuals.

Hill has received awards from the Association of the National Negro Musicians for promoting Black music and musicians, and the Martin Luther King Federal Commission for her service. Hill also received the Golden Rule Award for community service from J.C. Penney; the Ralph Bunche Middle School Medal; the School Nurses Association for Merit and Distinction; the Lexus Leader of the Arts Award; and a Mercy Care Award for Service.

Accession Number

A2005.184

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/4/2005

Last Name

Hill

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Gonzalez Sanchez

Schools

Boylan-Haven School

Bethune-Cookman University

Grady Memorial Hospital School of Nursing

First Name

Azira

Birth City, State, Country

Holguin

HM ID

HIL10

Favorite Season

Spring

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa

Favorite Quote

It's Going To Get Better.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/28/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

Cuba

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Civil rights activist and registered nurse Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill (1923 - ) has had a long and prolific career in Atlanta in the areas of school health care and civil rights. After her retirement, Hill became involved in various philanthropic endeavors, most notably her involvement with the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, for which she was named a lifetime director in 2008.

Employment

Price High School

Grady Memorial Hospital

Bunche Middle School

Big Bethel AME Church

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:1800,18:14338,192:15418,205:36590,470:45190,598:48890,644:49290,710:68250,895:69390,906:81191,1063:99484,1316:111390,1417$0,0:37720,377:45916,464:73372,859:82550,1011:93250,1197:103865,1260:111346,1449:123460,1701:149836,2021:183900,2375:184565,2383:186370,2418:192345,2504:199720,2546
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill narrates her photographs

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her mother supporting the family after her father's death

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill recalls moving to the United States

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her childhood in Holguin, Cuba

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her childhood home in Holguin, Cuba

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes the diversity of her neighborhood in Holguin, Cuba

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers a supportive teacher from her elementary school years

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her middle school experiences in Holguin, Cuba

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her experiences at Boylan-Haven School in Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her personality and aspirations as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes attending church in Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers experiencing exclusion at Boylan-Haven School in Jacksonville, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill explains her decision to attend Grady Memorial Hospital School of Nursing in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about leaving Bethune-Cookman College in Daytona Beach, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers returning to Cuba briefly after obtaining her nursing license

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes how Jesse Hill courted her

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill recalls the strict regulations at Grady Memorial Hospital School of Nursing in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers having her two children while working as a nurse

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her return to work as a school nurse

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill recalls her and her husband's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill reflects upon her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about her connections to Cuba

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill reflects upon the reception of Latino immigrants in the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about her philanthropic work

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her husband, Jesse Hill

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about her grandchildren's accomplishments

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes the rewards of nursing

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes her concerns for the African American and Latino communities

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill explains her values

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill explains the importance of history

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her best friends

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill talks about Big Bethel A.M.E. Church in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill describes youth programs at Big Bethel A.M.E. Church

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

9$5

DATitle
Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill remembers her childhood in Holguin, Cuba
Azira Gonzalez Sanchez Hill recalls her and her husband's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement
Transcript
In terms of early memories, can you describe what family life was like when you were in Cuba--holidays, special events, or just daily life in your neighborhood?$$In the neighborhood, we had a pretty large house. And my brothers played all kinds of instruments. And so that she [Hill's mother, Dominga Sanchez Gonzalez] could control us, I suppose, we were not allowed to go out too much. But the neighborhood could come to our house, and so, they would come and play music. At that time, there was no radio. We didn't have any radio, but they did--I had, I had plenty of music--all kinds, not just salsa, and all these other thing. But I knew [Johann Sebastian] Bach, and [Ludwig van] Beethoven, and all that, 'cause my brothers were, you know, serious musicians, and that was fun. And some days, we read poetry, and play music, and everybody play, and had a good time. And holidays are wonderful, because, you know, everybody come. If you were a friend of any of my brothers, you could come to my house, and that was fun. And there was only one family that I was allowed to go to, and they were three sisters. Since I didn't have much--I had a sister about ten years younger than I, so we were not peers, you know. And so, that she would allow me to, you know, interact with those, that family that had these three daughters. And that was fun. In fact then, we all married in the same dress (laughter).$If you could, share with me, maybe, the name of some of the associations that you belong to professionally.$$Oh, I've done so many things. I, you know, during the Civil Rights Movement, you know, I didn't have any other choice but to join. My husband, [Jesse] Hill, was chair of the All-Citizens Registration Committee, so I became a registrar, and, you know, could register people to vote. And so, we used to go to churches, and mass meetings, and places like that, and register to vote people. Then, when [HistoryMaker] Charlayne [Hunter-Gault] and Hamilton [Holmes]'s application, and all the turmoil and went through that, you know, I was there, you know, fixing foods, and just being there. You had to support your husband. Political rallies, and mass meetings, and all that. The only thing I didn't do was to--I didn't march. Only one time, and that was the demonstration on the [Boisfeuillet Jones Atlanta] Civic Center [Atlanta, Georgia] at something about they tried to integrate the dentists' professional meeting that they were having there. And other than that, I would--did sit-ins, Mrs. [Otelia Hackney] Russell and I, you know, went to, used to be, store across the street from The Ritz-Carlton [Atlanta, Georgia]--I can't remember the name now, but they had a restaurant and Macy's--$$Which is--$$--but anyway, they--we just went inside in their dining room. And when we got there, they didn't serve us--they just closed. They closed the dining room, so we just got up and left. And then, there was in Lenox Square [Atlanta, Georgia], there was another restaurant, and we did that, too. And the third one was (unclear) that was in Locust Street, and that was the only one that I really got upset and frightened (laughter), because we were--it was a delicatessen. And so, we were trying to get in to order--it was sandwiches and things--and the police came. And the minute police came, I have to go--I couldn't, I just could not. Well, [Jesse] Hill and I had made the promise to each other that we would not get arrested, because--well, I'm a foreigner, you know, I could be deported. At that time, I don't think I was even a citizen. And then, too, the girls [Nancy Hill Cook and Azira Hill Kendall] were small, and we didn't have any relatives in town, so somebody had to be, you know, there to--over them. In addition to that, he was the contact person to bail out those that were arrested. So, he couldn't be arrested himself. So, that was one of the arrangements that, you know, that were made beforehand.

Clayola Brown

Union and civil rights leader Clayola Brown was born Clayola Beatrice Oliver on August 4, 1948, in Charleston, South Carolina. Of Gullah ancestry, Brown attended school in Key West, Florida and Oxnard, California before graduating from Philadelphia’s Simon Gratz High School in 1966, where she was an athlete and majorette. At age fifteen, Brown joined her mother, Ann Belle Jenkins Shands, in a successful campaign to bring the Textile Workers Union of America (TWUA) to the Manhattan Shirt Factory in Charleston. Brown later attended Florida A&M University, graduating in 1970 with her B.S. degree in secondary education and physical education.

In 1970, Brown was hired by TWUA in their claims department in Opalaca, Alabama. Subsequently, Brown went on to play an organizing role in the seventeen-year struggle to unionize the textile giant, J.P. Stevens, culminating in 1980 with four thousand workers winning a contract through the newly formed Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU). Brown served as the ACTWU’s education director, civil rights director, and also, for thirteen years, as manager of the ACTWU’s Laundry Division. In 1991, Brown was elected international vice president of the ACTWU; a post which she was continually reelected to for over a decade. In 1994, President Bill Clinton appointed Brown to the National Commission on Employment Policy. In 1995, Brown helped merge the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) with ACTWU to form the Union of Needle Trades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE, now UNITEHERE!). That same year, Brown was elected international vice president of the AFL-CIO. In 2004, Brown became the first woman to serve as national president of the A. Phillip Randolph Institute.

Brown served on the board of Amalgamated Bank, the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, and SCLC. At the NAACP, Brown served on the Labor Ad Hoc, and NAACP Image Awards Committees. Brown also served on the Executive Committee of the Workers Defense League and as the first vice president of the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists (CBTU). Brown was honored with the NAACP Leadership and Keeper of the Flame Awards, the CBTU Woman of Valor Award, the SCLC Drum Major for Justice Award and many others.

Brown and her husband, Alfred Brown, have a son, Alfred, Jr.

Accession Number

A2005.161

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/13/2005

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Schools

Simon Gratz High School

Hueneme High School

East Bay Elementary

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

First Name

Clayola

Birth City, State, Country

Charleston

HM ID

BRO28

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Let The Work I Do Speak For Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/4/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Civil rights leader, labor leader, and union leader Clayola Brown (1948 - ) was vice president of the AFL-CIO, and the first female national president of the A. Philip Randolph Institute.

Employment

Textile Workers Union of America

A. Philip Randolph Institute

Manhattan Shirt Factory

Favorite Color

Green

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Clayola Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown talks about her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown describes her maternal family's move between Vance and Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown describes her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown talks about the Gullah and Geechee languages

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown talks about her mother's upbringing in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown talks about her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes how her mother and biological father met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Clayola Brown talks about her stepfather's family

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Clayola Brown describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Clayola Brown shares early childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Clayola Brown describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Clayola Brown describes her early musical interests

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown remembers attending Vance Baptist Church with her family in Vance, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown describes how she takes after her mother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown recalls her school experiences in Charleston, South Carolina and Key West, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown remembers her fourth grade teacher at East Bay Elementary in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown describes moving between Florida, California, Pennsylvania and South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown remembers Daisy Richardson, her mentor at Simon Gratz High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown remembers union organizing at Manhattan Shirt Factory in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes Simon Gratz High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Clayola Brown describes her female role models

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown describes her independent and questioning mind

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown recalls music and literature that inspired her

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown remembers conversations with white teenagers at the Gloria Theater in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown describes Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown recalls her introduction to Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown describes her experiences at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown describes her experiences at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes National Pan-Hellenic Council groups at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Clayola Brown remembers her activism at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Clayola Brown describes being hired by the Textile Workers Union of America in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Clayola Brown remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Clayola Brown describes her employment with the Textile Workers Union of America

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown describes balancing her early career and her marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown describes organizing workers at J.P. Stevens & Company in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown describes the decline of U.S. unions and job opportunities

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown describes J.P. Stevens & Company's organizing campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown remembers her tenure at Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown describes the qualities for effective labor organizing

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown describes the role of religion and party politics in unionization

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes her experience as an African American woman organizer

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Clayola Brown describes her mentors and board service

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Clayola Brown shares her perspective on the NAACP Image Award

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Clayola Brown shares her concerns for the labor movement, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Clayola Brown shares her concerns for the labor movement, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Clayola Brown describes the trade union movement and Walmartization

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Clayola Brown shares her perspective on the effects of Walmartization

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Clayola Brown her leadership vision for the A. Philip Randolph Institute in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Clayola Brown describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Clayola Brown reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Clayola Brown talks about her mother's support

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Clayola Brown describes how she would like to be remembered

Mildred Bond Roxborough

NAACP executive Mildred Bond Roxborough was born on June 30, 1926, in Brownsville, Tennessee, one of three daughters of college sweethearts Ollie and Mattye Tollette Bond. Roxborough’s family background included a tradition of African American empowerment; her mother’s family founded Tollette, Arkansas, which was a post-Reconstruction, all-African American town, while her own parents chartered Brownsville, Tennesee’s first chapter of the NAACP. At the age of nine, Roxborough began selling subscriptions to The Crisis, the official publication of the NAACP.

Roxborough and her family moved to Kansas City after her father’s involvement in civil rights activities forced her family to leave Tennessee; it was there that she graduated from Charles Sumner High School in 1943. Roxborough worked towards her college undergraduate degree at Howard University and Washington Square College of New York University, finishing in 1947; she received her M.A degree from Columbia University in 1953, and attended the University of Paris extension at Marseilles and the University of Mexico at Cuernavaca.

Roxborough’s career at the NAACP began with her position as national staff field secretary in 1954; she became the executive assistant and the administrative assistant to executive director in 1963, and in 1975, she became assistant director. Between 1978 and 1984, Roxborough became director of operations for the NAACP. Between 1984 and 1986, Roxborough moved up to become director of programs; she was the first woman to serve the organization in that role. Roxborough served as director of development from 1986 until her retirement in 1997. Despite her retirement, Roxborough, a mainstay of the organization, remained intimately involved with the planning and core operations of the annual NAACP National Convention and the organization’s New York Bureau.

In addition to her service to and lifetime membership in the NAACP, Roxborough served as vice chairman of Intergroup Corporation, and on the boards of America's Charities and Morningside Retirement and Health, Incorporated. Roxborough’s honors and awards included the James Weldon John¬son Medal; the Medgar Wiley Evers Award; and America's Charities Distinguished Service Award.

Accession Number

A2005.129

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/8/2005 |and| 8/24/2005

Last Name

Roxborough

Maker Category
Schools

Charles L. Sumner High School

Northeast Middle

Haywood County Training School

Columbia University

New York University

Howard University

First Name

Mildred Bond

Birth City, State, Country

Brownsville

HM ID

ROX01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

6/30/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Crab Cakes, Tropical Fruit, Veggies

Short Description

Association executive Mildred Bond Roxborough (1926 - ) served as director of development for the NAACP and continued to work for the New York Bureau of the association long past her retirement.

Favorite Color

Blue, Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Mildred Bond Roxborough's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recounts how her maternal grandfather founded Tollette, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about her father's childhood and U.S. military service

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough tells the story of how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her parents' teaching careers at Haywood County Training School in Brownsville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describe her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls why her parents established an NAACP branch in Haywood County, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers the backlash from the white community when her father tried to register to vote

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains how she was affected by the violent response to her parents' voting rights activism

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers a threat to her father's life

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers her father's narrow escape from an attempt on his life in Brownsville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers her father's return to Brownsville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls enrolling at Howard University in Washington, D.C. after her graduation from high school at age fifteen

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers her time at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes scholars at Howard University in Washington, D.C. during the 1940s

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains her decision to transfer to New York University in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls her introduction to leadership of the NAACP

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her recruitment to the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains her first assignment at the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers working for Dr. Lillie May Carroll Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls working with notoriously difficult NAACP leaders

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls the first NAACP Freedom Fund Dinner in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes the reaction to the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision at the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers organizing in Arkansas following the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about Daisy Bates

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about NAACP community meetings in Arkansas in 1954

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers a funny story from her time traveling for the NAACP

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls going to Mississippi after her NAACP work in Arkansas

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough elaborates on her experience as an NAACP fieldworker in the 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes the gender dynamics of being a female NAACP fieldworker in the 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls highlights from her NAACP fieldwork

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers Medgar Evers

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the relationship between the NAACP Youth Council and NAACP leadership

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Mildred Bond Roxborough's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers NAACP leaders who were assassinated in Mississippi

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains the importance of attaining the right to vote in primaries in 1948

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about her role as an NAACP field secretary

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough traces how the NAACP's legal strategy for educational integration culminated in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the relationship between the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and the NAACP

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes life on the road as an NAACP fieldworker

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers women who were the backbone of the NAACP

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls her marriage to John W. Roxborough

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the value of African American history

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers the assassination of Medgar Evers

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough reflects upon changes in Mississippi following the assassination of Medgar Evers

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about conditions that led to riots following the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains how the NAACP approaches civil rights issues in the 2000s

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the proliferation of African American organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains Roy Wilkins' response to the Black Power movement

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough responds to African American nostalgia for segregated education

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains how the NAACP was a model for later activist organizations

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers assaults withstood by the NAACP

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and the Democratic Party in 2005

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her concerns for the future

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about her stepsons' accomplishments

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains the importance of history

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough reflects upon the history of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the NAACP's founding

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough lists the African American executive directors of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains how Bruce S. Gordon was appointed director of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes how NAACP leadership changed during the early 20th century

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough lists recent directors of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains the organizational structure of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls her father's principles

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Mildred Roxborough recalls the NAACP's support of Ambassador HistoryMaker The Honorable Andrew Young

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Mildred Roxborough recalls being convinced to participate in The HistoryMakers by HistoryMaker Paul Brock

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Mildred Roxborough explains why Gordon S. Parks was appointed NAACP president in 2005

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Mildred Roxborough narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers the backlash from the white community when her father tried to register to vote
Mildred Bond Roxborough describes the gender dynamics of being a female NAACP fieldworker in the 1950s
Transcript
Anyway, they got the charter, and so many people white people didn't know what NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] was, you understand. And they invited for the charter ceremony or meeting, they had it at the First Baptist Church [Brownsville, Tennessee]. And they invited the sheriff and the mayor and the somebody-else from the city. And some of them actually came and spoke, and it was later that they found out what they had--the NAACP was. They were calling it NAPC and AWC or whatever. But the--"It's a good thing for you coloreds," you know, that kind of thing.$$They actually tried to-they took it as a chance to compliment black people on doing it.$$Yes.$$They didn't know what it was (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) They didn't know what it was. But, when he [Roxborough's father, Ollie Bond] went up to register to vote, with the group. Went to the courthouse to register, so that they would be eligible to vote in the next election. And he said, "Now, you know you don't have no business up here," you know. But it was about that time when the blacks started coming back and asking for the right to register for vote, that they realized, they started learning about the NAACP. It didn't take them long. And as a result, they were threatening--they started threatening the members. They wanted--they could identify, in a small town, they could identify the people who were willing to go and do this. So, they could identify the members, and they started threatening them. And my mother [Mattye Tollette Bond] was a teacher. She was fired from her job, at that point. And they were threatening the other people. One was a shoemaker, and they had different kinds of vocations. And there were two or three teachers in the group. And, of course then they started threatening the black people for using my father's funeral business [Rawls Funeral Home, Brownsville, Tennessee], you know. And they arrested him a few times on charges like violating some local ordinance, or trespassing or jaywalking. And a couple of times they arrested him, and they--he was pretty badly beaten. So they brought him home one night and I was there. And brought him home, opened the front door and brought him into the living room where I was. And he was beaten. They had used brass knuckles to beat him. And said, "Here's your pa, you take care of him now." And put him in there on the couch and left him. So, those are childhood pictures, you know, that kind of thing.$$So what--you know, what a horrible thing to happen (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) He was a very gentle man. He wasn't very literate. You know he wasn't a--his militancy was determination, not overt and physical.$$What a horrible thing to happen as a child, to see your father beaten like that, and--$$I guess by then I was about nine; eight, nine. And he--and they told him that, that, "You should, you should know better. After all, you come from one of us, you know."$Did it make it easier for you to travel from--through those [southern] states, being a young woman rather than a young man?$$It made it easy in some respects and more difficult in other respects. Prior to--you have the situation, also, the social side of it, where people saw you freely traveling like this. At that time, that they would also think, "Well, she's an easy mark." This is the male thought now, you know, in terms of young, attractive woman, and respectable men. They--you all--let me back up and talk, say it again. The men will look at young, attract--what they call attractive women, and they're unfettered and free, and think that, "Well, it won't hurt for me to make a pass at her, or see how far this will go." Well, I had to deal with that like a young man would not have to do at that point. The female constituents of NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] weren't aggressive, and they weren't reaching out to the young men in that sense, as it was. That was that duality of treatment. Still, the dual standard occurred there. And apparently, to them, I was a young attractive woman. So, I have been in some places, I awakened one night and to have a--I just happened--just woke up for some reason, and there standing over me was my host in the bedroom, in the guest bedroom. And well, anyway. So (laughter), and you had to be very careful, because you did not want to insult people or offend them, because then they would complain, find a reason to complain about the fact that the work of the NAACP wasn't being done properly. And I've had branch presidents--like an idiot, one night out in Denver, Colorado, I went to let the man help me carry stuff from the meeting up to the hotel room. This is a long time ago, of course. I'm going back to my early days. And he came in to put the papers all--the garbage--the junk that we have left over from meetings, the important documents I should say. And, we deal in paper. So, the next thing I knew, he was chasing me around the hotel room (laughter). It caught me completely off guard. And he--now this one wasn't an old man, either. And some of them were the older ones who had less inhibitions. But these are things that go with the job, that went with the job. And, so you had that in the '50s [1950s], and probably the early '60s [1960s] too. It was still not usual for a young woman to go freely and travel in these kinds of circumstances. So, it was an extraordinarily good education for me, but I had to learn to follow a line, so that we would still be friends, and I could still go to that dinner the next day, and sit there at the dais, on the dais with him next to me, and we were friends, and there was no animus between us, because that was the thing. The volunteers are our bosses. And, that was one ingredient which was on the debit side of the ledger. But travel, I could get away with doing more things than a fellow could in many instances in the course of traveling. And being--getting into places and getting audiences and talking with mayors, or whatever my assignment would be at that time, because they would say, "She's inoffensive and she's--." You know, it's a matter of their having the power and the control, and they didn't feel threatened by having someone like me come in and talk with them. Then they would go out and see me leading a demonstration somewhere, and they would decide they had made a mistake after all.