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Dr. Julius W. Garvey

Surgeon and medical professor Dr. Julius W. Garvey was born on September 17, 1933 in Kingston, Jamaica to United Negro Improvement Association founder Marcus Garvey and activist Amy Jacques Garvey. The younger of two sons, Garvey was raised in Jamaica. He graduated from Wolmer's Trust High School for Boys in Kingston in 1950; and then earned his B.S. degree from McGill University in Montréal, Canada in 1957, and his M.D., C.M. degree from McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 1961.

Garvey began his medical career by interning at The Royal Victoria Hospital in Montréal in 1961. In 1962, he began his first residency in surgery at The Mount Sinai Hospital of New York, completing his residency in 1965. Garvey also completed residencies in surgery at the Harlem Hospital Center in 1968, and in thoracic & cardiovascular surgery at the University of Maryland Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland in 1970.Garvey became an instructor in surgery at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1971. The following year, he joined the Albert Einstein College of Medicine as an instructor in surgery, later becoming an assistant professor of surgery. While teaching at Columbia University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Garvey also served as an attending surgeon in cardiothoracic surgery at the Harlem Hospital Center and Montefiore Hospital, as well as associate attending and head of thoracic surgery at the Montefiore Morrisania Affiliate. In 1974, Garvey was named attending-in-charge of thoracic surgery at Queens Hospital Center, in addition to serving as an attending surgeon in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center. Garvey became the Long Island Jewish Medical Center’s acting program director for the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery from 1980 to 1982, and assistant professor of surgery at State University of New York at Stony Brook from 1978 to 1988. Garvey also started his own private practice in 1983. Garvey served as chief of thoracic and vascular surgery at Queens Hospital Center from 1993 to 2006, and chief of vascular and thoracic surgery at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center from 2000 to 2004. In addition to his other medical appointments, Garvey served as an attending surgeon at North Shore University Hospital, Franklin General Hospital, Massapequa General Hospital, Catholic Medical Centers, and Little Neck Community Hospital.

Garvey was a certified fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, the American College of Surgeons, the International College of Surgeons, and the American College of Chest Physicians, as well as a diplomate of the Board of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery, the American Board of Surgery, the American Academy of Wound Management, and the American College of Phlebology.

Garvey and his wife, Constance Lynch Garvey, have three children: Nzinga, Makeda, and Paul.

Dr. Julius W. Garvey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 8, 2016 and March 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2016.108

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/08/2016 |and| 04/13/2017

Last Name

Garvey

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Winston

Schools

Jonathan Robinson High School

McGill University

First Name

Julius

Birth City, State, Country

Kingston

HM ID

GAR04

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica, Europe

Favorite Quote

No problem mon. (with Jamaican accent)

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/16/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Aki and sawfish

Short Description

Surgeon and medical professor Dr. Julius W. Garvey (1933 - ), son of Marcus Garvey, practiced thoracic and vascular surgery in greater New York, and was chief of thoracic and vascular surgery at Queens Hospital Center and at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center.

Employment

Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

State University of New York

University of Maryland Hospital

Harlem Hospital Center

The Mount Sinai Hospital of New York

Montefiore Hospital

Montefiore Morrisania Affiliate

Long Island Jewish Medical Center

Queens Hospital Center

Little Neck Community Hospital

Catholic Medical Centers

Massapequa General Hospital

Franklin General Hospital

Wyckoff Heights Medical Center

North Shore University Hospital

Garvey Vascular Specialists

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. James Hill

Orthopaedic surgeon and professor Dr. James A. Hill graduated from Lane Technical High School in 1967. He went on to receive his B.A. degree in biology from Northwestern University in 1971 and his M.D. degree from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in 1974. After completing an internship at Evanston Hospital in 1975 and his residency training in orthopaedic surgery at McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University in 1979, Hill served a one-year fellowship in sports medicine with the National Athletic Institute of Health.

In 1980, Hill was recruited as an instructor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Between 1982 and 1994, he was promoted through the faculty ranks at the Feinberg School of Medicine. He was later appointed as a full professor of orthopaedic surgery in 1994. During his tenure at Northwestern University, Hill served on several university committees, including as a member of the Admissions Committee from 1982 to 1989; chair of the Motion Analysis Laboratory Implementation Committee from 1982 to 1984; co-director of the Center for Sports Medicine in 1982; and a member of the Minority Affairs Advisory Committee in 1989. Hill also served as a Major in the U.S. Army Reserves in 1985. He has provided medical care for both amateur and professional athletes and was the physician for the United States Olympic Team in Seoul, Korea in 1988. Later, Hill served as an attending physician at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, at Cook County Hospital, Children’s Memorial Hospital and the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. During his tenure at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Hill served on the Nominating Committee; as chair of the Medical Executive Committee in 2006; and as the hospital’s chief of staff from 2006 to 2008.

Hill has made hundreds of professional presentations and published papers in more than fifty-five medical journals, including Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation and Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. He has received numerous awards, including being honored in 2006 by Health for Humanity for leadership in improving cultural competency within the medical profession and global health. Hill was inducted in the inaugural class of the Northwestern University Black Alumni Association Hall of Fame (2007). He also received the Icon Award from the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Boys and Girls Club of Chicago (2008), and was honored by The Monarch Awards Foundation of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.’s Xi Nu Omega Chapter (2009).

Hill and his wife, Sandra Hill, have three children and one grandchild.

Dr. James A. Hill was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 20, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.236

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/19/2013

Last Name

Hill

Maker Category
Middle Name

Allen

Occupation
Schools

Lane Technical College Prep High School

Northwestern University

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

HIL16

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

Be Still And Know That I Am God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

9/14/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Catfish, Chicken

Short Description

Orthopedic surgeon Dr. James Hill (1949 - ) served as a professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and as the chief of staff for Northwestern Memorial Hospital from 2006 to 2008.

Employment

Evanston Hospital

McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Northwestern Medical Alumni Association

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Cook County Hospital

Jesse Brown V.A. Westside Medial Center

V.A. Lakeside Medical Center

Children's Memorial Hospital

Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

Provident Hospital

Favorite Color

Green

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Hill's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about his paternal family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill recalls his paternal family lineage

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill describes the house his grandfather built on land he purchased in the 1930s in Bolton, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls an early childhood memory and his decision to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood visits to the South

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes his parents' migration to and marriage in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill talks about growing up on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill describes the difference between the South Side and West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill talks briefly about his elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about his childhood neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood friends and reflects on white flight from Chicago, Illinois' West Side

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls keeping a gang member's son out of trouble and receiving protection in return

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill recalls his elementary school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about his difficulty learning to read phonetically

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill recalls the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood family traditions

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill recalls a story about getting his brothers into trouble, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill recalls a story about getting his brothers into trouble, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill talks about the cancellation of his elementary school reunion

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about testing for admission to Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls his father's opposition to his marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls his experience attending Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes his high school teachers at Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about black physicians who inspired him in his adolescence

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill reflects on the Civil Rights Movement and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s effect on racial disparities in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about his attitude toward racism

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill reflects on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill recalls deciding to attend college despite the lack of counseling at Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill describes his acceptance to Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and his experience in the biology department

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill describes his interest in science

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill describes meeting and marrying his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about working at the post office and renting an apartment in Juneway Terrace in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about avoiding the Vietnam War draft by enrolling in medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill talks about challenges in medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill describes his medical school classmates and handling discrimination in his classes

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill recalls taking his family to the anatomy lab during medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about the significance of taking organic chemistry before medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about finishing medical school and deciding against specializing in neurosurgery

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill describes his residency in orthopaedics

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill remembers being racially profiled and arrested by the police

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about his medical residencies

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about his interest in post-graduate training after completing his orthopaedics residency

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about deciding to return to Chicago, Illinois to practice orthopaedics in 1980

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes returning to Chicago, Illinois to practice orthopaedics

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill describes his positions at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill explains his role on the Minority Affairs Advisory Committee at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill explains the origins and mission of the J. Robert Gladden Society

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his participation in the credentials committee and the oversight committee at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Feinberg School of Medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill describes the Northwestern Health Care Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill talks about his duties as attending physician in orthopaedic surgery and about papers he has published

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill lists the states in which he is licensed to practice medicine

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill recalls going to Ethiopia in the late 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill describes an article he wrote about healthcare in warzones while living in Ethiopia in the 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about advancements in orthopaedic surgery

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes the racial disparity amongst patients who receive joint replacements

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about how long knee replacement surgeries last

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill shares his personal philosophy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about his wife and oldest daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his mentor's family and his own family-planning

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill talks about his children and lessons he learned from his family

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill talks about HistoryMaker Dr. Augustus A. White and culturally competent care

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Dr. James Hill talks about HistoryMaker Dr. Carlton West

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - Dr. James Hill talks about the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

Tape: 7 Story: 14 - Dr. James Hill reflects upon his life and future plans

Tape: 7 Story: 15 - Dr. James Hill considers his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 16 - Dr. James Hill offers a message to future generations

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

3$3

DATitle
Dr. James Hill recalls an early childhood memory and his decision to become a doctor
Dr. James Hill talks about his interest in post-graduate training after completing his orthopaedics residency
Transcript
So, now let's talk about you at an early age. And, we just talked about one of your earliest childhood memories, about going south each year. But, do you have another childhood memory that you can think of? Your earliest childhood memory.$$Earliest childhood memory. Oh, I got a lot of 'em. But, one that still 'til this day is relevant, is the fact that here in Chicago [Illinois] they had a big fire around Christmas time at a Catholic school [Our Lady of the Angels School, December 1, 1958], there was really in a Polish neighborhood. As you know, the demographics of Chicago, Chicago is probably the historically been the most segregated housing city in the United States. So, they had a Catholic school that was in a predominately Polish area. And, I think, it was week or so before Christmas, they had a horrific fire where--and, we had shortly before then got the old black and white TV. And, you could--they started running it on the news and you could see the house--the thing burning down. And, you could see the kids jumping out of the window. You could see them bringing out bodies on TV and, I think, at that point I was eight or nine years old. And, I sat there and watched it on TV and I said right then that I wanted to be a physician. 'Cause they showed all these kids at a morgue and they showed Cook County Hospital [later, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois], 'cause at that time that's where they took a lot of 'em. And, I was so impacted by the visual picture of that that I internally, and externally, I think, I told my parents [Doretha Lowe Hill and James Hill, Sr.] then. And, they kinda thought I was just having a childhood moment like being a cowboy or a fireman kinda moment. But, I said, I was gonna be a physician. And, lo and behold as the twist and turns that life goes, I've been fortunate. I'm one of the few people that I can honestly say have lived their dream from being a little kid. So, that's one thing I remember is, 'cause that was impactful enough that even though I twist and turns of life and you don't really know where your roads gonna lend--end. Really my vision at that point of where it was gonna go to, actually came true.$Let's go on to what happens after your residency [at Cook County Hospital, later John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois].$$What happened, at that time, most people completed a residency and went into practice. I really felt, once again my idea of; one, trying to control my own destiny to--with what God let me control. 'Cause our God controls everything, but I wanna give him at least a few ideas that he (laughter) might wanna consider before he direct me in one way or another. So, I figured out that if I wanted to live up to my potential, I would be much better getting some, what you would consider an academia, some post-graduate training. And, in my group, Northwestern [University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois] had a fairly large residency. And, so, there were ten people in my year. And, I was the only one that elected to do a post-graduate training. Meaning, to spend time in another area where you--a concentrated area of orthopaedics, whether than just going into practice after a residency. So, that was an interesting story too. So, I went to the chairman, who was like I said from day one, you know, I was kind of his favorite. Actually, the other residents would even say it, even though they were all white, they said, "You the favorite. You can get away with anything, where he gives us a hard time." So, I went to the chairman, I said, you know, "I wanna do some extra training." And, then he looked at me. 'Cause he actually got a Ph.D. So, besides being an orthopaedic surgeon, he had actually spent time getting a Ph.D. So, to have a resident come to him that wanna actually do extra training, he was ecstatic. So, he said, "Well, what do you wanna do it in?" And, this was when sports medicine was just emerging, when people started doing knee sculpts and everything else. So, when my residency, everybody used to have the big incisions on the knee. And, so, we--they just had started, just had come from Japan where you can start doing microscopic surgery on knees. So, I said, you know, once again, me not liking sick people, "This guy taking care of athletes, during microscopic surgery, that's sounds like what I wanna do." So, I--he said, "Okay." Then the next thought is, "Then where do you wanna do it?" I said, of course, "The places that are the best." And, the place that are the best is, at California, the Kerlan-Jobe [Orthopaedic Clinic, Los Angeles, California], like the guy that operated on Tommy John's elbow, was one place. And, then the other place was Columbus, Georgia, the guy that operated on Archie [sic, Robert] Griffin, III. What's his name? But, anyway, Columbus, Georgia--Andrews, Jim [James] Andrews, were the two prominent places for sports medicine. So, of course, I said, "I wanna go there." It's interesting, the guy that was prominent--so he contacted them both, based on my desires.$$And, this Dr. who?$$Dr. [William J.] Kane.$$Kane. Okay.$$Dr. Kane, who was chairman. He contacted them both, 'cause like I said, it was unusual to do extra training. The guy down at the Hughston Clinic [Columbus, Georgia], I had met him at a meeting. And, he was the typically southerner was--you know, Columbus, Georgia is in the middle of nowhere, as you know. And, so, he was, you know, he was a typical southerner, next generation from plantation owners mentality. On the other hand, once again, and I've gone through life with this all the time, that after people get to know me then they don't--stop seeing color again. And, just like I don't see color. It's real interesting if you approach 'em that way so you don't see color to make your decision, they after a while forget that you're black (laughter). And, so, he even though he's a hardcore southerner, I had interact--'cause I had written papers as a resident. You know, I had done research and things in ra--so, he knew of me. And, so, the chairman at some meeting or something, he brought me to introduce me to 'em. Actually, I think it was in Atlanta [Georgia]. Where I was at a meeting in Atlanta, he was there, and he said, "Why don't you go ahead a meet Jack Hughston," which was a senior guy then. And, and, I have talked to him about you wanting to come down here and doing a residency. So, this is like '78 [1978]. And, so, I--he meets me, and say, "I have read some of the things you're written, I think you would be a great addition, but we're not ready to have someone black"--and he was, he was not saying it in a malignant way. He was truthfully honest. He said, "We're just not ready for a black to come down here examining patients. And, so, I want you to come, but I know we're not ready." And, so, I thanked him. And, he actually, to this day, he invited me back to lecture when I got done. I mean, but he was--I respect the fact that he was just blatantly honest and he didn't, he didn't sidestep the issue. So, then, I ended up of course, out in California. So, I ended up doing my extra training out there. They wanted me to stay. I actually, during my training, I got to go see Magic Johnson. I was, I actually went back with Kareem [Abdul Jabbar] 'cause he hurt his ankle. But, I got to see the [Los Angeles] Lakers win the World Championship. I was on the field at the, at Pasadena [California] when Lynn Swann made the catch in the Super Bowl [XIV, 1980]. I got to see the [Los Angeles] Dodgers work the World Series. I mean, they took care of all the teams in L.A. [Los Angeles, California]. They wanted me to stay.

Dr. James Rosser, Jr.

Hospital chief executive and medical professor James C. Rosser, Jr. was born on September 14, 1954 in Rome, Mississippi. He attended James C. Rosser Elementary school and graduated from Gentry High School in 1971. After briefly attending the University of Florida, Rosser enrolled in the University of Mississippi and graduated from there with his B.A. degree in chemistry and biology in 1974. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Mississippi School of Medicine in 1980. Rosser then completed his surgical residency at Akron General Medical Center where he served as chief resident from 1984 to 1985.

Upon completion of his residency, Rosser began an academic/private surgical practice at Akron General Medical Center and accepted a position as assistant professor of surgery at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. In addition, Rosser was appointed as assistant professor of surgery at the Yale University School of Medicine, and as professor of surgery at the Albert Einstein School of Medicine. His hospital appointments include Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, Netherlands and St. Francis Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. From 1994 to 2002, Rosser served as chief of videoendoscopic surgery at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Then, in 2002, he was named chief of minimally invasive surgery and director of the Advanced Medical technology Institute at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Rosser has given more than 350 invited lectures around the world on topics ranging from education to remote control surgery. He has written over fifty peer-reviewed articles, sixteen chapters in books currently in print, and eleven digital books. He holds two patents and he has been credited with the development of several products and appliances. For his efforts, Dr. Rosser has received numerous recognitions and awards, including the NAACP Living Legend Award in Medicine, the National Role Model Award from Minority Access, Inc., the SAGES Gerald Marks Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Society of Laparoscopic Surgeons’ EXCEL award.

Rosser is married to Dana Mitchell Rosser. They have five children: Kevin S. Rosser, Duane C. Rosser, Angela N. Rosser, Taylor E. Rosser, and Tianna M. Rosser.

James C. Rosser, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 4, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.177

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/4/2013

Last Name

Rosser

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Gentry High School

University of Mississippi

University of Mississippi School of Medicine

James C. Rosser Elementary School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Rome

HM ID

ROS05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

You Don't Know What You Don't Know.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

9/14/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Catfish

Short Description

Hospital chief executive and medical professor Dr. James Rosser, Jr. (1954 - ) served as the chief of minimally invasive surgery and director of the Advanced Medical Technology Institute at the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Employment

Akron General Medical Center

Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine

Yale University School of Medicine

Albert Einstein Medical Center

Children's Hospital Medical Center

Union Hospital

Bellevue Hospital

Washington General Hospital

Riverview Hospital

Providence Hospital

Middlesex Hospital

Best Israel Medical Center

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Rosser, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the origin of his nickname

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about growing up in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his father's service in the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his father's experiences during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the influence of his maternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about the music scene in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the black community in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the influence of comic books and television

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers black representation in the media

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his family's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the East Moorhead School in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his parents' role in the voter registration movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his early adolescence

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers visiting Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the white resistance to desegregation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the resources at black public schools in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his influential teachers

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about school desegregation in Indianola, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his dream of becoming a doctor

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his aspiration to play college football

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the obstacles to his enrollment at the University of Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his experiences of discrimination at Gentry High School in Indianola, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers matriculating at the University of Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his experiences of discrimination at the University of Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his transition to medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers meeting and marrying his wife, Dana Rosser

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his near expulsion from medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers graduating from the University of Mississippi School of Medicine in Oxford, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his decision to enroll at the Brompton Cardiothoracic Institute in London, England

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the mentorship of Dr. James D. Hardy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his influential medical professors

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls moving to Akron, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about the invention of laparoscopic surgery

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his contributions to laparoscopic surgery

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

9$9

DATitle
Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about growing up in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement
Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his experiences of discrimination at the University of Mississippi
Transcript
There's a theory that Mississippi was the toughest place to be raised for black folks in this country. I mean, or, to live.$$Oh, absolutely, it's tough because the oppression was everywhere and you being in your place was everywhere. And see, my, my [maternal] grandparents [Pearl Mitchell and Ludie Mitchell] didn't, didn't vote. But, but my dad [James Rosser, Sr.] and my mom [Marjorie Mitchell Rosser] they were, I'll never forget going to the courthouse in, in '64 [1964], with shotguns, with white people lacing the courthouse when they repealed that you had to go through these tests and everything, the Voting Rights Act [Voting Rights Act of 1965], they were one of the first people to go there and vote. And then subsequently my dad and mom served on the election board. But, they had to go vote under the threat of their lives. I don't think people understand that now. You talk to a youngster now and they can't even fathom that. But here I am, a little kid, my parents gave me front row seats, we, we faced that danger as a family. And, my, my dad and my mom, they were absolute leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. But, a leader of a different kind. The black people called them Uncle Toms, the white people called them agitators, so they were right in the middle. And like my dad said, that's about where we need to be. Where black people didn't, didn't necessarily agree with everything they did. White people didn't necessarily agree with everything they did, now I'll giv- they did. Now, I'll give you an example, this is a burning memory. In Moorhead, Mississippi, where I grew up is in the Delta in Mississippi [Mississippi Delta], the Civil Rights Movement was in full swing, it was probably '64 [1964] or '65 [1965]. Freedom Riders were big. And, they boycotted the town, the, the business district of Moorhead, because we had to go into a drugstore, we couldn't have a malt, a milkshake, we had to get it in the back, this sort of thing. So, they locked down the town, boycotted the whole town. Well, one of the people in one of the stores they boycotted was a Mr. Harry Diamond, Diamond's Department Store. At the time Mr. Diamond was just, you know, as far as I'm concerned, white. But, he was really Jewish, all right. So, they boycotted Mr. Diamond's store, well my dad took offense to that. Because, he just said, "Two wrongs don't make a right." Harry Diamond really all his life had, you know, embraced black people. So, I'll never forget at the height of this boycott, where people are down there with pitchforks and everything like that, signs, my daddy came home on a Saturday. My dad never gets home on a Saturday, because he, my dad was a school principal. But, that was his part-time job. He was, he was, doing crops, selling produce, he was an entrepreneur really. I think that's where I get that from, being an entrepreneur. And he said, "You know what? We're going in town." That was rare. And he did something else rare, he gave us a dollar apiece. My dad doesn't give money for you to go into town like that, that's just, he's an ex-Marine [U.S. Marine Corps] and that was just frivolous. But, on this occasion he said, "I'm giving you a dollar and we're gonna go downtown and we're gonna buy something we don't even need from Harry Diamond." I'll never forget us, get, forget what we did, forget what we did. We all got in our Sunday best. My dad went in and I saw his Marine uniform and his .45, he put the holster on. And we get in the car we all go down. I'll never forget how the people parted as my dad's car came up. And the people, there was a big crowd of people blocking all the, the, the highway, the, the, the street. And so, it parted and we came in and parked. And then my dad got out and it was the first time I ever seen him open the door for my mama (laughter). He was that kind of guy. And we got out and he, he started walking and people just naturally parted, not a word being said. Then all of sudden he stopped right at the back of the car. And I'm saying, "Why is my daddy stopping with these people crazy out here, right now. Let's keep moving." That's me saying as a little child. And he stopped and turned around to address the crowd. And he said, "I'm getting ready to go into Mr. Harry Diamond's department store, and I'm gonna buy something I don't even need. And I'm gonna buy something I don't even need because, let me tell you, two wrongs don't make a right." And he then pointed out, "The shoes on your baby's feet, where'd you get 'em from?" "Mr. Diamond." "Did you pay for it in cash or credit?" "He gave me credit." And he went around and pointed people out in the crowd and basically reviewed everything this man had done. And he said, "Look, I want you to know two wrongs don't make a right. And I'm gonna tell ya right now and I'm going over here and I'm gonna buy this and nobody's gonna stop me." Everybody opened up, my dad walked in, we bought something, came back. And then next day, every merchant was boycotted except Mr. Harry Diamond.$Were you prepared, I mean, you know?$$Was we, were--no I wasn't prepared.$$Okay.$$I had to work a lot harder 'cause I didn't have all the courses that these kids had. I had to come in there and, man, work hard. I'm from a handicapped situation that wasn't my own making. But, we never complained, complained, we just adapted. I'll never forget, the, the black people there it was just amazing because nobody had gotten anything more than a C from English lit before, or English comp, as, as a black person. 'Cause every black person knew every black person on the campus of University of Mississippi [Oxford, Mississippi]. And what your grades were. So, the thing that when I came out and I had got a B in English comp it was like it went through wildfire. And was (unclear) 'cause nobody had done well. Had all these great black kids who came from unprepared situations who always wound up dropping out. And I'll never forget that was a source of pride. Because they would say we weren't gonna be able to do with this sort of thing and we would do it. And I came there, I was a youngster, I mean 'cause I was always ahead. They couldn't even figure out how the heck did you get here this young, and how you staying here and doing well. So, we were able, I was able to establish my reputation there as being a, of being a, a, a great student. And the first black fraternity on campus was Omega Psi Phi [Omega Psi Phi Fraternity], and I was one of the founding members of that. Eta Zeta Chapter in, in '73 [1973], they had not had a black Greek society on campus.$$Now, composition I, I was just thinking that composition that is one thing that University of Mississippi is known for. It's known for its English department?$$Yeah.$$And its writing courses if nothing else 'cause (unclear)--$$And it's tough.$$--all the writers in Mississippi that have, have come out of--$$It's tough.$$--(unclear) have taught there like Faulkner [William Faulkner], so?$$Oh yeah! Yeah so, so that was a, but, but, people weren't doing well. You have to realize at that time three black people couldn't meet for more than fifteen minutes in one spot on our campus. That was in the rule book (laughter). That was in the rule book. But, you know what there was so many good people. Friends today, Mikey Brunt [L. Michael Brunt], who's at Wash U [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri] who's an unbelievable world class surgeon. He was a guy that befriended me. And to this day, you know, we have just such good feelings about, about each other. You know, and he didn't go to University of Mississippi medical school [University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Oxford, Mississippi]; he went to another place. But, but it's just a beautiful thing to talk about those days in organic chemistry. And all, we always were in those courses together. And he always spoke to me, always befriended me. I mean a lot good people were there. And really, for the most part, I, I think I got through there without a, a lot of problems.$$Okay, how did, I mean did the black students study together, did you have a, were they organized?$$No, no, socially everybody was a crab in the barrel thing. Uh, you know, I mean really wasn't that tight camaraderie everybody wanted to think they were special, and, and individual and, and they didn't do that much. And, and in fact most of the time people weren't doing well as they had done before and they kind of kept that inside. I saw we had a lot of people that would drop out.$$No, Black Student Union?$$(Unclear) yes, they did but it wasn't strong, you know what I mean. As strong as (unclear) we had little simple things, some little organization things. But, I wasn't, I wasn't really a part of that, as much. Because I was trying to get out of there, I think. Well, 'cause I, you know, I wanted to move on. I wanted to move on. The whole point why I accelerated through high school [Gentry High School, Indianola, Mississippi] and through college was to get to do what I wanted to do quicker, you know. I was pushing for that.$$Okay, okay so was there any particular teachers or administrators or students at the University of Mississippi that stand out in terms of their association with you or?$$Not really, because you know that was a big situation, sterile environment. Not really had anybody that was forceful, you were, it was, you were on your own (laughter). You know, you were on your own. And so, no, nobody there. I was just, I didn't want to fail. I didn't want to go home and have people point at me, "Hey there goes Butch Rosser [HistoryMaker Dr. James Rosser, Jr.], he could of done this. He could of done that." I heard that all my life, you know. Somebody went somewhere and could of done this, could of done that. They're still living on what they could of done. I, I didn't wanna do that, I had a fear of failure, I really did.$$Okay.$$A fear of failure.

Dr. Patricia Bath

Medical scientist Patricia E. Bath was born on November 4, 1942 in Harlem, New York. Bath’s father, Rupert, was a Trinidadian immigrant and the first black motorman in the New York City subway system; her mother, Gladys, was a descendant of African slaves and Cherokee Native Americans and worked as a housewife and domestic. Bath attended Julia Ward Howe Junior High School and Charles Evans Hughes High School. In 1959, Bath received a grant from the National Science Foundation to attend the Summer Institute in Biomedical Science at Yeshiva University in New York, where she worked on a project studying the relationship between caner, nutrition, and stress. Bath went on to graduate from Hunter College in New York City with her B.S. degree in chemistry in 1964. She then attended Howard University Medical School. Bath graduated with honors in 1968 with her M.D. degree and also won the Edwin J. Watson Prize for Outstanding Student in Ophthalmology.

From 1970 until 1973, Bath was the first African American resident in ophthalmology at new York University’s School of Medicine. During this time, she married and gave birth to a daughter, Eraka, in 1972. In 1973, Bath worked as an assistant surgeon at Sydenham Hospital, Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospital, and Metropolitan Surgical Hospital, all in New York City. In 1974, she completed a fellowship in corneal and keratoprosthesis surgery. Then, Bath moved to Los Angeles, California where she became the first African American woman surgeon at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center. She was also appointed assistant professor at the Charles R. Drew University. In 1975, Bath became the first woman faculty member of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute.

In 1981, Bath conceived of her invention, the Laserphaco Probe. She traveled to Berlin University in Germany to learn more about laser technology, and over the course of the next five years, she developed and tested a model for a laser instrument that could be tested to remove cataracts. Bath received a patent for her invention on May 17, 1988, and became the first African American female doctor to receive a patent for a medical invention. She continued to work at UCLA and Drew University during the development of her laser cataract removal instrument, and, in 1983, she developed and chaired an ophthalmology residency training program. From 1983 to 1986, Bath was the first woman chair and first female program director of a postgraduate training program in the United States. In 1993, Bath retired from the UCLA Medical Center. Bath was inducted into the International Women in Medicine Hall of Fame in 2001.

Patricia E. Bath was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 29, 2012.

Path passed away on May 30, 2019.

Accession Number

A2012.243

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/29/2012

Last Name

Bath

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Charles Evans Hughes High School

Hunter College

Howard University College of Medicine

Julia Ward Howe Junior High School 81

P.S. 68

First Name

Patricia

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

BAT10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Yes.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/4/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fruit

Death Date

5/30/2019

Short Description

Physician Dr. Patricia Bath (1942 - ) was a professor of ophthalmology at Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and the UCLA School of Medicine in Los Angeles, California. She invented the laserphaco probe, a device used in cataract surgery.

Employment

Yeshiva University

Harlem Hospital

Columbia University

New York University

University of California, Los Angeles

Charles R. Drew University

American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Patricia Bath's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her mother's move to New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her paternal great-great-grandfather, Jonas Mohammed Bath

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her father's experiences as a merchant seaman

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her home life

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the Harlem community in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early education, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her aspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early education, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers Dr. Albert Schweitzer

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls the era of school desegregation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her high school science fair experiment

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers Charles Evans Hughes High School in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her early scientific achievements

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her scholarship to Hunter College in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her activities at Hunter College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the social organizations at Hunter College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her admission to the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her mentors at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early interest in ophthalmology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the medical licensing process

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her internship at New York City's Harlem Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her role in the Poor People's Campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the birth of her daughter

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her decision to become a single parent

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls joining the faculty of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her fellowship in keratoprosthesis

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the founding of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls the start of her medical career in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the development of community ophthalmology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her study of blindness in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers inventing the laserphaco probe, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers inventing the laserphaco probe, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about the advancements in ophthalmological laser surgery

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls becoming the chief of ophthalmology at the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the procedure for cataract surgery

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her decision to retire

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her artistic interests

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her involvement in the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her involvement in the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the support of her parents

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
Dr. Patricia Bath describes her role in the Poor People's Campaign
Dr. Patricia Bath describes the founding of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School
Transcript
I neglected to ask you about 1968 at, at Howard [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.]. Now were you on, you were, I guess, on the verge of graduation when Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was killed, right?$$Yes, yes, yeah, that, that, you know, I wanted to mention about Dr. King earlier, and somehow it escaped me, but when I pledged AKA [Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority] as an undergraduate at Hunter College [New York, New York], my chapter [Lambda Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.] nominated me for a national office which I did win, and I became the highest ranking undergraduate officer on the board of directors, second (unclear) basileus is what they called it and in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], when King, Martin Luther King, Jr. was speaking at the boule, I had the honor of introducing him to the boule. And so I met Dr. King and it was a brief interaction, you know, moments, minutes, but he was the type of charismatic person that could change (laughter) your whole perspective and so it had a great effect on me. And when I later went to medical school, and when he was killed, it, it did have a big effect on me and I participated in Resurrection City. I organized the medical students so we could provide healthcare, to some extent, during the Poor People's Campaign. You know, we had, that was really, it turned out to be a linchpin in the success of Resurrection City because they were trying to close it down for whatever reason and they didn't want to close it down because they didn't want poor people at the mall that would have not been an American way of closing it down, but, so they thought they could close it down based on health reasons, you know, overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and that's where the medical students came in and my role, with the role of some others, but we established the medical coordinating committee for the Resurrection City. Dr. Mazique, Ed Mazique [Edward C. Mazique], I recall, and Reverend Fauntroy [HistoryMaker Reverend Walter Fauntroy], they were the ones--and Joseph Rines [ph.] from Seventh-day Adventist, they were the ones who came up with this concept and, you know, the medical students supported it and so every time the Department of Health [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services] would come up with an excuse to close it, you know, we'd put our heads together and find a way to mitigate, you know, whether it was clean water testing, food preparation, number of infections, kids who needed shots, you know, it was my first field, battlefield experience.$$Okay, now this happened, I guess the march, the Poor People's Campaign was a dream of Dr. King's and took place after his--$$Death.$$--assassination, and--$$Yes, yes, '68 [1968].$$--after the riots and all those--$$Yeah.$$--were over, basically--$$Sixty-eight [1968].$$Yeah, '68 [1968]--$$Um-hm, the year I graduated [from Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.].$$Yeah, so was that in, did that take place in June, May or June of that year?$$Well, the Poor People's Campaign was for several months--$$Yeah.$$--but, you know, and, of course, when I graduated in May, I stayed, I stayed there until July, had to start my internship [at Harlem Hospital; Harlem Medical Center, New York, New York].$$Okay.$$So I left.$$So, yeah, my recollection is that it, yeah, it started maybe a month or two after Dr. King was assassinated then, with the march, then occupation of the Mall [National Mall, Washington, D.C.]--$$Yes.$$--you know, so, okay so you there until Ju--$$It was great to be a part of that.$$Okay.$$And I have an article on that too. That's, that was published in the Journal of the National Medical Association, there's a shot of myself and Dr. Mazique and the coordinating committee there and our story, what we were doing.$$Okay.$Now, once again, Charles R. Drew [Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School; Charles R. Drew University of Science and Medicine, Los Angeles, California], now, was Charles Drew conceived of as a hospital to give opportunities for African American and maybe even minority medical students?$$Now keep in mind, I'm in New York [New York] and they, they founded this institution before I arrived. My understanding is that Charles Drew medical school was founded as a result of the McCone Commission. There were riots after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] and--there were riots in Los Angeles [California] and a commission was set up. One of the findings of the commission was that the area of Watts [Los Angeles, California] and South Central [Los Angeles, California] was not only impoverished, but the people lacked access to medical care. So, the McCone Commission determined that one of the positive things that they could do was to promote the establishment of healthcare. So two things happened. One, they built Martin Luther King Hospital [Martin Luther King Jr./Drew Medical Center; Martin Luther King Jr. Outpatient Center, Los Angeles, California], which was the county; and secondly, the Drew medical school was created to nurture the hospital, in the same way that Columbia [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York] would nurture Harlem Hospital [Harlem Medical Center, New York, New York]. The problem though was that Drew had not existed as an established medical school. It's not as if it was a transplant of Howard [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], which couldn't be done. So in order to empower the newly established Drew medical school, the leadership at Drew decided that they would affiliate half of their departments with UCLA [University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine; David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California] and half of the departments with USC [University of Southern California School of Medicine; Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California]. They felt that that way Drew could maintain autonomy. Had they only affiliated with UCLA, then they would, they felt they would lose autonomy or the same would happen if they had only affiliated with USC. But they felt that by having two major strong institutions that they could maintain autonomy and grow and then eventually, if decided, cut ties with both. So, it was mainly established to provide service to the underserved community of Watts and South Central.

Dr. Rogsbert Phillips

Breast cancer specialist Dr. Rogsbert Frenzel Phillips was born on July 12, 1948, in Newnan, Georgia, to Olivia Louise Bohannon Mitchell and Zack Phillips. Phillips attended the University of Georgia and graduated in 1970. She also attended and graduated from Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons with her M.D. degree. In 1982, Phillips became the first African American woman to complete the general surgery program at Emory University.

Phillips started her general surgery practice in Atlanta, Georgia, and decided to specialize in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. She is one of the top breast cancer specialists in the United States. In 1989, Phillips founded Sisters By Choice, a support group providing educational, emotional, spiritual, and physical resources to breast cancer survivors, their families, and other health care professionals. The organization strives to be a leading provider of innovative programs and efforts that increase breast cancer education and awareness. The organization provides support and counsel to individuals diagnosed with breast cancer and their families. Phillips also started an annual Breast Cancer Awareness Weekend in Atlanta.

In 2000, Phillips participated in conducting experimental surgical procedures to detect and prevent breast cancer called ductal lavage. The procedure entails inserting a small scope into the breast under a local anesthetic to remove and test cells for abnormalities that could lead to cancer. This procedure could lead to the prevention of possible future breast cancer patients and could save future lives.

Phillips continues her general surgery practices in Atlanta and Lithonia, Georgia, and has been practicing medicine for thirty years.

Accession Number

A2006.116

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/13/2006 |and| 2/24/2008

Last Name

Phillips

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

A.F. Herndon Elementary School

E. P. Johnson Elementary School

Murphy High School

University of Georgia

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

University of Bridgeport

Emory University

First Name

Rogsbert

Birth City, State, Country

Newnan

HM ID

PHI01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Rome, Italy

Favorite Quote

When You Learn, You Teach. When You Get, You Give Back.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

7/12/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Rogsbert Phillips (1948 - ) conducted her general surgery practices in Atlanta and Lithonia, Georgia. One of the top breast cancer specialists in the United States, she founded Sisters By Choice and started an annual Breast Cancer Awareness Weekend in Atlanta.

Employment

American Cyanamid Company

University of Bridgeport

Private Practice

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
288,0:672,8:1344,15:1824,22:2304,28:5760,87:6816,105:7776,123:25270,422:25618,427:27960,432:29117,453:31253,493:40331,641:51746,760:56154,883:56610,891:57066,898:58282,930:66870,1134:86038,1332:90688,1437:108074,1671:108466,1676:122920,1933:143248,2203:148250,2320:181215,2865:182788,2884:192448,3024:193240,3037:194032,3050:195832,3083:196264,3090:197416,3108:199990,3120:200529,3127:201145,3137:201453,3142:201761,3147:207824,3212:218000,3332:222824,3354:224056,3369:226080,3407:227664,3439:231465,3458:237604,3485:240268,3523:267500,3685:268025,3693:273110,3733:273855,3739:280144,3776:291110,3939$0,0:4512,115:21956,285:22430,292:22746,297:23062,302:23536,316:35910,428:36750,436:46054,553:46662,562:58372,714:61126,756:61774,766:62098,771:62584,785:65419,838:69388,905:70036,916:72304,967:78346,1023:81838,1036:82995,1051:83529,1058:85576,1094:86733,1107:91221,1157:91666,1163:92111,1181:93090,1200:93446,1205:96917,1255:98964,1283:101456,1330:105422,1381:107226,1410:110260,1457:110588,1462:111080,1469:111572,1477:112310,1491:112802,1498:116380,1535:116860,1543:117260,1549:120300,1606:121420,1628:123340,1706:130900,1739:131495,1747:134130,1797:152232,2047:158120,2127:166750,2252:167344,2263:171302,2287:172822,2297:174038,2307:175254,2316:185090,2365:198001,2515:198694,2527:208242,2711:209397,2736:210090,2754:227560,2954:228835,2973:229435,2983:229810,2990:231760,3021:232360,3028:233035,3039:240428,3096:241260,3111:242196,3123:243860,3154:246044,3177:254286,3211:255087,3222:257490,3261:258291,3273:260820,3282:261180,3288:261468,3293:261756,3298:263484,3331:266796,3407:268380,3432:269100,3444:269388,3449:271044,3478:271620,3488:271908,3493:272412,3501:273132,3512:276372,3554:281930,3560:282524,3567:283415,3577:283910,3582:284504,3590:286781,3623:289454,3664:298350,3743:298819,3760:300159,3787:300695,3798:301298,3808:303370,3829
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Rogsbert Phillips' interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her parents' elopement

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the story behind her name

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls family dinners and holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers Atlanta's Southwest neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers Atlanta's Summerhill neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her childhood pastimes with her family

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes Atlanta's Kirkwood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her experiences of racial discrimination at the University of Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers J.C. Murphy High School in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls the deaths of political and civil rights leaders

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her admiration for her sister

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls choosing to attend the University of Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls her arrival at the University of Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her experiences of racial discrimination at the University of Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon discrimination in schools and the work force

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her organizational involvement in college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her graduate studies at Bridgeport University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her decision to attend medical school, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her decision to attend medical school, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her classmates at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon her decision to become a doctor

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her decision to specialize in surgery

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls her graduation from Emory University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers opening her private practice

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers meeting her research partner, Susan Love

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers founding Sisters By Choice

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the programs organized by Sisters By Choice

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her frustrations over cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her work with Susan Love

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Rogsbert Phillips' interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her work at American Cyanamid Company

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her residency program at Emory University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her work in clinical trial studies

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls other doctors' support for her private practice

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls how she became a breast disease specialist

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon the impact of race on her practice, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon the impact of race on her practice, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her relationship with Dr. Harold Freeman

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips shares her reasons for creating Sisters By Choice, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips shares her reasons for creating Sisters By Choice, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her involvement with clinical trials, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her involvement with clinical trials, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the history of breast cancer treatment

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips talks about breast cancer's prevalence in the media

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the goals of Sisters By Choice

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips shares her thoughts on universal healthcare policies

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes preventative breast cancer treatments

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips talks about hereditary breast cancer

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes the importance of preventative methods

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon the need for breast cancer education

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips explains when to begin having mammograms

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers individuals who influenced her, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips remembers individuals who influenced her, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips shares her advice for future generations

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dr. Rogsbert Phillips narrates her photographs

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$5

DAStory

6$6

DATitle
Dr. Rogsbert Phillips describes her decision to attend medical school, pt. 2
Dr. Rogsbert Phillips recalls how she became a breast disease specialist
Transcript
Then it became major, major problem for me you know. Because when I applied to medical school, it was an option, it was an option of two you know. And I had seriously started thinking about it you know whether or not I wanted to do it and then I had gone to my boss, my supervisor at American Cyanamid [American Cyanamid Company] and I had told him that I wanted to do some traveling, I wanted to go overseas to work. And they were saying, "Yeah, we'll support you." American Cyanamid, we had three lady docs as scientists, and I was the only one with a master's [degree] and the boss' wife and another young lady. And so I really, and this company is really like family, I mean, it was just a nice environment. And being a researcher, you know, they give you projects, you do it on your own time, you know. If you finish the project you out of there, you know what I mean. And so I really, really enjoyed it. And so it was a big question you know, do I go to medical school or you know. And this time I'm making good money too and then they telling me you know, whatever you want to do you know, we'll do it. And so it was a company that I saw myself growing old in, okay. So I decided I'm not going to medical school, you know. And so my boss came to me and he says, "What?" I said, "I'm not going." He said, "Before you decide," this is in Greenwich, Connecticut, all right, "before you decide just go down to New York [New York] and talk to them," and so I said, "Okay." So on a Friday I took off, go down to New York and I drive. And although I've gone to New York and you know when you go in just for entertainment, drive down to New York, you don't see all of New York City, right. So Columbia University [New York, New York] is up 169th Street, you know. And you drive down and you try to figure out, now where am I going to park, I mean, I can't see myself living down here, what's going on here. So I go in and talk to the people, and we talk and I say to them, you know I really appreciate the invitation to join your class but I can't come, and they want to know why and it's I don't have any money. Well they had given me some money, but they said, "Okay, you know, go over and talk to the financial people," so they give me more money, you know what I'm saying. Okay so I go back to work and here it is my excuse for not coming you know. So I go back to work Monday and my supervisor said, "Okay Zel [HistoryMaker Dr. Rogsbert Phillips] what you going to do?" "I am not going to medical school, I'll be here." He said, "You sure?" "Nope I'm not going to medical school." All my colleagues, "You sure you're not going?" "Nope, I'm not going," you know. So I was sitting down Tuesday night writing the Columbia University a letter looking at the Knick [New York Knicks] game, writing a letter, typing, you know, you typing. Typing a letter to Columbia saying, you know I appreciate the opportunity, but I'm not coming to Columbia. And I couldn't write that letter, I just could not. So instead I wrote a letter resigning my position. So that's how I ended up in medical school because it was an opportunity that I could not walk away from. I mean and so that's how I ended up in medical school, and that was you know one of the pivoting decisions in my life. And you know I went to medical school and I enjoyed medical school. It gave me an opportunity to further you know grow and mature as a person. But more importantly it really opened up a world where I think, to be able to every, day in and day out, to impact one's life. It's overwhelming, you know, and I don't take for granted being a physician on any level. And my experience in medical school and subsequently meeting patients and interacting with patients. Every patient that I see it confirms to me that I'm doing what I'm supposed to be doing. I thoroughly enjoy my life, I enjoy being a physician. And I just can't think of doing anything else, I really can't.$When you first started, when you first opened your office, you were not focusing on the breast surgery.$$I was not focusing on breast surgery and as I said, being an African American female there were certain doctors who just didn't refer patients to me because of that. Not because I didn't take good care of their patients, it was, it was just a good old boy system, you know. But as I, you know, made a statement here in the medical community, and that statement was that I was an excellent doctor taking care of their patients. I mean, there was no question about the level of care, quality of care I gave that patient. You cannot ignore that, I mean, no matter how you want to, and because of that, you know, people start you know giving me more of a chance to take care of their patients, and they were satisfied, the patients were satisfied, and by word of mouth, you know, and referring, patients came to me because, you know, their mother you know, or their father I took care of. But one thing that was unique is that the, my reputation for taking care of breast disease you know was dominated by everything else I took care of. And it got to the point that my referring doctors, no matter what else, you know, walked in their doors for disease process, if it was a breast problem, it was just automatically sent to Dr. Phillips [HistoryMaker Dr. Rogsbert Phillips]. And early on you know if I think about how my practice kind of evolved you know into taking care of patients with breast disease you know I look back and you know my first operation as a student with a breast case, you know, the first, you know, as a resident [at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia], you know, I was on a breast service, my brief, my advisor in medical school was a breast specialist, all right. And so everything, I mean, I keep saying, you know, breast, breast, breast, I mean, it just kept coming, you know, hitting me right square in the eye, you know. And I enjoy taking care of breast patients. And so it just developed, you know, I was there and people you know were referring me, you know, their breast problems.$$And was it because of the great success you were having with their patients?$$You know if we look at how medicine has evolved for women doctors in general, there has been different aspect of medicine that women naturally excelled in. If you look at pediatrics, okay when women were allowed by the male you know, well, I shouldn't say that, when women was allowed to go to medical school, and if you look at the number one field they went into, it was pediatrics and then if you look at in late '80s [1980s] and '90s [1990s], you know, the OB/GYN [obstetrics and gynecology] dominated, you know, choices for women. And I think it was just easier for us. I mean, let's face it, it's not easy being in a male dominated field, profession. I mean, no matter, you can go outside medicine, and I think it was just easier for men to accept us in different roles in medicine. When I came out in surgery, there was only a handful of women throughout the United States was into surgery. And most of us you know if you look at the development of our practice, particularly people in my age, breast was just easier for people to you know to refer to us. And then if you look at, women felt more comfortable you know coming to a woman doctor with breast disease. And that's not to say that men are not as compassionate and or not equipped to take care of the disease, I would never say that because even today medicine is still dominated by men, but I think people recognize that when it comes to breast disease, I bring something to the table that a man cannot bring to it, and that's my you know gender, you know. And women today you know will, you know I have a lot of patients who come to me primarily because I am a woman.

Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.

Dr. LaSalle Doheny Leffall, Jr. was born May 22, 1930, in Tallahasee, Florida, but grew up in Quincy, Florida. His parents, Lula Jourdan and LaSalle Leffall, Sr. met at Alabama Teachers College. Leffall graduated from Dr. Wallace S. Stevens High School at age 15 years in 1945. Awarded his B.S. degree summa cum laude from Florida A & M College in 1948, Leffall at age twenty-two earned his M.D. from Howard University College of Medicine. There, Dr. Burke Syphax, Dr. Jack White, Dr. W. Montague Cobb and the celebrated Dr. Charles R. Drew taught him.

Upon earning his M.D., Leffall continued his medical training as intern at Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis; assistant resident in surgery at Freedman’s Hospital from 1953 to 1954; assistant resident in surgery at D.C. General Hospital from 1954 to 1955; chief resident in surgery at Freedman’s Hospital from 1956 to 1957 and senior fellow in cancer surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital from 1957 to 1959. Beginning his military service at the rank of Captain, M. C., he served as chief of general surgery at the U. S. Army Hospital in Munich, Germany, from 1960 to 1961. Leffall joined Howard’s faculty, in 1962, as an assistant professor and by 1970, he was chairman of the Department of Surgery, a position he held for twenty-five years. He was named the Charles R. Drew Professor in 1992, occupying the first endowed chair in the history of Howard’s Department of Surgery.

Leffall has served as visiting professor at over 200 medical institutions in the U.S. and abroad and authored or coauthored over 130 articles and chapters. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Surgery and a fellow of both the American College of Surgeons and the American College of Gastroenterology. His professional life has been devoted to the study of cancer, especially among African Americans. In 1979, as president of the American Cancer Society, Leffall developed programs and emphasized the importance of this study for the benefit of the African American population and other ethnic groups. Cancers of the head and neck, breast, colorectum and soft part sarcomas are his main areas of interest.

Surgeon, oncologist, medical educator and civic leader, and the recipient of many awards, Leffall has taught over 4,500 medical students and trained at least 250 general surgery residents. In 1995 he was elected president of the American College of Surgeons and in 2002 was named chairman of the President’s Cancer Panel. He and his wife, Ruthie have one grown son, LeSalle, III.

Leffall passed away on May 26, 2019.

Accession Number

A2004.064

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/7/2004

Last Name

Leffall

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

D.

Schools

William S. Stevens High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

La Salle

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

LEF02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Puerto Rico, Maine

Favorite Quote

Equanimity under duress

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/22/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sole

Death Date

5/26/2019

Short Description

Medical professor, oncologist, and surgeon Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr. (1930 - ) is the president of the American College of Surgeons and chairs the President's Cancer Panel. Leffall has authored over 150 articles, has taught over 4,500 medical students and trained at least 250 general surgery residents at the Howard University College of Medicine.

Employment

Homer G. Phillips Hospital (St. Louis, Missouri)

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Howard University College of Medicine

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Georgetown University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1848,37:7722,232:8052,238:8316,243:8910,254:11418,320:12276,352:15246,459:15642,467:16104,476:17160,502:17424,507:17820,515:18942,540:19338,550:20526,575:20922,583:27380,593:28660,666:33700,746:35940,779:36260,784:37300,801:39460,852:40020,860:45560,880:48742,929:52834,1036:53082,1041:53578,1051:53950,1059:55314,1088:56244,1108:57794,1145:62240,1177:62905,1188:64660,1201:65080,1209:65920,1229:66400,1244:66880,1253:67660,1273:67900,1278:68140,1283:68440,1289:70304,1305:71032,1324:71760,1343:75904,1453:76520,1465:77024,1481:77584,1493:78088,1508:79656,1560:80104,1569:80496,1577:81280,1595:81504,1600:82344,1620:82904,1631:87700,1649:88276,1661:88596,1667:88980,1675:89556,1686:92340,1726:92960,1740:95130,1786:95626,1797:97734,1847:98044,1853:98478,1862:98850,1869:99594,1884:100338,1905:100958,1917:102322,1947:106176,1972:106995,1995:107373,2002:108003,2013:108381,2020:109011,2031:111405,2082:112098,2098:112413,2104:112917,2116:113358,2124:117443,2147:117778,2154:120726,2253:123741,2320:124076,2326:124880,2345:125349,2354:126555,2396:127694,2425:128096,2432:128498,2439:130709,2500:131178,2508:132317,2531:137070,2538:138695,2585:138955,2590:140190,2612:141035,2630:143310,2681:143830,2692:144090,2697:147446,2718:147950,2729:148454,2739:148734,2745:149126,2755:149574,2764:149966,2772:151646,2803:152934,2811:154950,2860:155678,2877:156070,2885:156294,2890:156518,2895:156854,2902:157638,2919:158086,2928:158478,2936:161294,2958:161806,2967:162254,2975:162958,2987:163278,2993:164750,3025:165198,3033:165454,3038:165838,3045:166606,3060:166990,3067:167758,3082:168270,3091:168718,3099:171342,3116:172174,3133:172878,3145:173198,3151:173774,3161:174030,3166:174414,3173:174670,3178:175054,3185:175374,3191:176014,3202:177806,3241:178126,3247:179278,3277:179790,3286:180238,3294:180942,3307:181198,3312:181582,3319:181902,3325:182734,3340:183118,3347:183886,3362:184398,3371:184846,3379:188022,3391$0,0:1235,30:1755,39:2145,46:8970,195:11310,247:11895,257:12480,268:13000,277:13455,288:13845,296:14105,301:14690,311:15340,326:15795,333:17030,352:17810,364:18135,371:18590,380:19500,395:19825,401:21515,436:22620,469:31565,597:32148,611:32572,620:32890,627:33579,645:35275,688:35540,694:35805,700:36282,711:36653,719:37660,745:38084,754:38561,765:41370,776:43974,819:44842,837:45400,854:45772,861:46578,877:47136,887:48376,911:49120,936:49616,945:50174,956:51042,974:51600,985:52716,1007:53274,1017:53770,1026:56250,1091:56932,1114:57242,1120:57738,1129:58296,1141:58792,1150:59412,1163:59970,1175:64550,1209:64862,1214:65642,1226:66266,1235:66578,1240:67124,1249:68294,1287:69230,1324:69698,1332:70088,1337:72272,1372:72974,1382:74378,1403:75782,1434:76562,1445:80460,1450:80916,1458:81220,1463:81676,1469:82132,1477:82436,1482:83120,1495:85096,1537:85780,1549:87528,1584:88136,1593:88820,1604:92114,1641:92762,1654:93049,1661
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of LaSalle Leffall interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his early years in Quincy, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall describes his childhood interests

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall describes his early influences

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his college years at Florida A&M

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall remembers influential teachers at Florida A & M

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his admission to medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his experience at Howard University Medical School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall describes Dr. W. Montague Cobb, a memorable instuctor at Howard Medical School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall remembers an influential physician, Dr. Charles Drew

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall remembers Dr. Syphax and Dr. White at Howard University School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall talks about the influence of Dr. Jack White at Howard School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his medical internship at Homer Phillips Hospital in St. Louis

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his experience as one of the first black residents at Gallinger Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his surgical residency at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1957-1959

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his courtship and marriage and his military service in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall summarizes his career at Howard from 1962-2004

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall details his work with American Cancer Society including foreign humanitarian and research work

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall discusses cancer and race

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - LaSalle Leffall evaluates new cancer treatments

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall discusses his son

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall discusses his wife's family's five generations of college graduates

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall talks about his presidencies of American Cancer Society and American College of Surgeons

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall expresses his hopes for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall talks about working with the Bush family on cancer-related projects

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall discusses the role of attitude in cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall remembers his parents

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall considers his legacy and the role of a teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - LaSalle Leffall considers healthcare reform

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - LaSalle Leffall reflects on the course of his career

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - LaSalle Leffall shares advice for blacks aspiring to be doctors

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
LaSalle Leffall describes Dr. W. Montague Cobb, a memorable instuctor at Howard Medical School
LaSalle Leffall talks about his presidencies of American Cancer Society and American College of Surgeons
Transcript
One of your teachers, I know, was W. Montague Cobb, and that's someone who--?$$Absolutely, Dr., Dr. W. Montague Cobb was one of my favorite teachers [at Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.]. He was a man I met in my first year because he taught anatomy. And he used to have what we would call "bust out sessions". Now, what does that mean? You'd go into him, and you'd say "bust me out", meaning, ask me any question you want to ask me. I think I know the answer. And, and I liked that kind of challenge. And he liked that. He liked young students who felt so confident that they would walk in and say, "Dr. Cobb, bust me out" (laughter), and that meant, ask me anything you want on anatomy. And we wanted to let him know that we knew the answers. And I just enjoyed him as a teacher. And we used to have something called the cadaver walk. On the final examination, they would ask a hundred and eighty questions, and the cadavers have all been dissected then. All the cadavers are dissected. And they would have labels on some of everything, arteries, veins, muscles, bones, all this. And you had to identify those structures. And I really loved that. And when I was a medical student in my later years and as a surgical resident, I used to come back every year to go over with the freshman, medical and dental students, the cadaver, to prepare them, help prepare them for the cadaver walk. But Dr. Cobb was, I think an outstanding teacher, but in addition to that, I worked with him as assistant editor of the "Journal of the National Medical Association", and even though he was not a practicing physician, he did some of the early work in helping to integrate Gallinger Municipal Hospital, which was the city hospital then, but controlled totally by whites, no blacks on the staff. And Dr. Cobb was one of the major ones who helped integrate that hospital. And so in addition to being an excellent teacher as professor of anatomy, he also helped in--on the social basis, for social justice in medicine, helping to integrate Gallinger Municipal Hospital, which later became D.C. General Hospital.$$Now, he was also a musician too, I believe.$$Oh, he loved to play the fiddle, the vio--I say the fiddle. He loved to play the violin. And when we'd have the medical school smoker, he would come, and he would play the violin. He was a very learned man. I, I learned a lot from Dr. Cobb, having worked with him as assistant editor of "The Journal of the National Medical Association", and then having this interest I had in anatomy, I would go and talk with him. And he was just a first-rate individual and it was a, an honor for me to get to know a man like that.$$Now, maybe we should say something about what "The National Medical Association" is?$$The National Medical Association is an association founded in 1895 by black physicians because they were denied admission to the American Medical Association. And the National Medical Association still exists. And we think it exists because even though blacks can now become members of the American Medical Association, the National Medical Association still addresses some issues that affect black physicians disproportionately. And therefore, we still think there is a role for the National Medical Association, even though black physicians can become members of the American Medical Association.$I think the presidency of the American Cancer Society came first, right?$$It did. I became president of the American Cancer Society in 1978, had a year from 1978 to '79 [1979], and had a lot of wonderful trips. I went all around speaking to the different groups and chapters here, went abroad, many different places, to the Soviet Union, the Peoples Republic of China, Vietnam, Liberia. Then other places, just around--the Dominican Republic, this--speaking for the American Cancer Society. But I am a surgeon. I'm a trained surgeon. And my specialty happens to be cancer. That's why I was active in the American Cancer Society. But I'm also active as a surgeon, and I became the first black president, African American president of the American College of Surgeons. That was in 1995 -'96 [1996]. So I, I was deeply honored by that, and I went around speaking to the different chapters. Your primary role as president of the American College of Surgeons is to go around the country, speak to the different chapters with the fellows who are in the chapters, to find out what their concerns are and bring those concerns back to the national body and see what can be done on a national level to help, help address the problems they tell you about. And that's what I did, but in addition, I went to South Africa. I went to Hong Kong, I went to Canada. I went to different places, and--went to Germany. So I got an honorary fellowship from Canada, from South Africa, from Germany. So that was a, the height of my professional career as a surgeon was to be president of the American College of Surgeons. That was the height of my professional career.

Dr. Juel Pate Borders

Rev. and Dr. Juel Pate Borders was born in Chicago, Illinois, and grew up in Atlanta, Georgia. Her father, the late civil rights leader Reverend William Holmes Borders, was the pastor of Wheat Street Baptist Church in Atlanta for more than fifty years. Borders lived just a few blocks away from young Martin Luther King, Jr., who would later pattern his preaching after her father’s eloquent style.

Borders attended the Palmer Memorial Institute, a college preparatory school in Sedalia, North Carolina, established by nationally acclaimed African American educator Charlotte Hawkins Brown. In 1954, Borders earned her B.A. degree from Spelman College in Atlanta. She went on to the Medical College of Pennsylvania earning her M.D. degree in 1960, with a specialty in obstetrics and gynecology. Borders did her residency at the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and opened her own practice in Atlanta in 1965.

Borders has maintained her family tradition of social activism. In the early 1970s, for example, she served on a court appointed biracial committee charged with overseeing the process of desegregating the Atlanta Public School System. Decades later, she pursued a second career when she followed her father’s footsteps into the ministry. She earned her Masters of Divinity degree in 1992, from the Emory University Candler School of Theology. She is the assistant to the pastor for the institutional ministries at Wheat Street Baptist Church. In the 1980s, the prominent physician had a building erected to house her practice. She is a member of the Women’s Health Care Alliance, a non-profit, independent practice association composed of physicians, specializing in obstetrics & gynecology, perinatology, gynecological oncology, and reproductive endocrinology.

Borders is a widow and the mother of two children, Rev. Theodore Benson, a minister in Philadelphia, and Dr. Elinor Benson, an Atlanta obstetrician and gynecologist.

Juel Pate Borders was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 25, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.036

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/25/2004

Last Name

Borders

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Pate

Schools

Spelman College

Drexel University

Oglethorpe Elementary School

David T. Howard High School

Atlanta University Lab School

Palmer Memorial Institute

Emory University

First Name

Juel

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

BOR01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Alaska

Favorite Quote

I Am Somebody.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/26/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fruit

Short Description

Obstetrician and gynecologist Dr. Juel Pate Borders (1934 - ) was the first black female OB/GYN resident at the Albert Einstein Center Northern Division in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and is the founder of the Juel Pate Borders Corporation in Atlanta, Georgia.

Employment

Wheat Street Baptist Church

Albert Einstein Medical Center

Juel Pate Borders Professional Corporation

Morehouse College School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
0,0:3462,46:4408,70:5612,120:10600,207:19626,335:34655,459:45790,521:58104,724:58524,730:66412,760:67399,773:76327,823:99180,1093:99536,1098:122558,1305:123378,1317:129280,1360:137501,1431:157840,1610:158290,1616:177218,1785:179910,1799:188470,1847:188754,1852:189109,1859:189464,1865:189748,1870:190174,1878:191523,1904:191807,1909:199466,1995:201302,2016:201812,2022:227260,2286$0,0:66918,595:67230,600:77006,664:77638,675:80798,716:81114,721:81588,728:113536,1008:117268,1035:120148,1070:164150,1313
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Juel Pate Borders' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her father's drive to obtain an education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her father's early career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders states her maternal grandmother's names

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her first minister in her paternal family

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls the heirlooms and houses associated with her family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her childhood neighborhood of Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders reminisces about Sundays growing up in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her father's competition and reconciliation with Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s visits to her father's church

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her brother's relationship with their father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her early education at Atlanta University Laboratory School, Oglethorpe School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders remembers attending David T. Howard High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls the sights, sounds, tastes, and smells of growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes herself as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her experience at the Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders remembers Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders names some of her high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders explains how she entered Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her studies at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders remembers an incident where he father intervened in a conflict due to discrimination on a trolley in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls entering medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her experiences in medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about encountering racism from other medical colleagues

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls encountering racism during her internship and residency

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders explains why she specialized in obstetrics and gynecology

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes setting up her medical practice in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders explains how she met her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her marriage to Dr. Theodore Benson

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her children, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her children, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$4

DATitle
Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her father's competition and reconciliation with Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr.
Dr. Juel Pate Borders explains why she specialized in obstetrics and gynecology
Transcript
Now I know that you are younger than the King children, and the Dobbs children, but do you recall any interaction among your families, [Reverend Dr.] Martin Luther King, Jr.'s family, which was not very far from where you lived, their home on Auburn [Avenue, Atlanta, Georgia]? Did you ever visit their home and interact in any way?$$There was more interaction between the two ministers, Reverend William Holmes Borders, Sr. and Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr., they were rivals. The wives however, Mrs. Alberta [Williams] King and my mother, Mrs. Julia Pate Borders [Julia Elinor Pansy Pate], were the dearest of friends and they loved each other very much. And they would laugh--they would talk and laugh about the conflict their husbands would have and would hope that in time they would out grow it or come to some happy conclusion, you know, about the whole matter. And I have--on the occasion that I preached at Ebenezer [Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia], I told the congregation that at last--my mother didn't live to see it and Mrs. King didn't live to see it, but I lived to see them come together very peacefully and it was on the occasion of the death of Mrs. King. When she was shot [in 1974], of course we were all in a state of shock--the whole world was in, was in a state of shock. And I remember my father saying, "Get up, get dressed we are going to see Reverend King." That impressed me so much. He got us all together and we went to the home of Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr. He was sitting in the kitchen eating, it must have been lunch or early dinner or something and my father, who was fully dressed, came in and spoke to him and said, "These are my children." And Dr. King graciously received us and I can't remember really what they said to each other, I was just so happy that we had this peaceful union, and of course, from what I could tell from my mother and Mrs. King what they were fussing over was nothing, I mean it was just a--next to nothing, it was just two great big giants one block from each other. Both with churches, and so there you go.$$Competition--$$But, but for him to say, "Get up, get dressed, we're going to see him," and then to say to Dr. King, "These are my children," and in other words we have come in love, it was a great moment.$Why did you decide to specialize in, in obstetrics and gynecology (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) And gynecology, okay. (Pause) I wanted I thought to pursue psychiatry. Up to this point my father [William Holmes Borders] had not really interfered with the choices. Remember he turned me over to my mother [Julia Elinor Pansy Pate], but he had a long talk with me in reference to practicalities and he said, "Who's coming to see you? I mean who will be your patients? Where do they get the money--who will be able to afford psychiatric care?" Now this was in the 1960s. At that time there was less stress and I'm going to say in general the approach would be if there is a major emotional problem either you go to your family member or you go to your minister, but psychiatrists at that time (shakes head). So I listened and I thought about it and I said to myself, well what are my other options and considerations? And OB [obstetrics] was a happy specialty and gynecology would mean that there was some surgery involved and there would be patients and patients and patients. And so I got into this field indirectly. It was--in retrospect it was a good move and I have been blessed with those who have come into my care and the amount of work and sacrifice required prepared me for the ministry that I'm in.