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Donald Miller

Former business executive Donald L. Miller was born in New York on January 10, 1932, to Mamie Johnson and John H. Miller. From 1948 to 1968, Miller served in the U.S. Army, rising to the rank of major and earning the Legion of Merit award in his final year. Near retirement from the Army, Miller lived in Maryland and returned to school, receiving his B.A. from the University of Maryland in 1967.

Due to a recommendation from his mother who worked at Inmont Corporation, Miller was hired to work as a special assistant to the president in the human resources area. Miller then left Inmont to work in that same capacity at Seatrain Shipbuilding, helping recruit African American employees. Miller was then recruited to a senior ranking position as deputy assistant secretary of defense under President Richard Nixon, a position he held from December 1971 to January 1973. In 1973, Miller was honored by the Department of Defense for his work with the Distinguished Civilian Award.

From 1973 to 1978, Miller worked in academia as vice president of personnel and management at Columbia University. He then went on to hold executive positions with a number of companies, including International Paper, Con Edison and Dow Jones & Company, where he served as vice president of employee relations from 1986 until 1995. Following his retirement from Dow Jones, Miller entered the entrepreneurial and publishing world when he started Our World News as a high-level African American news publication.

Over the years, Miller has been active with a number of professional organizations, including serving on the board of directors of the Bank of New York and Schering Plough. For twenty years, he was a trustee at Pace University, and since 1981, served as director of the Jackie Robinson Foundation. Miller had been married to his wife, Gail Aileen Wallace, since 1981. They have one child, Lynn Ann, and lived in Las Vegas. Miller and his wife also founded Associated Black Charities in New York.

Donald Miller passed away on August 29, 2015.

Accession Number

A2003.214

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/17/2003

Last Name

Miller

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

University of Maryland

Harvard University

Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts

George Washington High School

First Name

Donald

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

MIL02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

You Can't Get There From Here.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/10/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken, Potato Salad

Death Date

8/29/2015

Short Description

Corporate executive and publisher Donald Miller (1932 - 2015 ) is a former executive at Dow Jones & Company. He has also served as Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense. After his retirement Miller founded Our World News, a high-level African American news publication.

Employment

United States Army

Inmont Corporation

Seatrain Shipbuilding

Department of Defense

Columbia University

International Paper

ConEdison

Dow Jones & Co.

Our World News

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Donald Miller narrates his photographs

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Donald Miller's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Donald Miller lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Donald Miller talks about his mother and her family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Donald Miller describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Donald Miller describes his childhood neighborhood in Harlem, New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Donald Miller talks about various places he lived as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Donald Miller describes the Sugar Hill neighborhood of Harlem, New York City in the 1940s

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Donald Miller talks about his mother's decision to relocate the family to the Sugar Hill neighborhood of Harlem, New York in the 1940s

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Donald Miller talks about the schools he attended in Greenwich, Connecticut and New York, New York, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Donald Miller talks about the schools he attended in Greenwich, Connecticut and New York, New York, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Donald Miller describes his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Donald Miller talks about his lack of direction and guidance as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Donald Miller talks about the origins of his U.S. Army career and Colonel Henry Minton Francis

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Donald Miller describes a chance encounter that influenced his U.S. Army career

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Donald Miller talks about the implementation of President Harry Truman's 1947 order to desegregate the U.S. military, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Donald Miller talks about the implementation of President Harry Truman's 1947 order to desegregate the U.S. military, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Donald Miller explains his decision to enroll in officers' candidate school in the early 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Donald Miller talks about the progress of people of color in the U.S. military

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Donald Miller talks about obtaining skills through successive positions in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Donald Miller recalls his U.S. Army service in Germany during the 1940s and 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Donald Miller explains his decision to retire from the U.S. Army in 1968

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Donald Miller recounts a story from early in his career as deputy assistant secretary of defense

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Donald Miller talks about the relationship between the U.S. military and U.S. presidential administrations of the mid-20th century

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Donald Miller talks about going to work for Interchemical Corporation in 1968, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Donald Miller talks about going to work for Interchemical Corporation in 1968, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Donald Miller talks about Interchemical Corporation and how the company responded to the affirmative action movement of the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Donald Miller talks about developing affirmative action proposals for Interchemical Corporation and adjusting to the practices of corporate America

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Donald Miller talks about the limited results of his affirmative action programs at Interchemical Corporation in the late 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Donald Miller talks about working as vice president of industrial relations for Seatrain Shipbuilding in New York, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Donald Miller recalls his appointment as deputy assistant secretary of defense in 1971 and other black political leaders in the Nixon administration

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Donald Miller recalls a meeting between President Richard Nixon and black political appointees

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Donald Miller talks about working at the U.S. Department of Defense as deputy assistant secretary of defense

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Donald Miller recalls encountering resistance to affirmative action programs on a European inspection tour for the U.S. Department of Defense

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Donald Miller talks about a meeting between black colonels and the secretaries of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Donald Miller explains his decision to resign as deputy assistant secretary of defense in 1973

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Donald Miller describes the circumstances surrounding his hiring as vice president for personnel management at Columbia University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Donald Miller talks about working as vice president for personnel management for Columbia University in New York, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Donald Miller details a labor dispute between Harlem Hospital and District 1199SEIU United Healthcare Workers East

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Donald Miller talks about his work at Columbia University and the culture of the institution in the 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Donald Miller talks about working at International Paper and accepting a job offer from Con Edison

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Donald Miller talks about volunteering with the Greater New York Fund

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Donald Miller talks about volunteering with Greater New York Fund and meeting his wife

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Donald Miller talks about the formation of Associated Black Charities in New York, New York

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Donald Miller talks about the funding structure of United Way and member agencies of Black Associated Charities

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Donald Miller talks about working at Con Edison in New York, New York

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Donald Miller explains how he became a member of the BNY Mellon bank in 1977

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Donald Miller talks about the responsibilities of serving on a corporate board, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Donald Miller talks about the responsibilities of serving on a corporate board, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Donald Miller talks about working at Dow Jones & Company as vice president of employee relations during the 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Donald Miller talks about proposing a black-oriented news publication to Dow Jones & Company and leaving the company in 1995

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Donald Miller talks about developing Our World News prototypes and the fate of the publication

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Donald Miller describes the aims of Our World News, his African American news publication

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Donald Miller describes how his family has influenced his career success

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Donald Miller considers the success of affirmative action programs in the American business and political sectors

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Donald Miller reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Donald Miller talks about his middle name

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Donald Miller talks about the history of blacks in the U.S. military, Associated Black Charities (ABC), and honorees of ABC

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Donald Miller describes a chance encounter that influenced his U.S. Army career
Donald Miller talks about working at the U.S. Department of Defense as deputy assistant secretary of defense
Transcript
Now, how long were you stationed in [Kitzingen] Germany?$$Just a year.$$Just a year, okay.$$Perhaps not even quite.$$Okay.$$Perhaps not quite a year.$$Okay and that was what year are we in?$$This was 1948, '49 [1949].$$Okay. And then--so, you go there at that time and then--but you're now, a new world is sort of opening up of things that you (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yes, exactly.$$You know, you had talked about wanting to--so, and what are learning about discipline and structure?$$Well, you're learning a lot of things. You know that you're in an environment in which you are expected to perform at a certain level and that your behavior has to be acceptable in ways that perhaps have heretofore not been known to you. And I was not a very adept student. I was very difficult and was always finding some little trouble to get into, not being at the right place at the right time or doing something I wasn't supposed to do, but there were tolerances that people had for reasons, again, that I don't understand, but I can recall in one instance while I was in Minton's [Henry Francis Minton] company. I was sent back to the United States on an early rotation, as they call it; and I think that they had sort of given up on me, and they had decided that maybe it would be better if I were not in the service, but when I was at Bremerhaven, Germany, waiting to board a ship to come back to the United States, I had to go through an interview process, and there was a young, white soldier who was doing the interview and he asked me a question, he said, "You know, how would you like to go back to school and become a classification and assignment specialist?" And I said, "What's that?" And he said, "It's what I'm doing now." And I said, "Yeah, that sounds like a great idea. I'd like that." And this young man, name I do not know, had such an incredibly enormous impact on my life because when I came back, instead of coming back and being discharged, I was sent off to a school, where I learned a lot about administration, and it was from there that my enlisted career began to take off. It was an epiphany without a doubt, and I mention this to you because it is so important for people to understand that turning points in one's life are not necessarily defined or determined by you but often by others who see things that you do not see or cannot see. And they are very impactful. This gentleman, whoever he is, God knows I'd love to be able to find him and say, thank you, but I can't and the only way that I can say thank you is by trying to do something like that for others that I have run across from time to time. It was a very, very interesting time. It really was.$$Now, where did you do your training then as a classif- you went to--?$$Yeah, that was at, then Camp Lee, Virginia, now Fort Lee.$$Okay.$$This was, again, in 1949. As a matter of fact, my dear and good friend, [HM] General Harry Brooks, whom I think you can interview one of these days, was there at that time as a young lieutenant. We did not know each other at that time.$So talk about what you do you know, and it's one thing working for, you know, the U.S. Army. It's another thing working for the U.S. Department of Defense.$$Absolutely.$$So what are you--and it's probably you're learning things that you, you know--$$Oh, yeah. I'm learning, I'm learning stuff like you can't believe. I mean this is an experience on an entirely different level. I mean I am now in a situation--deputy assistant secretaries carry a three star equivalent rank and I am in an entirely different world. I am being exposed to things as deputy assistant secretary that I was never exposed to when I was on active duty as a young officer, but what I learned very quickly is the following: number one again now, I'm seeing from a different prospective that the [U.S.] military at the senior most levels and the Defense Department at the senior most levels is a very political place, no pun intended. You have to understand the name of the game, the rules of the road, you got to understand the players. It's all very, very different. The politics are being played all day, every day by everyone. You learn that. You learn that what is written is not always what is practiced, and what is practiced is not always written; and this is a very interesting thing to understand. Power points are not as readily discernible because while people have rank, it's the people with the reach that have the impact, not necessarily those with the rank. We had an assignment that was very important. At the time I was there, we had to rewrite the Uniform Code of Military Justice and while this is generally a function that would accrue to the legal people, it fell to my department because I had a young man by the name of [Curtis] Curt Smothers, who was my deputy for military who had been a young captain in the [U.S.] Army, who had really challenged one of the four star generals over in Germany on some issues having to do with race relations. He was a judge in the Judge Advocate General's Corps and he challenged the general. And there was a big brouhaha and he won. He prevailed. And so he prevailed, but he had to retire or resign and [Melvin] Mel Laird who was then the secretary of defense asked him to come in and to be my deputy and it was with Curt that we rewrote the Uniform Code of Military Justice as it pertained to non-judicial punishment.

The Honorable Sandye Jean McIntyre, II

Distinguished professor and diplomat Sandye Jean McIntyre II was born in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, on September 18, 1923. He spent most of his youth in Cleveland, Ohio. McIntyre's father, Sandy John, was a professor and a minister, and his mother Gladys was a teacher. McIntyre was educated in the Cleveland public school system and received a B.A. degree in French in 1947 from Johnson C. Smith University in North Carolina. Returning to Cleveland, McIntyre attended Case Western Reserve University and earned an M.A. degree in 1948. In 1951, McIntyre was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study in France at the Université de Grenoble and the Université de Paris (the Sorbonne). He completed the requirements for a Doctorat d'Université, and was awarded “une équivalence doctorale.” McIntyre returned to Case Western Reserve University earning a Ph.D. in French in 1974. He has subsequently been a Senior Fulbright Scholar to Israel, Senegal, Mali, Gambia and Liberia.

Dr. McIntyre began his teaching career in 1948 at Morgan State University in Baltimore, where he still teaches. During the course of his career, he has been active in a number of programs promoting international education, including a 1951 appointment by his university to direct the Fulbright program. His oversight of this program at Morgan State has produced one of the highest numbers of Fulbright awards of any college or university in the United States, and definitely more than any other historically black institution of higher education.

Diplomacy has also been an important facet of McIntyre's career, including being named, in 1956, Honorary Consul of the Republic of Haiti, and, in 1970, Honorary Consul of the Republic of Senegal. McIntyre is the recipient of awards and honors from many countries, including France, which decorated him as a Knight and Officer in the prestigious “Ordre des Palmes Académques.” He was designated in 1980 as “International Consul of the Year” by the International Consular Academy.

McIntyre received numerous citations, awards and other forms of recognition for his excellence in teaching from local, national and international organizations. In 1957, he was chosen by the State Department to represent the teaching profession in the “Voice of America” worldwide broadcast as a member of the “Famous American Negro” series. The Institute of International Education gave him its 1974 “Individual Award” in recognition of distinguished service to international education and Morgan State University named an international award in his honor. McIntyre was listed by Baltimore Magazine as one of “Baltimore's Best and Brightest Brains” in 1978. He was designated in 1987 as the Maryland “Professional Employee of the Year” and received the Maryland Association for Higher Education’s “Outstanding Educator” award in 1989. He was the recipient in 1992 of the “Outstanding Leadership in the Profession” award presented by the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

A World War II Army veteran, McIntyre was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with oak leaf cluster. He was the author of more than fifty French one-act comedies and traveled in all the major countries of the world.

McIntyre passed away on October 8, 2006.

Accession Number

A2003.125

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/7/2003

Last Name

McIntyre

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Jean

Schools

Central High School

Johnson C. Smith University

Case Western Reserve University

First Name

Sandye

Birth City, State, Country

Pine Bluff

HM ID

MCI01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

Time Is Money.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/18/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Coq Au Vin

Death Date

10/8/2006

Short Description

Foreign languages professor The Honorable Sandye Jean McIntyre, II (1923 - 2006 ) taught at Morgan State for more than fifty years and served as honorary consul to Senegal.

Employment

Morgan State University

Republic of Haiti

Republic of Senegal

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1830,10:6570,120:8387,162:11863,243:16366,370:89680,1409:90604,1581:92032,1602:92536,1608:114680,2035:155432,2599:199780,3145:239510,3480:251422,3645:290930,4037$0,0:1872,44:15756,291:25434,372:25924,378:30620,443:34306,489:34792,496:35602,506:36736,523:43805,596:46071,649:57710,867:59976,919:83722,1184:85234,1213:99410,1421:109184,1550:111404,1779:131278,2014:158338,2318:171299,2456:171880,2464:173125,2491:182580,2572
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sandye McIntyre's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sandye McIntyre lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sandye McIntyre describes his mother, Gladys Means McIntyre Moore

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sandye McIntyre describes his father, Sandy McIntyre

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his father's French ancestry and his godfather, Emile Blais De Sauze

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sandye McIntyre describes his childhood interests like reading and tennis

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sandye McIntyre describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his two sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sandye McIntyre remembers influential teachers from his grade school years

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his interactions with Langston Hughes and Josephine Baker in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sandye McIntyre describes his post-graduate experience after graduating from Central High School in Cleveland, Ohio in 1940

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sandye McIntyre describes his decision to attend Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sandye McIntyre remembers learning French from his godfather, Emile Blais De Sauze, and from his professor, Monsieur Adam

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his service in the U.S. Army during World War II, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his service in the U.S. Army during World War II, pt.2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sandye McIntyre describes his decision to teach at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sandye McIntyre describes his tenure at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sandye McIntyre describes his senior year at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his experience at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Sandye McIntyre describes his Fulbright experience in France

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his own Fulbright experience and his work on the Fulbright at Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sandye McIntyre talks about Negritude and French intellectuals of African descent

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sandye McIntyre describes his reception in Europe

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sandye McIntyre talks about the Fulbright Program at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sandye McIntyre remembers meeting African American expatriates in France

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sandye McIntyre talks about Josephine Baker's career in France

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his Bronze Star Medal

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sandye McIntyre talks about people he has met and admires like Gandhi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sandye McIntyre describes his role as the director of the Fulbright Program at Morgan State University and notable alumni

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Sandye McIntyre talks about his teaching methodology

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sandye McIntyre talks about Haiti

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sandye McIntyre remembers learning about racism in Brazil

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sandye McIntyre talks about racism in the world and the impact of racism on future generations

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sandye McIntyre describes a Wolof devil mask he purchased in Dakar, Senegal

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sandye McIntyre describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sandye McIntyre reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sandye McIntyre talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sandye McIntyre narrates his photographs, pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sandye McIntyre narrates his photographs, pt.2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Sandye McIntyre talks about people he has met and admires like Gandhi
Sandye McIntyre talks about Haiti
Transcript
And this, these are things that--memories that come back to--and you say to yourself sometimes: I worked for fifty-five years. I have no money to show for it as such. I've only got fabulous memories. I've been to every major country in the world, and I've talked with heads of state and all. I've got paintings and artifacts from all over the world, but I have very little finance to show for it, you know. But I say is--what's more important, that or the memories, or the contacts you made, the people you've encountered, and I have encountered some fabulous people, not only heads of state and dignitaries, but people like cab drivers. I recall Dr. [Carleen] Leggett and I went up to see La de Falls (ph.) and we were with, with an Algerian cab driver who told us about the tremendous, the terrible treatment. That's, by the way, this is one of the things that [Albert] Camus and I had together because Camus is Algerian--considered himself a second-class citizen where France is concerned, and I consider myself as a second-class citizen here. One other thing I didn't tell you is while going to--while with the, the inspector general, I had a chance--he had a 15-minute session with Mahatma Gandhi, and I went with him. He had to leave, and I stayed there two more hours and chatted with Mahatma Gandhi for, for at least two and a half hours.$$Now what did you talk about?$$We talked about: one, segregation and South, and South Africa. Of course, he was segregated tremendously and mistreated, and I talked about how I was mistreated. And--$$Many people don't know that Gandhi was from South Africa.$$Yeah.$$They assume he was from India.$$Yeah, yeah.$$Though he was an Indian, he was a South African Indian.$$South African Indian, yes. But he, he was so--and [Reverend Dr.] Martin Luther King [Jr.] invited me to talk with him a couple of times. I think I had, I had dinner with him once. But the fact that I had met Mahatma Gandhi, who, who, who was his--you know. That was the man, you know. But I'll tell you, that was a very simple man, very simple. I recall the little, the little bittersweet tea we had, the biscuits, and the little (unclear)--and very simple life. But I think he's one of the persons I admire the most. I admire him. I admire him. I think the people I admire the most, I think my father is one of them, Mahatma Gandhi, [President Anwar] Sadat, whom I, I'd met. And Sadat, at one of the dinners I went to with him, called me his little brother because we both had nappy hair here, you know.$$Anwar Sadat.$$Anwar Sadat.$$President of Egypt.$$Yeah. Just, I--$$Did, did--$$I, I met Malcolm X when he came here. He and I debated in one of, had a little debate 'cause I was an internationalist. And I never believed in, in--I always felt that we were all brothers. That's the kind of stuff that I've always lived with my life, taught to me by my father. We were all brothers. There were many Jewish people that lived near us, and they were all considered brothers as far as my father was concerned. But I, I, I was a part of the organization, or the BLEWS (ph.) here, the blacks and Jews. I worked with them for a very long time. I haven't been able to go out in the last two or three years, but I've been very close to them. And I've always felt that people are my brothers. I, I don't know. I, I grew up with that idea, yeah. But, I was talking about Mahatma Gandhi. It's an impression that lives with you the rest of your life, you know.$$He, he--$$He was killed in 1948 I think. I thought I saw him in '46 [1946], '45 [1945] or '46, when I was with the inspector general.$$Did he have any advice about what black Americans should be?$$You know, all I can recall is our talking about philosophy in general. He, he, he knew that I had one of my majors I had done was philosophy. And we talked about philosophy and the nonviolence and what America should--blacks should do, not become violent, and that eventually there's a cycle, and you overcome with the passage of time.$All right, let me ask you about Haiti. You were a counselor--$$I was consul. I was vice-consul, then became consulate of the Republic of Haiti back in '56 [1956], '57 [1957], and of course I made many trips to Haiti. The language there is spoken by most people is Creole. There are many people in Haiti who don't speak French, but they speak Creole. The, the learned speak excellent French, because many of them go to France to get their degrees. Haiti's a country that I've, I have always admired. First because my teacher, Jean Adam, who is Haitian, because they're, they're a beautiful people, but the one of the most impoverished people, people on, on the face of the earth, very poor and--$$Can, can you speak to the importance of the history of Haiti (unclear)--(simultaneous)--$$Well, you know--$$--the black people in this hemisphere.$$Well, you know, that goes back to the time when the, the French, of course, controlled Haiti. And then there was an uprising when Toussaint Louverture and some of the other great--$$(Unclear)--from Haiti--$$Yeah--$$(Unclear)--all--$$And they, they threw the French out, basically, and they had tremendous problems in the beginning, just as they have tremendous problems now. But I became very close to, to the Haitians, to the president of Haiti and to the ambassador of Hai--in fact, before Papa Doc [Francois Duvalier] came to power. When Papa Doc came to power, I lost my, my position as honorary consul of Haiti. We, we kind of broke off relationships basically with them.$$Papa Doc was the infamous dictator of Haiti--$$He was, he was--$$--Jean-Claude [sic, Francois] Duvalier [Francois' was succeeded by his son, Jean-Claude].$$Yeah.$$Yeah.$$And of course I did not go to Haiti during that period of time. In fact, I don't think I've--let's see--no, I haven't been there since then. I, I went two or three times before then, and I was treated royally by the president and--but the people are so warm. And, and you know, the--some of the things there that I saw--I saw--I was invited--because this is rare for a non-Haitian to go to a voodoo ceremony. I've been to several voodoo ceremonies, real ones, where they were, the blood was thrown all over the chicken and everything. And I just--at first I thought this was rather primitive. Then I realized that this was a religion for most of these people based on the Catholic faith and their African legacy. So they took some of that, their African legacy, and mixed it with, with the Catholic faith and, and produced a, a kind of religion, which is voodoo.