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The Honorable Stephanie Rawlings-Blake

Political leader Stephanie Rawlings-Blake was born on March 17, 1970 in Baltimore, Maryland to Nina Rawlings and Howard Rawlings. After graduating from Western High School in Baltimore, Maryland in 1988, Rawlings-Blake received her B.A. degree in political science from Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio in 1992, and her J.D. degree from the University of Maryland School of Law in Baltimore, Maryland in 1995.

In 1990, Rawlings-Blake served on the Baltimore City Democratic State Central Committee and as a member of the Young Democrats of Maryland. In 1995, Rawlings-Blake was the youngest person ever elected to the Baltimore City Council at the age of twenty-five. She was admitted to the Maryland State bar in 1996, and the federal bar the following year. She then served as an administrative law attorney with the Baltimore City office of the Maryland Legal Aid bureau and later as a staff attorney for the Maryland Office of the Public Defender in its Southern District. In 1999, Rawlings-Blake was elected to serve as vice president of the Baltimore City Council; and, in 2007, she was elected president. In 2010, Rawlings-Blake stepped in as Mayor of Baltimore after then-Mayor Sheila Dixon resigned. The following year, Rawlings-Blake was elected Mayor of Baltimore. In 2013, she became secretary of the Democratic National Committee; and, in 2015, she was elected president of the U.S. Conference of Mayors. In 2016, Rawlings-Blake stepped down as the Mayor of Baltimore and founded SRB & Associates, a government relations firm. In 2017, she became a senior advisor of Dentons, a multi-national law firm.

Rawlings-Blake served as chair of the Baltimore City Board of Estimates and the Baltimore Metropolitan Council Board of Directors. She co-chaired the UniverCity Partnership Initiative and served as a member of the Criminal Justice Coordinating Council, the Maryland Association of Counties Legislative Committee, the Economic Alliance of Greater Baltimore, the Maryland Municipal League, the Baltimore City Board of Legislative Reference, and the Maryland African American Museum Corporation. Rawlings-Blake also served on the board of trustees for the Walters Art Museum and St. Mary’s College of Maryland, as a delegate for the Democratic Party National Convention and as secretary for the National Conference of Democratic Mayors.

Rawlings-Blake received the Shirley Chisholm Memorial Trailblazer Award from the National Congress of Black Women, Washington, D.C. Chapter in 2009. In 2010, she received the Fullwood Foundation Award of Excellence and was voted “Innovator of the Year” by The Daily Record. She was also voted among “Maryland’s Top 100 Women” by The Daily Record in 2007 and 2011. In 2012, she received the National Leadership Award in Public Service from the National Forum for Black Public Administrators. The following year, Rawlings-Blake received the ICONS We Love Award from Baltimore Black Pride, was voted among the “50 Women to Watch” by the Baltimore Sun and received the First Citizen Award from the Maryland State Senate.

Rawlings-Blake has one daughter, Sophia.

Stephanie Rawlings-Blake was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 22, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.008

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/22/2019

Last Name

Rawlings-Blake

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Occupation
Schools

Western High School

Oberlin College

University of Maryland School of Law

First Name

Stephanie

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

RAW03

Favorite Season

N/A

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris

Favorite Quote

N/A

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

3/17/1970

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Favorite Food

Cheese

Short Description

Political leader Stephanie Rawlings-Blake (1970 - ) served as the forty-ninth Mayor of Baltimore from 2010 to 2016, and was the youngest person ever elected to the Baltimore City Council, where she also served as vice president and president.

Employment

Baltimore City Council

Maryland Legal Aid Bureau

Maryland Office of the Public Defender

City of Baltimore

Dentons

Democratic National Committee

United States Conference of Mayors

SRB and Associates

Favorite Color

Pink

The Honorable Garnet Coleman

State representative Garnet Coleman was born on September 8, 1961 in Washington, D.C. to Gloria Jones Coleman and Dr. John B. Coleman. Coleman was raised in Houston, Texas, where his father worked as the chief of obstetrics and gynecology at Houston’s Riverside General Hospital. He also served as the first African American appointee to the Texas A&M University System Board of Regents in 1977. Coleman graduated from Jack Yates Senior High School in 1979, and entered Howard University in Washington, D.C. but returned to Houston, where he earned his B.A. degree in political science from the University of Saint Thomas in 1990. Coleman later completed Harvard University’s Senior Executive Program for State and Local Government.

Coleman began his political career in 1988 as a delegate to the Texas State Democratic Convention. In 1990, he served as precinct chair of his local Democratic Precinct Convention, and was elected to serve as a Texas state representative in 1991. Coleman defeated longtime civic leader Reverend Jew Don Boney, Jr. in a runoff election for the seat left vacant by the passing of Larry Q. Evans. In 1991, Coleman also founded S.M.A.R.T. Kids, a youth development and tutoring program. In 1992, Coleman served as the Harris County field director for Bill Clinton’s presidential campaign, and as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention. In addition to his service as a state representative, Coleman was elected chair of the Legislative Study Group in 2003. As chairman, Coleman advocated to preserve Texas’ top ten percent rule, which assisted historically underrepresented students by automatically admitting the Texas’ top performing high school students to Texas state universities. During President Barack Obama’s administration, Coleman served as a member of the president’s State Legislators for Health Reform. Coleman also served as CEO of Apartments for America, Inc., a non-profit affordable housing corporation.

Coleman served on the House Select Committee for Mental Health and the Public Health Committee as a senior ranking member, in addition to chairing the County Affairs Committee. He also served on the board of numerous charitable organizations including the South Central Young Mens’ Christian Association, the Ensemble Theater, the Third Ward Redevelopment Council, and the Houston Drug and Alcohol Abuse Council.
Coleman was honored with the 2005 Reintegration Award from Eli Lilly and Company for his support of public health programs.

Garnet Coleman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 2, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.139

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/2/2016

Last Name

Coleman

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

St. Stephen's Episcopal School

University of St. Thomas

River Oaks Elementary School

St. Anne Catholic School

Bellaire High School

Strake Jesuit College Preparatory

Howard University School of Business

Texas A&M University

Thurgood Marshall School of Law, Texas Southern University

Howard University

First Name

Garnet

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

COL26

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York City

Favorite Quote

Thinking Is Underrated.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

9/8/1961

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Milkshake

Short Description

State representative Garnet Coleman (1961 - ) was elected to serve Houston’s historic Third Ward in the Texas House of Representatives in 1991. He went on to serve as chair of the Legislative Study Group and County Affairs Committee, and on the Public Health Committee as well as the House Select Committee for Mental Health.

Employment

The State of Texas

Clinton-Gore Presidential Campaign

J.B.'s Entertainment Center

Frederick's Riverside Wine Bar

U.S. Congressman Mickey Leland

Small and Minority Business Resources Department

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:16150,318:16600,324:24855,481:26655,523:28080,547:46448,857:48272,891:55334,980:60828,1104:61648,1120:62058,1126:76802,1413:78721,1435:82812,1450:85878,1523:90477,1651:100040,1953:100551,1961:139200,2697:143433,2809:150259,2918:154907,3010:156484,3076:156982,3083:170922,3241:171302,3250:171834,3258:172822,3273:173126,3279:187621,3524:188351,3536:188935,3545:189592,3573:201310,3769:208146,3875:208410,3918:210192,3969:211578,3991:216860,4048$0,0:1032,29:6020,162:6364,167:10148,255:15389,275:20701,369:21033,375:22361,395:24353,421:25100,432:25432,437:27092,469:28503,494:29250,514:31574,551:41438,637:43218,652:43663,658:44909,678:51167,750:54955,801:59120,920:60225,954:64220,1023:64645,1029:65240,1039:65580,1044:66345,1055:66770,1061:71251,1073:71815,1078:80586,1220:87294,1326:87726,1334:89310,1360:93932,1440:98890,1553:105409,1642:106217,1652:106924,1660:107429,1667:108035,1675:110100,1684:111299,1689:113152,1706:115440,1712:118636,1749:119482,1760:120234,1770:127190,1908:132204,1941:135246,1974:136065,1982:136767,1989:139224,2025:140394,2038:145492,2067:145888,2072:146284,2077:155590,2265:162136,2308:162528,2319:164851,2330:165348,2338:165632,2343:167407,2381:169892,2449:170531,2460:171738,2482:172022,2487:173655,2523:175785,2567:180258,2598:182298,2637:186580,2705
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Garnet Coleman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his relation to Sally Hemings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his maternal ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about the origin of his name

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his maternal grandparents' careers

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable talks about the historically black neighborhoods of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his father's medical training

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his father's education advocacy

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his father's political activism

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his parents' early relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about the Third Ward of Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his elementary school experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about the history curriculum in Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes the activism of the National Medical Association

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about the history of African Americans in Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his early childhood influences

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers the onset of his bipolar disorder

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about the treatment of mental illness in the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers his early influences

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his early aspirations

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his courses at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his mentor at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers his godfather, Herbert O. Reid, Sr.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman describes his social activities at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers his decision to leave Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers entering the restaurant industry

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman recalls working for Congressman Mickey Leland

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers Frederick's Riverside Wine Bar in Houston, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers his airport concession business

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about his early political activities

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman recalls the death of Larry Evans

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers his first campaign for the Texas House of Representatives

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$3

DAStory

12$5

DATitle
The Honorable Garnet Coleman remembers his first campaign for the Texas House of Representatives
The Honorable Garnet Coleman talks about the history of African Americans in Texas
Transcript
So Larry Evans dies all of a sudden, and he leaves this void [in the Texas House of Representatives], you know.$$(Nods head).$$So, now how did you get involved and run for the seat?$$Well, my cousin, Terry Whitfield [ph.], was working in the AG's [attorney general] office in Austin [Texas], a good friend of mine was doing work at Huston-Tillotson [Huston-Tillotson College; Huston-Tillotson University, Austin, Texas], and I had moved up to Austin and I was just joking around a little bit. I'd gone to dinner, my other cousin, Annette Bracey, came up, and we were all having dinner and I was talking about politics and they say, "Well, shoot, you ought to run." And I was like, hm? "Yeah, yeah, you like this stuff, you ought to run." So my cousin Terry, my good friend, Anthony Haley [ph.], we all sat down at the table and went through stuff and I decided to run from Austin, I was living in Austin. And, so I called my father [John B. Coleman], I called everybody else first, then I called my father because I was expecting him to say, "No, you shouldn't," and he didn't but, again, you know, that wasn't the first person I was going to call. If I was going to do this, I was going to do it. It didn't matter whether people were involved or not.$$But your dad had been a delegate of the Democratic Party, right, in '88 [1988] and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well, he was--well, he was a--no, my father was a giver of money. He was never a delegate.$$Okay. So were you a delegate in '88 [1988]?$$I was a delegate.$$All right, so, all right. 'Cause I've got--this--my outline's confusing me a little bit.$$Okay, I--$$But you were a delegate in '88 [1988], all right. I thought they were talking about your--$$I went to the convention in '88 [1988 Democratic National Convention, Atlanta, Georgia]--$$Okay.$$--as a guest of the--$$Right.$$--Democratic Party chair here in Texas.$$Okay. And that's the convention where they nominated Michael Dukakis right?$$That's correct.$$And Lloyd Bentsen as vice president from Texas.$$That's right.$$Yeah.$$That's right.$$Okay, all right.$$And, so in '92 [1992]--I've been to every convention since '92 [1992 Democratic National Convention, New York, New York]--$$Okay.$$--as a delegate, not--I'm actually a member of the DNC [Democratic National Committee].$$Okay. But you were there in '88 [1988] as just an observer?$$Observer.$$Okay.$$And I used to go to the state conventions, if they were in Houston [Texas], as an observer so--$$Okay.$$Just go, I mean, you know, but it's because you like it. You don't go to stuff you don't like.$$But you had to run--this is 1991 when you run for the vacated seat. You run aga- you have to run against Reverend Jew Don Boney [J. Don Boney, Jr.].$$Yeah, Jew Don Boney.$$And (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) John Chase's [HistoryMaker John S. Chase] daughter, Saundria Chase [Saundria Chase Gray]. There were eleven people in the, in the race--$$Okay.$$--but the advantage of it is, it couldn't, couldn't go past sixty days. So thirty days to the special election and then thirty days to the runoff.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$All right (laughter).$$So it was, it was interesting. It was actually--I tell people all the time, there are two parts of being an elected official. One part, everybody has to do and that's run for office but that journey in itself is very valuable, win or lose, 'cause you actually get to know yourself better. I learned more about my grand- my daddy's daddy [William Coleman, Sr.] running for office, knocking on doors in Third Ward [Houston, Texas] than I ever knew. This one guy said, "Oh, oh, you Mr. Coleman's son--grandson." He said, "Yeah, I knew your grandmamma [Clara Hubbard Coleman] and I knew your granddaddy and your daddy," and he said, "Yeah, your grandfather looked like a white man" (laughter), and I just thought, well I didn't know that, maybe look like--you know, so it was just interesting to hear about my, particularly my grandparents from the people who lived in Third Ward at the same time they did.$The kind of history you were taught in school was probably, I'm guessing, was the Alamo and things like that? Like--$$Yeah, there was a lot of that.$$--like the John Wayne, Fess Parker type of history where there--$$A lot of, a lot of what we would call stereotypical Texas that identifies Texas and a lot of it was Central Texas that be--which, whichever people, you know, people, the lore is around Central Texas, not around the cane fields [sugarcane] and Brazoria County [Texas] or Brazos County [Texas], not around the cotton--cotton was talked about a lot but not who was picking it.$$Right.$$So, that's why, you know, we look at populations of black people, they're all along whatever that agricultural base was. That's why a bunch of black people in north Texas and Lubbock [Texas] and, you know, in the plains, well, how did they get up there? Well, they were picking the cotton (laughter), you know, so the same is cutting the cane and they still cut cane in, you know, and it's--it was very much that, if you think about it, that commodity, those commodities that slaves picked.$$Did you have a balance of that kind of discussion when you were growing up around--$$Yes. I caught myself, you know, I'm the same age as Barack Obama [HistoryMaker President Barack Obama], you know, which is a big deal to me. The idea of understanding what it was like by story to be in segregation. My father-in-law used to always talk about when he would drive, we as a family, we would drive back to Houston [Texas] and he said he had to get to a black city with a black hotel 'cause you couldn't stay in a white hotel. And, so I, you know, these are stories that I grew up with and that basically it was about change. There was a fear in not, in driving at night and also not being in a town where you could get a hotel and that fear continues with a lot of people to today but, so that told me there was something different, I mean, you know, I--and that kind of--those stories stayed with me, you know, stay with me now because, you know, you grow up knowing to make sure that you don't, you have either your hands on the wheel or don't go for your glove compartment, you know, we hear this all the time but it's true. And, you know, even though I lived in a black world, for the most part, except for some of my schools, I thought that that was kind of, you know, it wasn't different but we had our own intact community that was a good, good community, although it was--came from segregation, just like the NMA, the National Medical Association instead of the American Medical Association. There was some, I saw all this as, you know, with the split was in the country, and it was a split by race.

Roscoe C. Brown

Roscoe C. Brown, Jr., was born March 9,1922, in Washington, D.C. Brown was the youngest of two children, his father working as a public health specialist and his mother as a teacher. After graduating from Springfield College in 1943, Brown joined the Air Force, where he served as one of the Tuskegee Airmen. During World War II, he served as a squadron commander and received the Distinguished Flying Cross. Returning after the war in 1946, Brown attended New York University, where he earned an M.A. in 1949 and a Ph.D. in 1951.

Before Brown earned his master's degree, he worked as a social investigator with the New York City Department of Welfare and as an instructor in physical education at West Virginia State College until 1948. While working on his doctorate in 1950, he became the director of the Institute of Afro-American Affairs and a professor of education at New York University, where he remained for the next twenty-seven years. In 1977, Brown was named president of Bronx Community College, a part of the City University of New York (CUNY), and continued there until 1993. Brown served as director of the Center for Urban Education Policy at the Graduate School and University Center of CUNY.

Brown was active with a number of organizations, including more than thirty years of service to the Boys & Girls Clubs of America. He was also active with the Jackie Robinson Foundation and Libraries for the Future, among many others. Brown was also a founding member of the American College of Sports Medicine.

Active in the media, as well, Brown hosted the television program, African American Legends, and he won the 1973 Emmy Award for Distinguished Program with his weekly series Black Arts. He published numerous articles and contributed to several books, and was the recipient of numerous awards, including the New York City Treasure Centennial Honor from the Museum of the City of New York and the Humanitarian Award from the Boys & Girls Clubs of America. Brown also completed nine New York City marathons. He had four children.

Brown passed away on July 2, 2016 at age 94.

Accession Number

A2003.215

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/16/2003

Last Name

Brown

Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Springfield College

New York University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Roscoe

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

BRO15

Favorite Season

Fall

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sag Harbor in Long Island, New York

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

3/9/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Death Date

7/2/2016

Short Description

Academic administrator and tuskegee airman Roscoe C. Brown (1922 - 2016 ) was the Director of Urban Education Policy at CUNY.

Employment

New York City Department of Social Welfare

West Virginia State College

New York University

Bronx Community College, CUNY

Favorite Color

Blue, Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:726,12:6996,199:8184,218:8778,229:9768,252:31645,512:32602,526:33037,532:33385,537:36256,584:39301,632:39736,638:40084,643:46636,762:49524,816:53248,882:65152,1047:65768,1058:66076,1063:66769,1076:67077,1081:70003,1125:82301,1329:87554,1376:95240,1456:96197,1469:98285,1517:101765,1581:120744,1769:123984,1819:124308,1824:128694,1863:129064,1869:131704,1901:132052,1906:132487,1912:135302,1944:136182,1953:138294,1992:144150,2042:144950,2055:145350,2062:149940,2147$0,0:560,13:840,18:1400,28:2100,41:2380,46:2660,51:3290,62:3570,67:15982,228:16598,237:20294,334:30888,509:31240,514:33968,590:44000,728:58145,890:60770,948:61895,966:66020,1038:66470,1045:67070,1055:72838,1151:73510,1159:76120,1186:76546,1194:77043,1202:78108,1221:78463,1227:78818,1233:79244,1240:81232,1290:83480,1307
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Roscoe C. Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Roscoe C. Brown lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Roscoe C. Brown describes the class distinctions within the African American community in Washington, D.C. during the 1920s and 1930s

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his father's work in the National Negro Health Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his father's work in the National Negro Health Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Roscoe C. Brown describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his mother's activities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about the expectations for himself and his sister

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about 'Amos 'n' Andy' and other shows based on stereotypes

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Roscoe C. Brown describes his childhood neighborhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about how his childhood was structured and remembers family activities

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Roscoe C. Brown describes his family trips to the South

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Roscoe C. Brown recalls his time at Blanche K. Bruce Elementary School in Washington, D.C. and a childhood friend

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his childhood membership to the 12th Street YMCA in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Roscoe C. Brown describes his religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his father's prominence as a member of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Black Cabinet

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about attending Camp Atwater

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about summer camps attended by African Americans

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his activities at Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C. and entering Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Roscoe C. Brown describes the competitive academic environment at Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his father and other African Americans in the Black Cabinet under President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his experience at Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about black student enrollment at Oberlin College and Springfield College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about why he began playing lacrosse

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his experience in Springfield, Massachusetts during college

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about attending summer military camp

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Roscoe C. Brown remembers his post-secondary studies and his interest in merging teaching and health

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Roscoe C. Brown recalls enlisting in the U.S. Army Air Forces

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Roscoe C. Brown explains the Tuskegee Airmen's most significant contribution to World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Roscoe C. Brown remembers several missions completed by the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II, pt.1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Roscoe C. Brown remembers several missions completed by the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Roscoe C. Brown considers the source of his professional ambitions

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Roscoe C. Brown recalls being discriminated against as he applied for a job after returning home from service in World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his career trajectory after exiting the service and earning his Ph.D.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about completing his Ph.D. degree at New York University and the birth of his twin sons in 1951

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Roscoe C. Brown recalls prominent African Americans in New York and at New York University in the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about leveraging the murder of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to boost black student enrollment at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about the decrease in black professors at New York University since his time there

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about the number of black alumni from New York University as compared to those from HBCUs

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about developing curriculum on African American history

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Roscoe C. Brown recalls how he became president of Bronx Community College in New York, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Roscoe C. Brown details the history of community colleges

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about trends in higher education

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Roscoe C. Brown describes the work that needs to be done to improve higher education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about coalition politics

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his writing and describes the Negro Almanac

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Roscoe C. Brown talks about his black culture quiz and the necessity of context beyond stand-alone facts

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Roscoe C. Brown describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Roscoe C. Brown reflects upon the factors that contributed to his success

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Roscoe C. Brown reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Roscoe C. Brown reflects upon how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Roscoe C. Brown narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$2

DATitle
Roscoe C. Brown remembers several missions completed by the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II, pt.2
Roscoe C. Brown recalls being discriminated against as he applied for a job after returning home from service in World War II
Transcript
The mission that got you the notoriety, can you just describe what happen--$$The Berlin [Germany] mission that's--$$The Berlin mission, right.$$That's the longest mission of the Fifteenth [U.S.] Air Force, 1,600 miles roundtrip, from Southern Italy to Berlin and return. And it was toward the end of the war, and we were given the assignment along with several other fighter groups of escorting the B-17s over, over Berlin. And when we got close to Berlin, I was leading my squadron, and I saw some jet planes streaking up, which were about a hundred miles faster than ours. And I said to my pilots who were with me to drop your extra fuel tanks so we can get maneuverability and follow me. So I turned upside down and went down--the bombers were here--went down under the bombers with my pilots here. The jets were coming in over here, and they made a hard right turn. And I climbed up, and I got the jet just as he was about to shoot down the bomber plane. The jet blew up, and he bailed out. And my wingman faced a couple of other guys down, shot them down, and we shot down the first three jets over Berlin. And that allowed us to win the Presidential Unit Citation. That's, that's a highlight mission of the Tuskegee Airmen. Tuskegee Airmen also had some other fabulous missions. We're the only fighter group to blow up a Destroyer with fighter planes. They were coming back from a mission, and they were flying I think B-20--B-47s. And they shot at this Destroyer, and it so happened they hit the magazine, and the plane blew up, it blew it. We also had great missions to Athens. We liberated the Athens' air, airbase. We probably shot up every, every airbase in Europe, in Southern Europe. We had a tre--tremendous record. We had one ace, Lee Archer, who's my best friend today. He shot down five planes. And Clarence Lester shot down three planes. And Harry Stewart shot down three planes. And we altogether shot down 111 planes. We destroyed about 120 on the ground, and had this outstanding combat record of never having lost a bomber that we were escorting to enemy fighters. That's really what we're known for.$But what I'm also saying is that you did have your minutes of fame when you returned, right?$$They were very short because my, my favorite story is that when I got back I was going to try to fly in the airlines before I went to graduate school. And I went to Eastern Air Lines on 5th, 5th Avenue [New York, New York] and filled this application with all of my hours and so on. And as I was going out the door, I had forgotten a New York Times I had brought with me. I was looking at the want ads, and so I went back to get the Times, and the secretary, white secretary, was throwing the application in the waste basket. And her face got red, and she said, "I'm sorry, we don't hire Negroes here." So my--(unclear)--welcome back to the good old U.S.A. So you can't get too high when, you know, the rest of the world--see, you can be high inside, but you realize the mountain you still have yet to climb. And that's why I became active in the American Veterans Association [ph.], which was the, the liberal veterans organization. I became active in politics, the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], and the Henry Wallace campaign, and the, and the unions, because that's the way you bring about social change. You, you can't bring about social change just by yourself.