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The Honorable Jeh C. Johnson

Cabinet officer and lawyer Jeh C. Johnson was born on September 11, 1957 in New York City to Norma Edelin and Jeh Vincent Johnson. He graduated from Roy C. Ketcham High School in Wappingers Falls, New York in 1975. He then received his B.A. degree from Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia in 1979, and his J.D. degree from Columbia Law School in New York City in 1982.

In 1982, Johnson was hired at the law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, and later joined the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP in 1984 as an associate. From 1989 to 1991, Johnson served as an Assistant U.S. Attorney in the Southern District of New York. He subsequently became the first African American partner at Paul Weiss. In 1998, Johnson was appointed by President Bill Clinton to serve as general counsel of the U.S. Department of the Air Force until 2001, when he returned to Paul, Weiss. Johnson was later appointed by President Barack Obama to serve as general counsel for the U.S. Department of Defense in 2009. In 2012, Johnson returned to private law practice. The following year, Johnson was nominated by President Obama as Secretary of Homeland Security and served until 2017. He then rejoined the law firm of Paul Weiss as partner.

Johnson has served as chairman of the New York City Bar’s Judiciary Committee and was elected as a fellow by the American College of Trial Lawyers in 2004. He has also served as special counsel to John Kerry’s 2004 presidential campaign, on the board of directors for Lockheed Martin, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Center for a New American Security. In 2008, Johnson was a delegate for the Democratic National Convention. He has also served as a non-resident senior fellow for the Harvard Kennedy School of Business and as a trustee for Adelphi University.

In 2017, Johnson was named Cyber Security and Data Privacy Trailblazer by the National Law Journal and was honored with the Anti-Defamation League’s Gorowitz Institute Service Award. He also received the Theodore Roosevelt Leadership Award, the NYSBA Pioneer Award, John J. McCloy Award, and the Ronald Reagan Peace Through Strength Award. In 2018, Johnson was listed among Savoy magazine’s Most Influential Black Lawyers; and, in 2019, he received Columbia’s University’s Annual Black Alumni Council Heritage Award. He also has ten honorary degrees.

Jeh C. Johnson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 9, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.027

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/8/2019

4/8/2019 |and| 9/18/2019

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C

Schools

Columbia Law School

Morehouse College

P.S. 143 Louis Armstrong School

Poughkeepsie Day School

Sheafe Road Elementary School

Oak Grove Elementary School

Wappinger Falls Junior High School

Roy C. Ketcham High School

First Name

Jeh

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

JOH55

Favorite Season

Late October

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Tuscany

Favorite Quote

No Man Can Be Justly Judged Unless You Have Seen The World Through His Eyes

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/11/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Favorite Food

Veal Saltimbocca

Short Description

Cabinet officer and lawyer Jeh C. Johnson (1957 - ) was the first African American partner at Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP before serving as general counsel of the Department of the Air Force, general counsel for the Department of Defense, and U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security.

Employment

Department of Homeland Security

Department of Defense

Department of the Air Force

Southern District of New York

Sullivan & Cromwell

Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP

Favorite Color

Orange

Peter Blair Henry

Economist and academic administrator Peter Blair Henry was born on July 30, 1969 in Kingston, Jamaica to George Henry and Caroll Henry. After moving to Wilmette, Illinois with his family at age nine, Henry attended New Trier High School. He earned his B.A. degree with distinction and highest honors in economics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1991. A Rhodes Scholar, Henry graduated from Oxford University with his B.A. degree in mathematics in 1993, and went on to receive his Ph.D. degree in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1997.

Henry worked as a consultant to the Governor of The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank in 1994. The following year, he worked as a consultant to the Governor of the Bank of Jamaica. In 1997, Henry became an assistant professor of economics at the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. He was promoted to associate professor of economics with tenure in 2005, becoming the first tenured African American professor at the Graduate School of Business. He obtained a full professorship in 2007, and was named the Konosuke Matsushita Professor of International Economics in 2008. That same year, he led the external economic advisory group for then-Senator Barack Obama’s presidential campaign. After the election, Henry served on President Obama’s transition team as leader of the review of international lending agencies such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was appointed to the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships the following year. In 2010, Henry became the first African American dean, and the youngest dean, of New York University’s Leonard N. Stern School of Business. He served in the position for eight years, becoming Dean Emeritus in 2018 and continuing as William R. Berkley Professor of Economics and Finance.

In 2013, Henry released his first book, Turnaround: Third World Lessons for First World Growth. Henry also published numerous articles on international economics, including “Debt Relief,” with Serkan Arslanalp, in the Journal of Economic Perspectives (2006); “Capital Account Liberalization: Theory, Evidence, and Speculation” in the Journal of Economic Literature (2007); and “Institutions vs. Policies: A Tale of Two Islands,” with Conrad Miller, in the American Economic Review (2009). Henry was named to the Citigroup Board of Directors in 2015 and the Board of Directors of Nike in 2018. He also served on the Board of Directors of General Electric from 2016 to 2018.

In 2014, with support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Henry established the Ph.D. Excellence Initiative, a post-baccalaureate program designed to address underrepresentation in economics by mentoring exceptional students of color interested in pursuing doctoral studies in the field.

Henry and his wife, Lisa J. Nelson, have four children.

Peter Blair Henry was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 29, 2016 and January 18, 2017.

Accession Number

A2016.088

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/29/2016 |and| 1/18/2017

Last Name

Henry

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Blair

Schools

Avoca West Elementary School

Marie Murphy School

New Trier Township High School

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

University of Oxford

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

First Name

Peter

Birth City, State, Country

Kingston

HM ID

HEN07

Favorite Season

Christmas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Spain - Andalusia, Ghana

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/30/1969

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Jerk pork

Short Description

Economist and academic administrator Peter Blair Henry (1969 - ) served on President Barack Obama’s 2008 transition team, and on the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships. In 2010, he became the youngest and first African American dean of New York University’s Leonard N. Stern School of Business.

Employment

New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business

Stanford University, Graduate School of Business

Stanford University, School of Humanities and Sciences

Favorite Color

Blue

Allan Golston

Foundation executive Allan C. Golston was born in Denver, Colorado in 1967. His father was a mailman; his mother a nurse. Golston’s motivation early in life stemmed from his parents’ work ethic. Golston received his B.S. degree in accounting from the University of Colorado, and later his M.B.A. degree from Seattle University.

Upon graduation from the University of Colorado in 1989, Golston joined KPMG Peat Marwick as a senior auditor. In 1991, he moved to MIS, Inc., as director of business analysis and product development. Golston also taught as an adjunct professor at the Community College of Denver, and, in 1993, returned to his alma mater, joining the University of Colorado Hospital as its director of finance and controller. After four years at the University's hospital, Golston moved to Seattle, Washington, where he became director of finance for Swedish Health Services, the largest health provider in the Pacific Northwest.

In 2000, Golston was approached by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and joined the organization as its chief financial and administrative officer. He went on to serve as a member of the senior executive team for foundation strategy; and, for nine months in 2006, served as the interim executive director of the foundation’s Global Health division. In October of 2006, Golston was named president of the United States Program for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Golston has sat on a number of boards, including Stryker Corporation, the University of Washington Medicine, Seattle University, Charter School Growth Fund, MOM Brands, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), New Futures, the Artist Trust, Make-A-Wish Foundation of Alaska and Washington, Philanthropy Northwest, and the Public Library of Science. He has served as a resource council member for both the Rainier Scholars program and the Robert Woods Johnson Commission to Build a Healthier America, on the advisory committee for the Northwest African American Museum in Seattle, and on the Resource Council for the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C. In addition, Golston was a member of the 2011 class of Henry Crown Fellows at the Aspen Institute and was named to Puget Sound Business Journal’s 40 Under 40 in 2003.

Allan Golston was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 3, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.242

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/3/2014 |and| 11/24/2014

Last Name

Golston

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Charles

Schools

Stedman Elementary School

Washington Park Elementary

Montclair Elementary School

Kunsmiller Middle School

Place Middle School

George Washington High School

University of Colorado Boulder

Seattle University

First Name

Allan

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

GOL03

State

Colorado

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Birth Date

1/7/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

United States

Short Description

Foundation executive Allan Golston (1967 - ) was president of the United States Program for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Employment

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Swedish Health System

University of Colorado Hospital

MIS, Inc.

KPMG

Community College of Denver

Darren Walker

Non-profit executive and foundation president Darren Walker was born in Lafayette, Louisiana in 1959, and raised in Ames and Goose Creek, Texas. He graduated from The University of Texas at Austin in 1982, and received his J.D. degree from the University of Texas School of Law in 1986.

Walker was hired at the international law firm of Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton in 1986. In 1988, he joined the Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS), where he spent seven years in the capital markets division. He left UBS in 1995 and worked for a year as a full-time volunteer at The Children’s Storefront, an elementary school serving low-income families in Harlem. Walker then entered the nonprofit sector as chief operating officer for the Abyssinian Development Corporation, a community development organization in Harlem, where he guided efforts to develop housing for low and moderate-income families. In this capacity, he oversaw two of Harlem's largest privately financed commercial projects as well as the development of the first public school built in New York City by a community organization.

Walker was hired by the Rockefeller Foundation in 2002 as director of its domestic urban program. In 2006, he was promoted to vice president for foundation initiatives, where he led both domestic and global programs. Then, in 2010, Walker was named the Ford Foundation’s vice president for Education, Creativity and Free Expression, where he shaped more than $140 million in annual grant-making around the world. Walker was appointed the tenth president of the Ford Foundation in September of 2013, becoming the second African American to head the foundation.

He has served on the boards of the Arcus Foundation, Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors, the National Low Income Housing Coalition, Friends of the High Line, the New York City Ballet, and the Foundation for Art and Preservation in Embassies. He also co-chaired the New York Public Library Council. In addition, Walker has taught housing, law and urban development at the New York University School of Law and Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, and is a fellow of the Institute for Urban Design. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and has received the University of Texas Distinguished Alumni Award as well as the Honorary Order of the Coif by its law school. He is the recipient of honorary degrees from Bard College and Miami Dade College.

Walker lives in Manhattan, New York with his partner, David Beitzel, a contemporary art dealer.

Darren Walker was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 26, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.170

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/26/2014

Last Name

Walker

Maker Category
Marital Status

Domestic Partner

Middle Name

C.

Schools

University of Texas at Austin

University of Texas at Austin School of Law

Sterling H S

Cedar Bayou J H

First Name

Darren

Birth City, State, Country

Lafayette

HM ID

WAL22

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Carribean

Favorite Quote

You Know What I Mean

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/28/1959

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Nonprofit executive and foundation president Darren Walker (1959 - ) was named tenth president of the Ford Foundation in 2013. He previously served as COO of the Abyssinian Development Corporation in Harlem, and as vice president for the Rockefeller Foundation’s program initiatives.

Employment

Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton

Union Bank of Switzerland

Abyssinian Development Corporation

Rockefeller Foundation

Ford Foundation

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Darren Walker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Darren Walker lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Darren Walker talks about his mother, Beulah Davis Spencer

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Darren Walker describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Darren Walker recounts his childhood years in Ames, Texas and Baytown, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Darren Walker describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Darren Walker talks about family life and his personality as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Darren Walker describes his active childhood imagination

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Darren Walker recounts role models he read about in Ebony and Jet magazines

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Darren Walker talks about the role of church in his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Darren Walker describes his awareness of the Civil Rights Movement as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Darren Walker recalls his childhood education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Darren Walker remembers his grade school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Darren Walker remembers his experience at Sterling High School in Baytown, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Darren Walker talks about his experience at the University of Texas at Austin, and coming to terms with his sexual identity

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Darren Walker talks about his activities in the Texas Student Union and the Friar Society at the University of Texas at Austin

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Darren Walker recalls his first experience at a country club with a college suite mate

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Darren Walker describes his mentors from college who inspired him to go to law school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Darren Walker recalls his job in the office of Texas Governor Bill Clements prior to law school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Darren Walker talks about his summer internship at Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton in New York City while a student at the University of Texas School of Law

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Darren Walker describes his first years at the law firm of Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Darren Walker talks about his experience at Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, pt.1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Darren Walker talks about his experience at Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, pt.2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Darren Walker recalls his introduction to Ned O'Gorman and then to HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Calvin Butts

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Darren Walker describes New York City in the 1980s and 1990s

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Darren Walker talks about his tenure at UBS

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Darren Walker talks about how he became a board member of the New York City Ballet and of the Children's Storefront School

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Darren Walker describes how his social and civic engagement benefited from his position at UBS

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Darren Walker talks about leaving Wall Street and joining the Abyssinian Development Corporation

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Darren Walker talks about becoming the COO of the Abyssinian Development Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Darren Walker talks about his work in the Abyssinian Development Corporation with Karen Phillips and HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Calvin Butts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Darren Walker recalls the recommendation from HistoryMaker Stacey Stewart that led him to his joining the Rockefeller Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Darren Walker describes his appointment as director of the domestic urban program at the Rockefeller Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Darren Walker talks about his ascent from program director to vice president at the Rockefeller Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Darren Walker talks about his mentors and supporters including Johnnetta Cole, Ann Fudge, Franklin Thomas, and HistoryMakers Richard Parsons and Vernon Jordan

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Darren Walker talks about African American foundation presidents Franklin Thomas, Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, and HistoryMakers Earl Lewis and La June Montgomery Tabron

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Darren Walker talks about Franklin Thomas, the first African American president of the Ford Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Darren Walker describes the impact of President Bill Clinton's move to Harlem, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Darren Walker talks about his tenure at the Rockefeller Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Darren Walker talks about the Ford Foundation's focus on social justice

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Darren Walker describes how he became the president of the Ford Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Darren Walker talks about the Ford Foundation's budget and challenges

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Darren Walker describes how he has been a beneficiary of the Ford Foundation's legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Darren Walker describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Darren Walker reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$1

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Darren Walker talks about his work in the Abyssinian Development Corporation with Karen Phillips and HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Calvin Butts
Darren Walker recounts his childhood years in Ames, Texas and Baytown, Texas
Transcript
Okay, so, so, can you talk about Pathmark?$$Sure, the Pathmark was important because, in spite of the fact that Harlem [New York] had more people than Atlanta [Georgia], there was no supermarket in Central Harlem. And we had been, we, meaning the Abyssinian Development Corporation, along with partners on the east side of Harlem, had been advocating for a site on 125th Street to become the site of a, of a, of a supermarket. And after a long arduous, formidable campaign, we were able to get control of the land, the city-owned land, and to attract national supermarket chain Pathmark. And it was transformative. It was a moment that signaled that development was going to take hold on 125th Street, and that we were going to seed all across 125th Street new, new development. Which today, of course, 125th Street abounds in development, but in 1995, there were not many people willing to take a risk on 125th Street.$$When you think about that, that's just about twenty years, less than twenty years.$$Absolutely, less than twenty years.$$And then the other, 'cause I hear there's Whole Foods getting ready to go there.$$Oh, Whole Foods, now it's, it was a tipping point. It, it just needed that tipping point, and once that, then Starbucks, then and it just fed on its own.$$So what, what did it take to get that done? You said after much--and then I'm also thinking you had not grown up in the church and here you are--$$Well, two things: one, I was not a member of Abyssinian Baptist Church, in part, because I felt it was important that I not buy into this idea that my minister is the head of the business that I am in, in charge with running, because there were some behaviors on the part of some church members who worked for the development corporation that I didn't think reflected the kind of independent thought that was needed. And, and it allowed me to have a relationship with [HM] Reverend [Dr. Calvin] Butts that was based more on the business of the development that he wanted to achieve than it was as my spiritual leader. And it's just, it's just important to, to, to know how different the context in Harlem in the '90s [1990s] was than it is today, and that a significant part of that transformation is due to Calvin Butts's vision and Karen Phillips' very hard work and a lot of, a lot of hard work, because not everyone believed in that vision.$$Now were there conflicts between the three of you?$$Oh yes, always, in the best way for all the right reasons. Are we moving fast enough? Are we moving too fast? Are we being too aggressive with city hall? Should we be more aggressive with the bank? Should we work harder on, on the blocks to get the residents to clean up their stoops? I mean there was always these tensions. Are we spending too much money? Are we spending too little money? Always though carried out constructively and with just the right spirit.$$So how much--so where is the funding coming from? How much is coming from the government? How much are you set to raise and--$$Sure, a third, a third, a third, a third government, a third corporate, a third private.$$Okay.$So, your--when you moved, do you remember when you move also to Houston [Texas]?$$Well, so, when we left at, when I was four, and we moved to, to Ames, Texas--$$Ames, Texas, which is--$$We moved to Ames, Texas. I was four, and I remember that, that time, I think, which, which was around the time I was riding--because we moved into this little shotgun house.$$Oh, so this story that you just told is in Ames?$$Is in Ames, yes, yes. I have no memory of, of, of--$$Rayne [Louisiana].$$--Louisiana, of Rayne. I have no memory whatsoever before we moved. My first memory as a child was of, was of being in Rayne.$$Okay.$$I'm sorry, being in Ames.$$Ames. So in Ames, so are you--is it also rural too?$$Yes, in Ames, Ames is a, was a small town, is a small town, was a small town of approximately maybe three or four thousand people when I was growing up. The next town was Liberty, Texas. And Liberty, Texas, maybe in 1965 had 25,000 people, 50,000 today maybe. So, this was the setting for my early years. I also remember when I was in Head Start, and I read--I was very interested in reading, my mother encouraged me to read, and we had a book called "Wings to Adventure." And I remember that the book was in, it, it was about fantasy and travel. And I remember thinking that it, it was otherworldly, because it was so out of my lived experience, but it so sparked my imagination. And it was the first time I thought about travel and a world outside of my own.$$That book?$$Mm.$$Now, can you describe--so are you living in the shotgun house in Ames a long time, or do you move around?$$So, I live in that, we live in that little house until--I then, when I'm, when I'm in the--we moved to Baytown [Texas], to Goose Creek, whatever you want to you--(unclear)--when I was in the maybe third grade, and, and that's where I lived from then until graduating from high school.$$So, what is that area like? What was the difference in those two places?$$Well, moving to, to Baytown/Goose Creek was closer to Houston [Texas], so that was good. We lived, then it, it was about forty-five minutes to an hour outside of Houston. And it was, still a small town, but because of the proximity to Houston, there was--and the fact that there were just more jobs there because there was a very large Humble Oil refinery, so the economic situation there was much better than it was in the small town of, the very small town of Ames.$$Okay.$$And it was racially very segregated. I remember that the schools were transitioning and had recently transition to integration, and that the colored, the Negro high school, which was called George Washington Carver, had become a junior high school in the newly integrated district, and that the African American students from George Washington Carver were then transferred to Robert E. Lee High School. And there was another school called Ross S. Sterling, and I ultimately went to high school at Ross S. Sterling High School. Ross S. Sterling was a governor of, of Texas.

Frank Savage

Investment banker Frank Savage was born on July 10, 1938 in Rocky Mount, North Carolina to Grace Savage and Frank Savage, Sr. When Savage was six months old, his mother and his twin sister, Frances, moved to Washington, D.C., where Savage’s mother opened up a beauty salon. In 1961, Savage earned his B.A. degree from Howard University, and in 1964, he received his M.A. degree in international relations from Johns Hopkins University.

In 1962, Savage joined Crossroads Africa where he was assigned, along with two hundred and fifty other students, to build tennis courts at an all-boys school in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Upon earning his M.A. degree in 1964, Savage joined Citibank, as the first African American in its international division, and worked in the Middle East and Africa. In 1970, Savage joined Equitable Life Insurance as president of Equico Capital Corp., the largest Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Corporation in the United States. In 1973, Savage joined TAW International Leasing as executive vice president. He then went on to become vice chairman of the board and head of international operations for Equitable Capital Management Corporation; and, in 1987, he was named senior vice president of The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States (now the AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company). In 1992, Savage became chairman of Equitable Capital Management Corporation, where he spearheaded the firm’s global investment management business. Following the merger of Equitable Capital Management Corporation and Alliance Capital Management International in 1993, he served as chairman emeritus of Alliance Capital.

In 1998, Savage became a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and in 2001, he resigned from Alliance Capital to form the Africa Millennium Fund. After the events of September 11, 2001, Savage delayed his plans for the Africa Millennium Fund and started Savage Holdings, where he serves as CEO.

Savage is chairman emeritus of the SAIS advisory board and of Howard University’s board of trustees. He has also served on the boards of Bloomberg LP, New York Academy of Medicine, Lockheed Martin, Qualcomm, and the New York Philharmonic. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters from Hofstra University and an Honorary Doctorate of Humanities from Howard University. In addition, Savage won the Lord Nelson Trophy as part of the 2003 Antigua Race Week Regatta, the premier sailing event in the Caribbean.

Savage is married to Lolita Valderrama Savage. They have six children.

Frank Savage was interviewed The HistoryMakers on May 5, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.122

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/5/2014 |and| 5/7/2014

Last Name

Savage

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Thomas P. Morgan Elementary School

Benjamin Banneker Academic High School

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies

Howard University

First Name

Frank

Birth City, State, Country

Rocky Mount

HM ID

SAV02

State

North Carolina

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/10/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Short Description

Investment banker Frank Savage (1938 - ) was CEO of Savage Holdings. He held leadership roles at Equico Capital Corp, TAW International, Equitable Capital Management Corporation, AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company, and Alliance Capital Management International. In addition, he was the first African American to work in Citibank’s international division.

Employment

Citibank

Equico Capital

TAW International

Equitable Life Assur. Co.

Equitable Capital Management

Alliance Capital Mgmt Intl.

Savage Holdings LLC

Richard Hope

Educator and sociologist Richard Oliver Hope was born on April 1, 1939 in Atlanta, Georgia. He graduated from Pearl High School in Nashville, Tennessee and received his B.A. degree from Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia in 1961. Hope went on to receive his M.A. degree and his Ph.D. degree in sociology from the Maxwell School at Syracuse University in 1964 and 1969, respectively.

Upon graduation, Hope was hired as an assistant professor of sociology at Brooklyn College, where he worked until 1972. He also became a research associate at the metropolitan applied research center in New York. From 1972 to 1974, Hope served as the first director of research and evaluation for the Defense Race Relations Institute (now DEOMI), where he was responsible for the creation, administration, and development of human relations research for early curriculum materials, and analyses of worldwide intergroup relations in the U.S. military. In 1974, Hope was hired as full professor and chair of sociology, as well as director of the National Science Foundation Project at Morgan State University. In 1982, he became chair of sociology and the coordinator of the Liberal Arts Workshop for the Lilly Foundation in Indiana. At that time, he created the Center for International Studies and served as its first director. In 1988, Hope accepted a position at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he served as executive director of the Quality Education Project in conjunction with the Carnegie Corporation. In 1990, Hope was hired at Princeton University as full professor of sociology and senior vice president of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation (WWNFF). While at the WWNFF, Hope developed the Public Policy Partnership Program in South Africa and the Pickering Foreign Affairs Fellowship Program. He also directed the Public Policy and International Affairs Fellowships, the Mellon-Mays Undergraduate Fellows Dissertation and Travel/Research Grants, and the Career Enhancement Fellowship. Hope was then named president of the 1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc.

Hope has served on several public policy boards. He was a member of the board of directors of the National Urban League and Princeton University’s Center on African American Studies. Hope has also been elected to the Council on Foreign Relations and has served as an advisory panel member of The Brookings Institution.

Hope published numerous articles and books, including Racial Strife in the United States Military: Toward the Elimination of Discrimination, African-Americans and the Doctoral Experience: Implications for Policy, and Educating a New Majority: Transforming America's Educational System for Diversity. He has been the recipient for many awards for his work as well. Hope is the recipient of the Mellon-Mays Achievement Award for Leadership, the Gandhi-King-Ikeda International Peace Award, and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Award for Leadership in the Advancement of Minorities in International and Diplomatic Service.

Hope and his wife, Alice Anderson, live in Chicago, Illinois. They have two children: Leah and Richard, Jr.

Richard Hope was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 18, 2014 and July 16, 2017.

Accession Number

A2014.016

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/18/2014 |and| 07/16/2017

Last Name

Hope

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Oliver

Occupation
Schools

Pearl-Cohn Entertainment Magnet High School

Morehouse College

Syracuse University

First Name

Richard

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

HOP04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Springs

Favorite Quote

I have a dream

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

4/1/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Educator and sociologist Richard Hope (1939 - ) , president of the 1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc., has served as a professor of sociology at Princeton University and senior vice president of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

Employment

Brooklyn College

Metropolitan Applied Research Center

Defense Race Relations Institute (DEOMI)

Morgan State University

Lilly Foundation

Center for International Studies

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Princeton University

1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr.

African American Studies scholar Henry Louis Gates Jr. was born in Keyser, West Virginia on September 16, 1950, the son of Henry Louis Gates Sr. and Pauline Augusta Coleman. Gates first enrolled in college at Potomac State College in 1968, before transferring to Yale University in 1969. In 1970, he received a fellowship from Yale that would allow him to work and travel in Africa. Gates graduated from Yale in 1973, receiving his B.A. degree in History. Gates was also honored in 1973 with an Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Award. The first such grant to be given to an African American, the award allowed Gates to study at the University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom. At Cambridge, Gates enrolled in the Clare College, and studied English Literature. Gates was able to work with scholars such as Wole Soyinka, the first native of Africa to win a Pulitzer Prize, British Labor scholar Raymond Williams and literary critic George Steiner. While he returned to the United States in 1975, Gates continued his studies, and received PhD. in English Language and Literature from the University of Cambridge in 1979.

Gates enrolled at Yale Law School in 1975, but left after a month. He stayed at the New Haven, CT. institution, becoming a secretary at with the University’s unit of African American Studies. In 1976, Gates was appointed as a lecturer in English and African American Studies, and named Director of Undergraduate Studies. Gates was made an Assistant Professor at Yale in 1979, and stayed at the University until 1985 While at Cornell University, where he served as a Professsor of English, Literature and Africana Studies from 1985 to 1990, Gates groundbreaking text Signifying Monkey A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism, was released. A 1989 American Book Award winner, the work extended the application of the concept of “signifyin(g)” to analysis of African American works and thus rooted African-American literary criticism in the African American vernacular tradition. The work gained Gates critical acclaim nationally, and he quickly translated his success into a more mainstream career as a “public intellectual,” writing pieces on race and other issues for publications like the New York Times, The New Yorker, The Nation and The New Republic.

After a short stay at Duke University from 1989 to 1991, Gates moved onto Harvard University, where he became a Professor and Director of the W.E.B. DuBois Institute for African and African American Research, a position he still holds today. Gates was also the co-founder of TheRoot.com, an online magazine, and editor of the Oxford African American Studies Center.

Accession Number

A2013.006

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/29/2013

Last Name

Gates

Maker Category
Middle Name

Louis "Skip"

Occupation
Schools

Yale University

The University of Cambridge

First Name

Henry

Birth City, State, Country

Keyser

HM ID

GAT03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

West Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

What You Talkin' About?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

9/16/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Meat Sauce

Short Description

English professor Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. (1950 - ) extended the application of the concept of “signifyin(g)” to analysis of African American works and thus rooted African American literary criticism in the African American vernacular tradition. The work gained Gates critical acclaim nationally, and he quickly translated his success into a more mainstream career as a “public intellectual,”

Employment

Harvard University

Cornell University

Duke University

Yale University

Root.com

Oxford African American Studies Center

Favorite Color

Navy Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. talks about African American genetic research

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. recalls his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. talks about The HistoryMakers Digital Archive

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$1

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. describes his mother's family background, pt. 1
Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. recalls his family background
Transcript
So I'm going to ask about your family history. I'm going to ask about your mother's side of the family and your father's [Henry Louis Gates, Sr.], but we'll start with your mother's side.$$Okay.$$Can you give us your mother's full name and spell it for us?$$Pauline Augusta Coleman Gates [Pauline Coleman Gates], Pauline Augusta, is standard, Coleman, C-O-L-E-M-A-N.$$Okay, and what is her date of birth and place of birth?$$September 17th, 1916 and she was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.$$All right. Now, what can you tell us about your mother's side of the family? How far back can you trace them and what are the stories from that side?$$Oh, I can trace my family on both sides back to my fourth great-grandparents. So, my mother's third great-grandfather was John Redman, he's my fourth great-grandfather, and John Redman mustered into the Patriot army, the Continental Army, on Christmas Day, 1778 in Winchester, Virginia, and was mustered out in April, 18--April, 1784, and he got a pension from the United States government for his service. He was a free Negro and because of that, my brother, Paul [Paul Gates], and I are members of the Sons of the American Revolution.$$Okay.$$He died about 1819, I think. On the same side, we can identify two sets of fourth great-grandparents. They happened to have lived in the same county, Hardy County, Virginia, which is now West Virginia. Isaac Clifford is my fourth great-grandfather. He, too, was a free Negro. He--we have an interesting paper trail on him because--both of these men were born about 1760, we guess, because a white man named Riley [sic. James Ryan], who lived down the road from Isaac Clifford, captured him and tried to make him a slave on his farm and Isaac actually sued for his freedom and half a dozen white men testified on his behalf in the court case in seventeen seventy- 1795 and 1796, and he was freed for wrongful imprisonment, which is a legal term for, when a free person, among other things, when a free person is, someone tries to impress them back into slavery. So we have a very extensive paper trail. My family owned property, they were free on that line from the middle of the 18th century. They owned property. Some of the property my family, my cousins still own, and they never moved. You know, these are ancestors who were born 250 years ago and they lived thirty miles from where I was born and this, I was born in the Alleghany Mountains of, in the Potomac River basin, halfway about, between Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania] and Washington [D.C.].$$I'm sorry. Now, for some reason in the haste of this, I forgot to ask you your date of birth and place of birth.$$September 16th, 1950, Keyser, West Virginia.$$Okay.$$And, so when the world's best genealogist in my family tree, the people who do the family trees, my guess on finding your roots, I was astonished. I mean, I was floored. We knew a lot about the, the Gates side of the family, but nothing, really, about either side of the family. Not, considering the irony that all these records were in two courthouses thirty miles from where I was born, it's amazing. So American history and Gates family history, in my mother's case, Coleman family history, were inextricably intertwined, through paper.$$So do you think if you had not been Henry Louis Gates [HistoryMaker Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr.] looking for this, would you, you think there--would have been likely that you would have found any of this information?$$Oh, since the revolution in the digitization of records, anyone would have found it now but we found it when I was doing my first PBS [Public Broadcasting Service] series on genealogy and genetics ['African American Lives'] and that was, we were doing the research in 2005. One genealogist, Johni Cerny, found three sets of my third great-grandparents and then a fourth genealogist, going into the archives in, the local archives in Hardy Co- excuse me, a fourth genealogist named Jane Ailes [Jane E. Ailes], going into the archives in Hardy County, Virginia, found the next layer but there is a detailed paper trail. No one had really looked before until digitization. Now we can do it in seconds, what it would take months and months even years to do and a lot of money, someone with a lot of leisure time and great patience, looking page by page, record by record, my god, and now you just go to the computer, type in a name, and your ancestors pop up on the ancestry.com database.$So moving forward through the Civil War period, what were your ancestors doing on your mother's side? Can you give, do you have any idea?$$Well, on my, those two sets (cough), those two sets of fourth great-grandparents on my mother's side, we can also identify one set on my father's side, my father's mother's side, and that was Joe [Joseph Bruce] and Sarah Bruce. They're my fourth great-grandparents, and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Okay, I'm trying not to get them mixed up, these two sides mixed up.$$Yeah, the first sides, the Redmans, the Redmans and the Cliffords are my fourth great-grandparents on my mother's side. My mother was, again, Pauline Coleman [Pauline Coleman Gates]. On my, but her mother [Margaret Howard Coleman] was a Redman, and her grandmother [Lucy Clifford Howard] was a Clifford, so you could see how it works. On my father's side (yawns), I need an espresso, on my father's side, it's four o'clock, man, I've got to get that caffeine sugar thing, on my father's side, through his mother who was a Redman, she's descended from the Bruces. Joe and Sarah Bruce are my fourth great-grandparents. We actually have the will, we actually know who owned them. They were slaves owned by Abraham Van Meter and in his will in 1823, he freed them and, one of their children, and then promised to free the other children upon the death of his wife, Elizabeth [Elizabeth Van Meter]. She died in 1836 and all of them were freed. So, again, we have a tremendous paper trail and they all lived near each other. All these people knew each other and their descendants. They all lived in the same county [Hardy County, Virginia; Hardy County, West Virginia] and there was a handful of black people up there in these hollers with all these white people and I'm a Redman on both my mother's side and my father's side (laughter), 'cause there's so few black people there. On the Civil War, several members of my family fought in the United States Colored Troops. My [maternal] grandmother's uncle, J.R. Clifford [John Robert Clifford], was the first black lawyer in the State of West Virginia and he's on a stamp, United States postal stamp, in the pioneers of the Civil Rights Movement series. He was a member of the Niagara Movement with Du Bois [W.E.B. Du Bois] and, in fact, was the host of the 1906 meeting at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Harpers Ferry is about two hours, I guess, east of my hometown [Keyser, West Virginia]. So--$$So, so was he connected to Storer College [Harpers Ferry, West Virginia] there?$$Oh, yeah.$$Okay.$$Everybody was around there, but he had a law practice and he had his own newspaper. He was a newspaper editor and publisher, it was called, the Pioneer Press. These are my genes, man, that's where I come from.$$Okay, there are writers and, Pioneer Press, okay. So, okay, so moving forward to your grandparents, I guess. What were they doing?$$My paternal grandparents--$$No maternal.$$My maternal grandparents, my grandfather died in 1945. He was a janitor, a laborer, not a jani- he was a laborer at the Westvaco paper company [West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company; Westvaco Corporation]. His name was Paul Coleman and my grandmother was a housewife, she had twelve children. On my father's side, his father [Edward St. Lawrence Gates] was, had his own business, and his grandfather [Edward Gates] did. They had a chimney sweep business and a janitorial business and he, my grandfather was the janitor at the First National Bank [First National Bank and Trust Company of Western Maryland] in Cumberland, Maryland, and my grandmother, Gertrude Helen Redman [Gertrude Helen Redman Gates], was a housewife.$$Well your father's name is the same as yours except a senior [Henry Louis Gates, Sr.], right?$$Um-hm.$$And what was your father's date of birth and place of birth?$$My father was born June the 8th, 1913 in Patterson Creek, West Virginia.$$And that's close by?$$It's all there (laughter), in that same thirty miles.$$All right, all right. Now did, can you go back as far on your father's side as you--$$I already did, remember through my father's mother's side.$$Oh, okay, all right.$$Yeah, and my father's father's side, we could go back to Jane Gates, who was a slave, who was born in 1819. This is the only side that we can trace on my family tree where the person was not freed before the end of the Civil War. Jane's children were all fathered by the same man, she said, that's what she told her children. Her children all looked white and according to the DNA analysis, he was an Irishman because I have the O'Neill haplotype, my Y DNA, and it comes from, well, it's very common in Ireland. About 10 percent of all the men in Dublin [Ireland] have the same Y DNA signature.

Kenneth C. Frazier

Pharmaceutical executive, lawyer, and corporate general counsel Kenneth C. Frazier was born on December 17, 1954 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to janitor and former sharecropper Otis Tindley Frazier and homemaker Clara Elizabeth Frazier. The second of three children, Frazier grew up in the deeply impoverished neighborhood of North Philadelphia. Frazier’s parents strongly encouraged education and hard work, ensuring that each of their children knew what it took to succeed. In 1966, when Frazier was twelve, his mother passed away, leaving Otis Frazier to raise three children alone. Frazier graduated from Northeast High School in Philadelphia before attending Pennsylvania State University. Upon completing his B.A. degree in 1975 with highest honors, Frazier enrolled at Harvard Law School, receiving his J.D. degree in 1978.

For the next fourteen years, Frazier worked as a lawyer and, eventually, partner at the Philadelphia law firm of Drinker, Biddle, & Reath. There he represented many corporate clients, including AlliedSignal and Merck & Co., Inc. However, the case which brought Frazier the most praise during this time was the pro bono work he contributed to freeing the innocent Willie “Bo” Cochran after twenty-one years on death row. Frazier accepted a position at Merck & Co., Inc in 1992. Frazier has served in various capacities at Merck, including general counsel, secretary, and vice president. During his tenure as general counsel, Frazier achieved great success in leading the company through more than 5,000 lawsuits regarding the alleged harmful effects of Vioxx.

In 2007, Frazier accepted the role of president of Merck & Co., Inc, and was given the additional roles of CEO and chairman in 2011, making him the first African American to serve as CEO of a major pharmaceutical company. Frazier has served on the boards of several organizations, such as Exxon Mobil, Penn State University, and Cornerstone Christian Academy, a private charter school serving at-risk youth in Philadelphia, which he also co-founded. Due to his professional success and his position on the board of trustees, Frazier was selected to lead the investigation of the allegations against former Penn State assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky and university officials. Frazier has received numerous awards, including the 2001 Penn State Alumni Fellow Award, the Association of Corporate Counsel’s 2004 Excellence in Corporate Practice Award, and the Equal Justice Initiative’s 2009 Equal Justice Champion award.

Frazier lives in Pennsylvania with his wife, Andréa, and their son, James. Their daughter, Lauren, is an engineer.

Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 2, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.124

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/2/2012

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

M Hall Stanton Elementary School

Northeast High School

Pennsylvania State University

Harvard Law School

First Name

Kenneth

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

FRA09

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

You Can Be Anything You Want To Be.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

12/17/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Whitehouse Station

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Pharmaceutical executive, lawyer, and corporate general counsel Kenneth C. Frazier (1954 - ) was the first African American to serve as CEO of a major pharmaceutical company and was known for his success in corporate law.

Employment

Merck & Co.

Astra Merck Group

Drinker Biddle & Reath

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:693,8:945,13:1575,29:1827,34:2079,39:3087,62:3339,67:3969,108:4473,117:4725,122:5544,163:5922,170:6363,178:6615,183:7119,195:7686,205:7938,210:8505,221:8757,226:9387,236:10017,248:10899,263:11277,270:11970,283:12222,288:12978,306:13293,312:13986,324:14616,337:15183,348:15435,353:19810,367:20330,377:21175,396:22345,418:22605,423:23125,433:23385,438:23840,446:25530,484:25920,491:26570,503:27480,518:30015,590:30535,606:31120,616:31380,621:32680,651:33200,660:33525,666:33980,675:37380,681:38069,699:38440,707:38811,717:39129,740:39447,747:41264,760:41588,765:42236,778:42722,786:43451,812:45233,855:45638,861:46448,873:48149,907:48716,915:49850,948:50579,979:51065,987:52523,1033:59252,1096:62191,1122:62419,1127:62932,1138:64450,1145:64996,1155:65386,1161:65698,1166:66244,1175:67180,1190:70680,1238:71460,1252:73890,1278:75058,1303:75569,1312:76226,1322:76956,1336:78343,1364:79292,1380:82010,1403:83816,1415:84254,1426:84546,1431:85714,1451:86298,1465:86736,1472:87904,1507:89437,1540:89875,1547:90167,1552:90459,1557:94160,1598:95000,1610:102118,1665:102454,1673:103014,1685:105529,1704:106376,1717:107300,1730:107993,1742:109533,1801:109841,1806:112536,1869:116386,1941:117464,1965:118311,1979:122792,1992:125522,2039:125912,2049:127004,2071:127316,2076:127628,2081:129656,2127:133174,2147:134050,2166:134488,2173:135437,2207:135948,2217:138941,2289:139890,2318:140182,2323:146724,2397:147816,2416:148284,2423:148908,2435:151862,2453:152555,2464:152863,2469:154634,2493:155250,2503:155635,2509:155943,2514:156251,2519:156867,2531:157175,2536:157714,2546:159793,2579:163829,2599:165323,2622:166236,2636:166817,2645:167149,2650:171288,2695:172494,2723:174370,2768:175174,2788:175442,2793:177595,2810:179359,2851:179863,2895:180115,2900:180367,2905:181249,2928:181501,2933:181816,2940:182194,2948:183643,2978:188284,3039:188552,3044:189222,3056:189959,3070:190227,3075:190495,3080:190763,3085:191299,3097:191634,3103:194944,3125:195264,3131:195968,3145:196288,3151:196736,3160:197312,3174:197824,3189:198592,3203:199488,3219:199744,3224:200448,3243:201024,3254:201600,3269:202304,3288:202816,3297:203968,3331:208008,3353:208374,3360:208984,3385:209289,3391:210310,3400$0,0:4016,34:4448,41:5168,53:5456,58:9992,254:10640,264:15880,342:18760,400:21730,496:22450,506:22810,511:23530,527:27746,574:28130,581:28770,597:29090,603:30242,627:32354,685:32802,693:33890,731:34722,748:35298,761:35618,768:35874,773:40630,821:40870,826:41410,834:41890,844:43390,881:44230,900:46510,977:47770,1008:48010,1013:48370,1020:48610,1025:48910,1031:49270,1041:50290,1065:50590,1071:54672,1084:55416,1094:55974,1101:56718,1112:59400,1122:60030,1133:60380,1144:61970,1149:63620,1169:64500,1178:66404,1190:66700,1195:67292,1206:67736,1214:68476,1225:71310,1263:71630,1268:71950,1273:73592,1282:74184,1292:74702,1302:74998,1307:75516,1316:77144,1353:78328,1373:78624,1378:79734,1400:82856,1421:84205,1443:84986,1457:85625,1468:87420,1474:87931,1482:91581,1549:92311,1565:93479,1593:94355,1608:95961,1642:97202,1666:101026,1685:104113,1754:104743,1770:104995,1775:105373,1783:111312,1847:112376,1865:114732,1910:115872,1944:119590,1958:120328,1972:120656,1977:120984,1982:121886,1994:122542,2007:122870,2012:123280,2019:123772,2027:125084,2075:125658,2083:126150,2091:131698,2151:133480,2189:133876,2196:134998,2216:143248,2419:143710,2428:149782,2553:155988,2580:157414,2614:158282,2636:159212,2656:160948,2701:161382,2717:162126,2731:162498,2738:163118,2747:165970,2819:166218,2824:167644,2853:168202,2863:168512,2869:173055,2889:173355,2894:173955,2903:174480,2911:176880,2957:177480,2968:178005,2976:178455,2983:179355,2996:179955,3006:180480,3015:181005,3023:181380,3029:181755,3040:182280,3049:182655,3055:188920,3228:189272,3233:189624,3238:190944,3261:191824,3273:193144,3294:193584,3300:194200,3314:194640,3320:199040,3398:200184,3413:200536,3418:204646,3430:205222,3439:206734,3473:207094,3481:207382,3486:207742,3496:208534,3512:209542,3542:210118,3552:210406,3557:211198,3570:211558,3576:212134,3585:212566,3592:213286,3606:215014,3639:217840,3647:218360,3656:218880,3669:219595,3684:219920,3690:220180,3695:221805,3729:223235,3764:225315,3799:225835,3808:228750,3824:228974,3830:229870,3851:230318,3860:230598,3867:231326,3886:231774,3896:235210,3926:235930,3937:236650,3988:241284,4031:242390,4048:243022,4058:243417,4064:243812,4070:246702,4084:250482,4142:257416,4220:258256,4236:259012,4246:259684,4255:260272,4264:261196,4277:261868,4286:262792,4299:263296,4307:263632,4312:265480,4341:265900,4376:271024,4469:276001,4527:277072,4549:279340,4594:279718,4601:279970,4606:281950,4623:284125,4672:284725,4682:285100,4688:285550,4695:286600,4717:291092,4778:291524,4786:292028,4796:292532,4804:292820,4809:293540,4822:294044,4830:294548,4839:295484,4857:296132,4867:296492,4873:298364,4910:299804,4931:305410,4946:305785,4952:306310,4960:306610,4965:307510,4976:308035,4984:308710,4994:309385,5004:311260,5038:311560,5043:312235,5053:312610,5059:313510,5073:314710,5092:315085,5098:315685,5114:318740,5129
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Kenneth C. Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his household growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the Julia R. Masterman Laboratory and Demonstration School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mother's death

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls the role of his maternal aunts after his mother's death

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his early understanding of race

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers North East High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his influences at Nort East High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his admission to Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers entering college at sixteen years old

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his decision to study political science and history

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the racial discrimination at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his graduation from Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his social life at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his accomplishments at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his club football team at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about the school busing crisis in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mentors at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his first legal case

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers the case of Cochran v. Herring

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about African Americans in the law profession

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being one of two black partners at Drinker Biddle and Reath LLP

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his role as general counsel for a joint pharmaceutical venture

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his promotion to vice president of public affairs at Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his promotion to general counsel of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about the recall of Vioxx by Merck & Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier explains his strategy as general counsel of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his perserverance during the Vioxx trial

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers becoming the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his accomplishments at Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being named CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his performance as the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his role as the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his involvement at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his interest in education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier shares a message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

10$7

DATitle
Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mother's death
Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being named CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.
Transcript
So then high school, name of your high school?$$Was Northeast High School [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]--the academic high school in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] is called Central High School, but Northeast High School had just started a program for scientifically gifted children who were interested in the space exploration effort and I really was very interested in space and science. And so I chose to go Northeast High School to this program within there that was again sort of a magnet program for scientifically strong children.$$Now are your parents encouraging you in this regard?$$Well there's an important fact that we've not covered in the academic thing which is that, when I was in the seventh grade, my mother [Clara Frazier] passed away. So at this point, I had only my father [Otis Frazier] who raised me.$$And your father is raising two other children in addition to you?$$Correct.$$So in seventh grade, that's you're what you're twelve?$$Something like that.$$Twelve, thirteen, something around that age?$$Uh-hm.$$That had to be devastating?$$It was, it was, I have to say the most pivotal moment in my life because my mother died of a blood clot that was secondary to a hysterectomy. So she went into the hospital to have a pro- a procedure that I wouldn't call routine, but it was also not something that where we thought she was sick and in jeopardy of her life. And I can still remember my father, we came downstairs to go to school and my father said, "There's something I need to tell you kids and it's that your mother died last night." And I sa- you, know, I can still remember it like was yesterday, how devastating that was.$$And you made it through the seventh grade even this, I mean academically well and in spite of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh yes.$$And was that because of your father?$$Yes.$$Tell us a little bit, what your father did. How he kept you guys, how he moved you guys through this?$$Well let me just put it this way. My father was a wonderful man, but he was not very sentimental about his children. And he had very high standards and I remember, I didn't finish the story. We were all devastated when my mother died and I remember he said, "You guys, you kids go up to your room and you can cry a little bit, but when you come down, we're going to have to keep going in life." And we did cry a little bit, but we came down and we had breakfast. And my father said, "Life goes on." And my father was very distant man before then because I think like many families of that time, the mother was the nurturer, the one that raised us. My father, his job in the family was to work and earn money and to hand out the discipline when my mother encouraged him to do that. He taught us obviously how to throw a baseball and things like that. But, like unlike modern parenting where I think my children [Lauren Frazier and James Frazier] feel like they know me, I didn't feel like I knew my father. I knew my mother, my mother was the, was the nurturing parent. And then when she died suddenly my father had to step into that role, and I think that for him it was a great opportunity. Years later he would say, "I would not have even known my children had my wife died." But he, he became the mother and the father. He had no domestic skills but he learned to cook, he learned to do all the things that you needed to do to raise children.$Let's move on to the day that you become chairman of this company. You've been here what (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) CEO.$$CEO.$$First I became CEO and then chairman$$CEO and then chairman. But you've been at Merck [Merck and Co., Inc.] about what seventeen years when you become the CEO?$$Yes.$$Tell, tell me about that day. What was that when the announcement was made, and how you felt and what it meant, what's your thought?$$I felt overwhelmed by the announcement. I've never been a person to feel glad that I got somewhere. My wife [Andrea Wilkerson Frazier] always says, you don't enjoy anything because you're always on to the next thing. So when I became CEO, I was worried about whether or not I could run this company in a way that I would make a very satisfactory mark as CEO. I knew I felt really good when, I can't lie when the announcement came out and I looked at it and I realized I'm the CEO of Merck and my father [Otis Frazier] had a third grade education and was a janitor, I felt really good about that. My family felt really good about that. But I really am honest when I say that it's really not about me. This company Merck is no ordinary place. The work that we do here is incredibly important to mankind. And so, if you step into that CEO role. My office, I feel like I'm renting that office and that it's my obligation to leave this company better than I found it. And so, I think my overwhelming feeling was a feeling of huge, awesome responsibility. And if you knew the scientific enterprise of this company and the people who comprise it, the quality of the scientists and the physicians who make up the core of our research labs. In some ways, you're saying, I'm a mere mortal. How can I be the CEO of people that are that sort of otherworldly smart? And so, I also say, how can I do my job so that I can enable great science since I'm not a scientist. So it's not a kind of thing that you feel very--at least I don't feel very egotistical about it. I feel like I have to prove to the world that my tenure here put this company back on track to greatness.$$Well let's talk a little bit about the symbolic torch at, at Merck that gets passed from one CEO to the next CEO. You, you were telling me a little bit about that previously. Tell us about that on the record?$$Well I think--again I say this is not the ordinary company and one of the exemplars of that is that the modern day founder of Merck is a guy named George W. Merck and he had a saying that every Merck employee knows by heart. He said, "Medicine is for the people, not the profits," and the more we've remembered that the better the profits have been and then he went on to say that, "It's our obligation to ensure that our finest achievement," meaning the medicine and vaccines we created, "are made available to everybody." So everybody knows that and there is a Time magazine article from I believe it's 1951 [sic. 1952] where he made, a, a medical school commencement speech in which he uttered those words. He became a cover story of Time in 1951. And that Time magazine (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The year you were born. No sorry, I'm wrong sorry.$$No, I was born in 1954, but it's, that, that Time magazine, the original magazine is preserved in a, in a glass case and that glass case is handed from one CEO to the next CEO and you're supposed to display it prominently in your office as a reminder that, that's what this company is about. It's about the people, not the profits. And although, we're under the same pressure any other publicly traded company is, I think it's my obligation all the time to remember that while I have to do the short term performance that drives the stock price. What I'm really here is to create long term medical value and societal value. If I do that, that would drive the economic value, which in term will drive the stock price.$$So when you say this is no ordinary place. Then for you, it's a very special place.$$It is, I mean you just look at any indicator of the number of Nobel Prize winners. The work that was done to commercialize penicillin. The work that was done to commercialize the corticosteroids. The work--something like thirteen of the seventeen vaccines that are required for American children are made by this company. So the, the nation trust its newborn to us. The work that we've done in past on HIV [human immunodeficiency virus], which I've talked about a few minutes ago. Work that we're doing on cardiovascular and infectious diseases. What this company has done single handily to expand life expectancy. The work that we've done in Africa where by donating products, we've almost eradicated a horrible series of diseases exemplified by river blindness. When you come to work in a company like that and you realize that the company exists to alleviate human suffering, if you just say that, the company's reason for existing is to apply cutting edge science to develop medically important products, vaccines, and medicines that alleviate human suffering and improve and extend human life. It is no ordinary place.

Roger Ferguson

Chief executive officer, economist and lawyer Roger W. Ferguson, Jr. was born on October 28, 1951 in Washington, D.C. to Roger Ferguson, Sr. and Alberta Elizabeth Lawson Ferguson. After graduating from Sidwell Friends School, he received his B.S. degree in economics from Harvard University in 1973. Ferguson served as a Frank Knox Fellow at Pembroke College, before receiving his J.D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1979, and his Ph.D. degree in economics from Harvard University in 1981.

Ferguson worked as an attorney for the law firm of Davis Polk & Wardell, LLP in New York before joining McKinsey & Company Inc. in 1984, where he served as an associate, director of research and information systems; and later, as partner. In 1997, Ferguson was appointed to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, becoming the third African American in history to serve on the Federal Reserve Board. In 1999, Ferguson was appointed to serve as vice chairman of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, the first African American to serve in that role. Ferguson served as chairman of the Group of Ten Working Party of Financial Sector Consolidation, chairman of the Committee on the Global Financial System (CGFS), and the chairman of the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) during his tenure as vice chairman. In 2006, Ferguson resigned as vice chairman of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors; and, in 2008, he joined the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association – College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA-CREF) as chief executive officer and President. He also served as economic advisor to President Barack Obama, initially as a member of the President-elect’s Transition Economic Advisory Board and subsequently as a member of the President’s Economic Recovery Advisory Board.

Ferguson has received the Distinguished Service Award from the Bond Market Association, the William F. Butler Memorial Award from the New York Association for Business Economics, the Renaissance Award from the Abyssinian Development Corporation, and the Frederick Heldering Global Leadership Award from the Global Interdependence Center. He also holds honorary doctorate degrees from Lincoln College, Webster University, Michigan State University, Washington and Jefferson College, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. In 2009, Ferguson received The “Visionary Award” from the Council for Economic Education and the “Good Scout Award” from the Greater New York Boy Scout Council.

Ferguson is married to former United States Securities and Exchange Commission Commissioner Annette Nazareth. They have two children.

Roger W. Ferguson, Jr. was interviewed by the The HistoryMakers<\em> on May 14, 2012 and October 16, 2019.

Accession Number

A2012.118

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/30/2012

7/30/2012 |and| 10/16/2019

Last Name

Ferguson

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Schools

Sidwell Friends School

Harvard University

Harvard Law School

Charles E. Young Elementary School

River Terrace Elementary School

Jefferson Middle School Academy

First Name

Roger

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

FER03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Vermont

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

10/28/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

French Fries

Short Description

Chief executive officer, economist and lawyer Roger W. Ferguson Jr. (1951- ) served as vice chairman of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors before joining the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association - College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA-CREF) as president and chief executive officer.

Employment

McKinsey and Company

Davis, Polk & Wardell, LLP

United States Federal Reserve System

Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association

Swiss Re America Holding Corporation

International Flavors and Fragrances

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:8470,160:9728,176:10986,186:14982,262:15500,269:15796,274:29650,455:30420,469:31680,490:32730,508:33710,528:37000,586:51525,755:53625,796:53925,801:59400,895:60000,904:62550,950:63900,982:64425,991:66450,1035:67650,1081:76825,1205:78750,1244:80521,1273:81060,1282:83832,1344:84602,1357:84910,1362:86835,1393:92244,1423:92706,1431:96138,1515:96600,1525:98118,1553:112913,1825:113717,1839:114253,1848:125600,2076$0,0:4750,137:5130,143:6080,155:14918,261:16013,306:16451,313:17035,323:19234,336:19690,345:24402,424:26150,457:26530,464:27974,487:33124,540:34974,572:35640,583:40450,691:41264,708:53618,813:54392,823:54908,830:56972,902:57488,909:61252,943:62595,964:63385,976:64017,985:65676,1024:66071,1030:72439,1117:75427,1156:76510,1162:76790,1167:79660,1249:80010,1255:80360,1261:80780,1268:81480,1281:81970,1291:87500,1429:87920,1436:94622,1484:98263,1520:98689,1528:99967,1558:100322,1564:100819,1577:105150,1674:108524,1685:109376,1704:110796,1728:111506,1740:112926,1783:113281,1789:113636,1795:115127,1825:115411,1830:115766,1836:116831,1878:117399,1894:117683,1899:118322,1909:118961,1919:119529,1928:122156,1990:122440,2054:128590,2113:129016,2120:130365,2135:130720,2141:131288,2150:131714,2157:133560,2200:134909,2217:136400,2254:143269,2393:143537,2398:145078,2454:145346,2459:147155,2500:156598,2595:156968,2601:157708,2614:162388,2680:165441,2716:166173,2730:168125,2888:170931,2961:171480,2972:171846,2980:172761,2997:177186,3033:180588,3095:181560,3119:182127,3128:186410,3190:187130,3201:188300,3219:188840,3226:189380,3233:190190,3244:190820,3252:191630,3262:192260,3278:200315,3386:201184,3404:202527,3427:206635,3528:207504,3576:207978,3582:208847,3616:221650,3870:222370,3880:227330,3961:227970,3972:228530,3981:231534,4008:232940,4033:233902,4048:235086,4082:237056,4096:237421,4102:238662,4136:239100,4144:239757,4154:240414,4164:241728,4191:242239,4204:242896,4214:245451,4257:245816,4263:246254,4270:246692,4277:250264,4300:251065,4310:252845,4341:254269,4367:254625,4372:255426,4382:256049,4390:261834,4486:272183,4660:272806,4669:278591,4755:278947,4760:279926,4773:284910,4869:285266,4874:285622,4879:290522,4891:291546,4908:291994,4916:293360,4921:293899,4929:294592,4943:301060,5070:310825,5194:315475,5282:316000,5290:317275,5316:317650,5322:324820,5354:340285,5575:342160,5675:342460,5680:343060,5689:343735,5705:345760,5759:346210,5766:346510,5771:347035,5779:347785,5791:349885,5824:350560,5834:353560,5922:356785,5988:361630,6010:361970,6015:363160,6029:369195,6145:369875,6156:373360,6161:380344,6338:380920,6348:383152,6399:383584,6406:386320,6487:387976,6516:388408,6523:389416,6544:391792,6579:392296,6587:397370,6632
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Roger Ferguson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson talks about his paternal step grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson describes his father's athletic talents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson describes his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson describes his father's interest in finance

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Roger Ferguson describes his siblings and how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Roger Ferguson describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Roger Ferguson describes his neighborhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Roger Ferguson remembers Charles Young Elementary School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Roger Ferguson recalls River Terrace Elementary School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson recalls his childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson describes segregation in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson remembers Jefferson Junior High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson recalls his early interest in the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson recalls enrolling at the Sidwell Friends School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson describes his social life at the Sidwell Friends School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson recalls his decision to attend Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Roger Ferguson recalls the racial tension at the Sidwell Friends School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson describes his work study job at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson recalls his activism at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson recalls his economics research in Chile

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson remembers his graduation from Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson recalls his fellowship in Cambridge, England

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson recalls his decision to pursue law and economics

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson recalls his dual graduate degree program at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Roger Ferguson describes his parents' influence on his self esteem

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson talks about his decision to pursue dual graduate degrees

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson remembers working at the law firm of Davis Polk and Wardwell

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson recalls working at McKinsey and Company

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson talks about balancing his career and family

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson recalls how he came to work for the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson remembers joining the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Roger Ferguson recalls becoming vice chairman of the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Roger Ferguson remembers serving as vice chairman of the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Roger Ferguson remembers the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Roger Ferguson recalls his decision to leave the Federal Reserve System

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Roger Ferguson recalls serving as the president and CEO of TIAA-CREFF

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Roger Ferguson describes his hopes and concerns for his children

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Roger Ferguson describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Roger Ferguson reflects upon his legacy at TIAA-CREF

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Roger Ferguson describes his plans for the future

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$5

DAStory

8$3

DATitle
Roger Ferguson describes his father's interest in finance
Roger Ferguson remembers the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001
Transcript
But the thing that was really distinctive about my father [Roger Ferguson, Sr.] was that he was a child of the Depression [Great Depression] and he had lots of stories to tell about the Depression and it clearly impacted him. And the way it impacted him was he became very interested in savings and investments and the way the banking system worked. So the thing I, I remember many things about my father, the thing that really influenced me was that my father got me very interested at a very young age in things having to do with finance and banking and et cetera. And, in fact, as soon as I could do math at a reasonably proficient level, you know, just adding and subtracting, multiplying and dividing, he had me balance the check book.$$Okay.$$And much of our conversation while he was an avid football fan and, you know, loved to bowl and fish, much of our conversation was really about interest rates and investments and safe banks and, and that sort of thing.$$How do you think he acquired that kind of knowledge, he had the interest but how do you think he got the, the knowledge?$$I think he may have gotten it, some from his father [sic. step father, George Ferguson], I think he got it some from school as well, but mainly he was just sort of self taught. He read the newspapers, the other thing I remember about my father is not just that he read newspapers, but he had a broad interest in life and he was a curious person as well. And it, it showed up in, in unusual ways. I've talked a little bit about his interest in, in finance and money and investing, and for a, you know, a guy who was living, my mother [Alberta Lawson Ferguson] was a school teacher, my father worked for the government, they didn't have huge amounts of money so it was unusual for him to be interested in that kind of thing. He was interested in training people in that space, not only did he train me, but my sister [Rochelle Ferguson Washington (ph.)] has a very good friend who has gotten interested in investing in only land and property and she attributes all that to my father.$The thing that proves to be most important about my tenure at the Fed [Federal Reserve System] though is 9/11/2001 [September 11, 2001]. Nine, eleven, two thousand one is a day that obviously along with other fa- sadly a few other days, lives in infamy, 'cause that was the day of the terrorist attacks in United States of America. On that day Alan Greenspan was in Europe, in Switzerland at a big meeting of central banks that occurred every six to eight weeks, sometimes he would go, sometimes I would go, it was his turn to go, all the other governors in the Fed were around the country and the U.S. doing Fed business or giving speeches of, of, or doing other things. And so I was the only governor in Washington, D.C. I'm at my desk as usual at around 8:15, my wife [Annette Nazareth] at this point is an important senior official at the SEC [U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission], she runs market regulation. And market regulation team has a desk that watches and monitors markets in real time--$$Um-hm.$$--on a daily basis. And so at about 8:20 at the time, I'm gonna get the time wrong, 8:40, 8:45, my wife calls and says, "Our market watch folks have alerted me that there's something wrong in New York [New York] because one of the World Trade Center towers is on fire, you might just wanna turn on the TV and monitor it"--$$Um-hm.$$--"we don't know what's happening," et cetera. So I turn on the TV, I see the second plane go into the second tower, obviously not a coincidence, not just bad luck, but hard to imagine what it is, you can't quite imagine that anyone would intentionally fly--$$Right--$$--airplanes into the world's tallest buildings in New York. But what it, what I do know is it's gonna be a scramble in Manhattan [New York, New York] because the World Trade Center, very close to the New York Stock Exchange [New York, New York], close to a number of other very important financial services firms and institutions including a company called Bank of New York [Bank of New York Mellon Corporation, New York, New York], which is one of the cl- clearing banks that keeps the, the system operating, the check clearing system operating, but more importantly, keeps the security systems operating and, and money flowing the system. World Trade Center was also very close to the New York Fed [Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New York, New York], so it's in the Wall Street area [New York, New York] and obviously I and my wife both know that it's gonna be a tough day that we don't know what the source of the problem is. I immediately then, you know, go to the floor where we are watching and listening to New York in the Fed, decide a couple of things that are very important, the president has announced that there has been some sort of attack and--$$This is President Bush [President George Walker Bush] at this time (simultaneous)?$$--(Simultaneous) President Bush at this point--$$Um-hm.$$--that there's been some sort of attack and that we need to evacuate Washington. I made immediately the executive decision that I was not gonna leave the Fed, others could leave, I couldn't lock the door and make the staff stay, but I was not gonna evacuate my location. That proved to be really pretty important, because everybody else was moving around the city out of touch, my phones were still working, everyone could call me, so the Fed, not just my office, but I was part of it, became the spider in the web of information flow, the SEC, the CFTC [Commodity Futures Trading Commission], the Treasury [U.S. Department of the Treasury], the White House [Washington, D.C.], the New York Fed, a number of the important banks, we in Washington, I at the Fed and my team, the Fed team were central in knowing what was going on.$$And so you kept the financial system together during that time (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So we kept the financial system together. The second thing that we announced was that the Federal Reserve System was open and operating and that we were prepared to lend money.$$Throughout the entire time of--?$$Throughout the entire time. These things, as you point out, through lots of different technical reasons basically kept the Federal, the financial system operating, all checks got paid, the money market system still worked. A lot of technical things called the repo market, still worked and that was very important because there was no panic in America. Imagine if you would come to work one day and your check didn't clear on 9/11 (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--or 9/12 [September 12, 2001], or you went to an ATM machine and you couldn't get money out of the machine, and so we kept the system operating, we kept the panic down and I truly believe that because of the good work that the Fed team did on that day, and I happen to be the one in the leadership role for the first two and a half days after 9/11, that we kept the economy from sinking into a deeper recession. At that point the economy had actually started to slow by the way. So I ran the Fed with a team but I was the team leader all on Tuesday, the September 11th, Wednesday September 12th, Alan got back very late on the 12th, he did some quite research, found that I had done a good job and basically I was responsible for the Feds initial reaction all through that first week. And, you know, I'm not a person given to immodesty, as you know--$$Um-hm.$$--and can tell, but, you know, things worked out well, the team did a really good job and in hindsight, obviously, I am pleased with the role that I played in keeping the system functioning--$$Would you say (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) after 9/11.$$--that's one of your proudest moments in your career?$$It's definitely my proudest moment. It's the moment that brought together my knowledge of the banking system, financial markets--$$And technology (simultaneous)?$$--(simultaneous) technology, the way the Fed system worked. It required a lot of international coordination as well, so having spent that time starting back in my little story about going to Chile and England, and other things that I did. So it all came together. It also was a time where communication was important and I learned a lot of communication skills from McKinsey [McKinsey and Company, New York, New York] and frankly sort of interpersonal skills, which are important all through life. So it's absolutely my finest moment and, you know, had we made other decisions, had I decided to evacuate the building or not keep the Fed System open, or not issue a statement, or not lend money, I do believe things would have been, you know, much worse.

Dr. Helene Gayle

Epidemiologist and public health administrator Dr. Helene D. Gayle was born on August 16, 1955, in Buffalo, New York. The daughter of social worker Marietta Spiller Dabney Gayle and businessman Jacob Astor Gayle, she attended Lancaster, New York’s Court Street Elementary School and Lancaster Middle School. Moving back to Buffalo, Gayle graduated with honors from Woodlawn Junior High School and then from Bennett High School in 1972. Briefly attending Baldwin-Wallace College, she graduated from Barnard College in New York City with her B.S. degree in psychology. Deciding to pursue medicine, Gayle earned her M.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania, where she served as president of the Student National Medical Association. Gayle went on to earn her Masters of Public Health degree from John Hopkins University. She did her pediatric internship and residency at Children’s Hospital National Medical Center in Washington, D.C.

Gayle was selected to enter the epidemiology training program at Atlanta’s Center for Disease Control (CDC) in 1984. By 2001, she had risen to director of the National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention of the CDC. Throughout, Gayle concentrated on the effects of AIDS on children, adolescents and families. In the early 1990s, she began to investigate the global ramifications of the disease and authored numerous reports on the real risk factors involved with AIDS. In so doing, she became one of the foremost experts on the subject, appearing on ABC’s Nightline and other news and information programs. Gayle also served as a medical researcher in the AIDS Division of the U.S. Agency for International Development. Gayle warned about substance abuse and advocated female condoms and vaginal virucides. In 2001, Gayle joined the Bill and Melissa Gates Foundation as director of the HIV, TB and Reproductive Health Program and was responsible for administering its $300 million dollar budget. At the same time, she was named Assistant Surgeon General and Rear Admiral in the United States Public Health Service. In 2006, Gayle was chosen as the new president and CEO of CARE, the international poverty fighting organization.

Gayle is the recipient of many honors, including: the U.S. Public Health Service achievement medal, in 1989; the National Medical Association Scroll of Merit Award, 2002; Barnard College, Columbia University, Barnard Woman of Achievement, 2001 and the Women of Color, Health Science and Technology Awards, Medical Leadership in Industry Award in 2002. Gayle sits on many community boards. She lives in Atlanta, Georgia.

Accession Number

A2006.118

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/14/2006

Last Name

Gayle

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Bennett High School

Court Street Elementary School

Lancaster Middle School

Johns Hopkins University

University of Pennsylvania

Barnard College

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Evenings, Weekends

First Name

Helene

Birth City, State, Country

Buffalo

HM ID

GAY01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Any

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Injustice Anywhere Is A Threat To Justice Everywhere.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

8/16/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Epidemiologist Dr. Helene Gayle (1955 - ) was president and CEO of CARE, the international poverty fighting organization. She served as director of the National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention of the Center for Disease Control; the director of the HIV, TB and Reproductive Health Program for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; and the Assistant Surgeon General and Rear Admiral in the United States Public Health Service.

Employment

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

United States Public Health Services

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

CARE

Children's Hospital National Medical Center

McKinsey Social Initiative

The Chicago Community Trust

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:7482,142:14196,192:17238,233:18018,244:18642,275:20670,315:22932,353:27836,386:28100,391:28364,399:28826,407:29618,528:29882,533:30410,542:30740,548:31136,555:31994,581:32456,589:33908,620:38680,650:39050,656:39420,663:39716,668:41615,682:44952,779:45662,794:46230,803:47011,815:49993,863:50561,872:50845,877:52194,907:53330,923:53685,929:54892,949:55957,968:56454,976:57306,993:58300,1016:59436,1034:60004,1044:60785,1059:61282,1072:66550,1083:68022,1100:68666,1108:69034,1113:71610,1163:71978,1168:73174,1180:73634,1189:74186,1196:74738,1203:75474,1212:83070,1319:88450,1403:92344,1509:95578,1581:96172,1592:96568,1599:96964,1607:97822,1624:98416,1637:99670,1657:99934,1662:100792,1676:103036,1726:108174,1745:108540,1752:108906,1760:109699,1768:110126,1781:111102,1797:113452,1812:114044,1821:114636,1830:115450,1838:117374,1888:118928,1916:119298,1922:120408,1946:121000,1960:121444,1968:122036,1981:122480,1989:122924,1996:123442,2005:124700,2028:125218,2039:125588,2045:126180,2054:128622,2099:129140,2107:130842,2139:131212,2145:132174,2160:132470,2165:132914,2172:134838,2208:135800,2223:140699,2234:140991,2239:142232,2261:145444,2307:145882,2312:146320,2319:147269,2332:148218,2347:148583,2353:149970,2388:150408,2396:150919,2409:151576,2421:152233,2431:153620,2462:154277,2476:155080,2488:161160,2525:163338,2560:164130,2571:164823,2580:169074,2620:169378,2625:169682,2630:169986,2635:170290,2640:170746,2647:171050,2652:171962,2666:172418,2673:172722,2678:175990,2756:177510,2779:178650,2796:180626,2831:180930,2836:181538,2846:181842,2851:186873,2878:187275,2885:188146,2908:188481,2914:189218,2930:192532,2957:201814,3115:202382,3126:202666,3131:203234,3141:203518,3146:203802,3151:204512,3164:205222,3175:205719,3183:206784,3202:207636,3221:208062,3228:212126,3246:212874,3260:213146,3265:214234,3288:214846,3299:215118,3304:215662,3314:216478,3333:217158,3350:217770,3361:226460,3487:227370,3518:227760,3525:228150,3532:228865,3546:229450,3556:229905,3564:230620,3577:231335,3590:231790,3598:232310,3618:232635,3625:233480,3640:233805,3646:234065,3651:234845,3667:235430,3679:236145,3691:236665,3708:237185,3717:237445,3722:237705,3727:238290,3738:238940,3749:239915,3771:240305,3778:242905,3833:243295,3840:244335,3857:252880,3899:253636,3910:256694,3930:257286,3939:257804,3947:258100,3952:259136,3973:259580,3981:260764,4003:261430,4013:262970,4019$0,0:1200,22:1520,27:1920,34:3360,56:3760,62:4160,68:4800,113:9840,177:10160,182:10480,188:11920,210:12240,215:12560,220:13680,241:14720,262:15040,267:16000,285:17280,307:19040,343:19680,354:20000,359:21840,410:22480,423:22800,428:23280,435:23920,447:24240,452:25200,466:25600,473:26320,483:32947,504:33223,509:34465,537:34741,542:35017,547:36328,580:36742,587:37294,597:38605,619:40744,665:41296,675:45022,784:45436,791:46678,821:47161,829:48403,858:49231,873:50749,898:51370,908:51646,913:53233,956:54613,992:55786,1014:56821,1043:62680,1048:65991,1109:66607,1118:67223,1136:67762,1145:68070,1150:70149,1183:72536,1221:75462,1270:84856,1585:88321,1671:94766,1680:95630,1694:97646,1797:99158,1830:99950,1844:100454,1852:100958,1861:105062,1941:105350,1946:105638,1951:106430,1970:106862,1977:113964,2030:114438,2037:120363,2142:120758,2150:121232,2159:121864,2169:122496,2180:124524,2201:125867,2215:126657,2226:130054,2278:132424,2313:133056,2323:134478,2348:135031,2355:135505,2362:136295,2374:136690,2380:141000,2389:141325,2395:141650,2403:143080,2429:145095,2466:145745,2477:147240,2497:147760,2506:150035,2546:150815,2563:151270,2571:151985,2583:152375,2590:152960,2601:153610,2612:157132,2631:157924,2643:158284,2649:159436,2671:159796,2677:160084,2682:160732,2693:161812,2706:162532,2716:163180,2726:163972,2739:166708,2785:167284,2794:168436,2819:169300,2839:169588,2844:170164,2854:172396,2895:174340,2927:175276,2947:183540,2988:184965,3015:185715,3026:186315,3035:187590,3058:189540,3092:190140,3101:190515,3107:194865,3193:195540,3203:196215,3217:196515,3222:198165,3257:198840,3267:199815,3286:201390,3323:201840,3330:202290,3337:204090,3364:210641,3393:212032,3403:215102,3420:215572,3426:217640,3452:218298,3469:219238,3485:223680,3585
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Helene Gayle's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Helene Gayle lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes some of the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Helene Gayle remembers Court Street Elementary School in Lancaster, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her childhood hobbies

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her parents' civil rights involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Helene Gayle recalls how she became interested in medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her experience at Woodlawn Junior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Helene Gayle remembers attending Bennett High School in Buffalo, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Helene Gayle recalls the death of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Helene Gayle remembers being injured in a car accident as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Helene Gayle remembers Bennett High School's Black Student Union

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her friendships in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Helene Gayle remembers her decision to attend Barnard College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her mentors at Barnard College in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Helene Gayle recalls her decision to attend University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Helene Gayle recalls studying public health at Johns Hopkins University

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Helene Gayle explains her interest in public health

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes the public health campaign against smallpox

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her experience at Johns Hopkins University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes the Epidemic Intelligence Service at the Center for Disease Control

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Helene Gayle recalls initially being deterred from working with HIV

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her travels to Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Helene Gayle recalls becoming director of the Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her work for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes the relationship of the African American community to public health

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes myths about HIV in the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Helene Gayle talks about the occurrence of HIV among African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes HIV policy under President George Walker Bush

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes advancements in HIV research

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Helene Gayle reflects upon her leadership of public health organizations

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Helene Gayle reflects upon the response to HIV in the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Helene Gayle talks about the future of HIV treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes the importance of philanthropy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Helene Gayle talks about Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Helene Gayle describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Helene Gayle talks about her relationship with Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Helene Gayle reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Helene Gayle reflects upon her legacy and how she would like to be remembered

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Dr. Helene Gayle explains her interest in public health
Dr. Helene Gayle recalls initially being deterred from working with HIV
Transcript
Now at that time would you say you were keenly aware of some of the health disparities in the black community and what the causes were?$$In a general sense, you know, this is when I heard the smallpox talk when I was, my brother was graduating from college and I went to his college graduation that was my, I guess that was in my last year, or my third year, what was ended up being my last year of medical school [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania], and I'd been thinking about public health because I had this general notion of, of the fact that it kind of was an area where you could make a huge impact on, on populations, and then I heard this man [Donald A. Henderson] who had been the leader, one of the leaders of the smallpox eradication campaign and it kind of, for me, crystalized my thinking that this was a way that you could tangibly impact large numbers of peoples' lives, eradicate a disease like we did with smallpox or, you know, really change the course of something in a major way as opposed to doing one-by-one patient care where a lot of times what you're doing is putting band aids on for what are really larger systemic issues.$$Okay, so what I hear you saying and correct me if I'm wrong, is that somebody's got to organize a campaign to deal with disease, you know, to do a certain diseases. It's not enough just to treat 'em as an individual, as individuals coming in who are sick. It's better to, to try to hit with a organized hammer.$$Well, I think what you do in public health as opposed to taking care of individuals, you take care of populations, so the same things you do with individuals, you do with populations, so you look at, you know, you're able to look at what are the reasons why one population has more, is impacted more by hypertension, HIV [human immunodeficiency virus], tuberculosis, you know, low birth weight, or whatever the issue is, and look at what does it take to change that for populations. A lot of times that means changing policies. It may mean, you know, putting in systems that didn't exist. It may mean doing campaigns, but it's really looking at what are the reasons why populations of people are more likely to be hit by a disease or have a less good health in disease like infant mortality or death rates or birth rates, or whatever, and how do you look at what are the issues that influence that, and a lot of times those things aren't necessarily just the virus or the, you know, the infection, or the toxin, it has as much to do with how societies organize or don't organize to make sure that some people have access to the things that cause good health. I mean it could be as simple as the fact that we have bad grocery stores in poor neighborhoods so that obesity and poor nutrition is more likely in poor communities, and so I mean public health looks at all of those factors and not just, you know, X diseases caused by X germ.$$Okay, so for instance, coal miners keep getting black lungs because they're coal miners?$$Right, and so as opposed to being the person who looks at a coal miner and says that person has a particular disease state, let me give them the medicine, public health says these people are at risk because the conditions within the coal mines are making them sick. What do we do to change the conditions in the coal mine?$$Okay. And sometimes that's a struggle, isn't it? I mean in terms of trying to change--$$Change policies, and that's why I say public health really is the interface between medicine and politics and society because in order to make a difference for those coal miners, you may have to get legislation passed in [U.S.] Congress that will affect the conditions that they're, they're living under. So, you know, I think those, that's why for me public health is a, was always a real good blend for my interests because it does marry changing societal factors that cause poor health as well as looking at what's the immediate cause.$Interestingly, at the time when I came, which was 1984, three years after HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] had first been described, I was, had a passing interest in HIV. At that time, pediatric HIV had not been very visible so it wasn't something that I had been involved in in my training, but I asked people about, you know, whether HIV would be a good thing to do my EIS [Epidemic Intelligence Service] years in and most people said, "Stay away from it, it's just a political disease and it's not that important and it's gonna be gone soon anyway," so I kind of, you know, didn't think too much about HIV at the time. I went ahead and did the nutrition and worked on issues of malnutrition in children.$$Let me stop you. What do they mean by political disease?$$Well, it was highly political. You know it was a disease that had a lot of, you know, because it was occurring in gay men and injection drug users, you know, it was very politicized. There were a lot of, you know, just politics involved and people said, you know, "Stay away from it 'cause you just get broiled--embroiled in a bunch of politics around, you know, gays and drug users." And, you know, issues of morality, and all the issues that are involved in, you know, working with marginalized populations that (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well what was it, the sense then from the physicians that you were talking to that it was gonna stay in a small, I mean, it wasn't really, they thought it was gonna stay right there (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, well that's what I said, I mean people that, people said, you know, "This is something that's gonna be gone." They compared it to like the Legionnaires' disease which CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia] had had been involved with, you know, big, an outbreak confined to a certain group of people, lot of visibility, lot of hype, and then it will be gone, and so go and deal with something that has longer term relevance. So, you know, for me it was, it was partly that, but it was also just, you know, again, since I had been in pediatrics where HIV had not yet really taken a hold, it wasn't as much in my consciousness at the time and so I focused on nutrition and looked at issues of low birth weight, malnutrition, did a lot of work in Africa as well as work here in the United States focusing on those issues. After that, I just, I really enjoyed my experience at the CDC and so took an additional year and preventive medicine residency, so it was another additional residency to get further training in public health and preventive medicine and I did that in our group that focused, the CDC group that focused on specifically issues of childhood mortality in Africa and I worked a lot on childhood, child survival issues, diarrhea and the things that are the main causes of children in African, diarrheal diseases, measles, malaria. I did a year doing a lot of work focused on that, and then just, and then those both the EIS and the preventive medicine program are short-term programs and so I had to make the decision after that: did I wanna stay at CDC and seek permanent employment, or did I wanna go and do something else? And by that time, it was clear that HIV was an important issue, and was, in fact, probably gonna be the defining public health issue of our day, and so I elected to interview the HIV group and started out as a staff epidemiologist in the HIV program. It was called the AIDS program then.$$So it was about 1987 (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Eighty-seven [1987], yeah, yeah.