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Dr. Juel Pate Borders

Rev. and Dr. Juel Pate Borders was born in Chicago, Illinois, and grew up in Atlanta, Georgia. Her father, the late civil rights leader Reverend William Holmes Borders, was the pastor of Wheat Street Baptist Church in Atlanta for more than fifty years. Borders lived just a few blocks away from young Martin Luther King, Jr., who would later pattern his preaching after her father’s eloquent style.

Borders attended the Palmer Memorial Institute, a college preparatory school in Sedalia, North Carolina, established by nationally acclaimed African American educator Charlotte Hawkins Brown. In 1954, Borders earned her B.A. degree from Spelman College in Atlanta. She went on to the Medical College of Pennsylvania earning her M.D. degree in 1960, with a specialty in obstetrics and gynecology. Borders did her residency at the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and opened her own practice in Atlanta in 1965.

Borders has maintained her family tradition of social activism. In the early 1970s, for example, she served on a court appointed biracial committee charged with overseeing the process of desegregating the Atlanta Public School System. Decades later, she pursued a second career when she followed her father’s footsteps into the ministry. She earned her Masters of Divinity degree in 1992, from the Emory University Candler School of Theology. She is the assistant to the pastor for the institutional ministries at Wheat Street Baptist Church. In the 1980s, the prominent physician had a building erected to house her practice. She is a member of the Women’s Health Care Alliance, a non-profit, independent practice association composed of physicians, specializing in obstetrics & gynecology, perinatology, gynecological oncology, and reproductive endocrinology.

Borders is a widow and the mother of two children, Rev. Theodore Benson, a minister in Philadelphia, and Dr. Elinor Benson, an Atlanta obstetrician and gynecologist.

Juel Pate Borders was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 25, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.036

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/25/2004

Last Name

Borders

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Pate

Schools

Spelman College

Drexel University

Oglethorpe Elementary School

David T. Howard High School

Atlanta University Lab School

Palmer Memorial Institute

Emory University

First Name

Juel

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

BOR01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Alaska

Favorite Quote

I Am Somebody.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/26/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fruit

Short Description

Obstetrician and gynecologist Dr. Juel Pate Borders (1934 - ) was the first black female OB/GYN resident at the Albert Einstein Center Northern Division in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and is the founder of the Juel Pate Borders Corporation in Atlanta, Georgia.

Employment

Wheat Street Baptist Church

Albert Einstein Medical Center

Juel Pate Borders Professional Corporation

Morehouse College School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
0,0:3462,46:4408,70:5612,120:10600,207:19626,335:34655,459:45790,521:58104,724:58524,730:66412,760:67399,773:76327,823:99180,1093:99536,1098:122558,1305:123378,1317:129280,1360:137501,1431:157840,1610:158290,1616:177218,1785:179910,1799:188470,1847:188754,1852:189109,1859:189464,1865:189748,1870:190174,1878:191523,1904:191807,1909:199466,1995:201302,2016:201812,2022:227260,2286$0,0:66918,595:67230,600:77006,664:77638,675:80798,716:81114,721:81588,728:113536,1008:117268,1035:120148,1070:164150,1313
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Juel Pate Borders' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her father's drive to obtain an education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her father's early career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders states her maternal grandmother's names

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her first minister in her paternal family

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls the heirlooms and houses associated with her family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her childhood neighborhood of Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders reminisces about Sundays growing up in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her father's competition and reconciliation with Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s visits to her father's church

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her brother's relationship with their father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her early education at Atlanta University Laboratory School, Oglethorpe School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders remembers attending David T. Howard High School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls the sights, sounds, tastes, and smells of growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes herself as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her experience at the Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders remembers Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders names some of her high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders explains how she entered Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her studies at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders remembers an incident where he father intervened in a conflict due to discrimination on a trolley in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls entering medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes her experiences in medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about encountering racism from other medical colleagues

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls encountering racism during her internship and residency

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders explains why she specialized in obstetrics and gynecology

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders describes setting up her medical practice in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders explains how she met her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her marriage to Dr. Theodore Benson

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her children, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Juel Pate Borders talks about her children, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$4

DATitle
Dr. Juel Pate Borders recalls her father's competition and reconciliation with Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr.
Dr. Juel Pate Borders explains why she specialized in obstetrics and gynecology
Transcript
Now I know that you are younger than the King children, and the Dobbs children, but do you recall any interaction among your families, [Reverend Dr.] Martin Luther King, Jr.'s family, which was not very far from where you lived, their home on Auburn [Avenue, Atlanta, Georgia]? Did you ever visit their home and interact in any way?$$There was more interaction between the two ministers, Reverend William Holmes Borders, Sr. and Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr., they were rivals. The wives however, Mrs. Alberta [Williams] King and my mother, Mrs. Julia Pate Borders [Julia Elinor Pansy Pate], were the dearest of friends and they loved each other very much. And they would laugh--they would talk and laugh about the conflict their husbands would have and would hope that in time they would out grow it or come to some happy conclusion, you know, about the whole matter. And I have--on the occasion that I preached at Ebenezer [Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia], I told the congregation that at last--my mother didn't live to see it and Mrs. King didn't live to see it, but I lived to see them come together very peacefully and it was on the occasion of the death of Mrs. King. When she was shot [in 1974], of course we were all in a state of shock--the whole world was in, was in a state of shock. And I remember my father saying, "Get up, get dressed we are going to see Reverend King." That impressed me so much. He got us all together and we went to the home of Dr. Martin Luther King, Sr. He was sitting in the kitchen eating, it must have been lunch or early dinner or something and my father, who was fully dressed, came in and spoke to him and said, "These are my children." And Dr. King graciously received us and I can't remember really what they said to each other, I was just so happy that we had this peaceful union, and of course, from what I could tell from my mother and Mrs. King what they were fussing over was nothing, I mean it was just a--next to nothing, it was just two great big giants one block from each other. Both with churches, and so there you go.$$Competition--$$But, but for him to say, "Get up, get dressed, we're going to see him," and then to say to Dr. King, "These are my children," and in other words we have come in love, it was a great moment.$Why did you decide to specialize in, in obstetrics and gynecology (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) And gynecology, okay. (Pause) I wanted I thought to pursue psychiatry. Up to this point my father [William Holmes Borders] had not really interfered with the choices. Remember he turned me over to my mother [Julia Elinor Pansy Pate], but he had a long talk with me in reference to practicalities and he said, "Who's coming to see you? I mean who will be your patients? Where do they get the money--who will be able to afford psychiatric care?" Now this was in the 1960s. At that time there was less stress and I'm going to say in general the approach would be if there is a major emotional problem either you go to your family member or you go to your minister, but psychiatrists at that time (shakes head). So I listened and I thought about it and I said to myself, well what are my other options and considerations? And OB [obstetrics] was a happy specialty and gynecology would mean that there was some surgery involved and there would be patients and patients and patients. And so I got into this field indirectly. It was--in retrospect it was a good move and I have been blessed with those who have come into my care and the amount of work and sacrifice required prepared me for the ministry that I'm in.

Dr. Clinton Warner

Dr. Clinton E. Warner, Jr. saw action on the front lines of two of the twentieth century's most transformative struggles. Born in Atlanta on July 11, 1924, Warner fought in World War II and became an active civil rights participant.

Warner's post-secondary education was interrupted by the onset of World War II. From 1942 to 1946, he served in the U.S. Army and participated in the D-Day invasion of France that turned the tide of the war in Europe. Warner then returned home to study at Morehouse College, where he received his M.A. in 1948. He earned his medical degree from Meharry Medical School in Nashville, graduating summa cum laude in 1951. Following an internship in Chicago and surgical training in St. Louis, Warner entered private practice in Atlanta as a surgeon specializing in breast diseases.

Warner also became heavily involved in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. He purchased his first home on Fielding Lane in Southwest Atlanta, defying the Berlin Wall-like Peyton Road Barricades erected in 1962 by Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. to segregate the community. Warner's act of resistance initiated a campaign for fair housing that opened housing in Southwest Atlanta to African Americans. Warner was also a plaintiff in a 1963 lawsuit that desegregated Emory University and the Fulton County Medical and Dental Society. As the civil rights movement gained momentum, Warner contributed medical and financial services to student activists and was jailed twice in hotel protests in Atlanta. In 1967, he founded the first minority medical surgical group, the Atlanta Surgical Professional Association.

An active member of several medical and civic organizations, Warner has been recognized several times for his contributions to medicine and the community. He served as honorary co-chairman of the Medical Support Group for the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, and serves on the board of trustees of Morehouse College. Warner retired from medicine in 1996. He and his wife, Sally Johnson, have one son, Clinton E. Warner, III, and live in Atlanta.

Dr. Clinton Warner passed away on June 30, 2012.

Accession Number

A2003.181

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/12/2003

Last Name

Warner

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

East Depot High School

Morehouse College

Meharry Medical College

First Name

Clinton

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

WAR05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hilton Head, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Accept, But Verify.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

7/11/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beans (Baked)

Death Date

6/30/2012

Short Description

Civil rights activist and surgeon Dr. Clinton Warner (1924 - 2012 ) served in the U.S. Military, facing action in World War II's D-Day invasion, and was active in the Civil Rights Movement.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1284,41:26420,313:44100,560:109625,1267:109965,1290:110730,1302:114895,1378:138820,1716:139180,1973:167460,2242:198740,2581$0,0:1570,23:2380,33:16895,254:25480,404:27803,444:50116,822:80278,1185:80902,1194:82852,1424:94498,1545:103056,1699:156601,2218:160790,2330:179598,2502:197220,2756:208884,2913:236810,3270:246742,3411:255646,3644:265332,3737:285350,3922
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Clinton Warner's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Clinton Warner lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Clinton Warner identifies his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Clinton Warner recounts the success of his maternal ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Clinton Warner describes his family's public service efforts and family farm

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Clinton Warner details his maternal aunts' and uncles' educational and professional accomplishments

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Clinton Warner explains how his maternal grandfather learned to read

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Clinton Warner describes his mother's life and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Clinton Warner relates his parents' childhoods, education, and marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Clinton Warner talks his father's position at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Clinton Warner recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Clinton Warner shares more memories from his early childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Clinton Warner describes the development of his race consciousness

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Clinton Warner recalls his experiences in school as the principal's son

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Clinton Warner talks about his affinity for the piano

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Clinton Warner reflects upon his religious views

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Clinton Warner talks about his path towards becoming a doctor

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Clinton Warner details his experience during and views on World War II, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Clinton Warner details his experience during and views on World War II, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Clinton Warner recalls his time at Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Clinton Warner recounts his time at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Clinton Warner describes segregation in Chicago, Illinois inside and outside of the hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Clinton Warner details the final steps of his entry into the medical profession

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Clinton Warner describes the challenges he faced entering the surgical field

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Clinton Warner talks about black colleagues in his medical field

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Clinton Warner reflects upon how the medical profession has changed over time, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Clinton Warner reflects upon how the medical profession has changed over time, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Clinton Warner talks about fighting for civil rights through the medical profession, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Clinton Warner talks about fighting for civil rights through the medical profession, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Clinton Warner describes his involvement in a legal suit against segregation in the medical profession and integrating the neighborhood of Southwest Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Clinton Warner talks about integrating Southwest Atlanta, Georgia despite resistance from the mayor and racist neighbors

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Clinton Warner talks about moving to Georgia from St. Louis, Missouri and being met with racism

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Clinton Warner talks about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Clinton Warner recalls forming the Atlanta Surgical Professional Association

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Clinton Warner talks about Sigma Pi Phi, otherwise known as the Boule, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Clinton Warner talks about Sigma Pi Phi, otherwise known as the Boule, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Clinton Warner comments on the Boule's secrecy and changes in the group

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Clinton Warner talks about his involvement with a black bank in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Clinton Warner talks about how he became chairman of the board of trustees at Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Clinton Warner talks about HistoryMaker Louis Sullivan

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

8$1

DATitle
Clinton Warner talks about his path towards becoming a doctor
Clinton Warner describes the challenges he faced entering the surgical field
Transcript
Sir, when did you get, I guess, the idea that you might want to be a doctor?$$That's a good question. Can I preface it? Can I tell you what--under that control that I have with my family up to age fifteen when I left to go to college. And I guess sixteen came on at that, shortly after that. I realized I was under control because I saw what other children my age were doing. Things I would, got to say I'd like to be doing, but, "I can't do that, I know the difference." And, and when I got to college [at Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia] I decided that I was going to do all those things. I did poorly in college the first two years. The first thing I did was get drunk. I started smoking. In spite of my shyness I would chase women a little bit, sometimes I didn't know what to say to them and all that stuff, but....$$This was at Morehouse, right?$$Um-hum. Morehouse in 1940, I came out the same year that Benjamin Mays came as the president. And I did that two years just like that. And I wanted--after the second year, I told my parents I wasn't going back to school. I wasn't doing well. I was going to drop out. It helped that I discovered I could get a job at the war department, so might have -- yeah, '42 [1942]. Pearl Harbor was what they were going...They were hiring people for "fourteen-forty-four," fourteen hundred and forty-four dollars a year, a job in the war department. It was a clerical job, (unclear). But I applied for that and got. That was more money than I'd ever heard of, probably more--almost as much as my father was making, $1,444. They didn't like it, but I told them that's what I was going to do, particularly when I got accepted. And I went on, spent a year there, and got drafted. I told them the reason I was dropping out of college because I'm going to get drafted anyway. So let me go and do some things. But, but that was my wild years, wild. And I got drafted, but--now I'm back to the question. At that time I thought I wanted to be a dentist. I wanted--there was only a few things you could strive for as far as a black person, preaching, I didn't want to do that; teaching, I didn't want to do that; physician; I don't think law was available to me in my venue at that time and I never thought of it. I decided I wanted to be a physician. And I got there and I found out how hard it was to do, and said, "Ok, I'll just switch over to dentistry, I'll take the easy road," that, that was my attitude then, a complete reversal. But when I came out of the [U.S.] Army, I knew I had to go back to college.$I was referring to the situation where I found that blacks in this town [Chicago, Illinois], I guess everywhere, I don't know, they're not--they weren't used to hearing about a black surgeon who did only surgery. And thought that--and it was true, that most of the black surgery was done by whites. There was a surgeon here that preceded me. He was not certified, but he was a good surgeon. And as I made my in-roads here, he invited me to join him in practice. However, I was certified and I just wouldn't do that, because he said, "What I want you to do is take night calls for me. And I was scuffling, and maybe help out in surgery sometime, and deliver babies. I said, "Doc, I can't do that." And then he understood why, but he tried to pressure me, and I didn't do it. We remained friends. I'd help him out from time to time, and--but I wouldn't join him in his practice, because he told me, "You can't make it unless you join me", because, I wasn't, you know, I wasn't getting many referrals and all, but gradually I got the trust, I guess, or something and got.... Shortly after I got here it was time for me to apply for the American College of Surgeons, which is a national organization and membership, and that is just the--grouped in the highest thing you could get. One of the requirements was to have three members of the College observe you operate and talk to you and so forth. And I, and I went that route and asked three of my white colleagues to come over. They, they would come to black hospitals and operate on their black patients. And I got to know them, but none had the time. I was refused; they said they don't have the time to do that. So the next year, I went to a meeting and I'd go--I started going to those meetings as a resident, like a student going to these meetings, in Chicago [Illinois]--was the first one I went to. They met in Atlantic City [New Jersey], and I was in this quandary, where nobody would give me the first step, because I knew I could make it into that organization once I got over the step. I ran into Loyal Davis, Loyal Davis, who, who is the father of Nancy Reagan, who used a different name then. He was big shot in surgery. In fact, he was president of the American College of Surgeons at that time. He also published the official journal of surgery, which is (unclear). I still take it. Anyway, I cornered him on the boardwalk in Atlantic City on a lunch break, and he listened to me. He said, "I'm surprised, I didn't know that was happening." He said, "Let me see what I can do about it." I said, "Thank you." I didn't ask him anything, I was just telling him the problems I was having "any suggestions" or something to that--it was a brief conversation. But, within weeks of getting back I got invited to come down, they were going to pass up that--since the surgeons wouldn't agree to come in the room with me, and I'd go before three-member, white panel to interview. And I went, and they were (unclear). I knew them. They were obvious--they hardly even accepted black patients. Lawrence Butler McDowell's [ph.] father was one of them. I, I'm not going to give you the names--he was a local politician. He got killed. But anyway, they grilled me, not about medicine, but about ethics and, and things like that. At the time there was a big thing about fee spreading for surgeons. In other words, if you sent me your patients, I'd pay you some money. I never did that. And, and they just grilled me and said, "We hear the black doctors over there do it all the time." I said, "Well, you heard wrong." You know, I just--and I went on through that, but those were the type of questions--not my capability as a surgeon because they knew that. I had been there long enough. And the next thing I knew, I got, got the approval to join and come up to Chicago again and be inducted, back in '64 [1964] or something, whatever.

Dr. Bruce Ballard

Psychiatrist Dr. Bruce Ballard was born in Waverly Hills, Kentucky, on December 19, 1939. The youngest of four children, Ballard was the son of a physician and a secretary. Ballard attended Yale University, where he graduated magna cum laude in 1960, and went on to Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, earning an M.D. in 1964.

Ballard began his career in Chicago, Illinois, performing his internship at Michael Reese Hospital from 1964 to 1965. From there, he began his residency at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, where he remained for three years. Joining the Air Force in 1968, Ballard was sent to Hawaii's Hickam Air Force Base as the chief of mental health services, and after completing his service, he returned to New York in 1970. Taking a position at the Harlem Hospital Center, he was involved in the training of students performing their residencies. Ballard took a position with New York Hospital-Westchester in 1976 as the associate director of the Adult Outpatient Department and later as the coordinator of the residency program. In 1981, Ballard was hired by Cornell University as the associate dean for equal opportunity programs, and today he still works in that capacity as well as serving as the associate dean for student affairs. He has also maintained a private practice since 1972.

Ballard has been the director of the Travelers Summer Research Fellowship Program since 1981. The program aims to increase the numbers of underrepresented minorities enrolled in medical school programs through hands-on experience at partner universities. Ballard has also been active on a number of committees, and has chaired the Committee of Black Psychiatrists of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the Selection and Advisory Committee for the National Institute of Mental Health Minority Fellowship Program of the APA. He has published numerous scholarly articles, served on the editorial boards of several textbooks, and given presentations to various groups on ethnicity and psychiatry. The Air Force presented him with a Commendation Medal in 1970, and the APA presented him with the Nancy C.A. Roeske, M.D. Award for Excellence in Medical Student Education in 2001. Ballard and his wife, Eleanor, live in New York. They have two children.

Accession Number

A2003.218

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/19/2003

Last Name

Ballard

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Yale University

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

First Name

Bruce

Birth City, State, Country

Waverly Hills

HM ID

BAL01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Kentucky

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sarasota, Florida

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

12/19/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Psychiatrist Dr. Bruce Ballard (1939 - ) was the associate dean of student services and equal opportunity at Cornell University.

Employment

Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii

Department of Psychiatry, Harlem Hospital

New York Hospital-Westchester

Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research

Cornell University Medical College

Delete

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard narrates his photographs

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Dr. Bruce Ballard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about his father's family history, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about his father's family history, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Waverly Hills, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls his early childhood education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains the intellectual and social environment of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the racial segregation in Louisville, Kentucky during his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard remembers the African American community of his childhood in Louisville, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains his father's efforts to combat tuberculosis

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls his time at Louisville Central High School in Louisville, Kentucky during the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the impact of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains how he decided to attend Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the demographics of the class of 1960 at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his experiences at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls his trips to New York, New York as a college student

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about how he spent his summers during college and his graduation from Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls entering Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, New York in 1960

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the coursework that interested him at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about his early interest in studying psychiatry

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains his decision to specialize in psychiatry

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about the origins and evolution of psychiatry

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his residency at New York State Psychiatric Institute

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about Dr. Elizabeth Davis

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about the New York State Psychiatric Institute and HistoryMaker Dr. Alvin Poussaint

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains how he was stationed at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii in 1968

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the population he treated at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard recalls lessons learned while a psychiatrist at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his analytic training

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about his tenure as chair of Harlem Hospital's psychiatric residency training program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about the APA and Cornell University's New York-Presbyterian Hospital's Westchester Division

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains how he became associate dean for minority affairs at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard details his work as the associate dean for minority affairs at Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard details his work as the associate dean for minority affairs at Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains his cross-cultural approach to psychiatry

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about the current focus on cultural competence in the field of medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Bruce Ballard speculates about his future pursuits

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains the need for African American psychiatric educators

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Bruce Ballard shares his views on integration

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Bruce Ballard talks about advances in the field of psychiatry

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Bruce Ballard explains why he would enter psychiatry again

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Bruce Ballard reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his parents' impression of his career

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Dr. Bruce Ballard describes the population he treated at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii
Dr. Bruce Ballard describes his residency at New York State Psychiatric Institute
Transcript
In a nutshell, there were these kinds of problems. First, a lot of youth problems. This is the late '60s [1960s]. This is the era of protests against the war [Vietnam War]. There were a number of young people who signed up for the [U.S.] Air Force. When you signed up for the Air Force, you signed up for four years. A number of young people did that to avoid being drafted into the [U.S.] Army, which was a two-year commitment, but could mean being shot at in a ditch in Vietnam, quite frankly (laughter). So, they signed with the Air Force. There, you were at least at the Air Force Base. And the Air Force has a different structure in terms of the--of how it works. In the Air Force, your pilots are officers. People who fly planes are officers. Your other people in the Air Force are what are called support troops. The primary mission is to keep the planes going so that this means that you're not going to be in a battlefield so much as a sergeant or whatever it is in the Air Force 'cause you're gonna be at the base involved in some aspect of keeping the whole thing going. So, some young people were savvy enough to realize this, that it was literally less dangerous for you if you were in the Air Force and got into the Air Force. However, for some young people, this meant four years. And a nineteen-year-old, nineteen to twenty-three, or twenty to twenty-four, can give many young people that this is taking some of the best years of my life (laughter). This is taking my youth, so you saw a lot of youth problems of people who are kind of sorry that they did it. Maybe it would have been better to take a chance to be drafted. Should I go to Canada, you know? I hate this war in the first place. We shouldn't be in it, so there were a lot of problems like that. A second set of emotional problems had to do with people who had been in the military and were on the verge of getting out of the military having done twenty years. And these were people who were often officers and they were now forty-five or forty-six. And if you didn't make certain promotional cuts in the military, you wouldn't get any farther. You would be just be discharged with some retirement pension perhaps. But in other words, if you were a lieutenant colonel, didn't make colonel, you were processed out at that twenty-year period. So, you couldn't stay on any longer, so this meant colonel so-and-so was going to a civilian world where you are Mr. so-and-so, and in your mid-forties. And they didn't know what was out there or whether or not they could make it in the "real world", so to speak.$$So were the--were you actually seeing people or were you doing more administration? Were you--$$No, I was seeing--I was taking care of them.$$You were, you were taking care--$$I was taking care of patients.$$Okay. So did you find that, that like on the colonel-level that they were like--I don't want to talk to you.$$Oh, no, no.$$You didn't have any of that--none of that?$$Oh, no, no, no, no, no, no, no.$$Okay, okay.$$No, people who are emotionally hurting want to see somebody who might help them.$$That's true, that's true.$$So--$$That's true. But you hear some of these stories sometimes--$$Yeah.$$Okay. I mean you do.$You were explaining that you were doing your residency--$$Um-hm.$$--at New York State Psychiatric Institute [New York, New York]--$$Yeah, um-hm, Columbia [University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York].$$--which is essentially Columbia University.$$Yeah.$$So you were saying and that, so you said that the focus was on, you know, the--I mean, what are the prevailing theories--$$Um-hm.$$--as you come out, you know, that are sort of prevailing terms of treatment?$$Um-hm, okay. Well, a lot of programs of that time were too tight. If you went to a kind of academic program that was university-based, and particularly, if it were a program in the East, there were, there were programs at say, Columbia, Albert Einstein [College of Medicine, New York, New York], where you largely worked with very ill psychiatric patients who were in the hospital a long time. And you had a cadre of supervisors who were training you in kind of psychodynamic methods. In this instance, they were usually psychoanalysts, so that I would say my own training had a distinct sort of dynamic and analytic focus. Partly because at that time, although we had some psychopharmacologic interventions available to us, there were three or four antidepressants. That was about it. There were several kind of medications that you could use in schizophrenia. That was about it. There were limitations in terms of what we could do. And in a training program like that, you certainly learn how to use those medications in an attempt to treat certain symptoms. But you were still very focused on, there must be some other sets of dynamic issues to explain why this person is presenting with the symptoms that they have. So it was really a combination, and heavily under an analytic emphasis. And for Columbia at the time, there was kind of always a message out there that the best of you in the residency will apply to the Analytic Institute [ph.] and become the best of psychiatrists. So that there was kind of the philosophy that if you really wanted a depth to understanding of things, you had become a psychoanalyst.$$Okay.$$And at the time, there's no question. It was probably the best education that we would term depth psychology, yes.