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Dr. Joseph A. Pierce, Jr.

Anesthesiologist Dr. Joseph A. Pierce, Jr. was born on August 13, 1935 in Marshall, Harrison County, Texas to Joseph A. Sr., and Juanita George Pierce. He attended Oglethorpe Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia. Pierce graduated from Jack Yates High School, in Houston, Texas in 1952. He joined Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and Beta Kappa Chi National Scientific Honor Society in 1955 at Texas Southern University in Houston, Texas where he received his B.S. degree in chemistry in 1957, and his father Joseph Pierce, Sr. served as dean of the graduate school in 1952; and later, president in 1967. He earned his M.D. degree in medicine in 1961 from Meharry Medical College of Medicine, in Nashville, Tennessee. Pierce completed his internship at GW Hubbard Hospital of Meharry College of Medicine.

Pierce entered the United States Army in 1962. He completed a residency in anesthesiology at Brooke General Hospital/Fort Sam Huston in San Antonio in 1967, where he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel and he completed a tour of duty in West Germany from 1967 to 1970. Then, in 1970, Pierce received his Texas State medical license and entered into private practice with Anesthesia Consultants in San Antonio, and joined the American Medical Association.

Pierce and his wife, Aaronetta, co-founded the San Antonio Ethnic Arts Society in 1983 to increase the awareness and understanding of visual art of African American ancestry. They also started Premier Artworks, Inc., specializing in the marketing and sale of artwork and books by African Americans. Pierce amassed a collection of roughly 8000 books by African American authors, including mostly first editions. Pierce was also a part owner of the NBA’s San Antonio Spurs basketball team from 1974 to 1988.

Pierce was a life member of the NAACP. His other memberships include the Texas Society of Anesthesiology, the San Antonio Society of Anesthesiology, Bexar County Medical Society and Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity. Pierce was inducted into the Prairie View Interscholastic League Coaches Association Hall of Fame in 2008.

Pierce and his wife, Aaronetta, have two sons, Joseph and Michael.

Dr. Joseph A. Pierce, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 8, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.121

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/8/2018

Last Name

Pierce

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Oglethorpe Elementary School

Jack Yates High School

University of Michigan

Texas Southern University

Meharry Medical College

First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

Marshall

HM ID

PIE04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

N/A

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

8/13/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

San Antonio

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

N/A

Short Description

Anesthesiologist Dr. Joseph A. Pierce, Jr. (1935- ) served in private practice for Anesthesia Consultants in San Antonio, Texas and was the co-founder of San Antonio Ethnic Arts Society in 1983, and Premier Artworks, Inc. in 1990 with his wife Aaronetta.

Employment

Anesthesia Consultants

U.S. Army

Favorite Color

N/A

Dr. Robert L. Smith

Professor and physician Dr. Robert L. Smith was born on December 20, 1936 in Terry, Mississippi to Willie B. Smith and Lillie Mae Smith. He received his B.A. degree in chemistry from Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi in 1957, and his M.D. degree from Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1961.

Smith completed his clinical training at the West Side Medical Clinic of Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois and returned to Jackson, Mississippi and founded the Family Heath Center, now known as the Central Mississippi Health Services, Inc. In 1964, Smith worked with the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) to provide medical services for civil rights workers during the Freedom Summer in Jackson, Mississippi as its first Southern Medical Field Director. Smith later worked as an assistant clinical professor of family medicine at the University of Mississippi Medical School, where he participated in the development of the Family Medicine Program as a co-principal investigator with the National Research Program’s Arteriosclerotic Risks in Community Studies. Smith worked as an adjunct professor at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts, Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee and Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi as well as professor emeritus position in the department of community medicine at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. During his career, Smith also assisted in institutionalizing the pre-health program at Tougaloo College.

In 2011, part of Jackson Metro Parkway was renamed in honor of Dr. Robert L. Smith. In 2014, Smith received the Community Service Award from the Mississippi Board of Trustees of the State of Institutions of Higher Learning, and was also named Diversity Educator of the Year. In 2017, the American Medical Association presented Smith with its Medal of Valor Award for his civil rights work. In the same year, the Mississippi State Senate honored Smith for his community health work. Smith was a charter diplomat of the American Board of Family Physicians and a charter fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians. He was an active staff member of Mississippi Baptist Health Systems, St. Dominic-Jackson Memorial Hospital, and Central Mississippi Medical Center.

Dr. Robert L. Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2017 and April 23, 2019.

Accession Number

A2017.222

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/13/2017

12/13/2017 |and| 4/23/2019

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Schools

Terry Grove School

Hinds County Agricultural High School

Tougaloo College

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Terry

HM ID

SMI35

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Orleans

Favorite Quote

Keep It Simple

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Mississippi

Birth Date

12/20/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Jackson

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Collard Greens, Potatoes, Okra, Grits and Eggs

Short Description

Professor and physician Dr. Robert L. Smith (1936 - ) was the president of Central Mississippi Health Services, Inc. and the first Southern Medical Field Director for the Medical Committee for Human Rights.

Employment

Mississippi State Hospital

Cook County Hospital

Tougaloo College

Private Practice

Central Mississippi Health Services, Inc.

University of Mississippi Medical Center

Tufts University

Jackson State University

St. Dominic's Hospital

Baptist Hospital

Merit Hospital System

Brown University School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Blue and Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:6762,192:9936,268:11316,292:17334,344:21436,374:29444,505:34525,555:39710,642:40680,655:45582,697:45914,704:46412,711:47657,734:48404,745:49815,771:54156,788:54571,794:58940,848:59212,853:64720,992:68969,1038:72787,1116:73534,1127:75360,1156:76273,1168:76605,1173:77020,1179:77767,1189:83448,1237:89090,1319:89727,1327:103417,1583:104600,1618:104964,1623:107239,1673:111300,1687$0,0:644,8:1380,18:7527,77:7931,82:10557,106:11163,113:14830,120:18592,166:19846,178:25774,235:42320,367:43040,377:45380,410:50562,440:50938,445:51314,450:51878,458:53758,502:54416,510:59038,546:59426,551:63985,607:73970,684:76170,834:86452,908:87285,956:99551,1100:100658,1111:105017,1182:108251,1332:115027,1511:115412,1517:115874,1524:117183,1558:117491,1563:118800,1583:128590,1671:129192,1680:129536,1685:131084,1762:131686,1770:135470,1820:136416,1840:139340,1916:148314,1989:154350,2048:155999,2070:156484,2076:156969,2082:159006,2107:161857,2121:165169,2345:169240,2462:176884,2539:179674,2602:180046,2611:180542,2622:186067,2681:189220,2740
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Robert L. Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about his paternal grandfather's journey to Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his home in Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his first piano

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's work in the livestock trade

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the movie theaters in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls visiting his sister in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the Terry Grove School in Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his decision to stop studying piano

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his introduction to medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls contracting salmonella

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the Utica Institute-Hinds County Agricultural High School, Colored in Utica, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his parents' disciplinary methods

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his decision to attend Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his experiences at Tougaloo College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his influences at Tougaloo College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his decision to attend the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his classmates at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the murder of Emmett Till

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his residency at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about his scholarship from the State of Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his return to Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls being surveilled by the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his decision to join the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the State of Mississippi's attacks on Tougaloo College

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers meeting Medgar Evers at Tougaloo College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his experiences of voter suppression in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers Medgar Evers' mass meetings in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers James Meredith's supporters

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about the assassination of Medgar Evers

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls the march after Medgar Evers' funeral

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers picketing the American Medical Association, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers picketing the American Medical Association, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls founding the Medical Committee for Civil Rights

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

3$7

DATitle
Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his introduction to medicine
Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls the march after Medgar Evers' funeral
Transcript
So you went from Dean Dixon the con- the conductor.$$(Laughter) To Dean Dixon to Charles Drew [Charles R. Drew].$$To Charles Drew.$$(Laughter) Yeah.$$What was it? You just liked the way they looked (laughter)?$$(Laughter) Well, but there was just the influence. Now what made me do that, I don't know. But it also made me a little different because some of my family and some of the students told me, "You don't know what you want to do." So, you know, that's kind of crazy, a country boy from Terry, Mississippi, in grade school [Terry Grove School] saying he want to be a physician. And (laughter) are you following me? And certainly there was no black physicians around. But I can't say that I wasn't exposed to a physician because it happened to have been two things. I had a white Jewish physician, who was a bird hunter who wanted to come down and hunt birds on my property's land. And my daddy [Joe Smith], being the bigot he was, he would ask my daddy to go out in the woods with him, and my daddy would say, "Well, take that boy," (laughter), you know. And he took me (laughter) and I would start asking him questions and we would start interacting with these different questions. And he, and then sometimes on these bird hunts he would bring me material. And he, when he retired, he gave a set of medical books.$$How old were you then?$$Oh, probably ten.$$So you were first exposed to medicine by a white Jewish doctor--$$Um-hm.$$--who was a bird hunter on your daddy's land (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Dad's pro- Daddy's property, yeah.$$How improbable is that?$$Well, it was (laughter) not that improbable, but that's the (laughter), that's the circumstances.$Tell me about the impact of Medgar's [Medgar Evers] assassination on you and your focus, what--just, just recall that.$$That, again--that, again, was just a horrific experience, culminating in demonstrations in the street, on Rose and later his funeral. And of course, I attended his funeral. And Mrs. Sanders [Thelma Sanders] and I and a group, not again thinking about the impact of our lives, joined that march and walked hand in hand from Rose Street, from Lynch Street [John R. Lynch Street] to Capitol Street. And I was, we was dared to come across Capitol Street. And thank god John Doar and his group parted the waters and let us proceed up through, up Capitol, up Farish Street to Collins and Frazier Funeral Home [sic. Frazier and Collins Funeral Home; Collins Funeral Home, Inc., Jackson, Mississippi].$$So you marched from Rose Street--$$I marched from Capitol, from--it was the Lynch Street Masonic Temple (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Temple.$$--all the way from up what then was Terry Road [Jackson Terry Road; Terry Road], all the way up to--down Pascagoula [Street] to Farish Street and from Farish Street--$$Across Capitol Street.$$Right. That's where the stop was. We weren't--$$So you're across Capitol Street. You didn't act--$$We weren't supposed to cross Capitol Street.$$To cross Capitol Street--$$That was--$$--but you did.$$We did.$$Thanks to John Doar, D-O-A-R, who had been appointed by--$$Appointed--$$--Kennedy [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy] to be his ombudsman for civil rights issues.$$Yes.$$That was--$$But we were supposed to be more down like dogs when we crossed, when we crossed.$$So what exactly did John Doar do?$$He came out from somewhere and--$$So did he have federal marshals with him or something?$$Had federal marshals with him.$$And the, and the new, and the city police--$$City police--$$--is just--$$--who was parked on, they was parked on rooftops and everything at Capitol and at Capitol and Farish to post a blocker, so we crossed Capitol.$$And they moved aside?$$Moved aside.$$Now explain to me why the white power structure was so adamant about you not marching on Capitol Street but merely crossing it en route to the funeral home [Frazier and Collins Funeral Home; Collins Funeral Home, Inc., Jackson, Mississippi]? What (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well--$$--what was, what was the thinking?$$It was, it was a symbol of, just a symbol of white oppression. We're in charge. That's the only thing that I can see, is a symbol of white oppression, that we were not supposed to be--we were not supposed to Capitol, cross Capitol Street. That was a great street.$$In the shadow of the old--$$It's--$$--state capitol.$$Shadow of the old state--a symbol of white power.

Dr. James Hill

Orthopaedic surgeon and professor Dr. James A. Hill graduated from Lane Technical High School in 1967. He went on to receive his B.A. degree in biology from Northwestern University in 1971 and his M.D. degree from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in 1974. After completing an internship at Evanston Hospital in 1975 and his residency training in orthopaedic surgery at McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University in 1979, Hill served a one-year fellowship in sports medicine with the National Athletic Institute of Health.

In 1980, Hill was recruited as an instructor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Between 1982 and 1994, he was promoted through the faculty ranks at the Feinberg School of Medicine. He was later appointed as a full professor of orthopaedic surgery in 1994. During his tenure at Northwestern University, Hill served on several university committees, including as a member of the Admissions Committee from 1982 to 1989; chair of the Motion Analysis Laboratory Implementation Committee from 1982 to 1984; co-director of the Center for Sports Medicine in 1982; and a member of the Minority Affairs Advisory Committee in 1989. Hill also served as a Major in the U.S. Army Reserves in 1985. He has provided medical care for both amateur and professional athletes and was the physician for the United States Olympic Team in Seoul, Korea in 1988. Later, Hill served as an attending physician at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, at Cook County Hospital, Children’s Memorial Hospital and the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. During his tenure at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Hill served on the Nominating Committee; as chair of the Medical Executive Committee in 2006; and as the hospital’s chief of staff from 2006 to 2008.

Hill has made hundreds of professional presentations and published papers in more than fifty-five medical journals, including Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation and Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. He has received numerous awards, including being honored in 2006 by Health for Humanity for leadership in improving cultural competency within the medical profession and global health. Hill was inducted in the inaugural class of the Northwestern University Black Alumni Association Hall of Fame (2007). He also received the Icon Award from the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Boys and Girls Club of Chicago (2008), and was honored by The Monarch Awards Foundation of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.’s Xi Nu Omega Chapter (2009).

Hill and his wife, Sandra Hill, have three children and one grandchild.

Dr. James A. Hill was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 20, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.236

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/19/2013

Last Name

Hill

Maker Category
Middle Name

Allen

Occupation
Schools

Lane Technical College Prep High School

Northwestern University

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

HIL16

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

Be Still And Know That I Am God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

9/14/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Catfish, Chicken

Short Description

Orthopedic surgeon Dr. James Hill (1949 - ) served as a professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and as the chief of staff for Northwestern Memorial Hospital from 2006 to 2008.

Employment

Evanston Hospital

McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Northwestern Medical Alumni Association

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Cook County Hospital

Jesse Brown V.A. Westside Medial Center

V.A. Lakeside Medical Center

Children's Memorial Hospital

Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

Provident Hospital

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:755,8:1400,14:1916,19:6515,55:7147,67:14810,199:20486,262:25328,305:25656,310:27870,350:28198,355:29018,368:30658,402:36398,552:36972,562:38120,578:39760,611:40744,624:41318,633:41646,638:42466,649:43040,657:43778,669:44352,676:55329,779:55961,790:56435,797:57146,808:58963,828:60701,852:61254,860:67557,965:69691,1020:82772,1155:83084,1160:86126,1216:86438,1221:89324,1273:90416,1295:91898,1328:92210,1333:92678,1340:100176,1495:105972,1588:111666,1687:112814,1704:116996,1782:124532,1893:125598,1911:126582,1924:126910,1929:131174,2042:134290,2080:137300,2099:140840,2146:146130,2225$520,0:1738,15:2086,20:3130,39:5920,148:6364,153:7474,166:7918,171:9858,189:10648,201:12149,220:12465,225:14310,238:14790,245:15510,256:21006,289:21746,304:23892,337:27518,419:27888,425:30922,475:34992,561:35732,574:40560,583:40852,588:42677,618:43042,624:43991,636:47495,773:47933,780:50415,822:50999,835:60486,901:63118,938:63776,946:64152,951:64904,964:66032,977:70534,1028:71030,1061:86248,1323:86544,1328:86840,1333:87432,1343:93201,1434:93565,1439:104670,1661:105085,1667:110201,1759:115556,1819:117596,1864:118004,1872:121744,1965:125812,1988:126104,1993:126907,2013:127345,2025:128148,2037:130192,2083:131579,2109:133623,2159:134426,2171:149096,2395:156578,2556:159244,2598:160190,2610:160706,2631:171992,2726:172732,2739:173398,2749:183971,2895:184772,2907:187063,2922:191323,3042:191962,3055:196822,3094:213770,3362:214470,3373:218040,3468:227630,3627:228890,3720:238255,3828:238930,3840:240730,3885:257691,4181:260526,4251:260850,4256:261174,4261:261741,4270:273385,4425:273760,4431:280960,4591:282160,4612:282460,4617:289608,4683:294768,4785:298036,4833:298638,4850:309422,4954:311858,4997:320150,5106:320525,5112:322025,5145:324950,5240:325700,5255:326075,5261:328775,5306:335840,5430:336302,5439:336698,5445:338155,5456:341550,5553
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Hill's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about his paternal family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill recalls his paternal family lineage

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill describes the house his grandfather built on land he purchased in the 1930s in Bolton, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls an early childhood memory and his decision to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood visits to the South

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes his parents' migration to and marriage in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill talks about growing up on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill describes the difference between the South Side and West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill talks briefly about his elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about his childhood neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood friends and reflects on white flight from Chicago, Illinois' West Side

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls keeping a gang member's son out of trouble and receiving protection in return

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill recalls his elementary school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about his difficulty learning to read phonetically

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill recalls the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill recalls his childhood family traditions

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill recalls a story about getting his brothers into trouble, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill recalls a story about getting his brothers into trouble, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill talks about the cancellation of his elementary school reunion

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about testing for admission to Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill recalls his father's opposition to his marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill recalls his experience attending Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes his high school teachers at Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about black physicians who inspired him in his adolescence

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill reflects on the Civil Rights Movement and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s effect on racial disparities in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about his attitude toward racism

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill reflects on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill recalls deciding to attend college despite the lack of counseling at Lane Technical College Preparatory High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill describes his acceptance to Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and his experience in the biology department

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill describes his interest in science

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill describes meeting and marrying his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about working at the post office and renting an apartment in Juneway Terrace in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about avoiding the Vietnam War draft by enrolling in medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill talks about challenges in medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill describes his medical school classmates and handling discrimination in his classes

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill recalls taking his family to the anatomy lab during medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about the significance of taking organic chemistry before medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about finishing medical school and deciding against specializing in neurosurgery

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill describes his residency in orthopaedics

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill remembers being racially profiled and arrested by the police

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill talks about his medical residencies

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill talks about his interest in post-graduate training after completing his orthopaedics residency

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about deciding to return to Chicago, Illinois to practice orthopaedics in 1980

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes returning to Chicago, Illinois to practice orthopaedics

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill describes his positions at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill explains his role on the Minority Affairs Advisory Committee at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill explains the origins and mission of the J. Robert Gladden Society

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his participation in the credentials committee and the oversight committee at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Feinberg School of Medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill describes the Northwestern Health Care Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill talks about his duties as attending physician in orthopaedic surgery and about papers he has published

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. James Hill lists the states in which he is licensed to practice medicine

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. James Hill recalls going to Ethiopia in the late 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. James Hill describes an article he wrote about healthcare in warzones while living in Ethiopia in the 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. James Hill talks about advancements in orthopaedic surgery

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. James Hill describes the racial disparity amongst patients who receive joint replacements

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. James Hill talks about how long knee replacement surgeries last

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. James Hill shares his personal philosophy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. James Hill talks about his wife and oldest daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. James Hill talks about his mentor's family and his own family-planning

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Dr. James Hill talks about his children and lessons he learned from his family

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Dr. James Hill talks about HistoryMaker Dr. Augustus A. White and culturally competent care

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Dr. James Hill talks about HistoryMaker Dr. Carlton West

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - Dr. James Hill talks about the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

Tape: 7 Story: 14 - Dr. James Hill reflects upon his life and future plans

Tape: 7 Story: 15 - Dr. James Hill considers his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 16 - Dr. James Hill offers a message to future generations

DASession

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Dr. James Hill recalls an early childhood memory and his decision to become a doctor
Dr. James Hill talks about his interest in post-graduate training after completing his orthopaedics residency
Transcript
So, now let's talk about you at an early age. And, we just talked about one of your earliest childhood memories, about going south each year. But, do you have another childhood memory that you can think of? Your earliest childhood memory.$$Earliest childhood memory. Oh, I got a lot of 'em. But, one that still 'til this day is relevant, is the fact that here in Chicago [Illinois] they had a big fire around Christmas time at a Catholic school [Our Lady of the Angels School, December 1, 1958], there was really in a Polish neighborhood. As you know, the demographics of Chicago, Chicago is probably the historically been the most segregated housing city in the United States. So, they had a Catholic school that was in a predominately Polish area. And, I think, it was week or so before Christmas, they had a horrific fire where--and, we had shortly before then got the old black and white TV. And, you could--they started running it on the news and you could see the house--the thing burning down. And, you could see the kids jumping out of the window. You could see them bringing out bodies on TV and, I think, at that point I was eight or nine years old. And, I sat there and watched it on TV and I said right then that I wanted to be a physician. 'Cause they showed all these kids at a morgue and they showed Cook County Hospital [later, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois], 'cause at that time that's where they took a lot of 'em. And, I was so impacted by the visual picture of that that I internally, and externally, I think, I told my parents [Doretha Lowe Hill and James Hill, Sr.] then. And, they kinda thought I was just having a childhood moment like being a cowboy or a fireman kinda moment. But, I said, I was gonna be a physician. And, lo and behold as the twist and turns that life goes, I've been fortunate. I'm one of the few people that I can honestly say have lived their dream from being a little kid. So, that's one thing I remember is, 'cause that was impactful enough that even though I twist and turns of life and you don't really know where your roads gonna lend--end. Really my vision at that point of where it was gonna go to, actually came true.$Let's go on to what happens after your residency [at Cook County Hospital, later John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois].$$What happened, at that time, most people completed a residency and went into practice. I really felt, once again my idea of; one, trying to control my own destiny to--with what God let me control. 'Cause our God controls everything, but I wanna give him at least a few ideas that he (laughter) might wanna consider before he direct me in one way or another. So, I figured out that if I wanted to live up to my potential, I would be much better getting some, what you would consider an academia, some post-graduate training. And, in my group, Northwestern [University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois] had a fairly large residency. And, so, there were ten people in my year. And, I was the only one that elected to do a post-graduate training. Meaning, to spend time in another area where you--a concentrated area of orthopaedics, whether than just going into practice after a residency. So, that was an interesting story too. So, I went to the chairman, who was like I said from day one, you know, I was kind of his favorite. Actually, the other residents would even say it, even though they were all white, they said, "You the favorite. You can get away with anything, where he gives us a hard time." So, I went to the chairman, I said, you know, "I wanna do some extra training." And, then he looked at me. 'Cause he actually got a Ph.D. So, besides being an orthopaedic surgeon, he had actually spent time getting a Ph.D. So, to have a resident come to him that wanna actually do extra training, he was ecstatic. So, he said, "Well, what do you wanna do it in?" And, this was when sports medicine was just emerging, when people started doing knee sculpts and everything else. So, when my residency, everybody used to have the big incisions on the knee. And, so, we--they just had started, just had come from Japan where you can start doing microscopic surgery on knees. So, I said, you know, once again, me not liking sick people, "This guy taking care of athletes, during microscopic surgery, that's sounds like what I wanna do." So, I--he said, "Okay." Then the next thought is, "Then where do you wanna do it?" I said, of course, "The places that are the best." And, the place that are the best is, at California, the Kerlan-Jobe [Orthopaedic Clinic, Los Angeles, California], like the guy that operated on Tommy John's elbow, was one place. And, then the other place was Columbus, Georgia, the guy that operated on Archie [sic, Robert] Griffin, III. What's his name? But, anyway, Columbus, Georgia--Andrews, Jim [James] Andrews, were the two prominent places for sports medicine. So, of course, I said, "I wanna go there." It's interesting, the guy that was prominent--so he contacted them both, based on my desires.$$And, this Dr. who?$$Dr. [William J.] Kane.$$Kane. Okay.$$Dr. Kane, who was chairman. He contacted them both, 'cause like I said, it was unusual to do extra training. The guy down at the Hughston Clinic [Columbus, Georgia], I had met him at a meeting. And, he was the typically southerner was--you know, Columbus, Georgia is in the middle of nowhere, as you know. And, so, he was, you know, he was a typical southerner, next generation from plantation owners mentality. On the other hand, once again, and I've gone through life with this all the time, that after people get to know me then they don't--stop seeing color again. And, just like I don't see color. It's real interesting if you approach 'em that way so you don't see color to make your decision, they after a while forget that you're black (laughter). And, so, he even though he's a hardcore southerner, I had interact--'cause I had written papers as a resident. You know, I had done research and things in ra--so, he knew of me. And, so, the chairman at some meeting or something, he brought me to introduce me to 'em. Actually, I think it was in Atlanta [Georgia]. Where I was at a meeting in Atlanta, he was there, and he said, "Why don't you go ahead a meet Jack Hughston," which was a senior guy then. And, and, I have talked to him about you wanting to come down here and doing a residency. So, this is like '78 [1978]. And, so, I--he meets me, and say, "I have read some of the things you're written, I think you would be a great addition, but we're not ready to have someone black"--and he was, he was not saying it in a malignant way. He was truthfully honest. He said, "We're just not ready for a black to come down here examining patients. And, so, I want you to come, but I know we're not ready." And, so, I thanked him. And, he actually, to this day, he invited me back to lecture when I got done. I mean, but he was--I respect the fact that he was just blatantly honest and he didn't, he didn't sidestep the issue. So, then, I ended up of course, out in California. So, I ended up doing my extra training out there. They wanted me to stay. I actually, during my training, I got to go see Magic Johnson. I was, I actually went back with Kareem [Abdul Jabbar] 'cause he hurt his ankle. But, I got to see the [Los Angeles] Lakers win the World Championship. I was on the field at the, at Pasadena [California] when Lynn Swann made the catch in the Super Bowl [XIV, 1980]. I got to see the [Los Angeles] Dodgers work the World Series. I mean, they took care of all the teams in L.A. [Los Angeles, California]. They wanted me to stay.

Dr. James Rosser, Jr.

Hospital chief executive and medical professor James C. Rosser, Jr. was born on September 14, 1954 in Rome, Mississippi. He attended James C. Rosser Elementary school and graduated from Gentry High School in 1971. After briefly attending the University of Florida, Rosser enrolled in the University of Mississippi and graduated from there with his B.A. degree in chemistry and biology in 1974. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Mississippi School of Medicine in 1980. Rosser then completed his surgical residency at Akron General Medical Center where he served as chief resident from 1984 to 1985.

Upon completion of his residency, Rosser began an academic/private surgical practice at Akron General Medical Center and accepted a position as assistant professor of surgery at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. In addition, Rosser was appointed as assistant professor of surgery at the Yale University School of Medicine, and as professor of surgery at the Albert Einstein School of Medicine. His hospital appointments include Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, Netherlands and St. Francis Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. From 1994 to 2002, Rosser served as chief of videoendoscopic surgery at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Then, in 2002, he was named chief of minimally invasive surgery and director of the Advanced Medical technology Institute at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Rosser has given more than 350 invited lectures around the world on topics ranging from education to remote control surgery. He has written over fifty peer-reviewed articles, sixteen chapters in books currently in print, and eleven digital books. He holds two patents and he has been credited with the development of several products and appliances. For his efforts, Dr. Rosser has received numerous recognitions and awards, including the NAACP Living Legend Award in Medicine, the National Role Model Award from Minority Access, Inc., the SAGES Gerald Marks Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Society of Laparoscopic Surgeons’ EXCEL award.

Rosser is married to Dana Mitchell Rosser. They have five children: Kevin S. Rosser, Duane C. Rosser, Angela N. Rosser, Taylor E. Rosser, and Tianna M. Rosser.

James C. Rosser, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 4, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.177

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/4/2013

Last Name

Rosser

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Gentry High School

University of Mississippi

University of Mississippi School of Medicine

James C. Rosser Elementary School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Rome

HM ID

ROS05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

You Don't Know What You Don't Know.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

9/14/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Catfish

Short Description

Hospital chief executive and medical professor Dr. James Rosser, Jr. (1954 - ) served as the chief of minimally invasive surgery and director of the Advanced Medical Technology Institute at the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Employment

Akron General Medical Center

Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine

Yale University School of Medicine

Albert Einstein Medical Center

Children's Hospital Medical Center

Union Hospital

Bellevue Hospital

Washington General Hospital

Riverview Hospital

Providence Hospital

Middlesex Hospital

Best Israel Medical Center

Favorite Color

Blue

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Rosser, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the origin of his nickname

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about growing up in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his father's service in the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his father's experiences during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the influence of his maternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about the music scene in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the black community in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the influence of comic books and television

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers black representation in the media

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his family's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the East Moorhead School in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his parents' role in the voter registration movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his early adolescence

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers visiting Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the white resistance to desegregation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the resources at black public schools in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his influential teachers

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about school desegregation in Indianola, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his dream of becoming a doctor

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his aspiration to play college football

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the obstacles to his enrollment at the University of Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his experiences of discrimination at Gentry High School in Indianola, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers matriculating at the University of Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his experiences of discrimination at the University of Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his transition to medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers meeting and marrying his wife, Dana Rosser

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his near expulsion from medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers graduating from the University of Mississippi School of Medicine in Oxford, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his decision to enroll at the Brompton Cardiothoracic Institute in London, England

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the mentorship of Dr. James D. Hardy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his influential medical professors

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls moving to Akron, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about the invention of laparoscopic surgery

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his contributions to laparoscopic surgery

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DATitle
Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about growing up in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement
Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his experiences of discrimination at the University of Mississippi
Transcript
There's a theory that Mississippi was the toughest place to be raised for black folks in this country. I mean, or, to live.$$Oh, absolutely, it's tough because the oppression was everywhere and you being in your place was everywhere. And see, my, my [maternal] grandparents [Pearl Mitchell and Ludie Mitchell] didn't, didn't vote. But, but my dad [James Rosser, Sr.] and my mom [Marjorie Mitchell Rosser] they were, I'll never forget going to the courthouse in, in '64 [1964], with shotguns, with white people lacing the courthouse when they repealed that you had to go through these tests and everything, the Voting Rights Act [Voting Rights Act of 1965], they were one of the first people to go there and vote. And then subsequently my dad and mom served on the election board. But, they had to go vote under the threat of their lives. I don't think people understand that now. You talk to a youngster now and they can't even fathom that. But here I am, a little kid, my parents gave me front row seats, we, we faced that danger as a family. And, my, my dad and my mom, they were absolute leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. But, a leader of a different kind. The black people called them Uncle Toms, the white people called them agitators, so they were right in the middle. And like my dad said, that's about where we need to be. Where black people didn't, didn't necessarily agree with everything they did. White people didn't necessarily agree with everything they did, now I'll giv- they did. Now, I'll give you an example, this is a burning memory. In Moorhead, Mississippi, where I grew up is in the Delta in Mississippi [Mississippi Delta], the Civil Rights Movement was in full swing, it was probably '64 [1964] or '65 [1965]. Freedom Riders were big. And, they boycotted the town, the, the business district of Moorhead, because we had to go into a drugstore, we couldn't have a malt, a milkshake, we had to get it in the back, this sort of thing. So, they locked down the town, boycotted the whole town. Well, one of the people in one of the stores they boycotted was a Mr. Harry Diamond, Diamond's Department Store. At the time Mr. Diamond was just, you know, as far as I'm concerned, white. But, he was really Jewish, all right. So, they boycotted Mr. Diamond's store, well my dad took offense to that. Because, he just said, "Two wrongs don't make a right." Harry Diamond really all his life had, you know, embraced black people. So, I'll never forget at the height of this boycott, where people are down there with pitchforks and everything like that, signs, my daddy came home on a Saturday. My dad never gets home on a Saturday, because he, my dad was a school principal. But, that was his part-time job. He was, he was, doing crops, selling produce, he was an entrepreneur really. I think that's where I get that from, being an entrepreneur. And he said, "You know what? We're going in town." That was rare. And he did something else rare, he gave us a dollar apiece. My dad doesn't give money for you to go into town like that, that's just, he's an ex-Marine [U.S. Marine Corps] and that was just frivolous. But, on this occasion he said, "I'm giving you a dollar and we're gonna go downtown and we're gonna buy something we don't even need from Harry Diamond." I'll never forget us, get, forget what we did, forget what we did. We all got in our Sunday best. My dad went in and I saw his Marine uniform and his .45, he put the holster on. And we get in the car we all go down. I'll never forget how the people parted as my dad's car came up. And the people, there was a big crowd of people blocking all the, the, the highway, the, the, the street. And so, it parted and we came in and parked. And then my dad got out and it was the first time I ever seen him open the door for my mama (laughter). He was that kind of guy. And we got out and he, he started walking and people just naturally parted, not a word being said. Then all of sudden he stopped right at the back of the car. And I'm saying, "Why is my daddy stopping with these people crazy out here, right now. Let's keep moving." That's me saying as a little child. And he stopped and turned around to address the crowd. And he said, "I'm getting ready to go into Mr. Harry Diamond's department store, and I'm gonna buy something I don't even need. And I'm gonna buy something I don't even need because, let me tell you, two wrongs don't make a right." And he then pointed out, "The shoes on your baby's feet, where'd you get 'em from?" "Mr. Diamond." "Did you pay for it in cash or credit?" "He gave me credit." And he went around and pointed people out in the crowd and basically reviewed everything this man had done. And he said, "Look, I want you to know two wrongs don't make a right. And I'm gonna tell ya right now and I'm going over here and I'm gonna buy this and nobody's gonna stop me." Everybody opened up, my dad walked in, we bought something, came back. And then next day, every merchant was boycotted except Mr. Harry Diamond.$Were you prepared, I mean, you know?$$Was we, were--no I wasn't prepared.$$Okay.$$I had to work a lot harder 'cause I didn't have all the courses that these kids had. I had to come in there and, man, work hard. I'm from a handicapped situation that wasn't my own making. But, we never complained, complained, we just adapted. I'll never forget, the, the black people there it was just amazing because nobody had gotten anything more than a C from English lit before, or English comp, as, as a black person. 'Cause every black person knew every black person on the campus of University of Mississippi [Oxford, Mississippi]. And what your grades were. So, the thing that when I came out and I had got a B in English comp it was like it went through wildfire. And was (unclear) 'cause nobody had done well. Had all these great black kids who came from unprepared situations who always wound up dropping out. And I'll never forget that was a source of pride. Because they would say we weren't gonna be able to do with this sort of thing and we would do it. And I came there, I was a youngster, I mean 'cause I was always ahead. They couldn't even figure out how the heck did you get here this young, and how you staying here and doing well. So, we were able, I was able to establish my reputation there as being a, of being a, a, a great student. And the first black fraternity on campus was Omega Psi Phi [Omega Psi Phi Fraternity], and I was one of the founding members of that. Eta Zeta Chapter in, in '73 [1973], they had not had a black Greek society on campus.$$Now, composition I, I was just thinking that composition that is one thing that University of Mississippi is known for. It's known for its English department?$$Yeah.$$And its writing courses if nothing else 'cause (unclear)--$$And it's tough.$$--all the writers in Mississippi that have, have come out of--$$It's tough.$$--(unclear) have taught there like Faulkner [William Faulkner], so?$$Oh yeah! Yeah so, so that was a, but, but, people weren't doing well. You have to realize at that time three black people couldn't meet for more than fifteen minutes in one spot on our campus. That was in the rule book (laughter). That was in the rule book. But, you know what there was so many good people. Friends today, Mikey Brunt [L. Michael Brunt], who's at Wash U [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri] who's an unbelievable world class surgeon. He was a guy that befriended me. And to this day, you know, we have just such good feelings about, about each other. You know, and he didn't go to University of Mississippi medical school [University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Oxford, Mississippi]; he went to another place. But, but it's just a beautiful thing to talk about those days in organic chemistry. And all, we always were in those courses together. And he always spoke to me, always befriended me. I mean a lot good people were there. And really, for the most part, I, I think I got through there without a, a lot of problems.$$Okay, how did, I mean did the black students study together, did you have a, were they organized?$$No, no, socially everybody was a crab in the barrel thing. Uh, you know, I mean really wasn't that tight camaraderie everybody wanted to think they were special, and, and individual and, and they didn't do that much. And, and in fact most of the time people weren't doing well as they had done before and they kind of kept that inside. I saw we had a lot of people that would drop out.$$No, Black Student Union?$$(Unclear) yes, they did but it wasn't strong, you know what I mean. As strong as (unclear) we had little simple things, some little organization things. But, I wasn't, I wasn't really a part of that, as much. Because I was trying to get out of there, I think. Well, 'cause I, you know, I wanted to move on. I wanted to move on. The whole point why I accelerated through high school [Gentry High School, Indianola, Mississippi] and through college was to get to do what I wanted to do quicker, you know. I was pushing for that.$$Okay, okay so was there any particular teachers or administrators or students at the University of Mississippi that stand out in terms of their association with you or?$$Not really, because you know that was a big situation, sterile environment. Not really had anybody that was forceful, you were, it was, you were on your own (laughter). You know, you were on your own. And so, no, nobody there. I was just, I didn't want to fail. I didn't want to go home and have people point at me, "Hey there goes Butch Rosser [HistoryMaker Dr. James Rosser, Jr.], he could of done this. He could of done that." I heard that all my life, you know. Somebody went somewhere and could of done this, could of done that. They're still living on what they could of done. I, I didn't wanna do that, I had a fear of failure, I really did.$$Okay.$$A fear of failure.

Dr. Patricia Bath

Medical scientist Patricia E. Bath was born on November 4, 1942 in Harlem, New York. Bath’s father, Rupert, was a Trinidadian immigrant and the first black motorman in the New York City subway system; her mother, Gladys, was a descendant of African slaves and Cherokee Native Americans and worked as a housewife and domestic. Bath attended Julia Ward Howe Junior High School and Charles Evans Hughes High School. In 1959, Bath received a grant from the National Science Foundation to attend the Summer Institute in Biomedical Science at Yeshiva University in New York, where she worked on a project studying the relationship between caner, nutrition, and stress. Bath went on to graduate from Hunter College in New York City with her B.S. degree in chemistry in 1964. She then attended Howard University Medical School. Bath graduated with honors in 1968 with her M.D. degree and also won the Edwin J. Watson Prize for Outstanding Student in Ophthalmology.

From 1970 until 1973, Bath was the first African American resident in ophthalmology at new York University’s School of Medicine. During this time, she married and gave birth to a daughter, Eraka, in 1972. In 1973, Bath worked as an assistant surgeon at Sydenham Hospital, Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospital, and Metropolitan Surgical Hospital, all in New York City. In 1974, she completed a fellowship in corneal and keratoprosthesis surgery. Then, Bath moved to Los Angeles, California where she became the first African American woman surgeon at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center. She was also appointed assistant professor at the Charles R. Drew University. In 1975, Bath became the first woman faculty member of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute.

In 1981, Bath conceived of her invention, the Laserphaco Probe. She traveled to Berlin University in Germany to learn more about laser technology, and over the course of the next five years, she developed and tested a model for a laser instrument that could be tested to remove cataracts. Bath received a patent for her invention on May 17, 1988, and became the first African American female doctor to receive a patent for a medical invention. She continued to work at UCLA and Drew University during the development of her laser cataract removal instrument, and, in 1983, she developed and chaired an ophthalmology residency training program. From 1983 to 1986, Bath was the first woman chair and first female program director of a postgraduate training program in the United States. In 1993, Bath retired from the UCLA Medical Center. Bath was inducted into the International Women in Medicine Hall of Fame in 2001.

Patricia E. Bath was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 29, 2012.

Bath passed away on May 30, 2019.

Accession Number

A2012.243

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/29/2012

Last Name

Bath

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Charles Evans Hughes High School

Hunter College

Howard University College of Medicine

Julia Ward Howe Junior High School 81

P.S. 68

First Name

Patricia

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

BAT10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Yes.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/4/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fruit

Death Date

5/30/2019

Short Description

Physician Dr. Patricia Bath (1942 - ) was a professor of ophthalmology at Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and the UCLA School of Medicine in Los Angeles, California. She invented the laserphaco probe, a device used in cataract surgery.

Employment

Yeshiva University

Harlem Hospital

Columbia University

New York University

University of California, Los Angeles

Charles R. Drew University

American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Patricia Bath's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her mother's move to New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her paternal great-great-grandfather, Jonas Mohammed Bath

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her father's experiences as a merchant seaman

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her home life

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the Harlem community in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early education, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her aspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early education, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers Dr. Albert Schweitzer

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls the era of school desegregation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her high school science fair experiment

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers Charles Evans Hughes High School in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her early scientific achievements

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her scholarship to Hunter College in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her activities at Hunter College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the social organizations at Hunter College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her admission to the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her mentors at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early interest in ophthalmology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the medical licensing process

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her internship at New York City's Harlem Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her role in the Poor People's Campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the birth of her daughter

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her decision to become a single parent

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls joining the faculty of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her fellowship in keratoprosthesis

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the founding of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls the start of her medical career in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the development of community ophthalmology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her study of blindness in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers inventing the laserphaco probe, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers inventing the laserphaco probe, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about the advancements in ophthalmological laser surgery

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls becoming the chief of ophthalmology at the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the procedure for cataract surgery

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her decision to retire

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her artistic interests

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her involvement in the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her involvement in the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the support of her parents

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
Dr. Patricia Bath describes her role in the Poor People's Campaign
Dr. Patricia Bath describes the founding of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School
Transcript
I neglected to ask you about 1968 at, at Howard [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.]. Now were you on, you were, I guess, on the verge of graduation when Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was killed, right?$$Yes, yes, yeah, that, that, you know, I wanted to mention about Dr. King earlier, and somehow it escaped me, but when I pledged AKA [Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority] as an undergraduate at Hunter College [New York, New York], my chapter [Lambda Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.] nominated me for a national office which I did win, and I became the highest ranking undergraduate officer on the board of directors, second (unclear) basileus is what they called it and in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], when King, Martin Luther King, Jr. was speaking at the boule, I had the honor of introducing him to the boule. And so I met Dr. King and it was a brief interaction, you know, moments, minutes, but he was the type of charismatic person that could change (laughter) your whole perspective and so it had a great effect on me. And when I later went to medical school, and when he was killed, it, it did have a big effect on me and I participated in Resurrection City. I organized the medical students so we could provide healthcare, to some extent, during the Poor People's Campaign. You know, we had, that was really, it turned out to be a linchpin in the success of Resurrection City because they were trying to close it down for whatever reason and they didn't want to close it down because they didn't want poor people at the mall that would have not been an American way of closing it down, but, so they thought they could close it down based on health reasons, you know, overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and that's where the medical students came in and my role, with the role of some others, but we established the medical coordinating committee for the Resurrection City. Dr. Mazique, Ed Mazique [Edward C. Mazique], I recall, and Reverend Fauntroy [HistoryMaker Reverend Walter Fauntroy], they were the ones--and Joseph Rines [ph.] from Seventh-day Adventist, they were the ones who came up with this concept and, you know, the medical students supported it and so every time the Department of Health [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services] would come up with an excuse to close it, you know, we'd put our heads together and find a way to mitigate, you know, whether it was clean water testing, food preparation, number of infections, kids who needed shots, you know, it was my first field, battlefield experience.$$Okay, now this happened, I guess the march, the Poor People's Campaign was a dream of Dr. King's and took place after his--$$Death.$$--assassination, and--$$Yes, yes, '68 [1968].$$--after the riots and all those--$$Yeah.$$--were over, basically--$$Sixty-eight [1968].$$Yeah, '68 [1968]--$$Um-hm, the year I graduated [from Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.].$$Yeah, so was that in, did that take place in June, May or June of that year?$$Well, the Poor People's Campaign was for several months--$$Yeah.$$--but, you know, and, of course, when I graduated in May, I stayed, I stayed there until July, had to start my internship [at Harlem Hospital; Harlem Medical Center, New York, New York].$$Okay.$$So I left.$$So, yeah, my recollection is that it, yeah, it started maybe a month or two after Dr. King was assassinated then, with the march, then occupation of the Mall [National Mall, Washington, D.C.]--$$Yes.$$--you know, so, okay so you there until Ju--$$It was great to be a part of that.$$Okay.$$And I have an article on that too. That's, that was published in the Journal of the National Medical Association, there's a shot of myself and Dr. Mazique and the coordinating committee there and our story, what we were doing.$$Okay.$Now, once again, Charles R. Drew [Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School; Charles R. Drew University of Science and Medicine, Los Angeles, California], now, was Charles Drew conceived of as a hospital to give opportunities for African American and maybe even minority medical students?$$Now keep in mind, I'm in New York [New York] and they, they founded this institution before I arrived. My understanding is that Charles Drew medical school was founded as a result of the McCone Commission. There were riots after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] and--there were riots in Los Angeles [California] and a commission was set up. One of the findings of the commission was that the area of Watts [Los Angeles, California] and South Central [Los Angeles, California] was not only impoverished, but the people lacked access to medical care. So, the McCone Commission determined that one of the positive things that they could do was to promote the establishment of healthcare. So two things happened. One, they built Martin Luther King Hospital [Martin Luther King Jr./Drew Medical Center; Martin Luther King Jr. Outpatient Center, Los Angeles, California], which was the county; and secondly, the Drew medical school was created to nurture the hospital, in the same way that Columbia [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York] would nurture Harlem Hospital [Harlem Medical Center, New York, New York]. The problem though was that Drew had not existed as an established medical school. It's not as if it was a transplant of Howard [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], which couldn't be done. So in order to empower the newly established Drew medical school, the leadership at Drew decided that they would affiliate half of their departments with UCLA [University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine; David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California] and half of the departments with USC [University of Southern California School of Medicine; Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California]. They felt that that way Drew could maintain autonomy. Had they only affiliated with UCLA, then they would, they felt they would lose autonomy or the same would happen if they had only affiliated with USC. But they felt that by having two major strong institutions that they could maintain autonomy and grow and then eventually, if decided, cut ties with both. So, it was mainly established to provide service to the underserved community of Watts and South Central.

Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.

Surgeon, professor, medical director, and contributor to community service, Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. was born to Daisy L. Sherard Yancey and Arthur H. Yancey on August 19, 1916 in Atlanta, Georgia. Daisy was a housewife, and Arthur worked as a U.S. Post Office mail carrier. Mr. Arthur H. Yancey wrote an autobiographical book in 1959 entitled Interpositionulification: What the Negro May Expect. In 1933, Asa G. Yancey graduated as valedictorian from Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta. He earned his B.S. degree with honors four years later from Morehouse College. Yancey was one of four African American students in his class at the University of Michigan Medical School where his elder brother, Bernise, graduated from medical school in 1930.

Upon receiving his M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1941, Yancey first completed a general rotating internship from 1941 to 1942 at what is now Metropolitan General Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. It was from this experience that he decided to pursue general surgery training. He served as First Lieutenant in The United States Army Medical Corp. before he returned to complete his residency in surgery at Freedmen’s Hospital, Howard University, where he trained under the guidance of Dr. Charles R. Drew. In 1945, he was a surgical fellow at the U.S. Marine Hospital in Boston and then became an instructor of surgery at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. Also about this time, Yancey started his involvement with the National Medical Association (NMA), the largest and oldest national organization for African American physicians.

Following his time in Boston and Nashville, he served as the Chief of Surgery at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama and then the Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory Univerisity where he established the first accredited general surgery training program for black surgeons. With his return to Atlanta in 1958, Yancey was invited to join the faculty at Emory University School of Medicine where he became an Instructor of Surgery in 1964. In 1972, Yancey was appointed medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and associate dean at Emory University Medical School. He was appointed full Professor of Surgery at Emory University Medical School in 1975. He continued to work at the Emory University Clinic and Grady Memorial Hospital until his retirement in 1989.

Yancey has contributed numerous articles to the academic surgical community, and he has been recognized with many awards His article, “A Modification of the Swenson Operation for Congenital Megacolon," published in a 1952 issue of The Journal of the National Medical Association, describes a surgical procedure that preceded Soave’s publication by ten years. Yancey has also written articles exploring issues of medical care, health care, and poverty including "Medical Education in Atlanta and Health Care of Black Minority and Low Income People," and "The Challenge of Providing Health Care for the Poor: Public Hospital Perspective". His book Portrayal of a Lifespan describes life as it was for him in the 21st Century. Yancey received the Bennie Service Award, in 1990 and he receivedan Honorary Doctor of Science from Morehouse College and Howard University. . The Society of Black Academic Surgeons established a lectureship in the name of Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. The Emory University Health System recognized his professional contributions over the years by naming a healthcare facility, The Asa G. Yancey Health Clinic, in northwest Atlanta.

Yancey was married to the late Carolyn “Marge” E. Dunbar and they have four children: Arthur H. Yancey II, M.D, Carolyn L. Yancey, M.D., Caren L Yancey-Covington (deceased), and Asa G. Yancey, Jr., M.D.

Dr. Asa G. Yancey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 19, 2012.

Dr. Asa Yancey passed away on March 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2012.056

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/19/2012

Last Name

Yancey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Edmund Asa Ware School

Booker T. Washington High School

Morehouse College

Michigan Medicine

First Name

Asa

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

YAN04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sea Coasts of Alabama, the Gulf of Mexico

Favorite Quote

Let's Get On With It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/19/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

3/9/2013

Short Description

Surgeon, medical professor, and medical director Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. (1916 - 2013 ) served as the medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and dean at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. He also created the first accredited surgical training program for black doctors in Georgia.

Employment

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

United States Marine Hospital

Meharry Medical College

Tuskegee Veteran's Administration Hospital

Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital

Emory University

Grady Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his father's personality and book

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his early schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his personality as a young child

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his family's home

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his relationship with his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his childhood friends

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the race relations in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his residency at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his salary as a medical intern

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls working as a surgeon in Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his role at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the Tuskegee syphilis experiment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes Dr. William Montague Cobb

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls the history of Grady Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls becoming the chief of surgery at the Hughes Spalding Pavilion in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the conditions at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls serving on the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the achievements of the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls joining the staff of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the closure of black hospitals

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. shares his views on public healthcare

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

9$8

DATitle
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi
Transcript
Now, what happened when you graduated from Morehouse [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia]?$$Well (pause), I caught the train (laughter) I caught the train and went to Detroit [Michigan] and I had a cousin there, a Mr. A.W. Prince [ph.] and I was just, my father [Arthur H. Yancey] wrote Mr. Prince and asked if I could live with him and Mr. Prince said, "Yes, I'd be glad to have him." So I was a roomer in Mr. Prince's home and I walked around Detroit and walked the streets looking for a job and that was in the days of, the Great Depression was still going on and a job was mighty hard to find, but I finally found a little job in a furniture store and my job was to keep the stock room straight with the furniture and keep it ready to place in the showroom to see. And, of course, while I was doing that I decided to go out to Ann Arbor [Michigan] and look around a little bit. My brother [Bernise A. Yancey] had finished medical school out there at the University of Michigan and, so I took the train or bus or whatever was moving at the time, and went out there and decided I'd go by the dean's office and tell him I wanted to go to medical school (laughter). He said, "You what?" He said, "You haven't even applied." I'm sure I realized that but that didn't make any difference. I'm here now and I want to go to medical school. He said, "When?" I said, "This September." That was maybe in July or August. He said, "No way. Just forget it." He said, "We took this class and decided who was going to be a member of this class last March and here you come in here in July and talk about you want to go to medical school. Just forget it." (Laughter) So I said, "Thank you very much," and left. And I knew I had a pretty good transcript at Morehouse and probably better than a lot that he had (laughter) so I went on home and wrote Morehouse and asked them to send my transcript to the dean there at, A.C. Furstenberg, at the University of Michigan school of medicine [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan], which they did, of course, and when I figured my letter had time to get to Morehouse and Morehouse had time to send in a transcript, I went back out there to see the dean and he said, "Well, you're here again," and I said, "That's right, here I am." He said, "What do you want?" I said, "I want to go to medical school," (laughter). "When do you want to go?" "I want to go this July. I want to go this September," and here it is July. He said, "Forget it," (laughter). We took this class--I said, "Now wait a minute." I said, "I have my transcripts and you can see it." But when he got it, he realized it was better than a whole lot that he had and I knew it would be so he says, "Just wait a minute." He sat there a minute or two and I sat there a minute or two and he said, he reached into the drawer and pulled out a blank form, he said, "Fill this out and come on to school" (laughter).$Tell us about Mound Bayou [Mississippi].$$Mound Bayou--$$Yeah.$$--was an all colored town. The word colored was popular at the time. It was a small town and they had a, back in those days our people always joined a burial society and they'd pay twenty-five, fifty cents a week so that when they passed away, they would have enough money in that pool to get a decent looking casket and have a decent service. So, that was, and Mound Bayou was an all Negro town and that was a popular word at the time, and it had a Negro mail and it was just a, the people in the surrounding community and it was just houses here and there and farms and so forth, and the Mississippi Delta country, the land was just as flat as the top of that table, and the people put their nickels and dimes and quarters and fifty cent pieces together and built, and they had a burial organization. That was what it's for, it's a big house there, but after many years had passed, they found they had a lot of money, so they decided to build a hospital and they built the Taborian Hospital [Mound Bayou Community Hospital, Mound Bayou, Mississippi] and the idea was that the people who were members of the Knights and Daughters of Tabor [International Order of Twelve Knights and Daughters of Tabor] would continue to pay their yearly policy, but they could go to the hospital and get treatment free at the time of service, and they did that, but the chief surgeon that they hired to take care of people began to try to collect fees from the patients. Some of them would pay, some of them got mad and objected. So, they came to a parting of the ways and that's how they invited us from Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] to come down and help out, because he wouldn't treat the ones who wouldn't pay him. So, we went down and became chief in the hospital, so I was running the hospital and he built a little tent across the street and took his friends over there. We just ignored him and paid no attention. We just kept running the hospital.$$Sir, what was this doctor's name? What was his name?$$Dr. Howard [T.R.M. Howard]. He finally moved to Memphis [Tennessee] and practiced there for a while until he retired, I guess, I don't know.$$Okay. Is he any relation to the Dr. Howard that was involved in civil rights down there? Is he related to the Dr. Howard from Mississippi that was involved in civil rights?$$I don't remember anything about that.$$Yeah, there was a Dr. Howard from Mississippi that moved to Chicago [Illinois] who was involved in the Civil Rights Movement down there. Famous Dr. Howard.$$He did go to Memphis and then to Chicago, and I can't tell you about the other--I don't know anything about that.

Dr. Hollis Underwood

Internal medicine physician Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood was born on October 29, 1957 in Chicago, Illinois to Robert Arthur and Janetta Martha Crowe. Underwood graduated from Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan in 1975. She attended the University of Maryland as a zoology major. Underwood then completed her M.D. degree at Howard University School of Medicine and did her post graduate residency training at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota.

In 1987, Underwood worked in the National Health Service Corps at Frederiksted Health Center in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. While there, Underwood co-chaired the 1989 Peer Review Committee at the Virgin Islands Medical Institute in Christiansted, Virgin Islands. Underwood then began working as the Medical Director and Acting Project Director for Frederiksted Health Center and as the District Health Officer at the Charles Harwood Memorial Hospital in Christiansted until 1990.

In 1990, Underwood was hired as the Lead Internist and Director of Hypertension & Lipid Clinic at the Ohio Permanente Medical Group in Parma, Ohio, before working as an intermediate Lipid Specialist for the American Heart Association at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1994, Underwood became a consultant for the Department of Community Internal Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona, where she worked until 2000.

In 1997, Underwood acted as a consultant on a sixteen member multi-disciplinary medical team that traveled to Dakar, Senegal to provide cardiovascular medical care for the community. The venture, Project MEDHELP, led by Albert F. Olivier, consisted of cardiothoracic and general surgeons, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, internists, public health experts, dermatologists and gynecologists.

In February 2000, Underwood became President of Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc., working alongside her husband Dr. Paul L. Underwood, Jr., in Scottsdale, Arizona. Underwood served on several boards and organizations including the Center for Women’s Health, Vibetree Foundation and Planned Parenthood. She is also active in several organizations including the Links, Inc., the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood resides in Phoenix, Arizona with her family.

Dr. Hollis Jonetta Crowe Underwood was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.208

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/14/2007

Last Name

Underwood

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Holly

Schools

Cass Technical High School

University of Maryland

Howard University College of Medicine

Ernie Pyle Elementary School

Mayo Medical School

Lutheran Parish School

First Name

Hollis

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

UND02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

If You Can't Be Who You Need To Be, By Remaining Who You Are.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arizona

Birth Date

10/29/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Phoenix

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salad

Short Description

Internal medicine physician Dr. Hollis Underwood (1957 - ) specialized in internal medicine and was president of Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc. in Arizona.

Employment

Sonoran Health Specialists, Inc.

Mayo Clinic

Ohio Permanete Medical Group

Charlest Harwood Memorial Hospital

Frederiksted Health Center

Favorite Color

Chartreuse

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Hollis Underwood's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls living in Gary, Indiana and Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her neighbors in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the socioeconomic climate of Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes Ernie Pyle Elementary School in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls living on St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her community in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls moving to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her early aspirations to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her peers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers applying to college

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers the University of Maryland in College Park

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her professors at the University of Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls the summer program at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her mentor, Dr. John Townsend

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers treating her first patient

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers her experiences at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers dating her husband, Dr. Paul Underwood

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her fellowship at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Hollis Underwood recalls working at the Frederiksted Health Clinic in St. Croix

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers becoming a mother

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Hollis Underwood reflects upon her humanitarian medical work

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers moving to Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Hollis Underwood talks about her community activism

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Dr. Hollis Underwood describes her peers at Cass Technical High School in Detroit, Michigan
Dr. Hollis Underwood remembers treating her first patient
Transcript
So you go to Cass Tech [Cass Technical High School, Detroit, Michigan], now for the benefit of our viewers, Cass Tech is considered, was considered one of the elitist schools of Detroit, Michigan?$$Um-hm.$$So now you go to Cass Tech and what, what happens there for you?$$Well, you know, well the first thing is that, and this was a new concept for us, but, you're right, it was a magnet school, but you had to test to get in but there was, there were some of us who were invited to attend. And we were invited to attend and become a part of science and arts curriculum, which was an honors curriculum and, and not knowing Detroit, so we're relatively new there, but my mother's [Jonetta Everette Crowe] best friend who was like a second mother to me in many ways, just said, "Oh, absolutely, this is an opportunity you don't want, you know, not take advantage of," and, and that was it. You know, that was it and I, Cass was--it opened up even broader horizons, now you know we used to call it the pickle factory 'cause it looked like a pickle factory, you know, it was a pretty big old school, we had to all take the city bus to go to school. But I went to school with some kids that were just incredible people, some of whom are friends to this day, some of whom have done some amazing things in this world, made some tremendous footprints.$$Okay give us a few names of people that that, that we might want to know about.$$Oh wow. Well one is David Alan Grier, who is a very well-known actor, and he was a Cass Techite, you know, a Cass Techie, and Wanda [Wanda Whitten-Shurney], oh gosh, I'm blocking out her last name, she's a hematologist, her father [HistoryMaker Dr. Charles Whitten] was a, a very, very well-known hematologist in Detroit, did a lot of ground breaking research with sickle cell disease and she was a classmate, actually not only in high school, but also medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], Harriet Covington [Harriet Covington-Smith], also a friend from medical school as well as high school, oh my gosh. And then, then you had the musicians who are amazing, Geri Allen, one of my classmates who is a very well-known established recording artist, straight ahead jazz pianist, J. Jones [ph.], a very accomplished saxophone player, I mean, so we, you know, we had all of the curriculums, then you had the perfor- the performing arts crowd and you know, and nobody gave any credence to the computer science club, but they're probably all, they've--$$(Laughter).$$--probably all became millionaires, up to the '90s [1990s], and we just lost track, I don't know (laughter).$$So--so Cass, they had a very fertile environment for you to grow, would you say (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh amazing. So, so much, I mean, you know, friends were attorneys and, and you know, the whole, you know the, the legacy, the Patti Coutiver [ph.], a very good friend of mine in high school, an attorney, her fam- her father was an educator, a very well established and well known educator. The former superintendent of schools [Cornelius L. Golightly], his daughter, Linnie Golightly [Linnie M. Golightly], was a classmate at Cass, so it was incredible and many of my friends wer- are physicians and, and, and attorneys and other careers that are considered leadership type careers as a result of that.$(Simultaneous) Do you recall your first assignment?$$Uh-huh. I was in community internal medicine, oh my goodness, ha, ha, with a gentleman who sadly, y- what I've come to realize is that some people's mediocrity prevents them from seeing the greatness in other people and they make it a conscious effort to put the squash on other people because of their own internal insecurity, and I saw a lot of that, I saw a lot of that, people hiding behind the shields of the Mayo Clinic [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota] and with their own mediocrity. And I saw some things that really exposed what that whole experience was, was all about but, but I, I remember being nervous, a, a new intern, first rotation out of medical school [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] and a patient came in, he was very, very, very critically ill, we worked on him, you know, along with the, you know, the E- you know he came in through the ER [emergency room], I worked on him, did, you know, some things; read, worked, read, worked, you know, you had to really kind of move fast, got him kind of stabilized but you know, the, the attendings, consultants would always say, you know, call us, keep us posted, let us know what's going on. So maybe I called them at four o'clock and when I said, "I just wanted to let you know about the person came in and this is what happened and, you know, he's, he's doing better now." He said, "Well if he's still alive, call me in the morning," bam! Or, "We'll deal with it in the morning," and he hung up the phone on me, and I thought, okay so that, that, that was the first baptism by fire, and I realized, okay, so now I understand.$$So, so, so what did you do at that point when he did that to you?$$Oh, I--$$Were angered, or, or do you say, or what did you do?$$Oh, yeah (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) 'Cause you--$$--it angers you.$$--had a patient.$$But it makes you strong. Let me tell you something, and, and this is what the old folks say, if it doesn't kill you, it'll make you strong. It made you strong. Every little hurt, every little slight, every little obstacle, every little pin that was pushed in my side intentionally, and mes- mostly intentionally, it just made me stronger. I'm, I, I'm, I made sure that there wasn't anything in medicine that I had not seen or knew about and I've, I've made that my philosophy. And I read, I read the PDR ['Physicians' Desk Reference'] and never forgetting once, I went to see somebody at his office, one of the consultants and I had the PDR and I was reading about something, he said, "What are you doing? Reading the PDR?" You know, he was kind of snickering, kind of in a very snide, and I said, you know, and I just laughed and said oh no. Yeah, I was reading the PDR, as a matter of fact, I was gonna read every aspect of that drug, at least what we knew about so I would be that much better informed so.

Dr. Fred Parrott

Foundation executive and gynecologist Dr. Fred D. Parrott was born in Houston, Texas on December 22, 1934. After graduating from Jack Yates High School in 1944, Parrott enrolled at Howard University where he earned his B.S. degree in psychology in 1947. Following the completion of his undergraduate study, Parrott earned his M.S. degree in microbiology at the University of California, Los Angeles. During the early 1950s and during the Korean War, Parrott entered the Medical Service Corps of the United States Army , where he was stationed in Tokyo, Japan for two years while he worked as a bacteriologist. He also opened a tailor shop in Tokyo, fitting servicemen with Hong Kong made shirts. Parrott’s first employment in the medical field was working as the territory manager for Wyeth Pharmaceutical. In 1958, Parrott graduated from Meharry Medical College and became a fellow of the University of Minnesota Medical Center Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Parrott moved to Los Angeles, California upon graduating and did an internship at the Los Angeles County Hospital before becoming a fellow at the University of Minnesota. After completing his fellowship, Parrott returned to Los Angles and began private practice.

In 1986, Parrott founded the "Real Men Cook" Foundation, whose mission was to increase the number of minority health care providers by awarding scholarships to students attending Historically Black College and University medical schools in the United States. In 1994, after being diagnosed with prostate cancer, Parrott founded the Real Men Cook Foundation Center for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer. The Foundation’s goals expanded to increasing awareness and education of prostate cancer and prevention in inner city communities.

Parrott is a member of the American Medical Association, the National Medical Association, the Los Angeles Country Medical Association and the Charles R. Drew Medical Society. He is also a board member of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and a founding member of the National Prostate Cancer Coalition. Parrott is the recipient of the Back Heritage Award and President Medal of Honor from Howard University, and was awarded an honorary doctorate from Meharry Medical College.

Dr. Fred D. Parrott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 7, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.196

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/7/2007

Last Name

Parrott

Maker Category
Middle Name

D

Schools

Jack Yates High School

Meharry Medical College

University of California, Los Angeles

Howard University

First Name

Fred

Birth City, State, Country

Houston

HM ID

PAR06

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Education, Education And More Education Is The Best Way To Rescue Men From Prostate Cancer.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

12/22/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Health Food

Short Description

Foundation executive and gynecologist Dr. Fred Parrott (1934 - ) founded the Real Men Cook Foundation.

Employment

Wyeth Pharmaceuticals

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:456,16:12412,297:13444,315:16110,359:17056,379:18948,401:19550,410:22302,442:22990,452:24624,466:31296,538:36330,587:40968,602:44535,631:51495,686:65086,893:77870,1005:79086,1014:86920,1074:91764,1109:92516,1118:98903,1191:99407,1200:99785,1211:100289,1220:100667,1227:112492,1373:113257,1379:126636,1573:132484,1683:144845,1876:175300,2187:185563,2282:195864,2420:196300,2425:197063,2433:200682,2484:212354,2589:245110,2914:245838,2923:247230,2940$0,0:5025,133:11025,224:11475,251:28728,508:29196,515:36996,709:37464,716:40038,785:64210,1040:69225,1127:74155,1211:82938,1314:259329,3650:259993,3659:260491,3666:261487,3676:284891,4045:299130,4246:302580,4262
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Fred Parrott's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Fred Parrott lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Fred Parrott lists his parents' names

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his mother's relatives

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers his mother's death

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about the role of women in the family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his decision to attend medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his role as a student representative for Wyeth Pharmaceuticals

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his father's dental practice

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Fred Parrott recalls his fellowship at the University of Minnesota Medical Center

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his relationship with his father

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his sister

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his experiences at Jack Yates Senior High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Fred Parrott recalls his U.S. military service in the Korean War

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his medical practice

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes the Real Men Cook Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Fred Parrott recalls his and his father's prostate cancer diagnoses

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes the mission of the Real Men Cook Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his collaboration with The Links, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his plans for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Fred Parrott describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Fred Parrott remembers his religious upbringing

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Fred Parrott talks about his organizational involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Fred Parrott reflects upon his life

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Dr. Fred Parrott describes the Real Men Cook Foundation
Dr. Fred Parrott recalls his and his father's prostate cancer diagnoses
Transcript
But, one of the greatest, one of the greatest activities that we did, a community activity we did, we started the Real Men Cook Foundation for Education [Real Men Cook Foundation for Education Center for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer], and we did that in the '80s [1980s] and we did that for about ten years.$$This is the Real Men Cook--$$Foundation for Education, it was a culinary extravaganza where we would, where we'd get a hundred black men from various, various professions--like Chief Parks [HistoryMaker Bernard Parks], and Chief Williams [Willie L. Williams], actors, and writers, to be chefs. We get no less than a hundred men, and we did that for ten years. And we did that for the, for the, to raise money for the four historically minority medical schools [HBCUs] and that's where we raised over $500,000 for them. And, that's how we established our academic scholarship of excellence and that was a very fun, fun type of event. We did that for ten years. In 1993, I was diagnosed with prostate cancer. And our board of directors changed our mission from education to bringing education on erectile dysfunction, on men's issues, on nutrition, on prevention of obesity, on prostate cancer and prostate cancer screening. And, there we, we--that was founded on February 2, 1994 in the chamber of Cecil Murray [HistoryMaker Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray]. Cecil Murray was the faith leader for, for FAME A.M.E. Church [First African Methodist Episcopal Church (FAME), Los Angeles, California]. He was our first honorary, honorary chairperson. The founding members of the Real Men Cook Foundation were Dr. Eila Skinner [Eila C. Skinner] who is associate professor of urology at USC Norris Cancer Center [USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California], Dr. Donald Skinner [Donald G. Skinner] who is the chairman for professor of department of urology, USC Norris Cancer Center, and Fred D. Parrott, M.D. [HistoryMaker Dr. Fred Parrott], prostate cancer survivor. We started that over twelve years ago. I was diagnosed in 1993, and by May was cured of prostate cancer and I've been free ever since. And they have been with us ever since. Dr. Skinner, she still does the, the regions--the letters out to, to men who have been screened. And since that time, I imagine, I've screened over fifty thousand men, we've touched over a million families, we have, we have personally talked to over five hundred ministers, we've sent out millions and millions of flyers and posters and information on prostate cancer. We have a, we have a outreach office in the inner city. We have a one-on-one consultation model on prostate cancer education--director, Juan Burnson [ph.] is director of that. We have a Latino outreach director, Victor Grimaldo, who speaks and talks and educates the Spanish speaking men on erectile dysfunction, on men's issues of prevention of obesity, prostate cancer and prostate cancer screening.$Okay Dr. Parrott [HistoryMaker Dr. Fred Parrott], 1993 you were diagnosed with prostate cancer, but there was something in your life that was very personal to you in regards to prostate cancer, what was that, sir?$$Well, my father [Fred Parrott, Sr.] died of prostate cancer; he died a horrible death of prostate cancer. He, it's really interesting. He, he came up one Christmas, and then I sent him over to a urologist, Dr. Bledsoe [ph.]. And Dr. Bledsoe called me up that he had did, at that time they did needle biopsies, called me up and said everything was fine. Then he called me back later on, my father was (unclear) to go, my father was so happy, it was clear. He called me up, and he had just got a report back, and he said, "We got bad report, I was given the wrong report. Your father does have prostate cancer." And my father was happy, leaving that day, I said, "Well, Doc, I can't tell him, you gonna have to tell him." So he said, "Okay." So he, he--when he got back home to Houston [Texas], he arranged for a bed at Baylor University [Baylor College of Medicine], a great cancer center in Houston. And, he was diagnosed with prostate cancer, and it metastasized, and there was no, there was no treatment; you'd give him the estrogen--no treatment as of the date. And, he, he died of--he was in so much pain, I used to hear him moan out. He was a deacon, a very spiritual man, he used to moan out, "Oh God, what have I done, what have I done for me to have this much pain?" A tremendous amount of pain. But I had forgotten that he had prostate cancer. I never got tested until about ten, fifteen years later. So went over with a friend of mine who was having, who was having, having his prostate removed; not because of prostate cancer, but because of hyperplasia. And I sat with him on the operating, with him in the operating room, and I realized that I need to go get tested. When I went to get tested my PSA [prostate specific antigen] was four. At that time, there was a zero to four in milligrams, and the next year, I had four, I said, "I better go get a biopsy." And, I called on my own, "Oh, we have a doctor in the office," the new biopsy had just came about. So he did a biopsy on me in his office. It came back negative, and I said, "I still need to go." So, I called Dr. Donald Skinner [Donald G. Skinner], 'cause I looked around to see who, who the specialist who was doing--the most promising specialist who was doing, doing work in prostate cancer. And, talked to Skinner, one of the people that I was referred to and I called him up, and he referred me to Dr. Eila Skinner [Eila C. Skinner], his associate; no relationship, just had the same name. So, that's how I became--and, she did a biopsy on me and it came back positive, had a--made a score of six, and my PSA rate, and then my PS--. I had a, I had a Real Men Cook--it was in 1996, I had a Real Men Cook for Education [Real Men Cook Foundation for Education Center for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer], coming up and I wanted to do that, do that one before I went in for surgery. By the time I was ready for surgery, my PSA had risen up to about eight or nine, but it was, it was localized, and we did a very radical; it was what they call a nerve-sparing procedure. So, I've been free ever since.$$So you were diagnosed in 1993?$$Um-hm.$$But it wasn't until 1996 that you actually had the actual--?$$No, 1990--1994, we, we founded it. Nineteen ninety-four [1994] we did our--we founded in the office of Cecil Murray [HistoryMaker Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray]. But we never made any, asked for any donations until two or three years later. We did do a prostate cancer education extravaganza with Norris [USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California] one year. That was in 1996, I think.$$But you get diagnosed in 1993, and you had the surgery in 1993?$$I had surgery in 1994.$$Ninety-four [1994]. Okay, had surgery, okay, you had a radical, you had a radical. Dr. Parrott, in your, now that, here you now--okay, in this part of your life now, you're now a prostate cancer survivor?$$I'm cured of prostate--yes.$$And I know people argue about that term cured and in remission (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Okay. I'm a prostate cancer survivor.

Dr. Mildred Jefferson

Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson was born in 1927 in Pittsburg, Texas - the daughter of Gurthie Roberts Jefferson, a public school teacher, and Millard F. Jefferson, a Methodist minister. She attended public schools in East Texas and entered Harvard Medical School in 1947 after receiving a B.A degree summa cum laude from Texas College in Tyler, Texas and a M.S. degree from Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts.

Jefferson became the first African American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School in 1951. She was the first woman to be a surgical intern at Boston City Hospital and the first woman admitted to membership in the Boston Surgical Society. She is, however, best-known for her longtime support and involvement in the “right-to-life movement” in America. She helped to establish the National Right to Life Committee and served three times as its president. She has been a local, regional and national speaker and activist.

After her Harvard Medical School graduation, Jefferson served as a general surgeon with the former Boston University Medical Center and Assistant Clinical Professor of Surgery at Boston University Medical School.

Jefferson has had a career-long interest in medical jurisprudence, medical ethics and the interface between medicine and law, as well as their impact on public policy and society. As a founding member of state and national “right-to-life” organizations, she is president of Right to Life Crusade.

Jefferson is a founding member of the Board of Governors and a past President of the Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts and is also active with the American Life League and Americans United for Life Legal Defense Fund. Jefferson is also a member of Black Americans for Life and is held in high esteem by Feminists for Life. Jefferson passed away on October 18, 2010.

Accession Number

A2006.063

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/5/2006

Last Name

Jefferson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Fay

Occupation
Schools

A.L. Turner High School

Texas College

Tufts University

Harvard Medical School

Harvard

First Name

Mildred

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

JEF02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Monterey, California

Favorite Quote

To Thy Own Self Be True

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

4/6/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Apples (Washington State Red)

Death Date

10/18/2010

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Mildred Jefferson (1927 - 2010 ) was the first African American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School, the first woman to be a surgical intern at Boston City Hospital and the first woman admitted to membership in the Boston Surgical Society.

Employment

Boston University Medical Center Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Mildred Jefferson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the origin of her name

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her profession

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the community of Carthage, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls being honored by her hometown of Pittsburg, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her mother's teaching career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her father's ministry

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls visiting her maternal family in East Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her family physician, Dr. Allen Moore Baker

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her influences as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her early experiences of epidemics

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her premedical studies at Texas College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her transition to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her home in Boston's Roxbury neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her graduate studies at Tufts College in Medford, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls attending Boston's Harvard Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her studies at Boston's Harvard Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her surgical internship at Boston City Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls the challenges she faced as a female surgical resident

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her career at Boston University Medical Center Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her medical association memberships

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers Dr. William Augustus Hinton

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the National Right to Life Committee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her National Right to Life Committee presidency

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about Feminists for Life of America

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about Black Americans for Life

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her presentation style

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her role at Massachusetts Citizens for Life

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her media involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the right to life movement

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her correspondence with President Ronald Reagan

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers President Ronald Reagan's election in 1980

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her campaign for the U.S. Senate

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on care management

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on affirmative action

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls receiving the Father Flanagan Award for Service to Youth

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her involvement with the Knights of Columbus

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls being honored by Texas College in Tyler, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on sex education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about the role of health education for youth

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her sources of moral and financial support

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her written works in progress

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her aspiration to own a newspaper business

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her childhood in East Texas, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her childhood in East Texas, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about the importance of history

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her hopes for the African American community and how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$8

DATitle
Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her studies at Boston's Harvard Medical School
Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the National Right to Life Committee
Transcript
You were beginning to tell me about your preparation at Harvard Medical School [Boston, Massachusetts] to move into surgery. But before we get back to that, you mentioned earlier, the dog lab, and I wanted to--what was that about?$$Well (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Where did that fit into your studies and research?$$In the, the second year, when we were beginning our clinical studies, in order to prepare us for being able to assist in the operating room, we were given basic operating and surgical technique in a dog lab. And, although I'm just one step removed from being an antivivisectionist because I knew we took good care of the dogs. And I knew that the handlers, who took care of them after we finished, treated them well. I could accept doing our operations on the dogs. 'Cause after all you had to treat your patient well to have him or her survive. So, I could do that, but that was one benefit of being in Harvard Medical School. We did have a very, very good program. And, Dr. Carl Walter [Carl W. Walter], who headed that department and Dr. David Hume [David M. Hume], who was another one of my professors, who was only as resident at that, was the chief resident at that time, gave me the opportunity of putting in extra time. So, I had fairly advanced surgical technique by the time I even got to my internship.$$Well, tell me about that preparation then, the third and fourth years, and the surgical experiences (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Well, I took every course that I thought would be of value and I certainly took everything that I thought would make up for what would be, expected to be shortcomings. So, that I did an elective in urology because most people would expect that a woman doctor would not be very strong in urology. Although, obviously women have urological problems as well. In most urological practice I think most urologists see more men than women in their practices. So that in medical school I not only did special work with--in urology, but I took the course with Dr. J. Hartwell Harrison, one of my favorites, who was one of the great urologists of his time. And, he said to me, to work helping him with sections of a book that he was working on. So, that if you look in that textbook, and I've forgotten which one it is, you will see in the charts and the diagrams. He always gave me credit for the things that I did. So, he'd make sure my name was listed (laughter). So, if we lo- go back to those old editions of that textbook, you will see that work.$Okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Because we found after a year or so that the Value of Life Committee [Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts] was somewhat passive. You have to wait for people to invite you to speak. (Laughter) You can't just go speaking to them if they haven't invited you. And because it was really intense promotion and accelerated promotion of the abortion acceptance, we decided we'd better get something more formal. But, we were pushed because the pro-abortion groups got, in 1972, got a non-binding referendum on the ballots of twenty carefully selected cities and towns that would repeal the abortion laws of the Commonwealth [Commonwealth of Massachusetts]. So that many of the people that we had spoken to at other times came together in ad-hoc groups to fight that issue. And, we joined them together and that's--was the nucleus that became Massachusetts Citizens for Life [Boston, Massachusetts].$$I see.$$Although, we lost that referendum by 55/45. When we finally got our applications in and articles of incorporation, we got them back about ten days or two weeks before January 22nd, '73 [1973] when the U.S. Supreme Court handed down its landmark abortion decisions, Roe versus Wade [Roe v. Wade, 1973] and Doe versus Bolton [Doe v. Bolton, 1973]. But, in June of that year, we formally created National Right to Life Committee. And, I had the honor of giving the keynote address that launched the organization.

Dr. Warren Strudwick, Sr.

Dr. Warren James Strudwick was born on December 23, 1923, in Durham, North Carolina. His mother was a teacher and his father a physician. As a child, he enjoyed a privileged life until his father’s death in 1931, when he was eight years old. Strudwick attended Whitted Elementary School and as a young boy enjoyed building model airplanes and was a member of the safety patrol. He received his diploma from Hillside High School in 1940.

Strudwick attended North Carolina College for Negroes in 1940, where he studied chemistry until he transferred to West Virginia State College in 1942. That same year, he was drafted into the United States Marine Corps where he served in a combat unit during World War II. In 1943, he attended Purdue University to complete Officers Training School. In 1946, Strudwick entered Howard University, receiving his B.S. degree in biology and chemistry in 1948. He went on to attend Howard University Medical School and while a student met and married his wife, Dr. Bette Catoe. He graduated from medical school in 1952.

In 1958, Strudwick helped to integrate Washington, D.C. hospitals. From 1961 to 2000, he taught surgery at Howard University Medical School. While teaching, he also operated a successful private practice in Washington, D.C. Strudwick was a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Board of Surgery, the American Medical Association, the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Abdominal Surgeons. He was also actively involved in the NAACP, Urban League and Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. Strudwick also wrote and published a number of medical related articles.

Strudwick passed away on October 27, 2008 at the age of 84. He leaves behind his wife and three grown children; two are physicians and the other an attorney.

Accession Number

A2004.084

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/17/2004

Last Name

Strudwick

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

James

Occupation
Schools

W. G. Pearson S.T.E.A.M. Elementary School

Whitted Elementary School

Hillside High School

North Carolina Central University

West Virginia State University

Purdue University

Howard University

First Name

Warren

Birth City, State, Country

Durham

HM ID

STR05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/23/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Death Date

10/27/2008

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Warren Strudwick, Sr. (1923 - 2008 ) helped to integrate Washington, D.C. hospitals and has taught at Howard University Medical School. Strudwick also had a successful private practice in Washington.

Employment

Post Office, Washington DC

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Warren Strudwick interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick remembers his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick remembers his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick traces his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick shares his earliest memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Warren Strudwick recalls the sights and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Warren Strudwick discusses his brother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Warren Strudwick gives an overview of his school life

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick describes his childhood interests

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick discusses his early religious participation

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick recalls influential figures from his adolescent years

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick recounts his high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick details his college experience and his military stint

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick recounts his medical school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick discusses changes in his family life

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick reflects on his medical training

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick reflects on the medical profession during the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick describes his experiences as a medical school professor

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick evaluates the "managed care" healthcare system

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick considers the effect of violent crimes on healthcare systems

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick describes his family's medical legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick shares advice for aspiring medical practitioners

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick reflects on developments in the medical field during his lifetime

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick describes how he'd like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick shares thoughts on the significance of history

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick reflects on his father's success

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Warren Strudwick considers his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Warren Strudwick reflects on systems of government

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Warren Strudwick remembers his father
Warren Strudwick recounts his medical school experience
Transcript
Now, let's talk a little bit about your father, starting with his name, where he grew up and where he was born?$$Okay. His name was William Canady Strudwick. Now, where he got both names, I do not know. The William and the Canady, I have no idea, except for the fact that the name William, when you look through the Strudwicks on the computer, you see a lot of Williams, and it may be they just picked that up. Canady, I have no idea about. Strudwick, I think it came from the plantation owners, I suppose. I don't think Strudwick is an African name, as such, so this is the only way that I can say it came about. He, as far as I knew--my daddy died when I was eight years old [1932]. I have very few recollections of what he was like. I do know that he was very good to me and certainly, I remember that very well. He was a disciplinarian and my mama [Mabel Christina Wormley] used to say, well, I'll tell your daddy when he comes home what you did, you know. And I was scared, but anyway, he was not the one who would give me the whipping. I had to go outside and get the switch from the hedges and my mama would do the whipping (laughter) for whatever I had done wrong, you know (laughter). But anyway, I remember he was flamboyant and an immaculate dresser. I don't remember ever seeing my daddy in what one would call work clothes. He always had on a suit and tie and cuff links and all, and he--and I guess in those days, doctors were that way. They, and that's what I remember. I remember he liked cards too. We were in a black neighborhood, in which everybody, you were either poor, middle class or what one would call well-off black, you know. And so we were well off as blacks go in that--in fact, we had two cars as I remember. Prior to that time, I was told that he used to make his house calls in a wagon, you know, horse and wagon. We had a barn behind our house. I can remember that, the little barn, and I remember that barn. But I don't remember the horse and the buggy. I do remember the cars that we had. We had a Packard, which was a super car. I guess it was the Mercedes of that day. And we had a Hupmobile, which was a two-seater car, which in the back was like a convertible, you know, the back seat was, you could open, and you'd sit in the back seat in the air and all. So I remember that about him. I remember he used to carry me at times to East Durham to visit his patients, and he had some friends down there who we'd go to see. The man who married him, I remember him as Reverend Sowell and his wife. They had a store in East Durham. I can remember very well the, going down there in these cars and all. And at that time, there were not paved roads. They had dirt roads, and all, and I remember, you know, sometimes it was muddy and all. But he would take me with him and all. And this is about all I can remember about my father. I remember it was very devastating to my mother and to my brother [William Wormley Strudwick], you know, when my father died. But being eight years old, it just did not translate to me very well, until I started not being able--my mother would tell me that we can't afford this and we can't afford that. That's when it started to hit me. But from that point on, from eight, through nine to ten and all that, took it, but anyway, there were some things that I wanted. So I started working at ten years of age. I started finding little jobs to make money.$What were our experiences like in medical school, like were there any classes that you really enjoyed taking in medical school?$$Yeah, I guess, you know, to me all of 'em were enjoyable if it were not for who--sometimes who was teaching and all, but the subject itself, I mean, was quite interesting, you know. You were learning all the time. You learned about bacteria, you learned about the germs, and you learned--they called it bacteriology. You learned about anatomy, you learned the anatomy of the body. You learned what is biochemistry, you know, the chemical elements of the body. You--it was just a very interesting experience for me anyway. And you did not--what you were trying to do is get the basics before you went to clinical medicine, and everybody strived to get to clinical medicine when you start treating, taking care of patients. But anyway, and early, I, I enjoyed it.$$So while you were in medical school, did you know that you wanted to be a surgeon or were you still trying to determine what type of medicine you would go into?$$No, I wanted to be a surgeon, yeah. I wanted to do something with my hands. I always wanted to do something--that's why I said I wanted to be an engineer and all. I wanted to be something, you know. So surgery was the thing that I would be doing with my hands and all. And it was fascinating to me. Surgery was fascinating, and I wanted to be able to do something to a person that would make them better. And most things in surgery, you were operating to make a person better. In medicine, there were some things that--and most things with surgery, you could cure, if you're gonna operate on 'em. But in medicine, you weren't--you could treat them, but you knew they were gonna die no matter what you did (chuckle). So surgery was my choice as far as that was concerned.$$And while you were in medical school, you--as you mentioned, while you were at Howard [University] you met your wife [Bette Catoe]. And you all married in medical school. What was that like, being married while going to medical school?$$It was okay. And the reason it was okay, and I think that one of the best things that happened to me was maybe going into the service. I grew up in the service. It made me know that I, when I got out, I had to do something, and it gave me the GI Bill of Rights, and I don't think, if I had not had the GI Bill of Rights, I would have been able to afford to go to medical school or to finish college. I don't know, I have no idea, but I do know the GI Bill of Rights took me all the way through except for my last year of medical school in which I got a scholarship for that. But up until that point, you know, the GI took care of us. I worked part time. I worked--part of the time, I worked at the post office, you know, just about the whole time I was in medical school really. And you can't work now. They do not allow you to work. It's too much to learn. They don't allow you to work now. If you're gonna work, you can work at something related to medicine. So it's a little different in this day. I know some of my classmates worked full time, you know, doing something, during medical school days.