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Reverend Raleigh Trammell

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) national board chairman, Reverend Raleigh Trammell was born on December 30, 1936, in Grantville, Georgia. His father, Walter Trammell, worked in a cotton mill and his mother, Thomasina Smith Trammell, was a homemaker who ardently preached to him the benefits of education. Trammell attended segregated Grantville School all twelve years, graduating in 1955. He went on to attend Clarke University, then known as Clarke College, where he was influenced by Reverend Dr. William Holmes Borders of Wheat Street Baptist Church and Dr. C. Eric Lincoln, founder of the Black Academy of Arts and Sciences. When he graduated in 1959, Trammell was an ordained minister and was well-seasoned in civil rights doctrine.

Trammell met Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and joined the SCLC in 1960. In 1963, he participated in the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham, Alabama, Albany, Georgia and the March on Washington. Trammell also participated in the march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, promoting voting rights for African Americans. After the assassination of Dr. King in 1968, Trammell played a major role in the Poor People’s Campaign. He later moved to Dayton, Ohio, joining his parents and siblings as residents and was hired as pastor of Central Missionary Baptist Church. In 1966, he started working for the Montgomery County Welfare Department as deputy director. Then in 1983, Trammell was elected president of the Dayton chapter of the SCLC. Working closely with Andrew Young, Trammell rose to vice chair of the SCLC in 1996 and chairman of the national board in 2004.

Trammell was the first non-union recipient of the AFL-CIO Community Award in 1991. He received the Outstanding Service Award from the NAACP in 1995, the 1996 IBPOE of W Award in 1996 and was inducted into Selma, Alabama’s Civil Rights Hall of Fame in 1998. In 2005, Trammell garnered the Humanitarian Award from the State of Alabama, and in 2006, he received the Doug Couttee Award. Trammell lives in Dayton, Ohio where he has organized an annual march of 10,000 people to commemorate the ideals of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It is the country’s largest march. Trammell and his wife, Ann, have two daughters, Angela and Cheryl.

Accession Number

A2008.034

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/27/2008

Last Name

Trammell

Maker Category
Schools

Grantville Elementary

Grantville High School

Clark Atlanta University

First Name

Raleigh

Birth City, State, Country

Grantville

HM ID

TRA02

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

To Serve This Present Age; My Calling To Fulfill.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

12/30/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dayton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Civil rights activist and pastor Reverend Raleigh Trammell (1936 - ) was the National Board Chairman of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He participated in the Civil Rights Movement, played a major role in the Poor People's Campaign and is the pastor of Central Missionary Baptist Church.

Employment

Central Missionary Baptist Church

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Raleigh Trammell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about segregation in Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his parents' personalities and his likeness to his father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about his role as the seventh son

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his childhood home, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his childhood home, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the Greater Jehovah Baptist Church in Grantville, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Grantville School in Grantville, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers playing basketball

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Grantville School in Grantville, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his aspiration to join the ministry

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about singing in the choir

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls funding his studies at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Benjamin E. Mays

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his professors and peers at Clark College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the 92nd Division in World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his studies at Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the early Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the philosophy of nonviolence

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his early civil rights activism

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers his move to Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the civic organizations in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his activism with the Dayton Organization

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the March on Washington, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers the March on Washington, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the press coverage of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls protesting against the Rike-Kumler Company

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his involvement with the SCLC

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s visit to Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Central Missionary Baptist Church in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the racial discrimination in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls the City of Dayton's black elected officials

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his arrest

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell recalls his presidency of the SCLC chapter in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. celebration in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his roles with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the importance of civil rights organizations

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell talks about gun violence

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the changes in the SCLC

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes his family and how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Raleigh Trammell narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

3$9

DATitle
Reverend Raleigh Trammell describes the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. celebration in Dayton, Ohio
Reverend Raleigh Trammell reflects upon his legacy
Transcript
And organized the biggest Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] celebration that we had--they have in the country because we have a whole week of celebration. We, we changed this, the street out here to Martin Luther King, Jr. Way. We had Mrs. King [Coretta Scott King] come here and, and bless the street the day it was changed. The federal judge, Judge Walter Rice [Walter Herbert Rice] was a part of that. And so we organized the community in celebration, Martin Luther King. We have the biggest banquet, the biggest march.$$There are at least, I know in 2006, I came back I noticed there was like five or six banquets, breakfast and lunches and banquets during that (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$--week or the week of his--$$We start at the first of January with the Emancipation Proclamation celebration and we make that a part of the Martin Luther King celebration. And, of course, we go right on down the line. We have a, we have a student participation, youth participation, they have workshops, we have a, a musical, we have a worship service, we have a cultural service, then we have an ecumenical service, and then we have a march and, of course, we have the, what is called the Presidential Banquet.$$Okay.$$And--$$And as many as ten thousand people march down 3rd Street which is now Martin Luther King Way.$$And we have it coming from four ways.$$Okay. That's right, that's right.$$We have the biggest come from west but it comes from four ways and meet up there in the community (unclear)--$$You mean downtown at the, at Courthouse Square [Dayton, Ohio], right?$$Yes.$$Yeah.$$We meet up at the Courthouse Square all four ways, south, west, east, and north.$$Now, this year the governor of Ohio spoke--$$Yes.$$--Governor Ted Strickland, the mayor, of course--$$Um-hm.$$--Rhine McLin. This is, it's the largest Dr. King march in the country.$$Yes.$Now, when you look back on everything you've done to this point, again, what today would you consider to be your legacy?$$I think the people of Dayton [Ohio] has given a great deal of support to the leadership of SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference], and in such a fashion that we have been able to put together the leading Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] celebration in the country and it is modeled throughout the nation and I'm proud of that. It was not just me, it was all the folks that we bring together. The--we, we have what is called a Martin Luther King committee for which I chair, we bring 'em together and we sit down and plan the celebration. I am really proud of that Martin Luther King celebration because people look forward to it.

Bishop Imagene Stewart

Social activist, pastor and founder of the Washington, D.C. based House of Imagene Shelter and Women’s Center Bishop Imagene Bigham Stewart was born on January 23, 1942 in Dublin, Georgia.

Stewart arrived in Washington, D.C. in 1963 to participate in the March on Washington for jobs and freedom. After the march, she became ill and never returned home to Georgia. In the mid-1960s, Stewart was homeless and survived by living in Washington, D.C.’s Lincoln Park. She eventually found a job at the Government Printing Office where she worked full-time. Although she was gainfully employed, Stewart never forgot the hardships she faced as a homeless person and was inspired to open her own shelter. She managed to set aside time to organize volunteers and found boarder rooms to house thirty homeless people. Stewart then gained the interest of the late Mayor Walter E. Washington with her plans of opening a shelter, and with a meager budget, she was able to purchase property for the opening of the House of Imagene Shelter and Women’s Center in 1972. That same year, Stewart earned her A.A. degree from the University of the District of Columbia.

The House of Imagene is the first Washington, D.C. based shelter founded by an African American woman. It is comprised of two satellite centers: a shelter for battered women and children, and a shelter that provides temporary housing for homeless veterans and their families.

Stewart went on to become the pastor of the Greater Pearly Gates Baptist Church. She also worked as a radio personality for WOL radio in Washington, D.C. In 1992, Stewart was honored with the prestigious Living Dream Award for her service to battered women and the homeless. In 1993, Stewart served as the National Chaplain for the American Legion Auxiliary and as the director of the United States Department of Veteran Affairs.

Stewart was interviewed by the HistoryMakers on January 30, 2008.

Stewart passed away on May 30, 2012.

Accession Number

A2008.002

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/28/2008 |and| 1/30/2008

Last Name

Stewart

Maker Category
Middle Name

Bigham

Schools

Susie Dasher Elementary School

Oconee High School

University of the District of Columbia

First Name

Imagene

Birth City, State, Country

Dublin

HM ID

STE12

Favorite Season

September

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Georgia

Favorite Quote

If I can be of help, that's what I'm here for.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/23/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pig Feet

Death Date

5/30/2012

Short Description

Civil rights activist and pastor Bishop Imagene Stewart (1942 - 2012 ) founded the House of Imagene Shelter and Women’s Center in Washington, D.C. She became the pastor of the Greater Pearly Gates Baptist Church.

Employment

U.S. Printing Office

House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center

Office of Mayor Walter Washington

Favorite Color

Purple

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Bishop Imagene Stewart's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her mother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her early experiences of discrimination

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her father's role in her family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers her pregnancies

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the influence of her father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the H.T. Jones Village in Dublin, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her father

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her father's preaching circuit

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers picking cotton

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her early understanding of pregnancy

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers Susie Dasher Elementary School in Dublin, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her sons' father

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls her start as a civil rights activist

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her sisters' social circle

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers joining the SCLC

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her commitment to patriotism, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her commitment to patriotism, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers the Citizenship Education Program

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her political affiliations

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls picketing the Belk Matthews Company store in Dublin, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about segregation in Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers leaving Dublin, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers the March on Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls her decision to remain in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers joining Walter Washington's mayoral office in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls how she came to open the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart recalls working at the U.S. Government Printing Office

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart shares her perspective on black liberation theology, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart shares her perspective on black liberation theology, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her ministry

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her sons

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her early work at the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her approach to victims of domestic violence

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about the problem of homelessness among veterans

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about fundraising for the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the counseling services at the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her career

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart reflects upon the legacy of the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about the Ebony Women's Society

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her husband

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Bishop Imagene Stewart reflects upon her work at the House of Imagene Shelter and Women's Center

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about domestic violence in the civil rights community

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes her family

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about her awards

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes the Pearly Gate Baptist Mission in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Bishop Imagene Stewart talks about the National Black Republican Association

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Bishop Imagene Stewart remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Bishop Imagene Stewart describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Bishop Imagene Stewart narrates her photographs

Wade Hudson

Children’s book publisher and author Wade Hudson, Jr. was born on October 23, 1946 in Mansfield, Louisiana, the first of eight children to Wade and Lurline Hudson. Hudson grew up in Mansfield and attended Desoto High School, graduating in 1964. He went on to attend Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, where he became involved in the Civil Rights Movement in the mid-1960s. Hudson worked for several civil rights organizations in the South and was one of the “Baton Rogue Three,” three African American men falsely arrested because of their involvement with civil rights activities. He has also worked as a newspaper reporter, a public relations specialist and served as executive director of Pure Energy Music Publishing, a music publishing company he owned with his brothers. The company gave Madonna the hit song, “Holiday.” Hudson earned a certificate from the Channel 13 film and television program in New York City in 1975. The program was established to provide opportunities for minorities in the film and television industry. Hudson is also an established playwright, having authored a number of plays that have been performed on the professional stage. They include Sam Carter Belongs Here, A House Divided and A Black Love Story.

Hudson met his wife, Cheryl Willis Hudson, in 1971, while visiting Boston, Massachusetts. The couple was married in 1972 in Portsmouth, Virginia, Cheryl Hudson’s hometown. They gave birth to their first child, Katura in 1976. Unable to find African American art to adorn their daughter’s nursery, Mrs. Hudson decided to create her own designs. Ultimately, she was inspired to create a children’s book, and although she and Hudson attempted to shop it around to various publishing companies, they were unsuccessful. In 1982, the couple’s second child, Stephan J. Hudson, was born, and three years later, the Hudson’s again revived their idea of creating African American children’s art.

In 1985, the Hudsons developed the AFRO-BETS kids, black characters who twist themselves into the shape of the alphabet. Two years later, after further rejections from various publishers, they invested $7,000 and self-published AFRO-BETS ABC, which featured the AFRO-BETS Kids. The couple received attention from leading education magazines and black bookstores, which carried the books. After the AFRO-BETS books sold out within three months, the Hudsons decided to establish their own publishing company, Just Us Books, Inc. It is now one of the most successful Black owned publishing companies in the world, publishing books and educational material for children focusing on black history, experiences and culture. Just Us Books, Inc. is the only Black owned publishing company that focuses exclusively on publishing Black interest books for children and young adults.

Hudson serves as president of the company, managing the business and marketing responsibilities, while Cheryl handles serves as editor. Because of Hudson’s marketing success with Just Us Books, major companies such as Harper Collins and Scholastic, Inc. hired him as a marketing consultant to boost their sales in the African American market.
In 1990, Just Us Books, Inc. introduced a bi-monthly newspaper for young people entitled Harambee, which would later win a Parent's Choice Award. The company landed its first major account, a $40,000 order with Toys 'R'Us. Throughout the 1990s, the couple continued publishing critically acclaimed children's literature, including Afro-Bets Book of Black Heroes (1989), the company’s biggest seller to date, Bright Eyes, Brown Skin (1990) and Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs and Kid Caramel, the first contemporary mystery series that would focus on young, black male characters. In 1997, Income Opportunities Magazine named Hudson and his wife, “Small Business Pioneers of the Year.” The Hudsons have received many awards for their contributions to young people, literature and to their community. In 2004, the Hudsons began the Sankofa imprint, which publishes books by outstanding African American writers and authors that are no longer in print. Books by such noted authors as James Haskins, Rosa Guy, Camille Yarbrough and Eleanora E. Tate have been republished.

Hudson is also a celebrated author. His books have been published by his own company and by publishers such as Scholastic, Abingdon Press and Children’s Press. Some of the books authored by Hudson include Powerful Words: More Than Two Hundred Years of Extraordinary Writing by African Americans, Pass It On, African American Poetry for Children, Jamal’s Busy Day and The Underground Railroad. He has received numerous awards and honors, including the Stephen Crane Award for his writing, and he was inducted into the International Literary Hall of Fame for Writers of African Descent in 2004. Hudson serves on many boards, including the Langston Hughes Library at the Children’s Defense Fund and he is a Deacon at his church, Imani Baptist Church in East Orange, New Jersey. He lectures around the country on topics such as writing, publishing, black history and culture and black empowerment.

Wade Hudson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 28, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.173

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/28/2007

Last Name

Hudson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Desoto High School

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

DeSoto Parish Training School

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Wade

Birth City, State, Country

Mansfield

HM ID

HUD03

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Youth, Adults

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $500 - $1,000

Favorite Season

None

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Youth, Adults

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

10/23/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

East Orange

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Fiction writer and book publishing executive Wade Hudson (1946 - ) published children's books. Hudson was the co-founder of Just Us Books, Inc. and the developer of AFRO-BETS kids books. He served as president of the company, managing the business and marketing aspects.

Employment

Just Us Books, In.

Delete

Shreveport Sun

Baton Rouge News Leader

Pure Energy Music Publishing, Inc.

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wade Hudson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wade Hudson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wade Hudson describes the role of religion in the African American community

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wade Hudson remembers his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wade Hudson remembers the racial discrimination in Mansfield, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wade Hudson describes segregation in Mansfield, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wade Hudson describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wade Hudson remembers his paternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wade Hudson describes the African American community in Mansfield, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wade Hudson describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wade Hudson remembers his neighborhood in Mansfield, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wade Hudson recalls the DeSoto Parish Training School in Mansfield, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wade Hudson describes the religious community in Mansfield, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wade Hudson recalls his experiences on the mourner's bench

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wade Hudson remembers his baptism

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wade Hudson recalls serving as the assistant secretary of Elizabeth Baptist Church in Mansfield, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wade Hudson remembers his aspiration to play professional baseball

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wade Hudson describes his early experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wade Hudson talks about his early interest in writing

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wade Hudson recalls his decision to attend Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wade Hudson describes his aspirations while at Southern University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wade Hudson recalls registering voters in Mississippi and Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wade Hudson recalls his parents' opinions of his civil rights activities

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wade Hudson recalls changing his political views while in college

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wade Hudson describes the marches on the Louisiana State Capitol by students at Southern University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wade Hudson recalls the protests on campus at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wade Hudson describes his arrest for conspiracy to commit murder, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wade Hudson describes his arrest for conspiracy to commit murder, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wade Hudson Wade Hudson describes his arrest for conspiracy to commit murder, pt. 3

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wade Hudson remembers being drafted into the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wade Hudson recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wade Hudson describes his career as a newspaper columnist

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wade Hudson describes his activities in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wade Hudson remembers founding Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wade Hudson reflects upon his challenges and successes at Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Wade Hudson lists his siblings

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Wade Hudson remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Wade Hudson talks about Pure Energy Music Publishing, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Wade Hudson reflects upon the role of African American publishers

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Wade Hudson describes his collaboration with Scholastic Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Wade Hudson describes his role at Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Wade Hudson describes the strengths of small publishing companies

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Wade Hudson talks about his religious involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Wade Hudson reflects upon his awards and honors

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Wade Hudson reflects upon the readership of Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Wade Hudson describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Wade Hudson narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$1

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
Wade Hudson remembers founding Just Us Books, Inc.
Wade Hudson remembers the racial discrimination in Mansfield, Louisiana
Transcript
(Simultaneous) But when you became a couple you started to collaborate, I think, about ideas for books? How did that come about?$$You know, actually our relationship, the, the write- the book thing for children didn't really happen until '70s [1970s]--'87 [1987], '88 [1988]. My playwriting career really started to take off when we came from Boston [Massachusetts], well, let me back up. While we were living in Boston, I applied for a program that Channel 13 [WNET-TV, New York, New York] had to get more minorities in film and television and I was accepted. So that's why we moved from Boston to this area and we, rather than live in New York [New York] we moved to New Jersey 'cause it was cheaper and, and Cheryl [HistoryMaker Cheryl Willis Hudson] had a cousin who helped us find an apartment here. And so that program lasted for a year and so we just, just stayed here. Now, during that, that time, I became involved with a theater group here in, in Newark [New Jersey] called the Theater of Universal Images. And I had probably five plays over, over some years that were produced by that theater company. And, and Cheryl, actually, you know, did some of the, the advertising, illustrations, and things like that for, for, for the plays, playbills and things like that. So we still collaborated but it wasn't for children's books. Now, my first, first children's book was a book called 'Beebe's Lonely Saturday' [Wade Hudson] and it was published by New Dimension press out of New York, it's no longer in business. And it was, and I did another one to, what was that other one called? I did two books for that company. And it was mostly for the educational market. And so all these things were happening before we even decided to launch our own publishing company which happened in, actually we formed the company in '88 [1988] but we had started producing books and T-shirts and posters.$$What made you go from playwriting to producing books, T-shirts, and posters?$$Well, actually, Cheryl had an idea for a group of characters.$$Well, your daughter is born and, and that has something to do with it; right?$$That, that did but, but--$$This is before she's born?$$Yeah, but what I'm saying is like Cheryl had a idea and I think the idea that Cheryl had was a, a result of her and I, and myself too, not finding books and images for Katura [Katura J. Hudson] that reflect our environment, our culture. So I think that, and she can probably speak to that, but I think that led her to creating a group of characters she called the 'AFRO-BETS' kids. But they were, she had a character for each alphabet, so (laughter) as a playwright I'm saying well, you really can't, can't handle that many characters, you know. So we, we ended up narrowing the characters down to, to six characters and we gave them, you know, names and, you know, personalities and blah, blah, blah. And we started doing T-shirts with the characters and then the 'AFRO-BETS ABC Book' [Cheryl Willis Hudson] was our first venture, book that Cheryl wrote. And that book really took off and we did some really good marketing and publicity behind it and we printed five thousand copies which was a pretty good printing for a, for a couple that doesn't know what they're doing (laughter). And, and we sold those five thousand copies in about three months, three or four months, you know, and then we did a rush back to, to do another five thousand printing. And then so we ended up starting the company, Just Us Books [Just Us Books, Inc.], because we recognized that we were on to something and that's how Just Us Books started. And then we followed the 'ABC Book' with the counting book, the 'AFRO-BETS 123 Book' [Cheryl Willis Hudson]. And then the third book we did was a book that I and Valerie Wilson Wesley wrote together called, the AFRO-BETS' 'Book of Black Heroes' ['Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers,' Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley], where we featured blacks who had made significant contributions to society. And we would present it alphabetically, you know, Muhammad Ali, you know, with A. And so that's how we, we, we launched the, the, the company.$How did your [maternal] grandfather [Theodore Jones] deal with racism that existed in Mansfield [Louisiana]?$$You know, very seldom did they talk about it, you know. It was, I think that they recognized it was the way it was, you know, and, and I don't remember, I mean, very few people as I can recall when I was growing up, really dealt with racism. I mean, in terms of talking about it and, or talking about white folks. I mean, it, you know, generally they would say, you know, white people are crazy just like, you know, white people will say, those folks are crazy. But in terms of dealing with it in any, any systemic way or even expressing how they really felt, I don't recall that really happening. It was, people talked about what was happening in other places but not in, in Mansfield. I, I think you have to understand because it was such a, it's such a small area and almost provincial, you know, that most black people knew most white people and most white people knew most black people. And, and so there was like this, this relationship, you know, that's written about, you know, obviously been written about by, by many black writers, where folks had sort of learned to accept the status quo and, you know, you didn't really talk about it. And, and I don't recall other than a few situations where white people in Mansfield really said any negative things to us. But the system itself, you know, which was, was in place, so, you really didn't have to.$$Did your parents [Lurline Jones Hudson and Wade Hudson, Sr.] or grandparents ever get the opportunity in those days to vote?$$No, no.$$Did they ever talk about it?$$No, nope. I don't even think they even had any expectations of voting. Mansfield, blacks started to vote in Mansfield, if I remember, I wanna make sure I get the, the year correct, either '68 [1968] or '69 [1969]. And that happened, 'cause when I was in college [Southern University; Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana] I, I joined a number of civil rights organizations including SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference]. And so we, you know, I said listen, you know, we need to go to my hometown of Mansfield because see the thing about the civil rights struggle that most people don't really understand, that it had to be fought almost like a war, you had to go to different cities and towns and actually confront the power structure in those towns to change things. I mean, what, the laws were passed but it wasn't this, you know, a, a magic wand and say, okay, everything is all right, you had to go to different towns and fight the power structure. And even today if you go to some of these small towns in Mississippi and Alabama, many of them are like they were thirty, forty, fifty years ago, you know, because nobody has gone there to really confront the, the power structure to get that, to get it to change. So, you know, it, Mansfield was, you know, it was an extremely, extremely segregated place. And I think that the system was so successfully put in place that blacks didn't even contest.

Colonel Stone Johnson

Colonel Stone Johnson was born on September 9, 1918, in Hayneville, Alabama, to Fannie and Colonel Johnson. Johnson’s family moved to Birmingham, Alabama, when he was a small child; there he attended Slater School, and graduated from Lincoln School in 1939. While in high school, Johnson began working on the weekends for the Bowden trucking company; after graduation, he continued there full-time. Johnson was then hired to work at the L & M Rail Road Company, where he became the first African American union representative; in this role he worked to equalize working conditions for African American employees, who were often discriminated against. Johnson remained employed by the L & M Rail Road Company for thirty-nine years.

In 1956, Johnson met Reverend Fred L. Shuttlesworth and became active in the Civil Rights Movement after civil rights leaders formed the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) in response to Alabama state officials outlawing the NAACP for its supportive role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

After the bombing of Bethel Baptist Church and the parsonage where Shuttlesworth resided on Christmas Eve in 1958, Johnson became a part of a security detail for the ACMHR and worked to protect black leaders, their homes, and churches from Ku Klux Klan attacks. On one occasion, Johnson and an associate were instrumental in removing ignited dynamite from the Bethel Baptist Church, preventing further destruction and possible loss of life. In 1977, Johnson and one other witness testified against J.B Stoner, chairman of the National States Rights Party, the political arm of the Ku Klux Klan; Stoner was found guilty of conspiring to bomb the Bethel Baptist Church in 1955.

Johnson remained in Birmingham with Beatrice, his wife of over sixty-five years.

Colonel Johnson passed away on January 19, 2012.

Accession Number

A2007.108

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/23/2007

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Stone

Schools

Lincoln High School

Slater Elementary School

First Name

Colonel

Birth City, State, Country

Hayneville

HM ID

JOH29

Favorite Season

None

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Nigeria

Favorite Quote

Blessed By The Best.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Birth Date

9/9/1918

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Birmingham

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

1/19/2012

Short Description

Civil rights activist and railroad worker Colonel Stone Johnson (1918 - 2012 ) worked as part of a security detail for the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights that was designed to protect important leaders and meeting places.

Employment

Louisville and Nashville Railroad

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:2325,31:3255,44:4557,65:23476,295:38400,354:47529,492:48420,562:69415,693:80452,782:87242,889:116740,1193:139349,1426:139930,1460:234460,2377$0,0:82888,895:103510,1061:115948,1463:148920,1743:153410,1766:200058,2043:200650,2054:201094,2061:202352,2076:202796,2083:203314,2091:204350,2133:209150,2213
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Colonel Stone Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Colonel Stone Johnson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Colonel Stone Johnson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Colonel Stone Johnson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers moving to Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Colonel Stone Johnson describes his father's education and occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers living in a white neighborhood in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Colonel Stone Johnson recalls his early education

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Colonel Stone Johnson lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Colonel Stone Johnson recalls his experiences of color discrimination

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers his first job

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers becoming a union representative

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers John L. Lewis

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers delivering newspapers for The Birmingham Post

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Colonel Stone Johnson describes the discriminatory conditions in his union

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Colonel Stone Johnson explains how he joined an all-white union

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Colonel Stone Johnson recalls his brief service in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Colonel Stone Johnson talks about his experiences of employment discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Colonel Stone Johnson describes segregation in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers joining the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers the weekly civil rights meetings in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Colonel Stone Johnson recalls the violence during the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers J.B. Stoner

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers the bombing of Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth's home

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers guarding the Bethel Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers the arrest of Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth's children

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers the attack on the Freedom Riders in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Colonel Stone Johnson talks about the bus boycott in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Colonel Stone Johnson recalls Bull Connor's attack on Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers escorting Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth from the hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Colonel Stone Johnson talks about color discrimination within the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers A.G. Gaston

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Colonel Stone Johnson talks about his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers Bobby Cherry's trial

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Colonel Stone Johnson talks about the March on Washington, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Colonel Stone Johnson talks about the March on Washington, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers the white response to Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Colonel Stone Johnson recalls the role of religion in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Colonel Stone Johnson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers the Voting Rights Act of 1965

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers his struggle for voting rights

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Colonel Stone Johnson talks about his retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Colonel Stone Johnson shares a message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Colonel Stone Johnson recalls seeing J.B. Stoner at the Bethel Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers testifying against J.B. Stoner

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers his coworker, Ruby Davis

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Colonel Stone Johnson describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Colonel Stone Johnson remembers segregation in Anniston, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Colonel Stone Johnson describes his advice to a neighbor

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Colonel Stone Johnson explains why he agreed to be interviewed

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Colonel Stone Johnson narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

4$10

DATitle
Colonel Stone Johnson remembers the bombing of Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth's home
Colonel Stone Johnson remembers escorting Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth from the hospital
Transcript
Let's go back to the bombing. That was the first bombing or the second bombing?$$That was the first bombing. They put the wor- Bull [Bull Connor] put the word out, we gonna bomb Shuttlesworth's [HistoryMaker Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth] house for his Christmas present, in 1958, Christmas Eve night. And they been saying things like that so much 'til they didn't pay it no mind. They put the bomb between a church [Bethel Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama] and the parsonage. They was that close together, just could walk between the two buildings. They didn't care how, whether your church and your house was a special occasion or not. Folks been taught so bad that they blowed that house up and you could hear it five or six miles. Guess what? Blowed it into splinters from the back to the center of the house up to where his bedroom was. Blowed the mattress out off the bed that Shuttlesworth was sleeping on, and his wife [Ruby Keeler Shuttlesworth]. But nobody got hurt but one person, just a little bit, a little girl. Her, her husband got the church that Shuttlesworth had for forty-something years in Cincinnati [Ohio], Reverend Bester [Harold Bester]. The back of that house went down into splinters. You could see the front, it looked all right. All the doors was so tight, you couldn't open nothing but the back door and it was blowed off the hinges. He had to stoop down to come out the back and they all come out. Shuttlesworth come out first and, as he was coming out, he met the assistant chief of police. He used to stay right down the street there. And he said, "Well Fred," say, "I guess you'll get out of town now, you see Mr. Bull gonna have you killed." He said, "No. You said if you was I, I'm not none of you," said, "God give me something to do, I got to do it." And the next day was Sunday, that was Saturday night, Christmas Eve, 1958, and he got out there on the church ground and preached the eleven o'clock sermon. Wasn't no lights in the church. All the lights fell down out the ceiling. Anything, all the fixtures in the church, but the church still standing. They got a brand new church. The federal government done give them the money, the grant, but they got to match it, and that's when we organized the watchmen of the church. We had to get a lot of them because they was afraid to stay out there by they selves.$And about 1:30 or 2:00, Reverend Shuttlesworth [HistoryMaker Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth] called me, said, "Johnson [HistoryMaker Colonel Stone Johnson], say go out to the parsonage and get me some clean clothes, I just got through talking to my wife [Ruby Keeler Shuttlesworth], I got to have dry clothes." And I did. I called my two buddies what rode with me. Went to Cartersville [Alabama] to the new parsonage and got a change of clothes, and he had left orders at the hospital [Holy Family Community Hospital, Birmingham, Alabama] not to let Shuttlesworth out. He put the order out. Aw he was a, he was a bugger, and I happened to know the family of this young lady. She was one of the Solomon [ph.] girls. And when we walked in the hospital, she dropped her head, never did look up no more, and we walked right by her, went on up to his room and he put his clothes, pulled off that little lighting gown he had on. We started back, she dropped her head again. She didn't have to lie, she didn't see nobody, and we come out and I took Fred to room number ten, the suite, to A.G. Gaston Motel [Birmingham, Alabama]. He said, "Johnson," say, "you been up all day and all night." Say, "Go home and get you some sleep." And I said, "Okay," I said, "but if you need me before day call me." And I walked on up to the room with him. Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was speaking and he said, "I don't know what we gonna do. I'm just a visitor here. Fred Shuttlesworth is the boss of this march." And said, "I guess we have to call the march off." (Laughter) Shuttlesworth said, "To hell you say, I'm here." And he said, "Let's rest a little while." And Martin Luther King went to smiling and laughing. He said, "How you get out this time of night?" (Points) He said, "The Lord open doors for you." And they didn't march until the next evening, but they marched. Shuttlesworth say, "I'm gonna march if nobody march but me." And he did. Now what you want (laughter) (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) What about, you talked about the 16th Street Baptist Church [Birmingham, Alabama] and you said that you couldn't go up there, something you alluded to when we were off camera.

Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr.

Reverend Abraham Lincoln Woods, Jr. was born on October 7, 1928 to Maggie and Abraham Woods, Sr. in Birmingham, Alabama. Woods attended Parker High School and was given a scholarship to attend Morehouse College. Completing one year at Morehouse, Woods became ill and returned home. During this time, he acknowledged his call to the ministry. Woods received his B.A. degree in theology from the Birmingham Baptist College, his B.A. degree in sociology from Miles College in Birmingham, and his M.A. degree in American history from the University of Alabama. He also completed all the credits needed for his Ph.D.

Woods became a charter member of the Alabama Christian Movement and served as the vice president alongside Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth. He served as the director for the Miles College Voter Registration Project and would later become President of the Birmingham Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

Woods led the first sit-in at a department store in Birmingham and was jailed for five days. In the summer of 1963, he worked for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as the deputy director for the Southeast and helped to mobilize the historic March on Washington. He was often asked to speak on behalf of Dr. King because of his oratorical skills.

Woods would later recruit African Americans, especially those with prior military police experience to take the exam for the Birmingham Police Department. He and Dr. Jonathan McPherson assisted them in preparing for the test.

In 1968, Woods was the first African American to teach American history at the University of Alabama. He lectured on Dr. King’s non-violent and conflict resolution philosophy. Woods served for forty years as a faculty member at Miles College. He retired in 2002, and Miles College conferred upon him the Doctorate of Humane Letters.

Woods has been the pastor of St. Joseph’s Baptist Church in Birmingham for thirty-seven years. He is a member of the Trustee Board of Birmingham Bible College, the Baptist Ministers’ Conference, the United States Capital Historical Society and Phi Delta Kappa.

Woods passed away on November 7, 2008 at age 80.

Woods was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 23, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.107

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/23/2007 |and| 9/7/2007

Last Name

Woods

Middle Name

Lincoln

Schools

Morehouse College

Miles College

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Birmingham-Easonian Baptist Bible College

University of Alabama

First Name

Abraham

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

WOO07

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Orlando, Florida

Favorite Quote

I Can Do All Things Through Christ That Strengthens Me

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

10/7/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Longwood

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Death Date

11/7/2008

Short Description

Civil rights leader, american history professor, and minister Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. (1928 - 2008 ) was president of the Birmingham, Alabama chapter of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and held sit-ins in Birmingham. Woods also helped in mobilizing the March on Washington.

Employment

Miles College

First Metropolitan Baptist Church

Atlanta Life Insurance Company

Molton Allen & Williams

McWare Cast Iron Pump Company

Favorite Color

Maroon

Timing Pairs
0,0:3995,44:7813,155:8394,163:24196,246:24786,252:27550,271:27975,280:31556,347:32074,355:32444,361:32888,368:54830,619:67630,830:90165,1039:98040,1107:98940,1122:102710,1161:103421,1174:106186,1227:106502,1232:108398,1264:114780,1315:115180,1320:118260,1337:124776,1370:130804,1404:131490,1412:138093,1482:140495,1497:146750,1598:147110,1603:150790,1626:154774,1662:155355,1671:156849,1703:157596,1712:162080,1747:171667,1888:175760,1921:178410,1941:180180,1979:188750,2066:195618,2145:195890,2150:196366,2159:209459,2285:209794,2291:216032,2364:216878,2375:232640,2602$0,0:4280,77:11528,130:12698,142:14687,160:26600,317:27800,333:35478,395:36388,406:39620,469:50496,559:50832,564:51252,570:76970,734:108216,1092:108568,1097:109008,1103:129695,1319:132100,1324:132802,1332:133270,1337:133738,1342:140867,1395:141771,1404:162864,1558:163488,1567:183255,1727:195208,1815:228582,2043:232060,2078:232560,2093:241240,2191:242824,2215:248565,2268:253828,2337:257970,2379:286280,2576
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr.'s interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his childhood home

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his family's financial difficulties

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers his family's eviction, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his grandmother's bootlegging

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers his family's eviction, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the East Thomas School in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls gang activity during his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the Lincoln School in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls A.H. Parker High School in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls attending Atlanta's Morehouse College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Benjamin Mays

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his aspirations at Morehouse College

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers working at The Varsity

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his religious education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls Birmingham Baptist College in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls joining the faculty of Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls being courted by his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers being dismissed by a jealous supervisor

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers his call to the ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls founding the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his role in the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Colonel Stone Johnson

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the wrongful arrest of Montgomery preachers

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the bombing of Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth's home

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers desegregating the buses in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the ousting of Bull Connor

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls leading his first sit-in

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers being arrested at sit-ins

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls being assigned to manual labor in jail

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers registering voters at Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the civil rights activities at Miles College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the University of Alabama at Birmingham

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the student march in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. lists his children

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the impact of the student march in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth's hospitalization

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers organizing the March on Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the crowd at the March on Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes the I Have A Dream speech

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr.'s interview, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the impact of the March on Washington

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls being hired at Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls directing a voting education project

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his decision to attend graduate school

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls studying at the University of Alabama at Birmingham

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls teaching at the University of Alabama at Birmingham

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. talks about the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. talks about other civil rights organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the SCLC's partner organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes the surveillance of civil rights activists

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the arrest of child protestors

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the first boycott in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the activists at Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the aftermath of the 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the mayoral election of Albert Boutwell

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Birmingham official David Vann

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls his SCLC chapter presidency

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Bloody Sunday

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the police shooting in Hueytown, Alabama

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Bonita Carter's death, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers Bonita Carter's death, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers David Vann's position on Bonita Carter's murder

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls organizing a march for Bonita Carter

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls asking Richard Arrington, Jr. to run for mayor

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes Richard Arrington, Jr.'s mayoral campaign

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the mayoralty of Richard Arrington, Jr.

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls advocating for Maggie Bozeman and Julia Wilder

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential bid

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls segregation at the Shoal Creek Golf and Country Club

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. remembers being sued by George Sands

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls integrating the Shoal Creek Golf and Country Club

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing investigation

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing trials

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls the convictions of the 16th Street Baptist Church bombers

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls creating the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, pt. 1

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls creating the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, pt. 2

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. shares a message to future generations

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

7$9

DATitle
Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. recalls founding the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights
Reverend Abraham Woods, Jr. describes the I Have A Dream speech
Transcript
All right, so, now you become the pastor of First Metropolitan Church [First Metropolitan Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama]. In fifty--and tell me what happens next? What happens next?$$All right. In the late 1950s, after the [U.S.] Supreme Court case, Brown v. the Board of Education [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954], where the Supreme Court handed down the ruling and said separate but equal is inherently unequal, and overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson [Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896] ruling in the 1890s, I believe it was, and said that there had to be desegregation with all deliberate speed--well, at that time the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] here in Birmingham [Alabama] was attacked not only in Birmingham, but in the state was attacked. And the attorney general of the state asked the NAACP to turn over its membership roster to them, as if there was some shady persons--Communists, or this, that, and the other, who were part of the membership. They refused to do it, because they knew it was a witch hunt. Teachers were vulnerable, and other people who had jobs were vulnerable. And they had no problem with dismissing you from your job when you were a part of that kind of activity. So the NAACP refused to do it, and as a result, it was enjoined from operating in the State of Alabama. I had started working with a young lady who was working with Mr. Patton [W.C. Patton], and Mr. Patton was the voter education person for the national NAACP. And Reverend Shuttlesworth [HistoryMaker Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth] was a part of that organization, too. So after the NAACP was outlawed in the State of Alabama, Reverend Shuttlesworth called a mass meeting at the Sardis Baptist Church [Sardis Missionary Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama] and said we need an organization that will carry the struggle on. And he was criticized; some of the minsters criticized him, and other people criticized him. And one outstanding preacher said to him, he said "Shuttlesworth, the Lord told me to tell you that you should not organize this organization." And of course, Shuttlesworth shot back and said, "When has the Lord started giving you my messages?" (Laughter) And so he organized it and we embraced it. And I shall never forget, he said, "They killed the old hen," referring to the NAACP, "but before she died, she had some biddies." And the Alabama Christian Movement [Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights] was one of those biddies, and it turned out to be a fighting rooster. This was now in the latter part of the 1950s.$And we marched to the Lincoln Memorial [Washington, D.C.], and I shall never forget. I found my place in the VIP section. I was standing in front of the huge statue of [President] Abraham Lincoln sitting there in the Lincoln Memorial. Some little distance from me was Martin [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] with the guards around him, and other people. And we were looking out on the Reflecting Pool [Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, Washington, D.C.], and there were wall to wall folks all around the Reflecting Pool, some standing, some sitting with their feet in the water. And not only were there people around on the level land, but in all of the trees; there were people in the trees, everywhere. I'm telling you, that was a sight that made us glad. And of course the activities started, the singing. And one of the singers was Mahalia Jackson, and of course she had a soulful kind of way of singing. And there were others who did sing, too, but I remember Mahalia Jackson. And there were the speeches. And we got down to Martin Luther King, and he was introduced by none other than J. Philip Randolph [sic. A. Philip Randolph]. And if you have really heard about J. Philip Randolph, he was the dean of the civil rights struggle. He was head of the Pullman car porters, and it was really his idea that we have that march. And he had an eloquent sort of bass voice, a baritone voice, and he introduced King, "Martin Luther King, J-R," and Martin came to the podium, and he led up to I Have a Dream. Now, I know you've heard it on cassette tapes and you've seen it maybe video. But you just needed to have been there. It was something in the air, a kind of charge, some kind of electric in the air that was coursing up and down in our bodies, I'm telling you. King got into his speech with the kind of cadence that he, he used. I'm telling you, he lifted us. I guess we were sort of mesmerized, sort of in a hypnotic trance or something. He just lifted us out of ourselves. "And I have a dream that my little children will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character." And of course, he talked about the promissory note that had come back with insufficient funds, and all of that. And he finally said that, he told us to go on back to the Delta Mississippi. Go on back to Stone Mountain in Georgia. Go on back to this, yonder and that. And he said, "When that day come, we will be able to sing the old spiritual with new meaning, 'Free at last, free at last. Thank God almighty, we're free at last.'"

The Honorable Lottie Watkins

Lottie Heywood Watkins is the retired CEO of Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc., a full-service real estate company specializing in property management. Watkins entered the real estate industry in the early 1960s and became the first African American female real estate broker in the Atlanta market. Watkins is known throughout the Atlanta business community as a shrewd businesswoman and is highly respected for the contributions she has made to civic and social affairs.

Watkins is the daughter of Susie Wilson and Eddie Heywood, a 1920s jazz pianist. Her brother, the second eldest of five children, gained critical fame with the Eddie Heywood, Jr. Trio throughout the 1940s as a songwriter, composer and pianist. Watkins was educated in the Atlanta Public School system and graduated from Booker T. Washington High School’s accelerated class in 1935. She graduated from Reid’s School of Business and became a secretary for Alexander—Calloway Realty Company. She worked as a teller/clerk at the Mutual Federal Savings and Loan Association until she started Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Watkins became active with the voter’s rights campaign, the Civil Rights Movement and community–based organizations. In 1977, she was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives. She served as Co-Chair of the YMCA Membership Campaign, the American Cancer Society, and the NAACP Membership Drive and Freedom Fund Banquet. She was Chair of the Christmas Cheer Fund for the Atlanta Inquirer. Watkins has received numerous awards and citations; the Pioneer in Real Estate Award (Providence Missionary Baptist Church), Appeal of Human Rights Award (30th Anniversary Celebration of the Civil Rights Movement), Pioneer Award for Community Leadership (Empire Real Estate Board) and Outstanding Achievement in Real Estate and Business Award (Empire Real Estate Board 50th Anniversary). She was listed in Who’s Who of American Women, in Finance and Industry, Black World and International Who’s Who in Community Service and World Who’s Who of Women.

Watkins resided in her native Atlanta with her daughters and their families, Joyce and Judy, who actively operated Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Watkins passed away on February 20, 2017.

Accession Number

A2006.037

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/16/2006 |and| 4/12/2006

Last Name

Watkins

Maker Category
Schools

Edmund Asa Ware Elementary School

Booker T. Washington High School

Reid's Business School

First Name

Lottie

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

WAT08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

6/4/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Fish

Death Date

2/20/2017

Short Description

Community activist and state representative The Honorable Lottie Watkins (1919 - 2017 ) was the first African American female real estate broker in the Atlanta market, and is the founder of Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Employment

Mutual Federal Savings & Loan Association of Atlanta

Alexander-Caloway Real Estate Company

Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Georgia House of Representatives

Favorite Color

Pastel

Timing Pairs
0,0:444,2:1221,10:10562,125:10972,131:36968,452:37616,470:38021,476:41828,569:46931,684:48065,710:65050,861:76436,1110:97726,1308:98595,1349:101202,1401:105547,1503:127676,1738:128044,1743:134929,1820:155100,2036:155870,2047:182890,2416:187550,2476:204450,2803:207570,2847$0,0:9367,116:10681,144:11411,154:13455,192:13747,197:14331,208:14988,219:15645,231:17178,262:17689,272:23230,325:28970,382:29738,434:69635,769:83600,927:94470,1283:142830,1658
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Lottie Watkins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins talks about her brother, Eddie Heywood, Jr.

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her childhood community in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers living near Zilla Mays

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes Atlanta's Providence Baptist Church

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers Edmund Asa Ware Elementary School

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers visiting Atlanta area churches

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers Booker T. Washington High School

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls working at her aunt's restaurant in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins talks about her father's jazz career

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls attending business school in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls working in Atlanta University's registrar's office

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls working for the Alexander-Calloway Realty Company

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her start at Mutual Federal Savings and Loan Association of Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls building her home in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins talks about her marriages

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her training with Remington Rand, Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls how John Wesley Dobbs financed her daughter's education

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her daughter's graduation from Clark College

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers her daughter's wedding

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes Clarence A. Bacote

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes Atlanta's neighborhood clubs

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes Atlanta's African American voting districts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her voter registration work in 1962

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her decision to start her own business

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls managing property on Atlanta's Anderson Avenue

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls residence managers whom she employed

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers a tenant who stood up for her

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls joining Rich's Business Women's Advisory Board

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls the student protest of Rich's Department Store in Atlanta

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes forgetting an important protest at an Atlanta hotel

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes the current management of Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her run for the Georgia House of Representatives

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her Democratic Party involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls campaigning for James Earl "Jimmy" Carter

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers campaigning for Ivan Allen, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins remembers Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls serving on the Democratic finance committee

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls moving to a new office in Atlanta

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her office relocation from Hunter Street to Gordon Street

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes the loan for her building on Atlanta's Gordon Street

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins reflects upon her political campaigns

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins reflects upon her SCLC involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins explains why she shared her story

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins describes her NAACP involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Lottie Watkins narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls managing property on Atlanta's Anderson Avenue
The Honorable Lottie Watkins recalls her Democratic Party involvement
Transcript
I decided that I wanted to go into business. Now there was not another black woman in business, real estate. So--$$All the other companies were men?$$Yeah, but I decided that it was time for a lady to do something, and with me being a lady I can make a difference, you know, appearance-wise, pleading and everything. So I had an office [for Lottie Watkins Enterprises, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia]--well you cut off my dining room just about this size.$$This was when you first started out?$$Yes.$$When you first opened up?$$Y- 774 Hunter Street [Atlanta, Georgia].$$And that was in 1960?$$It--near the en- in November near the end of the year in '60 [1960].$$November of 1960, and you were like forty-something years old?$$Yeah.$$Forty-one or so?$$So I stepped in the water and everybody was so happy, people were calling me. So with me--I, I--the business was growing and during those days the whites managed all the big complexes, blacks didn't have any. So a man named Bob Chennault [Robert L. Chennault] came by and said, "I want you to go with me when you have time." I said, "Where Mr. Chennault?" He said, "I have two friends, Victor Massey [ph.], and his friend is building ninety-six units on Anderson Avenue, and I would like for them to meet you." He said, "Two other real estate companies is trying to get, get them, but I just want them to meet you." I said, "Mr. Chennault, now you know I can't go any place during the week, now I gotta stay here and take care of this business." He said, "Let me call 'em and see will they come down on a Saturday to meet you." So Mr. Chennault took me to the Healey Building [Atlanta, Georgia] on a Saturday, and I met these gentlemen, and they told me they would let me know. The next week, they wrote me a letter and asked me to come back to talk to them and I went up there and they told me they were impressed by me and they would like to give me the opportunity of filling up these units for them. I couldn't believe it, so I got them, but I kept the lawn manicured and--$$This was a property management contract?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$And I kept the shrubs trimmed, and you didn't see nothing out there but clean, clean as a pin. Oh, I had--Jasper Williams [Jasper W. Williams, Jr.] was a tenant. He's one of the biggest preachers in this town now. I had Moses Norman [Moses C. Norman, Sr.], he was superintendent of the schools, and I--there was a guy was named L.C. Crow [ph.] and Daphne [ph.]. Now Crow has a big restaurant in East Point [Georgia].$$Okay.$$He was a teacher but he--but all these guys came from Anderson Avenue, and if they got out of hand, or the music was too loud, I would say "Hey, your music was too loud," blah, blah, blah, blah. "Well we didn't know it, Ms. Watkins [HistoryMaker Lottie Watkins], we apologize," but they stayed there until they bought a house.$Let's talk a little bit about your involvement with the Democratic National Committee, the membership committee for that, and then some of your political involvements, and what you've done to help people get elected to office, and some of the presidents and the mayors of Georgia that you've actually had affiliations with.$$Well--$$I see in 1966 [sic.] you were on President Jimmy Carter's [President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.] campaign.$$Well, I--when he announced to be the president I was on the invitation. It had two blacks on it; it had me and Andy Young [HistoryMaker Andrew Young]. My name was up at the top so I got involved with his campaign and there was some good blacks, like George Booker worked for the national Democratic Party, and he had been here to help us with [President] Lyndon Baines Johnson when we got the vote out for him. So he would always come to Atlanta [Georgia]. He knew us and Jimmy Carter, I met him when he was the governor, and there was always some women like me. We always joined a party just to have that card, and then there was the Democratic Women's Party [Democratic Women's Party of Georgia; Georgia Federation of Democratic Women], so we joined that and we would go, you know, all over the State of Georgia with them and they were just--turned out to be lovely people. I was shocked to know that they were nice and even Sam Nunn's wife [Colleen O'Brien Nunn] was nice.$$Sam who? Nunn (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Nunn, he was our senator then.$$Okay.$$She was nice, and whenever there was a big function here I was always on the dais because I held an office in the state Democratic Party.$$Okay.

Reverend Curtis Harris

Curtis West Harris was born on July 1, 1924 in Denron, Virginia. His father left the family when he was a young boy and his mother moved the family to Hopewell, where she worked as a domestic. There, Harris earned his high school diploma from Carter G. Woodson High School in 1944. After graduation, he went to work for a cotton plant called Hercules. Knowing he wanted more out of life, he convinced his older sister to pay for tuition at Virginia Union University in Richmond.

Harris attended Virginia Union from 1945 until 1946, when he married his high school sweetheart. The young couple moved to Norfolk but soon returned to Hopewell where he began working as a janitor at Allied Chemical. During this time Harris became active in the civil rights movement. In 1959, he became the pastor of Union Baptist Church.

Harris was active in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). He participated in the famous march from Selma to Montgomery and volunteered to serve as a human shield for Martin Luther King, Jr., during the march. In 1963, he successfully fought the Ku Klux Klan and the city of Hopewell to prevent the city from building a landfill in the African American community. In 1964 Harris' two sons helped integrate Hopewell High School.

Beginning in the 1960s Harris unsuccessfully ran for a seat on the Hopewell city council seven times. Finally, in 1983, he forced the city to switch from its at-large system to a ward system and became the second African American to serve on the Hopewell city council. In 1996, Harris became the second African American Vice-Mayor of the city and eventually became the first black mayor in 1998.

He continues to work vigorously on civil and human rights issues in Virginia. He is a member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. In 2004, Harris' formerly segregated school, Carter G. Woodson, named a library in his honor.

Harris passed away on December 10, 2017 at age 93.

Accession Number

A2004.107

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/23/2004 |and| 10/11/2004

Last Name

Harris

Occupation
Schools

Carter G. Woodson High School

Carter G. Woodson Middle School

Virginia Union University

First Name

Curtis

Birth City, State, Country

Denron

HM ID

HAR08

Favorite Season

None

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/1/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

12/10/2017

Short Description

Mayor and pastor Reverend Curtis Harris (1924 - 2017 ) was the first African American council member, vice mayor and mayor of Hopewell, Virginia.

Employment

Allied Chemical

Union Baptist Church

Hopewell City Council

City of Hopewell, Virginia

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:268,4:13490,244:17762,264:19428,270:19939,279:21618,317:23370,350:28261,464:29940,471:50160,536:84718,708:89440,738:104530,815:114760,873:126287,975:131809,1078:138913,1115:154161,1194:166058,1249:166403,1255:168128,1291:168542,1299:169025,1307:169301,1312:169577,1317:171233,1352:182500,1464:184950,1479:189616,1526:190652,1542:191096,1551:191614,1559:218450,1792:218920,1798:228169,1842:234840,1881:235152,1886:235776,1896:236322,1904:236634,1909:236946,1914:248018,2023:248478,2028:261548,2096:261958,2103:265740,2139:266060,2144:267180,2162:267660,2170:268060,2175:281088,2268:285842,2304:290135,2335:292645,2362:297078,2428:322892,2664:323858,2673:324686,2681:344218,2796:346990,2816:349070,2830$0,0:988,13:6308,105:7980,158:15200,285:15504,290:30400,340:33192,357:34739,379:46530,481:46798,486:47401,498:48138,512:54424,569:76450,740:77000,746:77660,753:83318,794:87348,822:89416,850:96869,879:97562,891:98057,897:111740,1010:116511,1076:117583,1097:124726,1119:136304,1207:139514,1229:144900,1267:148372,1292:156955,1340:157489,1348:161116,1385:173555,1491:174030,1497:175360,1508:178200,1524:178700,1530:180300,1547:181900,1566:195962,1623:196298,1628:199450,1640:213650,1784
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Curtis Harris's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about his father's absence during the first twelve years of his life

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Curtis Harris recalls meeting his father for the first time as a twelve-year old

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Curtis Harris recalls his family's move to Hopewell, Virginia in the 1920s

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about his favorite childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Curtis Harris lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes his childhood communities in Hopewell, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes his elementary school years at Carter G. Woodson School in Hopewell, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes the role of religion during his childhood in Hopewell, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about his interests and social life as a teenager at Carter G. Woodson School in Hopewell, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about his plans for studying pre-med courses at Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about moving to Norfolk, Virginia with his wife after dropping out of Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about working as a janitor for Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation in Hopewell, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about his experiences playing for the Hopewell All-Stars, a semi-pro baseball team

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about how he rose to the role of pastor at Union Baptist Church in Hopewell, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about how he became involved with the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Curtis Harris remembers taking part in the Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Curtis Harris remembers taking part in the Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Curtis Harris recalls his experiences in the march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about volunteering to be a human shield for the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about his attempts to run for the city council in Hopewell, Virginia from the 1960s to the 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Curtis Harris explains how he sued Hopewell, Virginia for racial discrimination in its city council districts in 1983

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about being elected to the Hopewell City Council in 1984

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes his confrontation with the Boatwright Commission

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Curtis Harris recalls the struggle to integrate Hopewell High School in Hopewell, Virginia in 1964

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes his campaign against discrimination at the U.S. Army base at Fort Lee, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Curtis Harris recalls the reaction from the U.S. military to his protests at Fort Lee, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Curtis Harris details his efforts to construct a memorial for Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Hopewell, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Curtis Harris reflects on his life in Hopewell, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Curtis Harris talks about the history of school desegregation since Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka in 1954

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Curtis Harris describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Curtis Harris reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Curtis Harris narrates his photographs

DASession

2$2

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Reverend Curtis Harris talks about how he became involved with the Civil Rights Movement
Reverend Curtis Harris describes his campaign against discrimination at the U.S. Army base at Fort Lee, Virginia
Transcript
But when did you first become involved in SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference]?$$In '61 [1961].$$Okay, right.$$But I had known about the [Civil Rights] Movement, you know (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Sure, so tell us a little bit about what you were doing when you first became involved in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, prior to, you know 1964 [sic. 1965], the march from Selma [Alabama] to Montgomery [Alabama]. What were you doing before that locally with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference?$$They, the movement, they, the SCLC was not SCLC. [Hopewell] Improvement Association was our title in Hopewell [Virginia], and we did a lot of things including, I sued the city to use the cemetery.$$To have blacks buried in the cemetery?$$Yeah, and we sued the city to let black people go into the, to the pool. They had a pool down at City Point [Hopewell, Virginia], but blacks couldn't go, couldn't go in it. And the principal of the school, Carter [G.] Woodson [School; Carter G. Woodson Middle School, Hopewell, Virginia], lived right across in front of the pool, but his kids couldn't go in it. They could look through the fence, and so you know we always abided with the law.$$Tell me about in 1963 the fight with the Ku Klux Klan [KKK] and the city to prevent them from building a landfill in the African American community. Tell me about that confrontation with the Ku Klux Klan.$$The Ku Klux Klan, some things had happened to me that we thought it was a Ku Klux Klan that had something to do with it, because they hit against my, threw some, some call it Molotov cocktail.$$Molotov cocktail, threw it through your window (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) In my, yeah, and later on we found out that they were going to locate a landfill in the black community, and we took up against that, but they built it anyway, but we found, we were trying to prevent them from doing it and they--when we went to, when we found out that we going to-- we had a march from the landfill to city hall to protest. We didn't know that the Ku Klux Klan was going to make a protest against us, and when we got back from, when we got down to city hall the Ku Klux Klan was already down there. It was about 150 of them in robes and so they tried to prevent us from making our speeches, so then I started to pray. Let me see you beat that. They come to the conclusion that every man ought to have a right to pray and therefore they would be quiet so we can pray. After we got through praying, then they started praying, and after they got through praying they filed away one by one, didn't say no more words. So, then we had marched from the church, yeah, going to city hall. After we found out that we done won the battle, we gonna march some more, so we marched back over here with police escort.$A lot of the training that you got on the ground during the Civil Rights Movement you put into action in your hometown [Hopewell, Virginia], in your hometown community. Can we talk a little bit about some of the demonstrations and marches you've had on Fort Lee, Virginia, the [U.S.] Army base?$$We've been working on Fort Lee twenty-five years because of discrimination in the workplace.$$Against soldiers or against civilians?$$It was civilians for the most part, but I've done some things with soldiers, but basically it's about civilians. We couldn't get anybody beyond anything, any, you know they would stop at [GS grade] fives and six and sevens and every once in a while you get somebody at an eleven or twelve, but not often and these people were professionals and they couldn't get through, so I embarked on a program of trying to change that, and Fort Lee, see they would, they would change the commander every two or three years, so then I gotta start all over again. So after a while I decided that I'm not gonna do that no more, I'm going to, I'm going to go right to the horse's mouth, and I set up a demonstration that was gonna march all the way down to the gate in attempt to go in the base and march in the base, and I released that to the news media so they could, and they were all out there, but I couldn't have no people, that people got scared. Some of the people who got off from work went out of the back gate, so when I said well I'm marching and I called the state police for protections the state police, the city police, the county police, and we're gonna need all of that protections, so they were there, closed down half of [Virginia State Route] 36.$$Which is the main route into Fort Lee (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah. We closed one side.

Reverend Theophilus Caviness

Renowned pastor and civic leader the Reverend Emmitt Theophilus Caviness was born on May 23, 1928 in Marshall Texas. His parents were Lula Page and Will Stone Caviness. Reverend Caviness earned a bachelor's of arts degree from Bishop College in Dallas, Texas. He also holds a bachelor's of divinity from Eden Theological Seminary in Webster Grove, Missouri; an honorary doctorate of divinity from Virginia Seminary and College, and an honorary doctorate in law from Central State University in Ohio.

Caviness has served as the spiritual leader of several congregations, including St. Mark's Baptist Church in Picton, Texas; Mount Nebo Baptist Church in Madison, Illinois; and St. Paul Baptist Church in East St. Louis, Illinois. Since 1961, he has served as senior pastor of the Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church in Cleveland, Ohio's Glenville Community. He has also been a both a member and officer in the Baptist Minister's Conference of Cleveland and Vicinity, the Baptist Pastor's Council, the Planning Board of the Inter-Church Council, the Ohio Baptist General Convention, and the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc.

Caviness has a long history of involvement in the Civil Rights Movement. He currently serves as the president of the Cleveland Branch of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and is a former member of the Board of Directors for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and the Ohio Civil Rights Commission.

In addition to his work in the religious community, he served on the Executive Board of the Greater Cleveland Growth Association, the Zoning Board of Appeals for the City of Cleveland, the Planning Board of the Glenville Area Council, and the Sewer Board of Cleveland. He also worked as the executive assistant to George V. Voinovich, former mayor of Cleveland.

Reverend Caviness was married for forty-one years to concert recording artist and minister of music, James ("Jamie") Pitts Caviness. He currently resides in Bratenahl, Ohio.

Accession Number

A2004.080

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/16/2004

Last Name

Caviness

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Bishop College

Eden Theological Seminary

First Name

Theophilus

Birth City, State, Country

Marshall

HM ID

CAV01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Los Angeles, California; Honolulu, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Do You Understand Me? Do You Read Me Real Well?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

5/23/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Squash, Greens, Vegetables

Short Description

Pastor Reverend Theophilus Caviness (1928 - ) is the President of the Cleveland Branch of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and is a former member of the Board of Directors for the NAACP, CORE, and the Ohio Civil Rights Commission. He has also served as senior pastor of the Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church in Cleveland, Ohio.

Employment

St. Mark's Baptist Church

Mount Nebo Baptist Church

St. Paul Baptist Church

Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church

Ohio Civil Rights Commission

City of Cleveland

Favorite Color

Blue, Pink

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Theophilus Caviness's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness names his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness describes his hometown of Marshall, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his father's various jobs

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls the schools in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls his educational experience in Marshall, Texas and his mentors Melvin J. Banks and Dorothy Beatrice Godspeed

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about the educational motivation he received from teachers in his early life

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls preaching his first sermon in 1946 at the Galilee Baptist Church in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness lists the various colleges he attended and the dates of graduation

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls his initial experience in Illinois and lists the various places he lived in while there

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness explains how he met his wife

Tape: 1 Story: 18 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his children and godchild

Tape: 1 Story: 19 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness explains how his interest in history as a student led to his later political activism

Tape: 1 Story: 20 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls the early influences that led to his vocation in the ministry

Tape: 1 Story: 21 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness explains his drive to focus on studying given the lack of other opportunities during the 1950s in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness explains the distinct independent nature of the Baptist Church compared to other denominations

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness describes the evolution of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A. Inc. and its various offshoots

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness lists the various presidents of Baptist organizations that graduated from Bishop College in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls various leaders of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness lists the various positions he has held as a member of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness explains how he came to pastor at Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls helping his friend Dr. Albert T. Rowan become pastor at Bethany Baptist Church in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about the decline in East St. Louis, Illinois from the 1950s until the present

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls what he enjoyed about Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls his early impressions of Cleveland, Ohio in 1961

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness remembers hosting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. at Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church in 1967

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his roles in local government in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about finding the balance between civil and religious authority

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his role model Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his role model Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness explains nonpartisan political philosophy

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls the riots in the Glenville neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio in 1968

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls the aftermath of the 1968 riots in the Glenville neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls HistoryMaker the Honorable George Forbes

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls his peacemaking role while the executive assistant to Mayor George Voinovich of Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls paying HistoryMaker The Honorable George Forbes's water bill

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness describes the partnership that HistoryMaker The Honorable George Forbes and George Voinovich

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness reflects upon his commitment to service

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls his positions during Michael White's mayoral tenure in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls his accomplishments with the Ohio Civil Rights Commission during the 1990s

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about receiving publicity for his flamboyant style during his time on the Ohio Civil Rights Commission

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about endorsing Marvin McMickle's, Stephanie Tubbs Jones', and Jeff Johnson's congressional campaigns

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his support for U.S. Congresswoman Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls his initial involvement with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in East St. Louis, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his involvement with the Cleveland Chapter of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about the contribution of women leaders in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness explains the Baptist churches' philosophy towards Biblical interpretation

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness shares his perspective on gay marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness explains why human rights is the great challenge of the 21st century

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness shares his philosophy of doing the best you can to help others

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness lists the various scholarships started at Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about the students helped by scholarships sponsored by the Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Children's Choir

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness talks about the funding for the various scholarships sponsored by the Greater Abyssinia Baptist Church

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Theophilus Caviness narrates his photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

14$2

DATitle
Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls preaching his first sermon in 1946 at the Galilee Baptist Church in Marshall, Texas
Reverend Theophilus Caviness recalls his initial involvement with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in East St. Louis, Illinois
Transcript
Are there other special moments of transition that you associate with your childhood in that region, besides the baptism?$$The baptism--$$Other special rituals?$$The beginning, the--preaching my first sermon in 1946. We were there at Galilee Baptist Church [Marshall, Texas] on a Wednesday night, preaching from the theme of "Be ye also ready, for you know not the hour, the son of man cometh" [Matthew 24:44]. And I recall so vividly that I mentioned to that large audience that I was frightened to death but not so much frightened to be intimidated by seeing them and all like that but with the awesome task that I was embracing, that that's the thing that really frightened me and I was fearful. I wanted to do the very best job for the Lord that I could do and I was going to do--put all of what into it in order to get that done because I never knew how long life would last and you never knew when the Lord would call you home. So that was my real initiation and thrust for the ministry, doing the things that the ministry would call.$$Okay. And you said that was in 1946?$$Nineteen forty-six [1946].$$First sermon.$$I think it was about November something, 1946.$Now we're in the twenty-first century now but I do want to talk for at least a few minutes about an organization that you've been affiliated with for a number of years beginning in the twentieth century and that's SCLC, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. When did you become associated with them?$$Back in Illinois when I pastored in East St. Louis, Illinois, I led the Baptist Conference [Baptist General State Convention of Illinois? National Baptist Convention, later National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc.? There's the Baptist Ministers Conference of Cleveland and Vicinity that he headed, but that wasn't in ESTL, IL?] and we were trying to integrate the downtown of East St. Louis. At the time Collinsville Avenue was the main street in East St. Louis, Illinois and they did not hire one African American in any other position other than cleaning. There was no African American on the city council. So I led the movement to integrate Collinsville Avenue and I remember on Easter Sunday I selected, our group selected Easter Sunday morning to boycott the Walgreens drugstore downtown with all the Easter bunnies and what have you and we went down there and we broke that Collinsville Avenue situation where black people were able to do--be--do clerks. They were--couldn't work the fountain behind Walgreens so we broke that. We integrated that facility and that whole town. We got our first African American council person who ultimately became all black. But that was how I got my first initiation in the Southern Christian Leadership activity because [Reverend Dr.] Martin [Luther King, Jr.] was doing it in Alabama and Georgia and those kinds of things. So I was inspired by it and I invited Martin to come and he said, "I'm not able to get there. I (unclear) can you send [Ralph] Abernathy?" Well Abernathy, we couldn't get. So the best I could do then was go in his household and get his better half [Coretta Scott King] and she graciously came to East Saint Louis, thrilled our hearts with her beautiful singing ability because my wife [James Pitts Caviness] was a singer so they got along real well. So that was my initiation into loving Martin Luther King, loving the movement [Civil Rights Movement] and trying to do the best I could to help it.